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Bohr model of the Hydrogen Atom

• Duality of matter led to the hypothesis that electrons behave as waves.

• Bohr model assumed

– Only circular orbits around the nucleus and that the angular momentum around the atom must be quantized.

– Stable orbital where constructive interference occurs.

– Destructive interference prevents observation of orbits with mismatch of waves

constructive interference occurs. – Destructive interference prevents observation of orbits with mismatch of waves

Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

Bohr concluded:

the energy of the electron in an orbit of hydrogen is quantized the energy difference between two orbits must also be quantized The frequency of a line in the spectrum corresponds to the energy difference between two orbits;

corresponds to the energy difference between two orbits; Note that this is slightly different than the
corresponds to the energy difference between two orbits; Note that this is slightly different than the
corresponds to the energy difference between two orbits; Note that this is slightly different than the
corresponds to the energy difference between two orbits; Note that this is slightly different than the

Note that this is slightly different than the Einstein equation for the energy of photons:

Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom

The energy of a Bohr orbit (and an electron in it) is given by

E n

= -R H

1

n

2

where R H is the Rydberg constant = 2.179 x 10 -18 J

Hydrogen atom spectra

Visible lines in H atom spectrum are called the

BALMER series.

6 5 4 3 Infrared Paschen 2 Visible Ultra Violet Lyman Balmer 1 Energy
6
5
4
3
Infrared
Paschen
2
Visible
Ultra Violet
Lyman
Balmer
1
Energy

E n = -2.179x10 -18 J

n 2

n

De Broglie Wave Nature of Matter

• E = mc 2

• E = hν

Particle behavior

Wave behavior

• hν = mc 2 Wave and particle behavior c ν = λ h λ=
• hν
= mc
2 Wave and particle behavior
c
ν =
λ
h
λ=
hc
2
= mc
mv
λ
h
λ =
mc

Duality of matter expressed by replacing the speed of light with the speed of the particle to get λ called the de Broglie wavelength of any moving form of matter

De Brogilie Wavelengths

Particle or Object

Mass (kg)

Speed (m/s)

de Broglie Wavelength (nm)

Electron

9.109 x 10 -31 1.00 x 10 6

7.27 x 10 -1

Proton

Neutron

1.673 x 10 -27

1.675 x 10 -27

1.00 x 10 6

1.00 x 10 3

3.96 x 10 -4

3.96 x 10 -1

Bullet

1.000 x 10 -2

8.00 x 10 2

8.28 x 10 -26

Tennis Ball

5.68 x 10 -2

5.00 x 10 1

2.33 x 10 -25

Matter - Particles or Waves?

Wow, this is a great place, lots of us will fit in here comfortably. Let’s
Wow, this is a
great place, lots
of us will fit in
here comfortably.
Let’s behave well
and act like
particles
short de Broglie wave
fits within containment
long de Broglie wave
exceeds confinement
particle properties
observed
wave properties
observed
particle properties observed wave properties observed Ugh, this is outrageous. Not even one of us fits
Ugh, this is outrageous. Not even one of us fits in here. Let’s rebel and
Ugh, this is
outrageous.
Not even one of
us fits in here.
Let’s rebel and
act like waves
wave properties observed Ugh, this is outrageous. Not even one of us fits in here. Let’s

ELECTRONELECTRON DIFFRACTIONDIFFRACTION TheThe DavissonDavisson--GermerGermer experimentexperiment (1927)(1927)

Davisson

Germer Germer experiment experiment (1927) (1927) Davisson θ i θ i G.P. Thomson The Davisson-Germer experiment:
θ i θ i
θ i
θ i

G.P. Thomson

experiment (1927) (1927) Davisson θ i θ i G.P. Thomson The Davisson-Germer experiment: scattering a beam

The Davisson-Germer experiment:

scattering a beam of electrons from a Ni crystal. Davisson got the 1937 Nobel prize.

At fixed angle, find sharp peaks in intensity as a function of electron energy

sharp peaks in intensity as a function of electron energy Davisson, C. J., "Are Electrons Waves?,"

Davisson, C. J., "Are Electrons Waves?," Franklin Institute Journal 205, 597 (1928)

At fixed accelerating voltage (fixed electron energy) find a pattern of sharp reflected beams from the crystal

find a pattern of sharp reflected beams from the crystal G.P. Thomson performed similar interference experiments

G.P. Thomson performed similar interference experiments with thin-film samples

X-Rays Diffracted Electrons Diffracted Electrons Light No Light No Electrons
X-Rays Diffracted Electrons Diffracted Electrons Light No Light No Electrons
X-Rays Diffracted Electrons Diffracted Electrons Light No Light No Electrons
X-Rays Diffracted
Electrons Diffracted
Electrons
Light
No Light
No Electrons

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

Electron Micrographs of HIV Virus

Electron Micrographs of HIV Virus
Electron Micrographs of HIV Virus
Electron Micrographs of HIV Virus

The Lithium Ion Battery Anode

Cobalt Oxide with Li + Ions

The Lithium Ion Battery Anode Cobalt Oxide with Li + Ions Co Li
Co Li
Co
Li

Electron Microscopy of LiCoO 2 Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

Computer Simulation Of LiCoO 2 Structure

*Li is the smallest atom seen in Electron Microscopy so far

Electron

Micrograph

Simulation Of LiCoO 2 Structure *Li is the smallest atom seen in Electron Microscopy so far
Simulation Of LiCoO 2 Structure *Li is the smallest atom seen in Electron Microscopy so far
Simulation Of LiCoO 2 Structure *Li is the smallest atom seen in Electron Microscopy so far

Inventors of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Gerd

Binnig

of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Gerd B i n n i g Heinrich Rohrer 1986 Nobel

Heinrich

Rohrer

1986 Nobel Prize in Physics for “their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

Electron Waves in STM

Electron Waves in STM Thick Barrier Thin Barrier Tunneling

Thick Barrier

Thin Barrier Tunneling

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

What does the kanji symbol mean?

The Picture is a kanji symbol that translates literally as “original child”. It is used to represent the” atom” in scientific translation.

What are the red dots that form the symbol?

The Symbol is Composed of About 100 Individual Iron Atoms on Copper. The atoms were assembled by scientists at IBM using a method known as Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM).

on Copper. The atoms were assembled by scientists at IBM using a method known as Scanning

San Jose, Calif. (January 21, 2000) --

San Jose, Calif. (January 21, 2000) -- President Clinton today used this tiny map of the

President Clinton today used this tiny map of the Western Hemisphere created by IBM Research as a backdrop for his announcement of the $497-million National Nanotechnology Initiative during a speech at the California Institute of Technology today. Only one-hundredth the diameter of a human hair, this map was made by a scanning tunneling microscope that deposited small clusters of gold atoms to form each dot. Nanotechnology is the science of controlling matter at the atomic scale.

W. Heisenberg 1901-1976 Problem of defining nature of electrons in atoms solved by W. Heisenberg.
W. Heisenberg 1901-1976 Problem of defining nature of electrons in atoms solved by W. Heisenberg.
W. Heisenberg 1901-1976 Problem of defining nature of electrons in atoms solved by W. Heisenberg.

W. Heisenberg

1901-1976

Problem of defining nature of electrons in atoms solved by W. Heisenberg. Cannot simultaneously define the position and momentum (= m•v) of an electron. Δx • Δp = h At best we can describe the position and velocity of an electron by a PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

Uncertainty Principle

ΔΔ

x

p

h h

=

4

π 2

Position, x and momentum, p

p=mv

p= mv, m is constant

ΔΔ

x

v

h

4 π 2 Position, x and momentum, p ∆ p=m ∆ v p= mv, m is

2m

Position, x and Velocity, v

Trying to measure the pathway of an electron

ElectronVelocity

Electron Velocity

Velocity

hν

hν Photon hν hν
Photon

Y

X

hν

Where will I be in one millisecond ? h ν v = 1 x 10
Where will I be in one millisecond ? h ν v = 1 x 10
Where will I be in one millisecond ?
Where will I be in
one millisecond ?
Where will I be in one millisecond ? h ν v = 1 x 10 6

hν

v = 1 x 10 6 m/s

v = 10 6 ± 0.29 x 10 6 m/s

?

x = 0.1 nm

Calculate the uncertainty in the position of the electron after a time period of 1 ms (10 -3 s) after the initial measurement

.

.

 

The de Broglie Viewpoint

 
 

h

6.626 x 10

34

J

s

   

λ =

mv

=

( 9.109 x10

31

kg )( 1x10

6

m / s

)

λ 7.27 x10

=

10

m

=

0.727 nm

 

Electron confined to region < λ will act like a wave

Electron confined to region < λ will act like a wave The Heisenberg Viewpoint x =
The Heisenberg Viewpoint x = vt ∆ x = ∆ vt ∆ x = (.58

The Heisenberg Viewpoint x = vt x = vt x = (.58 x 10 6 m/s)(10 -3 s) x = 580 m

The Heisenberg Viewpoint x = vt ∆ x = ∆ vt ∆ x = (.58 x
The Heisenberg Viewpoint x = vt ∆ x = ∆ vt ∆ x = (.58 x
The Heisenberg Viewpoint x = vt ∆ x = ∆ vt ∆ x = (.58 x

The uncertainty in position rapidly increases

E. E. Schrodinger Schrodinger 1887 1887 - - 1961 1961 Schrodinger applied idea of e
E. E. Schrodinger Schrodinger 1887 1887 - - 1961 1961 Schrodinger applied idea of e
E. E. Schrodinger Schrodinger 1887 1887 - - 1961 1961 Schrodinger applied idea of e
E. E. Schrodinger Schrodinger 1887 1887 - - 1961 1961 Schrodinger applied idea of e

E.E. SchrodingerSchrodinger

18871887--19611961

Schrodinger applied idea of e - behaving as a wave to the problem of electrons in atoms. Solution to WAVE EQUATION gives set of mathematical expressions called

WAVE FUNCTIONS, Ψ

Each describes an allowed energy state of an e - Quantization introduced naturally.

• Ψ Ψ is is a a function function of of distance distance and and
• Ψ Ψ is is a a function function of of distance distance and and

ΨΨ isis aa functionfunction ofof distancedistance andand twotwo angles.angles.

ForFor 11 electron,electron, ΨΨ correspondscorresponds toto anan ORBITALORBITAL thethe regionregion ofof spacespace withinwithin whichwhich anan electronelectron isis found.found.

ΨΨ doesdoes NOTNOT describedescribe thethe exactexact locationlocation ofof thethe electron.electron.

ΨΨ 22 isis proportionalproportional toto thethe probabilityprobability ofof findingfinding anan ee-- atat aa givengiven point.point.

- Application of wave mechanics or the Schrödinger equation yielded energies for the electrons that
- Application of wave mechanics or the Schrödinger equation yielded energies for the electrons that

- Application of wave mechanics or the Schrödinger equation yielded energies for the electrons that agreed well with the experimental data.

- The Schrödinger equation yields three quantum numbers (QN) which define electron energies better than did the Bohr theory.

- Quantum mechanics does not allow us to describe

the e - in an atom as moving in an orbit, but it does allow us to make statistical statements about e -

density.

- We need to know these QN and how they define the orbital.

Orbital energies of the hydrogen atom.

2 4 m Z e e = E n 2 2 2 h n
2
4
m
Z
e
e
=
E n
2
2
2
h
n

Schrödinger Result

Bohr Result

(Note Scale Break Here)
(Note Scale Break Here)
of the hydrogen atom. 2 4 m Z e e = E n 2 2 2