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Isnandar Yunanto (4.

EgB)

Centrifugal Pump

Pump is a device or machine that used to move liquids from one place to another place through a media pipeline by adding energy of the liquid to be transferred and occur with continue.

Pump operates with the principle of making a difference pressure between the entrance (suction) to the exit (discharge). In other words, the pump have function to change the mechanical energy from a power source (driving) into kinetic energy (speed),where is the energy can used to drain fluid and overcome the barriers that existed throughout the drainage.

Centrifugal Pump is one type of non-positive transfer pump that working principle to change the kinetic energy (speed) become potential energy (dynamic) through an impeller which rotates in the casing

Isnandar Yunanto (4.EgB)

The Component of pump


1. Base Plate Have function to support all parts of the pump and pump location to the foundation 2. Casing Casing is outer side from house pump that have function as: protector all the rotating elements place for difuser guide vane, inlet and outlet nozzle place that give flow direction from impeller place to convert the kinetic energy become potential energy (for volute)

3. Difuser guide vane This component have function to: Direct the fluid flow toward the volute Convert the kinetic energy from fluid become potential energy (pressure)

4. Stuffing Box The main function from stuffing box is to prevent leakage in the area where the pump through the casing. If the pump works with a suction lift and pressure on the end of stuffing box is lower than atmospheric pressure, so the stuffing box serves to prevent air leakage into the pump. And when the pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure, it serves to prevent leakage of fluid out the pump. In general, a cylindrical stuffing box as the place of some mechanical packing that surrounds the shaft sleeve. To suppress the packing is used gland packing is used that can be adjusted it position to the axial direction by means tighten or loosen the bolt fastener. 5. Wearing ring Is a ring mounted on the casing (not rotating) as wearing a ring casing and mounted on the impeller (rotating) as the impeller wearing ring. The main function of wearing ring is to minimize the leakage of fluid from the impeller which went back into the eye of the impeller. 6. Discharge is a channel of fluid that out from the pump and also have function to increase the pressure energy that out from the pump. 7. Shaft Shaft have function to continue the drive torque of the pump during operation, and as a place of impeller and other rotating parts.

Isnandar Yunanto (4.EgB)

8. Shaft Sleeve Shaft sleeve serves to protect the shafts from erosion, corrosion and wear, especially when it shaft pass the stuffing box. 9. Impeller Impeller have function to convert the mechanical energy from the pump become potential energy (pressure) on the fluid that flowed continuously, so fluid on the suction side will continually fill the vacuum caused the displacement of fluid before.

Centrifugal Pump Working


Fluid at the pump will go into the suction nozzle toward the eye of impeller and the fluid is trapped between the impeller blades. It impeller rotate and the fluid flowing through the impeller due to centrifugal force that causes the increase in fluid velocity. Bernoulli lawful, if the speed increases, so the pressure will decrease, this is caused the low pressure zone (vacuum) on the suction side of pump. Next, the fluid that has sucked thrown out from the impeller due to centrifugal force that owned by it fluid. And then accommodated by the casing (pump house) before discharge to the exhaust sides. In this case in terms from energy changes that occur, that is: mechanical energy from pump shaft transmitted to impeller blades, and then blades give the kinetic forces on the fluid. Due to the large centrifugal force, fluid ejected fill the pump house and the fluid kinetic energy is mostly converted into pressure energy . Direction of fluid into the centrifugal pump in the axial direction and exit the pump in the radial direction. Centrifugal pumps are usually produced to meet the needs of medium to high head with a medium flow capacity. In the application of centrifugal pumps are widely used for the needs of the process filling the kettle and household pumps.