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# The heat transfer coefficient, in thermodynamics and in mechanical and chemical engineering, is used in calculating the heat transfer,

## typically by convection or phase change between a fluid and a solid:

where q = heat flow in input or lost heat flow , J/s = W h = heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2K) A = heat transfer surface area, m2 T = difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid area, K From the above equation, the heat transfer coefficient is the proportional coefficient between the heat flux that is a heat flow per unit area, q/A, and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, T). The heat transfer coefficient has SI units in watts per meter squared-kelvin: W/(m2K). Heat transfer coefficient is the inverse of thermal insulance.

Volumetric efficiency in internal combustion engine design refers to the efficiency with which the engine can move the charge into and out of the cylinders. More specifically, volumetric efficiency is a ratio (or percentage) of what quantity of fuel and air actually enters the cylinder during induction to the actual capacity of the cylinder under static conditions. Therefore, those engines that can create higher induction manifold pressures - above ambient - will have efficiencies greater than 100%. Volumetric efficiencies can be improved in a number of ways, but most notably the size of the valve openings compared to the volume of the cylinder and streamlining the ports. Engines with higher volumetric efficiency will generally be able to run at higher speeds (commonly measured in RPM) and produce more overall power due to less parasitic power loss moving air in and out of the engine. There are several standard ways to improve volumetric efficiency. A common approach for manufacturers is to use larger valves or multiple valves. Larger valves increase flow but weigh more. Multi-valve engines combine two or more smaller valves with areas greater than a single, large valve while having less weight, but with added complexity. Carefully streamlining the ports increases flow capability. This is referred to as porting and is done with the aid of an air flow bench for testing.

## Isothermal efficiency is a ratio normally used in the analysis of reciprocating air

compressors. Since it is desirable for an air compressor to raise the pressure of the air with the minimum possible work input, and since this minimum occurs with isothermal compression, it is usual to assess performance by the ratio: (isothermal work input divided by actual work input.) Isothermal compression is the ideal because none of the work input is absorbed in raising the temperature of the compressed air i.e. in raising its internal energy.