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Geographic Multipath Routing in Duty-cycled Wireless Sensor Networks: One-hop or Two-hop?

Yuhui Dong , Lei Shu , Guangjie Han , Mohsen Guizani , Takahiro Hara
Department

of Information & Communication Engineering, Hohai University, Changzhou, China Department of Multimedia Engineering, Osaka University, Japan Department of Information Science, Kuwait University, Kuwait titiyaya09@gmail.com, {lei.shu, hara}@ist.osaka-u.ac.jp, {hanguangjie, mguizani}@gmail.com

AbstractThis paper proposes a novel 2-hop geographic multipath routing algorithm TPGFplus in energy consumption balanced duty-cycled WSNs. Analysis and simulation results show that TPGFPlus outperforms previous algorithm TPGF on nding more average number of paths and shorter average lengths of paths, but without causing additional energy consumption. Index TermsGeographic multipath Routing; TPGF; 2-hop; Duty-Cycle; EC-CKN; TPGFPlus

that higher performance improvement will be achieved even if taking the duty-cycle schedule into consideration. II. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM While existing researches either concern with duty-cycling [5] [6] or with 2-hop neighborhood [4], TPGFPlus algorithm considers both duty-cycling and 2-hop geographic forwarding aspects, for shortest multipath routing. Particularly, we are interested in the following studies: Will TPGFPlus get more average number of paths compared with TPGF on EC-CKN based network? Will TPGFPlus reduce the average hops of paths compared with TPGF on EC-CKN based network? Will TPGFPlus allow more nodes to sleep, while achieving the same level of average number of paths and average path length compared with TPGF on EC-CKN based network? III. PROPOSED TPGFPLUS ALGORITHM We combine 2-hop geographic forwarding and the characteristic of duty-cycled WSNs for a novel multipath routing. 2hop neighbors are gathered when executing EC-CKN for sleep scheduling in WSNs. The gathering of 2-hop neighbors is not an additional overhead for TPGFPlus algorithm, since the 2hop neighborhood information is obligatorily gathered when executing EC-CKN. The TPGFPlus algorithm consists of two phases: A) 2-hop geographic forwarding; B) Path optimization. A. 2-hop Geographic Forwarding This phase consists of two courses: greedy Forwarding and step back & mark. The greedy forwarding policy is: suppose a current forwarding node always chooses its next-hop node which is closest to the based station among all its 1-hop and 2-hop neighbor nodes. Once the forwarding node chooses its next-hop node among its 2-hop neighbor nodes that have not been labeled, it will have to nd an intermediate 1-hop direct neighbor that has not been labeled according to some selecting policy. A digressive number-based label is given to the chosen sensor node along with a path number. In this point, our work is signicantly different from the traditional TPGF of which the strategy is forwarding the packets to the direct 1-hop neighbor which is nearest to the sink. Fig. 1 briey describe the geographic forwarding process of the TPGFPlus.

I. THE RESEARCH BACKGROUND A. CKN And EC-CKN Duty-Cycle Scheduling Algorithm The Connected K-Neighborhood sleep scheduling algorithm (CKN) [1] allows a portion of sensor nodes going to sleep but still keeps all awoken sensor nodes k-connected to elongate the lifetime of a WSN. It provides the rst formal analysis of the performance of geographic routing on duty-cycled WSNs, where every sensor has k awake neighbors. A variant of this method called EC-CKN [2] prolongs network lifetime further. EC-CKN takes nodes residual energy information as the parameter to decide a node to be active or sleep, not only can achieve the k-connected neighborhoods problem, but also can assure the k awake neighbor nodes have more residual energy than other sleeping neighbor nodes at the current epoch. B. TPGF Geographic Multipath Routing Our previous work, TPGF [3] is the one of the earliest researches on geographic multipath routing based on 1-hop neighborhood information. It focuses on exploring the maximum number of optimal node-disjoint routing paths in the network layer in terms of minimizing the path length and the end-to-end transmission delay. It makes three practical contributions: 1) Supporting multipath transmission; 2) Supporting hole-bypassing; 3) Supporting the shortest path transmission. At the same time, TPGF algorithm has been well implemented on duty-cycled WSNs based on the CKN algorithm [7]. C. Geographic Routing with 2-hop Neighborhood Although most geographic routing protocols use one-hop information, generalization to two-hop neighborhood is also possible [4]. Stojmenovic and Lin have previously proposed GEDIR-2 extending existing geographic routing schemes to two-hop neighbors. It has shown 2-hop GEDIR increases the success rates compared with the 1-hop variant, nevertheless, is also implemented in static & always-on WSNs. It is expected

(interference-minimized), or even the minimum multifactor weighted cost function value and so on. In this paper, due to space limitation, we research on the rst policy and provide its simulation results. For future works, we will further study and compare other policies. IV. EVALUATION To evaluate the performance of the TPGFPlus algorithm, we conduct extensive simulations in NetTopo [8]. The studied WSN has the network Size: 800m*600m. The number of deployed sensor nodes are increased from 100 to 1000 (each time by 100). The value of k in EC-CKN algorithm is increased from 1 to 10 (each time by 1), letting more nodes awake. For every number of deployed sensor nodes, we use 100 different seeds to generate 100 different network deployments. A source node is deployed at the location of (50, 50), and a sink node is deployed at the location of (750, 550). The transmission radius for each node is 60m. The following performance metrics are evaluated during the simulations: The average number of paths of TPGFPlus algorithm. Fig. 2 shows the comparison of explored average number of paths by TPGFPlus and TPGF algorithms when the value of k changes for different number of deployed nodes. The optimized average hops of paths of TPGFPlus algorithm. Fig. 3 is the optimized average hops of paths obtained by TPGFPlus and TPGF algorithms. The comparison of number of sleeping nodes when executing TPGFPlus and TPGF on EC-CKN based WSNs. Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 shows that TPGFPlus algorithm allows more nodes to sleep, while achieving the same level of average number of paths and average path length compared with TPGF algorithm. As shown in Fig. 4, four snapshots of executing TPGF and TPGFPlus in an always-on and duty-cycled WSN consisting of 200 nodes deployed over a 500m*500m eld are given. V. CONCLUSION In this paper, TPGFPlus researches on 2-hop neighborhood information for geographic routing in EC-CKN applied dutycycled WSNs with the following contributions: 1) To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the rst work considering 2hop based geographic routing for duty-cycled networks. 2) Geographic routing in duty-cycled WSNs should be 2-hop based, but not 1-hop based, because: a) In most existing sleep-scheduling algorithms, it is mandatory for gathering 2hop neighborhood information; b) Simulation results in this paper further support this point. 3) 2-hop based geographic routing allows more nodes to sleep in the network while achieving the same desired average number of paths, compared with that of 1-hop based algorithm. We believe that this work will provide a new perspective on future geographic routing and sleep scheduling researches. (Lei Shu is the corresponding author.)

Fig. 1. 2-hop geographic forwarding example: Node a chooses 2-hop neighbor g as its next-hop node which is closest to the sink among all as 1-hop and 2-hop neighbors. Once choosing g, node a selects node b as an intermediate 1-hop node.

Though such a method does not have the well-known Local Minimum Problem, there may be block situations. During the discovering of a path, if any forwarding node has no 1-hop neighbors except its previous-hop node, we will mark this node as a block node and this situation as a block situation. In this situation, the step back & mark course will start. The block node will step back to its previous-hop node, which will attempt to nd another available neighbor as the nexthop node. This course will be repeatedly executed until a node successfully nds a next-hop node to convert back to the greedy forwarding course. B. Path Optimization Though our work use 2-hop neighborhood, path circles1 [3] also appear. To eliminate the path circles and optimize the found routing path with the least number of hops, we introduce the label based optimization. The principle of the label based optimization is: Any node in a path only relays the acknowledgement to its one-hop neighbor node that has the same path number and the largest node number. A release command is sent to all other nodes in the path that are not used for transmission. These released nodes can be reused for exploring additional paths. After receiving the successful acknowledgement, the source node then starts to send out multimedia streaming data to the successful path with the preassigned path number. C. Discussion on policy for selecting the intermediate node As mentioned in previous subsection A, there are several different policies for selecting the intermediate node in TPGFPlus. Particularly, our interests fall into the following three policies: Find an intermediate 1-hop direct neighbor which is closest to the 2-hop neighbor node; Find an intermediate 1-hop direct neighbor node which forwarding packet from current node to its 2-hop neighbor node with shortest distance; Find an intermediate 1-hop direct neighbor node with the most remaining energy, or the best link quality
1 For any given routing path, if two or more than two nodes in the path are neighbor nodes of another node in the path, we consider that there is a path circle.

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TPGFPlus(Nodes=500) TPGFPlus(Nodes=700) TPGFPlus(Nodes=900)

TPGFPlus(Nodes=600) TPGFPlus(Nodes=800) TPGFPlus(Nodes=1000)

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TPGF(Nodes=600) TPGF(Nodes=800) TPGF(Nodes=1000)

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14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Average Number of Paths

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Fig. 2. Average number of paths found by TPGFPlus (a) and TPGF (b) vs. the value of k. We can see that TPGFPlus algorithm nds more transmission paths than TPGF. In addition, when k exceeds 6, waking up more sensor nodes cannot always increase the average number of paths.

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TPGFPlus(Nodes=100) TPGFPlus(Nodes=300) TPGFPlus(Nodes=500) TPGFPlus(Nodes=700) TPGFPlus(Nodes=900) TPGFPlus(Nodes=200) TPGFPlus(Nodes=400) TPGFPlus(Nodes=600) TPGFPlus(Nodes=800) TPGFPlus(Nodes=1000)

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TPGF(Nodes=100) TPGF(Nodes=300) TPGF(Nodes=500) TPGF(Nodes=700) TPGF(Nodes=900) TPGF(Nodes=200) TPGF(Nodes=400) TPGF(Nodes=600) TPGF(Nodes=800) TPGF(Nodes=1000)

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25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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Fig. 3. Average hops of paths found by TPGFPlus (a) and TPGF (b) vs. the value of k. Both algorithms are not dramatically affected by the changing value of k. But TPGFPlus utilizes 2-hop neighborhood information and performs better.

R EFERENCES
[1] S. Nath and P. B. Gibbons, Communicating via reies: geographic routing on duty-cycled sensors. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2007), Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, April 25-27, 2007. [2] Z. Yuan, L. Wang, L. Shu, T. Hara, Z. Qin, A Balanced Energy Consumption Sleep Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks. In the 7th International Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC 2011), Istanbul, Turkey, July 5-8, 2011. [3] L. Shu, Y. Zhang, L. T. Yang, Y. Wang, M. Hauswirth, and N. Xiong, Tpgf: geographic routing in wireless multimedia sensor networks. In Telecommunication Systems,Volume 44, Numbers 1-2, 2009: 79-95. [4] I. Stojmenovic and X. Lin, Loop-free hybrid single-path/ooding routing algorithms with guaranteed delivery for wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, Oct. 2001: 1023-1032. [5] S. Lai, B. Ravindran, On Multihop Broadcast over Adaptively DutyCycled Wireless Sensor Networks. In Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, 2010. [6] H. Ammari, S. Das, Joint k-coverage, duty-cycling, and geographic forwarding in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, Sousse, Tunisia, Jul. 5-8, 2009: 487-492. [7] L. Shu, Z. Yuan, T. Hara, L. Wang, and Y. Zhang, Impacts of duty-cycle on TPGF geographical multipath routing in wireless sensor networks. In the 18th International Workshop on Quality of Service (IWQoS 2010), Beijing, China, June 16-18, 2010. [8] L. Shu, M. Hauswirth, H. Chao, M. Chen, Y. Zhang, NetTopo: A framework of simulation and visualization for wireless sensor networks. Elservier, Ad Hoc Networks, 2010.

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Fig. 4. (a) and (b) are two examples of executing TPGF and TPGFPlus in an always-on WSN. (c) and (d) are two examples of executing TPGF and TPGFPlus in EC-CKN based duty-cycled WSN, when k=1.