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# Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group

## Investigation on power flow analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems and applications

Jian Yang jy1g09@soton.ac.uk - School of Engineering Sciences Supervisors Dr. Ye Ping Xiong and Prof. Jing Tang Xing
Background
Predicting the dynamic responses of complex systems, such as aircrafts, ships and cars, to high frequency vibrations is a difficult task. Addressing such problems using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) leads to a significant numerical difficulty. Power flow approach (PFA) provides a powerful technique to characterise the dynamic behaviour of various structures and coupled systems, based on the universal principle of energy balance and transmission. PFA is extensively studied for linear systems, but not for nonlinear systems, while many systems in engineering are inherently nonlinear.

Dynamic equation
For a single degree of freedom system:

c( x, x) x k ( x ) x feit mx
Equation of energy balance

mx c ( x, x) x 2 k ( x) xx feit x x P D U T

Dissipated Power

In Eq. (1),
(a)
0.3 0.2
Dissipated power

## 0.1 , 0 ,with initial condition ( x, x) (1.5,0) .

Three dimensional figure Projection on x-x' plane

(b)

(c)

0.1

Kinetic energy

1.5

## 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3

Potential energy
2 -1 1

1.5

0.5

0.5

0
-0.4 -2 2 -1 0 0 1 2 -2 -1 1

-2

0 -2 -1 0 0 1 -2 -1 2 1

0 1 2 -2 -1

x'

x'

x'

## Fig.2 Nonlinear wave energy harvesting device

Aims
Reveal energy generation, transmission and dissipating mechanisms in nonlinear dynamic systems. Develop an effective PFA method for nonlinear vibrating systems . Apply PFA to vibration analysis and control of marine appliances, such as comfortable seat and energy harvesting device design.

Fig.3 power flow behaviours of unforced van der Pol oscillator: (a) Dissipated power ; (b) Kinetic energy; (c) Potential energy

In Eq.(1),
1.5

0.5

0.04

input energy

x'

0.02

## 0 1.5 1 -0.04 0.5 1 0 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1 -1.5 -1.5 -0.5

( x 2 1) x x cost x
Duffing oscillator -Nonlinear stiffness

-0.5

-0.02

(1)
-1

1.5

x x x cost x
3
6
1000 800 600

-1.5 -1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

(2)

x'

## Fig.5 Input power of forced van der Pol oscillator

Discussion
For unforced van der Pol oscillator, the plot of energy and power flow forms a closed orbit in extended 3-d phase space. For unforced van der Pol oscillator, the dissipated power is negative on some points, which is different from linear system. The power flow characteristics of forced oscillation of van der Pol oscillator are complicated and need further investigation.
-5 0 x 5 10

Damping force

400

Restoring force
0 2

200 0

-2

-4

-6 -2

## -800 -1000 -10

x
2 -2

-1

Future work
To study the power flow characteristics when the system presents nonlinear behaviours (e.g. bifurcation). To develop and simplify the power flow formulation for nonlinear systems.

x'