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Electrical installation design metbodology

un lnLerrupLor de usos generales de fuslbles LermomagneLlco lnLerrupLor en ca[a moldeada


(lnLerrupLores de clrculLo no auLomLlcos) deben de Lener una capacldad de corrlenLe de no
menos que el 113 de la corrlenLe del moLor a plana carga
Clculo del valor de la corrlenLe equlvalenLe a plena carga
MoLor 30 P 132 A
MoLor 30 P 96 A
MoLor Z P 22 A
MoLor Z P 22 A
CalefacLor de 10kW 241 A
1 o L a l 333
Clculo del valor de la corrlenLe equlvalenLe a moLor bloqueado
MoLor 30 P 920 A
MoLor 30 P 640 A
MoLor Z P 200 A
MoLor Z P 200 A
CalefacLor de 10kW 241 A
1 o L a l 2201


Electrcal Ratnys, Contnued
Performance 0ata 16 A 25 A 32 A 40 A 63 A 80 A 100 A Aux.
Contacts
ULlCSA AppIIcatIons
ContInuous current [A] 16 25 J2 40 6J 80 100 -
Heavy PIlot 0uty [AC] A600 A600 A600 - - - - A600
Standard 0uty [0C] - - - - - - - Q600
|otor ratIng 60 Hz 1207, 1P [FLA] 16 16 16 24 J4 56 80 -
SInglephase (2 poles) [Hp] 1 1 1 2 J 5 7.5
2407, 1P [FLA] 12 12 17 17 28 50 68
[Hp] 2 2 J J 5 10 15
4807, 1P [FLA] 8.5 8.5 14 21 26 J4 68
[Hp] J J 5 7.5 10 15 J0
6007, 1P [FLA] 11.2 11.2 11.2 16 20 27 44
[Hp] 5 5 5 7.5 10 15 25
%hreephase 1207, JP [FLA] 1J.6 1J.6 19.2 J0.4 40 56 84 -
[Hp] 2 2 J 5 7.5 10 15
2407, JP [FLA] 9.6 15.2 22 28 42 68 80
[Hp] J 5 7.5 10 15 25 J0
4807, JP [FLA] 11 14 21 27 J4 52 65
[Hp] 7.5 10 15 20 25 40 50
6007, JP [FLA] 11 11 17 22 27 52 52
[Hp] 10 10 15 20 25 50 50






For the best results in electrical installation design it is recommended to read all the
chapters oI this guide in the order in which they are presented.
Contentx
lde
O 1 LlsLlng of power demands
O 2 Servlce connecLlon
O 3 LlecLrlcal ulsLrlbuLlon arclLecLure
O 4 roLecLlon agalnsL elecLrlc socks
O 3 ClrculLs and swlLcgear
O 6 roLecLlon agalnsL overvolLages
O Lnergy efflclency ln elecLrlcal dlsLrlbuLlon
O 8eacLlve energy
O 9 Parmonlcs
O 10 arLlcular supply sources and loads
O 11 A green and economlcal energy
O 12 Cenerlc appllcaLlons
O 13 LMC Culdellnes
O 14 Lcodlal sofLware
eJltj Ilxtlng of power JemunJx
%he study oI a proposed electrical installation requires an adequate understanding oI all
governing rules and regulations. %he total power demand can be calculated Irom the data
relative to the location and power oI each load, together with the knowledge oI the
operating modes (steady state demand, starting conditions, non simultaneous operation,
etc.)
From these data, the power required Irom the supply source and (where appropriate) the
number oI sources necessary Ior an adequate supply to the installation are readily obtained.
Local inIormation regarding tariII structures is also required to allow the best choice oI
connection arrangement to the power-supply network, e.g. at medium voltage or low
voltage level.
eJltj Servlce connectlon
%his connection can be made at:
O Medlum volLage level
A consumerLype subsLaLlon wlll Len ave Lo be sLudled bullL and equlpped 1ls
subsLaLlon may be an ouLdoor or lndoor lnsLallaLlon conformlng Lo relevanL sLandards and
regulaLlons (Le lowvolLage secLlon may be sLudled separaLely lf necessary) MeLerlng aL
medlumvolLage or lowvolLage ls posslble ln Lls case
O Low volLage level
1e lnsLallaLlon wlll be connecLed Lo Le local power neLwork and wlll (necessarlly) be
meLered accordlng Lo Lv Larlffs
eJltj Flectrlcul lxtrlbutlon urchltecture
%he whole installation distribution network is studied as a complete system. A selection
guide is proposed Ior determination oI the most suitable architecture. MV/LV main
distribution and LV power distribution levels are covered.
Neutral earthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations, constraints related
to the power-supply, and to the type oI loads.
%he distribution equipment (panelboards, switchgears, circuit connections, ...) are
determined Irom building plans and Irom the location and grouping oI loads. %he type oI
premises and allocation can inIluence their immunity to external disturbances.
eJltj Protectlon ugulnxt electrlc xhockx
%he earthing system (%%, I% or %N) having been previously determined, then the
appropriate protective devices must be implemented in order to achieve protection against
hazards oI direct or indirect contact.
eJltj Clrcultx unJ xwltchgeur
Each circuit is then studied in detail. From the rated currents oI the loads, the level oI short-
circuit current, and the type oI protective device, the cross-sectional area oI circuit
conductors can be determined, taking into account the nature oI the cableways and their
inIluence on the current rating oI conductors.
BeIore adopting the conductor size indicated above, the Iollowing requirements must be
satisIied:
O 1e volLage drop complles wlL Le relevanL sLandard
O MoLor sLarLlng ls saLlsfacLory
O roLecLlon agalnsL elecLrlc sock ls assured
%he short-circuit current Isc is then determined, and the thermal and electrodynamic
withstand capability oI the circuit is checked.
%hese calculations may indicate that it is necessary to use a conductor size larger than the
size originally chosen.
%he perIormance required by the switchgear will determine its type and characteristics.
%he use oI cascading techniques and the discriminative operation oI Iuses and tripping oI
circuit breakers are examined.
eJltj Protectlon ugulnxt overvoltugex
irect or indirect lightning strokes can damage electrical equipment at a distance oI several
kilometers. Operating voltage surges, transient and industrial Irequency over-voltage can
also produce the same consequences.%he eIIects are examined and solutions are proposed.
eJltj Fnergy efflclency ln electrlcul Jlxtrlbutlon
Implementation oI measuring devices with an adequate communication system within the
electrical installation can produce high beneIits Ior the user or owner: reduced power
consumption, reduced cost oI energy, better use oI electrical equipment.
eJltj Reuctlve energy
%he power Iactor correction within electrical installations is carried out locally, globally or
as a combination oI both methods.
eJltj Hurmonlcx
Harmonics in the network aIIect the quality oI energy and are at the origin oI many
disturbances as overloads, vibrations, ageing oI equipment, trouble oI sensitive equipment,
oI local area networks, telephone networks. %his chapter deals with the origins and the
eIIects oI harmonics and explain how to measure them and present the solutions.
eJltj Purtlculur xupply xourcex unJ louJx
Particular items or equipment are studied:
O Speclflc sources suc as alLernaLors or lnverLers
O Speclflc loads wlL speclal caracLerlsLlcs suc as lnducLlon moLors llgLlng clrculLs or
Lv/Lv Lransformers
O Speclflc sysLems suc as dlrecLcurrenL neLworks
eJltj A green unJ economlcul energy
%he solar energy development has to respect speciIic installation rules.
eJltj 0enerlc uppllcutlonx
Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the most
common example being residential dwellings.
eJltj FMC 0ulJellnex
$ome basic rules must be Iollowed in order to ensure Electromagnetic Compatibility. Non
observance oI these rules may have serious consequences in the operation oI the electrical
installation: disturbance oI communication systems, nuisance tripping oI protection
devices, and even destruction oI sensitive devices.
eJltj FcoJlul xoftwure
Ecodial soItware
(1)
provides a complete design package Ior LV installations, in accordance
with IEC standards and recommendations.
%he Iollowing Ieatures are included:
O ConsLrucLlon of onellne dlagrams
O CalculaLlon of sorLclrculL currenLs
O CalculaLlon of volLage drops
O pLlmlzaLlon of cable slzes
O 8equlred raLlngs of swlLcgear and fusegear
O ulscrlmlnaLlon of proLecLlve devlces
O 8ecommendaLlons for cascadlng scemes
O verlflcaLlon of Le proLecLlon of people
O Compreenslve prlnLouL of Le foregolng calculaLed deslgn daLa


In order to design an installation, the actual maximum load demand likely to be imposed on
the power-supply system must be assessed.
%o base the design simply on the arithmetic sum oI all the loads existing in the installation
would be extravagantly uneconomical, and bad engineering practice.
%he aim oI this chapter is to show how some Iactors taking into account the diversity (non
simultaneous operation oI all appliances oI a given group) and utilization (e.g. an electric
motor is not generally operated at its Iull-load capability, etc.) oI all existing and projected
loads can be assessed. %he values given are based on experience and on records taken Irom
actual installations. In addition to providing basic installation-design data on individual
circuits, the results will provide a global value Ior the installation, Irom which the
requirements oI a supply system (distribution network, MV/LV transIormer, or generating
set) can be speciIied.

ower loading of an installation

Contentx
lde
O 1 lnsLalled power (kW)
O 2 lnsLalled apparenL power (kvA)
O 3 LsLlmaLlon of acLual maxlmum kvA demand
4 31 lacLor of maxlmum uLlllzaLlon (ku)
4 32 lacLor of slmulLanelLy (ks)
4 33 lacLor of slmulLanelLy for an aparLmenL block
4 34 lacLor of slmulLanelLy for dlsLrlbuLlon swlLcboards
4 33 lacLor of slmulLanelLy accordlng Lo clrculL funcLlon
O 4 Lxample of appllcaLlon of facLors ku and ks
O 3 ulverslLy facLor
O 6 Colce of Lransformer raLlng
O Colce of powersupply sources

Installed power (kW)
%he installed power is the sum oI the nominal powers oI all power consuming devices in the installation.
%his is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.
Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal power
rating (Pn).
%he installed power is the sum oI the nominal powers oI all power-consuming devices in
the installation. %his is not the power to be actually supplied in practice. %his is the case Ior
electric motors, where the power rating reIers to the output power at its driving shaIt. %he
input power consumption will evidently be greater
Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts, are other cases in
which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the
lamp and its ballast.
Methods oI assessing the actual power consumption oI motors and lighting appliances are
given in $ection 3 oI this Chapter.
%he power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power oI a generating set or
battery, and where the requirements oI a prime mover have to be considered.
For a power supply Irom a LV public-supply network, or through a MV/LV transIormer,
the signiIicant quantity is the apparent power in kVA.
edit] Installed apparent power (kVA)
%he installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum oI the kVA oI individual loads. %
maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA.
%he installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum oI the kVA
oI individual loads. %he maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to
the total installed kVA.
%he apparent-power demand oI a load (which might be a single appliance) is obtained Irom
its nominal power rating (corrected iI necessary, as noted above Ior motors, etc.) and the
application oI the Iollowing coeIIicients:
q the per-unit eIIiciency output kW / input kW
cos the power Iactor kW / kVA
%he apparent-power kVA demand oI the load
Pa Pn /(q x cos)
From this value, the Iull-load current Ia(A)
(1)
taken by the load will be:
O
Ior single phase-to-neutral connected load
O
Ior three-phase balanced load where:
V phase-to-neutral voltage (volts)
U phase-to-phase voltage (volts)
It may be noted that, strictly speaking, the total kVA oI apparent power is not the
arithmetical sum oI the calculated kVA ratings oI individual loads (unless all loads are at
the same power Iactor).
It is common practice however, to make a simple arithmetical summation, the result oI
which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable 'design margin.
When some or all oI the load characteristics are not known, the values shown in igure A9
may be used to give a very approximate estimate oI VA demands (individual loads are
generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW). %he estimates Ior lighting loads are
based on Iloor areas oI 500 m
2
.
(1) For greater precision, account must be taken oI the Iactor oI maximum utilization as explained below



luorescent lighting (corrected to cos 0.86)
Type of application
Estimated (VA/m
2
) fluorescent tube with
industrial reflector
(1)

Average ligh
level (lux lm
Roads and highwaysstorage areas, intermittent
work
7 150
Heavy-duty works: Iabrication and assembly oI 14 300


























very large work pieces
ay-to-day work: oIIice work 24 500
Fine work: drawing oIIices high-precision
assembly workshops
41 800
!ower circuits
Type of application Estimated (VA/m
2
)
Pumping station compressed air 3 to 6
Ventilation oI premises 23
Electrical convection heaters:
private houses
Ilats and apartments

115 to 146
90

OIIices 25
ispatching workshop 50
Assembly workshop 70
Machine shop 300
Painting workshop 350
Heat-treatment plant 700

(1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included), Ilux 5,100 lumens (Im), luminous eIIiciency
oI the tube 78.5 Im / W.
Fig. A9: Estimation of installed apparent power

edit]
Estimation of actual maximum kVA demand
All individual loads are not necessarily operating at Iull rated nominal power nor
necessarily at the same time. Factors ku and ks allow the determination oI the maximum
power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation.
edit] actor of maximum utilization (ku)
In normal operating conditions the power consumption oI a load is sometimes less than that
indicated as its nominal power rating, a Iairly common occurrence that justiIies the
application oI an utilization Iactor (ku) in the estimation oI realistic values.
%his Iactor must be applied to each individual load, with particular attention to electric
motors, which are very rarely operated at Iull load.
In an industrial installation this Iactor may be estimated on an average at 0.75 Ior motors.
For incandescent-lighting loads, the Iactor always equals 1.
For socket-outlet circuits, the Iactors depend entirely on the type oI appliances being
supplied Irom the sockets concerned.
edit] actor of simultaneity (ks)
It is a matter oI common experience that the simultaneous operation oI all installed loads oI
a given installation never occurs in practice, i.e. there is always some degree oI diversity
and this Iact is taken into account Ior estimating purposes by the use oI a simultaneity
Iactor (ks).
%he Iactor ks is applied to each group oI loads (e.g. being supplied Irom a distribution or
sub-distribution board). %he determination oI these Iactors is the responsibility oI the
designer, since it requires a detailed knowledge oI the installation and the conditions in
which the individual circuits are to be exploited. For this reason, it is not possible to give
precise values Ior general application.
edit] actor of simultaneity for an apartment block
$ome typical values Ior this case are given in igure A10, and are applicable to domestic
consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). In the case oI consumers using
electrical heat-storage units Ior space heating, a Iactor oI 0.8 is recommended, regardless oI
the number oI consumers.














Fig. A1: Simultaneity factors in an apartment block

Example (see ig. A11):
5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers, each having 6 kVA oI installed load.
%he total installed load Ior the building is: 36 24 30 36 24 150 kVA
%he apparent-power supply required Ior the building is: 150 x 0.46 69 kVA
From igure A10, it is possible to determine the magnitude oI currents in diIIerent sections
oI the common main Ieeder supplying all Iloors. For vertical rising mains Ied at ground
level, the cross-sectional area oI the conductors can evidently be progressively reduced
Irom the lower Iloors towards the upper Iloors.
%hese changes oI conductor size are conventionally spaced by at least 3-Iloor intervals.
In the example, the current entering the rising main at ground level is:



the current entering the third Iloor is:



Number of downstream
consumers
actor of
simultaneity (ks)
2 to 4 1
5 to 9 0.78
10 to 14 0.63
15 to 19 0.53
20 to 24 0.49
25 to 29 0.46
30 to 34 0.44
35 to 39 0.42
40 to 49 0.41
50 and more 0.40





























Fig. A11: Application of the factor of simultaneity (ks) to an apartment block of 5 storeys

edit] actor of simultaneity for distribution switchboards
igure A12 shows hypothetical values oI ks Ior a distribution board supplying a number oI
circuits Ior which there is no indication oI the manner in which the total load divides
between them.
II the circuits are mainly Ior lighting loads, it is prudent to adopt ks values close to unity.














Fig. A12: Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 60439)

edit] actor of simultaneity according to circuit function
ks Iactors which may be used Ior circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads, are
shown in igure A13.


Nu
mb
er
of
cir
cui
ts
a
cto
r
of
sim
ult
ane
ity
(ks
)
As
se
mb
lies
enti
rel
y
test
ed
2
and
3
0.9
4
and
5
0.8
6
to
9
0.7
10
and
mo
re
0.6
As
se
mb
lies
par
tial
ly
test
ed
in
eve
ry
1.0














(1) In certain cases, notably in industrial installations, this Iactor can be higher.
(2) %he current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current oI the
motor, increased by a third oI its starting current.
Fig. A13: Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function

edit]
Example of application of factors ku and ks
An example in the estimation oI actual maximum kVA demands at all levels oI an
installation, Irom each load position to the point oI supply is given ig. A14.
In this example, the total installed apparent power is 126.6 kVA, which corresponds to an
actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals oI the MV/LV transIormer oI 65
kVA only.
Note: in order to select cable sizes Ior the distribution circuits oI an installation, the current
I (in amps) through a circuit is determined Irom the equation:


where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on the diagram Ior
the circuit concerned, and U is the phase to- phase voltage (in volts).
edit] Diversity factor
Cir
cui
t
fun
cti
on
a
cto
r
of
sim
ult
ane
ity
(ks
)

Lig
hti
ng
1

He
atin
g
and
air
con
diti
oni
ng
1

$oc
ket
-
out
lets
0.1
to
0.2
(1)


LiIts and catering hoist
(2)

O For the most powerIul motor
O For the second most powerIul motor
O For all motors
1
0.75
0.60

%he term diversity Iactor, as deIined in IEC standards, is identical to the Iactor oI
simultaneity (ks) used in this guide.In some English-speaking countries however (at the
time oI writing) diversity Iactor is the inverse oI ks i.e. it is always _ 1.



Fig A14: An example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the
factor values used are for demonstration purposes only)

edit]
Choice of transformer rating
When an installation is to be supplied directly Irom a MV/LV transIormer and the
maximum apparent-power loading oI the installation has been determined, a suitable rating
Ior the transIormer can be decided, taking into account the Iollowing considerations
(see ig. A15):
O %he possibility oI improving the power Iactor oI the installation (see chapter L)
O Anticipated extensions to the installation
O Installation constraints (e.g. temperature)
O $tandard transIormer ratings










Apparent power kVA In (A)
237
V
410
V
100 244 141
160 390 225
250 609 352
315 767 444
400 974 563
500 121
8
704
630 153
5
887
























800 193
9
112
7
100
0
243
6
140
8
125
0
304
5
176
0
160
0
389
8
225
3
200
0
487
2
281
6
250
0
609
0
352
0
315
0
767
3
443
6



Fig. A15 Standard apparent powers for MJ/LJ transformers and related nominal output
currents

%he nominal Iull-load current In on the LV side oI a 3-phase transIormer is given by:

O Pa kVA rating oI the transIormer
O U phase-to-phase voltage at no-load in volts (237 V or 410 V)
O In is in amperes.
For a single-phase transIormer:

where
O V voltage between LV terminals at no-load (in volts)
$impliIied equation Ior 400 V (3-phase load)
O In kVA x 1.4
O %he IEC standard Ior power transIormers is IEC 60076.

edit] Choice of power-supply sources
%he importance oI maintaining a continuous supply raises the question oI the use oI
standby-power plant. %he choice and characteristics oI these alternative sources are part oI
the architecture selection, as described in chapter .
For the main source oI supply the choice is generally between a connection to the MV or
the LV network oI the power-supply utility.
In practice, connection to a MV source may be necessary where the load exceeds (or is
planned eventually to exceed) a certain level - generally oI the order oI 250 kVA, or iI the
quality oI service required is greater than that normally available Irom a LV network.
Moreover, iI the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouring consumers, when
connected to a LV network, the supply authorities may propose a MV service.
$upplies at MV can have certain advantages: in Iact, a MV consumer:
O Is not disturbed by other consumers, which could be the case at LV
O Is Iree to choose any type oI LV earthing system
O Has a wider choice oI economic tariIIs
O Can accept very large increases in load
It should be noted, however, that:
O %he consumer is the owner oI the MV/LV substation and, in some countries,
he must build and equip it at his own expense. %he power utility can, in certain
circumstances, participate in the investment, at the level oI the MV line Ior example
O A part oI the connection costs can, Ior instance, oIten be recovered iI a second
consumer is connected to the MV line within a certain time Iollowing the original
consumer`s own connection
O %he consumer has access only to the LV part oI the installation, access to the
MV part being reserved to the utility personnel (meter reading, operations, etc.).
However, in certain countries, the MV protective circuit-breaker (or Iused load-
break switch) can be operated by the consumer
O %he type and location oI the substation are agreed between the consumer and
the utility




%he examination oI actual values oI
apparent-power required by each load enables the establishment oI:
O A declared power demand wlc deLermlnes Le conLracL for Le supply of energy
O 1e raLlng of Le Mv/Lv Lransformer were appllcable (allowlng for expecLed lncreased
load)
O Levels of load currenL aL eac dlsLrlbuLlon board





An examlnaLlon of Le acLual apparenLpower demands of
dlfferenL loads a necessary prellmlnary sLep ln Le deslgn
of a Lv lnsLallaLlon
nstalled power loads - Cbaracteristics

Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O


Induction motors
1e
no
mln
al
po
wer
ln
kW
(n
) of
a
mo
Lor
lndl
caL
es
lLs
raL
ed
equ
lval
enL
me
ca
nlc
al
po
wer
ouL
puL

1e
app
are
nL
po
wer
ln
kvA
(a)
sup
plle
d Lo
Le
mo
Lor
ls a
fun
cLlo
n of
Le
ouL
puL
Le
mo
Lor
effl
cle
ncy
and
Le
po
wer
facL
or

edit] Current demand
%he Iull-load current Ia supplied to the motor is given by the Iollowing Iormulae:
O 3pase moLor la n x 1000 / (v3 x u x q x cos)
O 1pase moLor la n x 1000 / (u x q x cos)
where
Ia: current demand (in amps)
Pn: nominal power (in kW)
U: voltage between phases Ior 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals Ior single-
phase motors (in volts). A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to-neutral or phase-
to-phase.
q: per-unit eIIiciency, i.e. output kW / input kW
cos: power Iactor, i.e. kW input / kVA input
edit] Subtransient current and protection setting
O SubLranslenL currenL peak value can be very lg Lyplcal value ls abouL 12 Lo 13 Llmes Le
rms raLed value lnm SomeLlmes Lls value can reac 23 Llmes lnm
O Scnelder LlecLrlc clrculLbreakers conLacLors and Lermal relays are deslgned Lo
wlLsLand moLor sLarLs wlL very lg subLranslenL currenL (subLranslenL peak value can
be up Lo 19 Llmes Le rms raLed value lnm)
O lf unexpecLed Lrlpplng of Le overcurrenL proLecLlon occurs durlng sLarLlng Lls means Le
sLarLlng currenL exceeds Le normal llmlLs As a resulL some maxlmum swlLcgear
wlLsLands can be reaced llfe Llme can be reduced and even some devlces can be
desLroyed ln order Lo avold suc a slLuaLlon overslzlng of Le swlLcgear musL be
consldered
O Scnelder LlecLrlc swlLcgears are deslgned Lo ensure Le proLecLlon of moLor sLarLers
agalnsL sorLclrculLs Accordlng Lo Le rlsk Lables sow Le comblnaLlon of clrculL
breaker conLacLor and Lermal relay Lo obLaln Lype 1 or Lype 2 coordlnaLlon (see capLer
n)
edit] Motor starting current
Although high eIIiciency motors can be Iound on the market, in practice their starting
currents are roughly the same as some oI standard motors.
%he use oI start-delta starter, static soIt start unit or variable speed drive allows to reduce
the value oI the starting current (Example : 4 Ia instead oI 7.5 Ia).
edit] Compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors
It is generally advantageous Ior technical and Iinancial reasons to reduce the current
supplied to induction motors. %his can be achieved by using capacitors without aIIecting
the power output oI the motors.
%he application oI this principle to the operation oI induction motors is generally reIerred to
as 'power-Iactor improvement or 'power-Iactor correction.
As discussed in chapter L, the apparent power (kVA) supplied to an induction motor can be
signiIicantly reduced by the use oI shunt-connected capacitors. Reduction oI input kVA
means a corresponding reduction oI input current (since the voltage remains constant).
Compensation oI reactive-power is particularly advised Ior motors that operate Ior long
periods at reduced power.
As noted above so that a kVA input reduction in kVA input will increase (i.e. improve) the
value oI cos
%he current supplied to the motor, aIter power-Iactor correction, is given by:
where cos is the power Iactor beIore compensation and cos
'
is the power Iactor aIter
compensation, Ia being the original current.

igure A4 below shows, in Iunction oI motor rated power, standard motor current values
Ior several voltage supplies.





kW hp 230
V
380

41S
V
400
V
440

480
V
S00
V
690
V
A A A A A A
01

02
3
03




10
13
19



06
0
3
11



03
3
04
9
06
4

033
1/2


26
13


13
1

6



0

03
11
1



33
4
23



19
2

11
16


13
1
1/2
2



63
33
43

30
34

9




21
22

30

3

3

113

61


4

3

2


2

3
3
4
33




13
20

9


6

2



49
6


3

1/2
10



2
140
10

110
140


1
2

4




9
11



13
20
30



20
340

210
20
1



12


13
1
3



23
31
61



44
39
33



34
23
2

1
21











22



30
40
2



31
66

40
32
3
3



24


30
3



30
96
113



3


63
4
4

3
3



32
39


43
33
60



140
169
103





6
4




4
3


3
3
100



230
12
163

96
124


1
0
6





90

110

123

2

340

20


136
1
2


1
3
6


93

113

132

130

200

400

240

320

230

10

240

14


134

130
160
13




4





20





224


162


200
220
230



609

403



330

302



20


203


230
20
300



4

42



430

361



344


230



300
330
400




360
636




414
44







313

333

340

940





340



313

432


313


333


300
106
1

6
610


390
4

334












































360
600
630



163
2

14
4



930

106
0



60

4
331

613
60
10

30




20
0





119
0





932


690

00
30
900



234
0

264
0



134
6

131




10
6

121
4
0

0
930
100
0



291
0



16
3



133
9

90



















































Fig.A4: Rated operational power and currents

edit]
Resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen)
%he current demand oI a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is easily obtained Irom
the nominal power Pn quoted by the manuIacturer (i.e. cos 1) (see ig. A5).

















Nominal
power
(kW)
Current demand (A)
1
pha
se
127
V
1
pha
se
230
V
3
pha
se
230
V
3
pha
se
400
V
01 0
9
04
3
02
3
01
4
02 13

0

03
0
02
9
03 39
4
21

12
6
0
2
1 9 43
3
23
1
14
4
13 11

63
2
3

21

2 13

0
30
2
2
9
23 19

10
9
62

36
1
3 23
6
13 3
3
43
3
33 2 13 30
























Fig.A5: Current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or
halogen) appliances

63 34

20
1
11
3
9 1 39
1
22
6
13
10 9 43
3
23
1
14
4
%he currents are given by:
O 3pase case

O 1pase case
where U is the voltage between the terminals oI the equipment.
For an incandescent lamp, the use oI halogen gas allows a more concentrated light source.
%he light output is increased and the liIetime oI the lamp is doubled.
Note: At the instant oI switching on, the cold Iilament gives rise to a very brieI but intense
peak oI current.
edit] luorescent lamps and related equipment
%he power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube oI a Iluorescent lamp does not include the
power dissipated in the ballast.
%he current is given by:


Where U the voltage applied to the lamp, complete with its related equipment.
II no power-loss value is indicated Ior the ballast, a Iigure oI 25 oI Pn may be used.
edit] Standard tubular fluorescent lamps
With (unless otherwise indicated):
O cos 06 wlL no power facLor (l) correcLlon
(2)
capaclLor
O cos 06 wlL l correcLlon
(2)
(slngle or Lwln Lubes)
O cos 096 for elecLronlc ballasL
II no power-loss value is indicated Ior the ballast, a Iigure oI 25 oI Pn may be used.
igure A6 gives these values Ior diIIerent arrangements oI ballast.
























(3) Power in watts marked on tube

Fig. A: Current demands and power consumption of commonly-
dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 230 J-50 H:)

Arr
ang
em
ent
of
|am
ps
star
ters
and
ba||
ast
s
1ub
e
ow
er
(W)
(3)

Cur
ren
t
(A)
at
230
V
1ub
e
Len
gth
(cm
)
Ma
gne
t|c
8a||
ast
L|e
ctr
on|
c
8a||
ast

Wi
tho
ut
!
Co
rre
cti
on
cap
aci
tor
Wi
th
!
Co
rre
cti
on
cap
aci
tor

|n
g|e
tub
e
1 02
0
01
4
01
0
60
36 03
3
02
3
01

120
3 03
0
03
6
02

130
1w|
n
tub
es
2 x
1
02

01

60
2 x
36
04
6
03
3
120
x 3 30
edit] Compact fluorescent lamps
Compact Iluorescent lamps have the same characteristics oI economy and long liIe as
classical tubes. %hey are commonly used in public places which are permanently
illuminated (Ior example: corridors, hallways, bars, etc.) and can be mounted in situations
otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps (see ig. A7).
(1) Ia in amps; U in volts. Pn is in watts. II Pn is in kW, then multiply the equation by 1,000
(2) 'Power-Iactor correction is oIten reIerred to as 'compensation in discharge-lighting-tube terminology.
Cos is approximately 0.95 (the zero values oI V and I are almost in phase) but the power Iactor is 0.5 due to t
Iorm oI the current, the peak oI which occurs 'late in each halI cycle


















1yp
e of
|am
p
La
mp
po
wer
(W)
Cur
ren
t at
230
V
(A)
ep
ara
ted
ba||
ast
|am
p
10 00
0
1 01
10
26 01
30
Int
egr
ate
d
ba||
ast
|am
p



00
3



Fig. A7: Current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 230 J
- 50 H:)

edit] Discharge lamps
1e
po
wer
ln
waL
Ls
lndl
caL
ed
on
Le
Lub
e of
a
dlsc
ar
ge
lam
p
doe
s
noL
lncl
ude
Le
po
wer
dlss
lpaL
ed
ln
Le
ball
asL

igure A8: gives the current taken by a complete unit, including all associated ancillary
equipment.
%hese lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour oI a
metallic compound, which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at a
pre-determined pressure. %hese lamps have a long start-up time, during which the current Ia
is greater than the nominal current In. Power and current demands are given Ior diIIerent
types oI lamp (typical average values which may diIIer slightly Irom one manuIacturer to
another).


1yp
e of
|am
p
(W)
o
wer
de
ma
nd
(W)
at
230
V
400
V
Cur
ren
t
In(
A)
ta
rt|n
g
Lu
m|n
ous
eff|
c|e
ncy
(|u
me
ns
per
wat
t)
Ave
rag
e
t|m
e||f
e of
|am
p
(h)
Ut||
|zat
|on

I
not
cor
rect
ed
230
V
400
V
I
cor
rect
ed
23
0 V
400
V
Ia]I
n
er
|od
(m|
ns)


|ghpressure sod|um vapour |amps
30 60 06 03 14 Lo 16 4 Lo 6 0 Lo 120 9000 O LlgLlng of large alls
O uLdoor spaces
O ubllc llgLlng


0 0 1 04
3


100 113 12 06
3


130 16 1 0
3


230 24 3 14

400 431 44 22

100
0
103
3
10
43
49

Lowpressure sod|um vapour |amps
26 343 043 01 11 Lo
13
Lo 13 100 Lo
200
000 Lo 12000

O LlgLlng of auLorouLes
O SecurlLy llgLlngsLaLlon
O laLform sLorage areas


36 463 022

Mercury vapour + meta| ha||de (a|so ca||ed meta||od|de)
66 0
3
03
9


91 103
3
04
9


131 134 06
9


0 0
3
1 04
0
1 3 Lo
3
0
Lo
90
600
0
O

pro
ject
ors
(Ior
exa
mp
le:

spo
rts
sta
diu
ms,
etc.
)


130 12 1 0 600
Mercury vapour + f|uorescent substance (f|uorescent bu|b)
30 3 06 030 1 Lo 2 3 Lo 6 40 Lo 60 000 Lo
12000
O Worksops wlL very lg
ceilings (halls, hangars)
O uLdoor llgLlng
O Low llgL ouLpuL
(1)



0 90 0 04
3


123 141 11
3
0
0


230 26 21
3
13
3


400 421 32
3
21
3


00 31 34 3
3


100
0
104
6
2
3
33
0


200
0
214
0
20
0
13 11

61


(1) Replaced by sodium vapour lamps.
Note: these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. %hey extinguish iI the voltage Ialls to less
than 50 oI their nominal voltage, and will not re-ignite beIore cooling Ior approximately
4 minutes.
Note: $odium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output eIIiciency which is superior
to that oI all other sources. However, use oI these lamps is restricted by the Iact that the
yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible.

Fig. A8: Current demands of discharge lamps
izing and protection of conductors

Conductor sizing and protection
Methodology and deIinition
Co
mp
one
nL
par
Ls
of
an
ele
cLrl
c
clrc
ulL
and
lLs
pro
LecL
lon
are
deL
er
mln
ed
suc

La
L all
nor
mal
and
abn
or
mal
ope
raLl
ng
con
dlLl
ons
are
saLl
sfle
d


Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O

eJltj MethoJology
(see ig. G1 )
Following a preliminary analysis oI the power requirements oI the installation, as described
in Chapter B Clause 4, a study oI cabling
(1)
and its electrical protection is undertaken,
starting at the origin oI the installation, through the intermediate stages to the Iinal circuits.
%he cabling and its protection at each level must satisIy several conditions at the same time,
in order to ensure a saIe and reliable installation, e.g. it must:
O Carry Le permanenL full load currenL and normal sorLLlme overcurrenLs
O noL cause volLage drops llkely Lo resulL ln an lnferlor performance of cerLaln loads for
example an excesslvely long acceleraLlon perlod wen sLarLlng a moLor eLc
Moreover, the protective devices (circuit-breakers or Iuses) must:
O roLecL Le cabllng and busbars for all levels of overcurrenL up Lo and lncludlng sorL
clrculL currenLs
O Lnsure proLecLlon of persons agalnsL lndlrecL conLacL azards parLlcularly ln 1n and l1
earLed sysLems were Le lengL of clrculLs may llmlL Le magnlLude of sorLclrculL
currenLs Lereby delaylng auLomaLlc dlsconnecLlon (lL may be remembered LaL 11
earLed lnsLallaLlons are necessarlly proLecLed aL Le orlgln by a 8Cu generally raLed aL
300 mA)




%he cross-sectional areas oI conductors are determined by the general method described in
$ub-clause 2 oI this Chapter. Apart Irom this method some national standards may
prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to be observed Ior reasons oI mechanical
endurance. Particular loads (as noted in Chapter N) require that the cable supplying them be
oversized, and that the protection oI the circuit be likewise modiIied.
























(1) 1e Lerm cabllng" ln Lls capLer covers all lnsulaLed conducLors lncludlng mulLlcore and slnglecore cables and ln
wlres drawn lnLo condulLs eLc














liq 61 llowcbott fot tbe selectloo of coble slze ooJ ptotectlve Jevlce totloq fot o qlveo cltcolt

eJltj eflnltlonx
edit] Maximum load current:
O AL Le flnal clrculLs level Lls currenL corresponds Lo Le raLed kvA of Le load ln Le case
of moLorsLarLlng or oLer loads wlc Lake a lg lnrus currenL parLlcularly were
frequenL sLarLlng ls concerned (eg llfL moLors reslsLanceLype spoL weldlng and so on)
Le cumulaLlve Lermal effecLs of Le overcurrenLs musL be Laken lnLo accounL 8oL
cables and Lermal Lype relays are affecLed
O AL all upsLream clrculL levels Lls currenL corresponds Lo Le kvA Lo be supplled wlc
Lakes accounL of Le facLors of slmulLanelLy (dlverslLy) and uLlllzaLlon ks and ku
respecLlvely as sown ln I|gure G2
























liq 62 colcolotloo of moxlmom looJ cotteot l8

edit] Maximum permissible current: z
%his is the maximum value oI current that the cabling Ior the circuit can carry indeIinitely,
without reducing its normal liIe expectancy.
%he current depends, Ior a given cross sectional area oI conductors, on several parameters:
O ConsLlLuLlon of Le cable and cableway (Cu or Alu conducLors vC or L8 eLc lnsulaLlon
number of acLlve conducLors)
O AmblenL LemperaLure
O MeLod of lnsLallaLlon
O lnfluence of nelgbourlng clrculLs

edit] Uvercurrents
An overcurrent occurs each time the value oI current exceeds the maximum load current IB
Ior the load concerned.
%his current must be cut oII with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude, iI permanent
damage to the cabling (and appliance iI the overcurrent is due to a deIective load
component) is to be avoided.
Overcurrents oI relatively short duration can however, occur in normal operation; two types
oI overcurrent are distinguished:
O verloads
%hese overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits, Ior example, due to a number oI
small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally: motor starting loads,
and so on. II either oI these conditions persists however beyond a given period (depending
on protective-relay settings or Iuse ratings) the circuit will be automatically cut oII.
O SorLclrculL currenLs
%hese currents result Irom the Iailure oI insulation between live conductors or/and between
live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthed neutrals) in any
combination, viz:
- 3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not)
- 2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth, or not)
- 1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth)

Overcurrent protection principles
A protective device is provided at the origin oI the circuit concerned (see ig. G3 and ig.
G4).
O Acting to cut-oII the current in a time shorter than that given by the I
2
t characteristic
oI the circuit cabling
O But allowing the maximum load current IB to Ilow indeIinitely

%he characteristics oI insulated conductors when carrying short-circuit currents can, Ior
periods up to 5 seconds Iollowing short-circuit initiation, be determined approximately by
the Iormula:
I
2
t k
2
S
2

which shows that the allowable heat generated is proportional to the squared cross-
sectional-area oI the condutor.
where
t: uration oI short-circuit current (seconds)
S: Cross sectional area oI insulated conductor (mm
2
)
I: $hort-circuit current (A r.m.s.)
k: Insulated conductor constant (values oI k
2
are given in Figure G52 )
For a given insulated conductor, the maximum permissible current varies according to the
environment. For instance, Ior a high ambient temperature (0a1 ~ 0a2), Iz1 is less than Iz2
(see ig. G5). 0 means 'temperature.
Note:
ISC: 3-phase short-circuit current
ISCB: rated 3-ph. short-circuit breaking current oI the circuit-breaker
Ir (or Irth)
(1)
: regulated 'nominal current level; e.g. a 50 A nominal circuit-
breaker can be regulated to have a protective range, i.e. a conventional overcurrent
tripping level (see ig. G6 ) similar to that oI a 30 A circuit-breaker.




Fig. C3: Circuit protection by circuit-breaker



Fig. C4: Circuit protection by fuses



Fig. C5: I
2
t characteristic of an insulated conductor at two different ambient temperatures

Practical values Ior a protective scheme
%he Iollowing methods are based on rules laid down in the IEC standards, and are
representative oI the practices in many countries.
Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O

eJltj
0enerul rulex
A protective device (circuit-breaker or Iuse) Iunctions correctly iI:
O lLs nomlnal currenL or lLs seLLlng currenL ln ls greaLer Lan Le maxlmum load currenL l8
buL less Lan Le maxlmum permlsslble currenL lz for Le clrculL le l8 ln lz
correspondlng Lo zone a" ln llgure C6
O lLs Lrlpplng currenL l2 convenLlonal" seLLlng ls less Lan 143 lz wlc corresponds Lo zone
b" ln llgure C6
%he 'conventional setting tripping time may be 1 hour or 2 hours according to local
standards and the actual value selected Ior I2. For Iuses, I2 is the current (denoted II) which
will operate the Iuse in the conventional time.
O lLs 3pase sorLclrculL faulLcurrenL breaklng raLlng ls greaLer Lan Le 3pase sorL
clrculL currenL exlsLlng aL lLs polnL of lnsLallaLlon 1ls corresponds Lo zone c" ln llgure
C6


Fig. C: Current levels for determining circuir breaker or fuse characteristics
eJltj Appllcutlonx
edit] rotection by circuit-breaker
CrlLerla for clrculLbreakers l8 ln lz and lSC8
lSC
By virtue oI its high level oI precision the current I2 is always less than 1.45 In (or 1.45 Ir)
so that the condition I2 _ 1.45 Iz (as noted in the 'general rules above) will always be
respected.
- Particular case
II the circuit-breaker itselI does not protect against overloads, it is necessary to ensure that,
at a time oI lowest value oI short-circuit current, the overcurrent device protecting the
circuit will operate correctly. %his particular case is examined in $ub-clause 5.1.
edit] rotection by fuses
CrlLerla for fuses l8 ln lz/k3 and lSCl lSC
%he condition I2 _ 1.45 Iz must be taken into account, where I2 is the Iusing (melting level)
current, equal to k2 x In (k2 ranges Irom 1.6 to 1.9) depending on the particular Iuse
concerned.
A Iurther Iactor k3 has been introduced such that I2 _ 1.45 Iz
will be valid iI In _ Iz/k3.
For Iuses type gG:
In 16 A k3 1.31
In _ 16 A k3 1.10
Moreover, the short-circuit current breaking capacity oI the Iuse I$CF must exceed the
level oI 3-phase short-circuit current at the point oI installation oI the Iuse(s).
edit] Association of different protective devices
%he use oI protective devices which have Iault-current ratings lower than the Iault level
existing at their point oI installation are permitted by IEC and many national standards in
the Iollowing conditions:
O 1ere exlsLs upsLream anoLer proLecLlve devlce wlc as Le necessary sorLclrculL
raLlng and
O 1e amounL of energy allowed Lo pass Lroug Le upsLream devlce ls less Lan LaL wlc
can be wlLsLood wlLouL damage by Le downsLream devlce and all assoclaLed cabllng
and appllances

In pratice this arrangement is generally exploited in:
O 1e assoclaLlon of clrculLbreakers/fuses
O 1e Lecnlque known as cascadlng" or serles raLlng" ln wlc Le sLrong currenLllmlLlng
performance of cerLaln clrculLbreakers effecLlvely reduces Le severlLy of downsLream
sorLclrculLs
Possible combinations which have been tested in laboratories are indicated in certain
manuIacturers catalogues.

Location oI protective devices
A proLecLlve devlce ls ln general requlred aL Le orlgln of eac clrculL
eJltj
0enerul rule
(see ig. G7a)
A protective device is necessary at the origin oI each circuit where a reduction oI
permissible maximum current level occurs.
eJltj Poxxlble ulternutlve locutlonx ln certuln clrcumxtuncex
(see ig. G7b)
%he protective device may be placed part way along the circuit:
O lf A8 ls noL ln proxlmlLy Lo combusLlble maLerlal and
O lf no sockeLouLleLs or branc connecLlons are Laken from A8
%hree cases may be useIul in practice:
O Conslder case (1) ln Le dlagram
A8 3 meLres and
A8 as been lnsLalled Lo reduce Lo a pracLlcal mlnlmum Le rlsk of a sorLclrculL (wlres ln
eavy sLeel condulL for example)
O Conslder case (2)
1e upsLream devlce 1 proLecLs Le lengL A8 agalnsL sorLclrculLs ln accordance
O Conslder case (3)
1e overload devlce (S) ls locaLed ad[acenL Lo Le load 1ls arrangemenL ls convenlenL
for moLor clrculLs 1e devlce (S) consLlLuLes Le conLrol (sLarL/sLop) and overload
proLecLlon of Le moLor wlle (SC) ls elLer a clrculLbreaker (deslgned for moLor
proLecLlon) or fuses Lype aM
1e sorLclrculL proLecLlon (SC) locaLed aL Le orlgln of Le clrculL conforms wlL Le
prlnclples
eJltj Clrcultx wlth no protectlon
(see ig. G7c)
Either
O 1e proLecLlve devlce 1 ls callbraLed Lo proLecL Le cable S2 agalnsL overloads and sorL
clrculLs
Or
O Were Le breaklng of a clrculL consLlLuLes a rlsk eg
LxclLaLlon clrculLs of roLaLlng maclnes
clrculLs of large llfLlng elecLromagneLs
Le secondary clrculLs of currenL Lransformers
No circuit interruption can be tolerated, and the protection oI the cabling is oI secondary
importance.


a]


b]


c]

Fig. C7: Location of protective devices

Conductors in parallel
Conductors oI the same cross-sectional-area, the same length, and oI the same material, can
be connected in parallel.
%he maximum permissible current is the sum oI the individual-core maximum currents,
taking into account the mutual heating eIIects, method oI installation, etc.
Protection against overload and short-circuits is identical to that Ior a single-cable circuit.
%he Iollowing precautions should be taken to avoid the risk oI short-circuits on the
paralleled cables:
O Additional protection against mechanical damage and against humidity, by the
introduction oI supplementary protection
O %he cable route should be chosen so as to avoid close proximity to combustible
materials
Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O
O
O

edit]
General
%he reIerence international standard Ior the study oI cabling is IEC 60364-5-52:
'Electrical installation oI buildings - Part 5-52: $election and erection oI electrical
equipment - Wiring system.
A summary oI this standard is presented here, with examples oI the most commonly used
methods oI installation. %he current-carrying capacities oI conductors in all diIIerent
situations are given in annex A oI the standard. A simpliIied method Ior use oI the tables oI
annex A is proposed in inIormative annex B oI the standard.
edit]
General method for cables
edit] !ossible methods of installation for different types of conductors or cables
%he diIIerent admissible methods oI installation are listed in igure G8, in conjonction
with the diIIerent types oI conductors and cables.


Con
duc
tor
s a
nd
cab
|es
Me
tho
d of
|nst
a||a
t|o
n

W|t
hou
t
f|x|
ngs
C||p
ped
d|r
ect
Con
du|
t
Cab
|e
tru
nk|
ng
(|nc
|ud|
ng
sk|r
t|ng
tru
nk|
ng
f|us
h
f|o
or
tru
nk|
ng)
Cab
|e
duc
t|ng
Cab
|e
|ad
der
Cab
|e
tra
y
Cab
|e
bra
cke
ts
Cn
|ns
u|at
ors
up
por
t
w|r
e


8ar
e
con
duc
Lors
+


lns
ulaL
ed
con
duc
Lors
+ + + +


Se
aL
ed
cab
Mul
Ll
cor
+ + + + + + 0 +

les
(lnc
ludl
ng
arm
our
ed
mln
eral
lns
ulaL
ed)
e

Sln
gle
cor
e
0 + + + + + 0 +


Cable brackets
Permitted.
Not permitted.
0 Not applicable, or not normally used in practice.
Fig.C8: Selection of wiring systems (table 52-1 of IEC 60364-5-52)

edit] !ossible methods of installation for different situations:
iIIerent methods oI installation can be implemented in diIIerent situations. %he possible
combinations are presented in igure G9.
%he number given in this table reIer to the diIIerent wiring systems considered.
(see also ig. G10)


|tu
at|o
Me
tho
d of
ns |nst
a||a
t|o
n

W|t
hou
t
f|x|
ngs
W|t
h
f|x|
ngs
Con
du|
t
Cab
|e
tru
nk|
ng
(|nc
|ud|
ng
sk|r
t|ng
tru
nk|
ngf
|us
h
f|o
or
tru
nk|
ng)
Cab
|e
duc
t|ng
Cab
|e
|ad
der

cab
|e
tra
yc
ab|
e
bra
cke
ts
Cn
|ns
u|at
ors
up
por
t
wlr
e

8ull
dln
g
vol
ds
40
46
13
16
0 13
16
41
42
43 30
31
32
33
34


Cab
le
ca
nne
l
36 36 34
33
0 44
43
30
31
32
33
34


8ur
led
ln
gro
und
2
3
0 0
1
0
1
0

Lm
bed
ded
ln
sLru
cLur
e
3
3
3 1
2
39
60
30
31
32
33
44
43
0

Sur
fac
e
mo
unL
ed
20
21
4 3 6


9
12
13
14
22
23
6

9
30
31
32
33
34
36

ve
re
ad
0 10
11
30
31
32
33
34
36 33

lm
me
rse
d
0 0 0 0 0

Not permitted.
0 Not applicable, or not normally used in practice.
Fig.C9: Erection of wiring systems (table 52-2 of IEC 60364-5-52)

edit] Examples of wiring systems and reference methods of installations
An illustration oI some oI the many diIIerent wiring systems and methods oI installation is
provided in Figure G10.
$everal reIerence methods are deIined (with code letters A to G), grouping installation
methods having the same characteristics relative to the current-carrying capacities oI the
wiring systems.


Item No Methods of |nsta||at|on Descr|pt|on keference method of |nsta||at|on to be used to obta|n curre
capac|ty
1 lnsulaLed
conducLors
or slngle
core cables
ln condulL
ln a
Lermally
lnsulaLed
wall
A1

2 Mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
les
ln
con
dulL
ln a
A2
Le
rma
lly
lns
ulaL
ed
wal
l

4 lns
ulaL
ed
con
duc
Lors
or
slng
le
cor
e
cab
les
ln
con
dulL
on
a
wo
ode
n
or
ma
son
ry
wal
l or
spa
ced
less
La
81
n
03
x
con
dulL
dla
meL
er
fro
m lL

3 Mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
le
ln
con
dulL
on
a
wo
ode
n
or
ma
nso
nry
wal
l or
spa
ced
les
s
La
n
03
x
con
82
dulL
dla
meL
er
fro
m lL

20 Sln
gle
cor
e or
mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
les

flxe
d
on
or
sap
ced
less
La
n
03
x
cab
le d
lam
eLe
r
fro
m a
wo
ode
n
wal
C
l

30

n unperforaLed Lray
31

n perforaLed Lray L or
l

36 8ar
e or
lns
ulaL
ed
con
duc
Lors
on
lns
ulaL
ors
C

0 Mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
les
ln
con
dulL
or
ln
cab
le
duc
Llng
ln
Le
u
gro
und

1 Sln
gle
cor
e
cab
le
ln
con
dulL
or
ln
cab
le
duc
Llng
ln
Le
gro
und
u

Fig.C1: Examples of methods of installation (part of table 52-3 of IEC 60364-5-52

edit] Maximum operating temperature:
%he current-carrying capacities given in the subsequent tables have been determined so that
the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded Ior sustained periods oI time.
For diIIerent type oI insulation material, the maximum admissible temperature is given in
igure G11.


1ype of |nsu|at|on 1emperature ||m|t C
olyvlnyl
clorlde
(vC)
0 aL Le
conducLor

Cro
ss
llnk
ed
pol
yeL
yl
ene
(xL
L)
and
eL
yle
ne
pro
pyl
ene
rub
ber
(L
8)
90
aL
Le
con
duc
Lor

Mlneral (vC covered or bare exposed Lo Louc) 0 aL Le
Mlneral (bare noL exposed Lo Louc and noL ln conLacL wlL combusLlble maLerlal) 103 aL L
Fig.C11: Maximum operating temperatures for types of insulation (table 52-4 of IEC
60364-5-52)

edit] Correction factors
In order to take environnement or special conditions oI installation into account, correction
Iactors have been introduced.
%he cross sectional area oI cables is determined using the rated load current IB divided by
diIIerent correction Iactors, k
1
, k
2
, ...:
I`
B
is the corrected load current, to be compared to the current-carrying capacity oI the
considered cable.
O AmblenL LemperaLure
%he current-carrying capacities oI cables in the air are based on an average air temperature
equal to 30 C. For other temperatures, the correction Iactor is given in igure G12 Ior
PVC, EPR and XLPE insulation material.
%he related correction Iactor is here noted k
1
.


Am
b|e
nt
te
mp
era
tur
e C
Ins
u|at
|on

V
C
kL
L
and
Lk

10 122 113
13 11 112
20 112 10
23 106 104
33 094 096
40 0 091
43 09 0
30 01 02
33 061 06

60 03
0
0
1

63 063
0 03
3 030
0 041

Fig.C12: Correction factors for ambient air temperatures other than 30 C to be applied to
the current-carrying capacities for cables in the air (from table A.52-14 of IEC 60364-5-
52)

%he current-carrying capacities oI cables in the ground are based on an average ground
temperature equal to 20 C. For other temperatures, the correction Iactor is given in igure
G13 Ior PVC, EPR and XLPE insulation material.
%he related correction Iactor is here noted k
2
.


Gro
und
te
mp
era
tur
Ins
u|at
|on
e C

V
C
kL
L
and
Lk

10 110 10
13 103 104
23 093 096
30 09 093
33 04 09
40 0 03
43 01 00
30 063 06
33 033 01

60 04
3
06
3

63 060
0 033
3 046
0 03
Fig. C13: Correction factors for ambient ground temperatures other than 20 C to be
applied to the current-carrying capacities for cables in ducts in the ground (from table
A.52-15 of IEC 60364-5-52)

O Soll Lermal reslsLlvlLy
%he current-carrying capacities oI cables in the ground are based on a ground resistivity
equal to 2.5 K.m/W. For other values, the correction Iactor is given in igure G14.
%he related correction Iactor is here noted k3.



1ermal reslsLlvlLy km/W 1 13 2 23 3

Cor
recL
lon
facL
or
11

11 10
3
1 09
6

Fig.C14: Correction factors for cables in buried ducts for soil thermal resistivities other
than 2.5 K.m/W to be applied to the current-carrying capacities for reference method D
(table A52.16 of IEC 60364-5-52)

Based on experience, a relationship exist between the soil nature and resistivity. %hen,
empiric values oI correction Iactors k3 are proposed in igure G15, depending on the
nature oI soil.

Nat
ure
of
k3
so||

very weL soll (saLuraLed) 121
WeL soll 113
uamp soll 103
ury soll 100
very dry soll
(sunbaked)
06

Fig.C15: Correction factor k3 depending on the nature of soil

O Crouplng of conducLors or cables
%he current-carrying capacities given in the subsequent tables relate to single circuits
consisting oI the Iollowing numbers oI loaded conductors:
- %wo insulated conductors or two single-core cables, or one twin-core cable (applicable
to single-phase circuits);
- %hree insulated conductors or three single-core cables, or one three-core cable
(applicable to three-phase circuits).
Where more insulated conductors or cables are installed in the same group, a group
reduction Iactor (here noted k4) shall be applied.
Examples are given in igures G16 to G18 Ior diIIerent conIigurations (installation
methods, in Iree air or in the ground).
igure G16 gives the values oI correction Iactor k4 Ior diIIerent conIigurations oI unburied
cables or conductors, grouping oI more than one circuit or multi-core cables.


Arrangement (cab|es touch|ng) Number of c|rcu|ts or mu|t|core cab|es keference methods
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 12 16 20

8un
ce
d ln
alr
on
a
surf
ace

em
bed
ded
ore
ncl
ose
d
10
0
0
0
0
0
06
3
06
0
03

03
4
03
2
03
0
04
3
04
1
03

Me
Lo
ds
A
Lo l

Sln
gle
lay
er
on
wal
l
floo
r or
unp
erf
ora
Led
Lray
10
0
0
3
0
9
0
3
0
3
0
2
0
2
0
1
0
0
no
furL
er
red
ucLl
on f
acL
or
for
mo
re
La
n nl
ne
clrc
ulLs
or
mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
les
Me
Lo
d C

Sln
gle
lay
er
flxe
d
dlre
cLly
und
er a
wo
ode
n
celll
ng
09
3
0
1
0
2
06

06
6
06
4
06
3
06
2
06
1


Sln
gle
lay
er
on
a p
erf
ora
Led
orl
zon
Lal
or
verL
lcal
Lray
10
0
0

0
2
0

0
3
0
3
0
3
0
2
0
2
Me
Lo
ds L
and
l

Sln
gle
lay
er
on
10
0
0

0
2
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
9
0

0


lad
der
sup
por
L or
clea
Ls
eLc

Fig. C1: Reduction factors for groups of more than one circuit or of more than one multi-
core cable (table A.52-17 of IEC 60364-5-52)

igure G17 gives the values oI correction Iactor k
4
Ior diIIerent conIigurations oI unburied
cables or conductors, Ior groups oI more than one circuit oI single-core cables in Iree air.


Me
tho
d of
|nst
a||a
t|o
n
Nu
mb
er
of
tra
y
Nu
mb
er
of
thr
ee
pha
se
c|rc
u|ts
Use
as a
mu|
t|p||
er
to
rat|
ng
for

1 2 3

er
for
aLe
d
Lray
31 1 09

09
1
0

1r
ee
cab
les
ln
s orl
zon
Lal f
or
maL
lon


2 09
6
0

0
1


3 09
3
0
3
0



ver
Llca
l
per
for
aLe
d
Lray
s
31 1 09
6
0
6
1r
ee
cab
les
ln
verL
lcal
for
maL
lon

2 09
3
0
4


Lad
der
sup
por
Ls
clea
Ls
32 1 10
0
09

09
6
1r
ee
cab
les
ln
orl
zon
eLc

for
maL
lon
Lal
for
maL
lon

33 2 09

09
3
0
9


34 3 09

09
0
0
6


er
for
aLe
d
Lray
s
31

1 10
0
09

09
6
1r
ee
cab
les
ln
Lref
oll
for
maL
lon

2 09

09
3
0
9


3 09
6
09
2
0
6


ver
Llca
l
per
for
31


1 10
0
09
1
0
9

aLe
d
Lray
s

2 10
0
09
0
0
6


Lad
der
sup
por
Ls
clea
Ls
eLc


32 1 10
0
10
0
10
0


33 2 09

09
3
09
3


34 3 09
6
09
4
09
0


Fig. C17: Reduction factors for groups of more than one circuit of single-core cables to be
applied to reference rating for one circuit of single-core cables in free air - Method of
installation F. (table A.52.21 of IEC 60364-5-52)

igure G18 gives the values oI correction Iactor k4 Ior diIIerent conIigurations oI cables or
conductors laid directly in the ground.


Nu
mb
er
of
c|rc
u|ts


Cab
|e
to
cab
|e
c|e
ara
nce
(a)
a


N||
(ca
b|e
s
tou
ch|
ng)
Cn
e
cab
|e
d|a
me
ter
01
2S
m
02
S m
0S
m

2 03 00 03 090 090
3 063 00 03 00 03
4 060 060 00 03 00
3 033 033 063 00 00

6 03
0
03
3
06
0
0
0
0
0


a
Mu|t|core cab|es













a
|ng|ecore cab|es

liq 618 keJoctloo foctots fot mote tboo ooe cltcolt sloqlecote ot moltlcote cobles lolJ Jltectly
lo tbe qtoooJ lostollotloo metboJ u (toble 5218 of lc 60J64552)

O Parmonlc currenL
%he current-carrying capacity oI three-phase, 4-core or 5-core cables is based on the
assumption that only 3 conductors are Iully loaded.
However, when harmonic currents are circulating, the neutral current can be signiIicant,
and even higher than the phase currents. %his is due to the Iact that the 3
rd
harmonic
currents oI the three phases do not cancel each other, and sum up in the neutral conductor.
%his oI course aIIects the current-carrying capacity oI the cable, and a correction Iactor
noted here k5 shall be applied.
In addition, iI the 3
rd
harmonic percentage h
3
is greater than 33, the neutral current is
greater than the phase current and the cable size selection is based on the neutral current.
%he heating eIIect oI harmonic currents in the phase conductors has also to be taken into
account.
%he values oI k5 depending on the 3
rd
harmonic content are given in igure G19.


1h|r
d
har
mo
n|c
con
ten
t of
Cor
rect
|on
fact
or
pha
se
cur
ren
t

|ze
se|
ect|
on
|s
bas
ed
on
pha
se
cur
ren
t
|ze
se|
ect|
on
|s
bas
ed
on
neu
tra|
cur
ren
t

0
13
10

13 33
06



33
43
06

43

10
Fig. C19: Correction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables
(table D.52.1 of IEC 60364-5-52)

edit]
Admissible current as a function of nominal cross-sectional area of conductors
IEC standard 60364-5-52 proposes extensive inIormation in the Iorm oI tables giving the
admissible currents as a Iunction oI cross-sectional area oI cables. Many parameters are
taken into account, such as the method oI installation, type oI insulation material, type oI
conductor material, number oI loaded conductors.
As an example, igure G20 gives the current-carrying capacities Ior diIIerent methods oI
installation oI PVC insulation, three loaded copper or aluminium conductors, Iree air or in
ground.


No
m|n
a|
cro
ss
sec
t|o
na|
are
a of
con
duc
tor
s
(m
m
2
)





Inst
a||a
t|o
n
me
tho
ds

A1 A2 81

82

C D





1 2 3 4 3 6


Copper

13 133 13 133 13 13 1


23 1 1
3
21 20 24 24


4 24 23 2 2 32 31


6 31 29 36 34 41 39


10 42 39 30 46 3 32


16 36 32 6 62 6 6


23 3 6 9 0 96 6


33 9 3 110 99 119 103


30 10 99 134 11 144 122


0 136 123 11 149 14 131


93 164 130 20 19 223 19


120 1 12 239 206 239 203


130 216 196 299 230


13 243 223 341 23


240 26 261 403 29


300 32 29 464 336


A|um|n|um

23 14 133 163 133 13 13


4 1
3
1
3
22 21 23 24


6 24 23 2 2 32 30


10 32 31 39 36 44 40


16 43 41 33 4 39 32


23 3 33 0 62 3 66


33 0 63 6 90 0


30 4 104 92 110 94


0 10 9 133 116 140 11


93 129 11 161 139 10 13


120 149 133 16 160 19 13


130 10 133 22 1


13 194 16 23
9
200


240 22 20 303 230


300 261 23 331 260


Fig. C2: Current-carrying capacities in amperes for different methods of installation,
PJC insulation, three loaded conductors, copper or aluminium, conductor temperature 70
C, ambient temperature 30 C in air, 20 C in ground (table A.52.4 of IEC 60364-5-52)

edit] Recommended simplified approach for cables
In order to Iacilitate the selection oI cables, 2 simpliIied tables are proposed, Ior unburied
and buried cables.
%hese tables summarize the most commonly used conIigurations and give easier access to
the inIormation.
O unburled cables


kef
ere
nce
me
tho
ds
Nu
mb
er
of
|oa
ded
con
duc
tor
s
and
typ
e of
|ns
u|at
|on

A1 2
vC
3
vC
3
xL
L
2
xL
L


A2 3
vC
2
vC
3
xL
L
2
xL
L


81 3
vC
2
vC
3
xL
L
2
xL
L


82 3
vC
2
vC
3
xL
2
xL

L L

C 3
vC
2
vC
3
xL
L
2
xL
L


L 3
vC
2
vC
3
xL
L
2
xL
L


l 3
vC
2
vC
3xL
L
2
xL
L

1 2 3 4 3 6 9 10 11 12 13

|ze (mm
2
)
Copper
13 13 133 143 133 1 13 193 22 23 24 26

23 1
3
1 19
3
21 23 23 2 30 31 33 36

4 23 24 26 2 31 34 36 40 42 43 49

6 29 31 34 36 40 43 46 31 34 3 63

10 39 42 46 30 34 60 63 0 3 0 6

16 32 36 61 6 3 0 3 94 100 10 113

23 6 3 0 9 93 101 110 119 12 133 149 161

33 110 11 126 13 14 13 169 13 200

30 134 141 133 16 19 192 20 223 242

0 11 19 196 213 229 246 26 29 310

93 20 216 23 23 2 29 32 332 3

120 239 249 26 299 322 346 32 410 43

130 23 31 344 31 393 441 43 304

13 324 362 392 424 430 306 342 33

240 30 424 461 300 33 399 641 69

A|um|n|um
23 133 14 13 163 13 193 21 23 24 26 2

4 1
3
1
3
20 22 23 26 2 31 32 33 3

6 23 24 26 2 32 33 36 39 42 43 49

10 31 32 36 39 44 46 49 34 3 62 6

16 41 43 4 33 3 61 66 3 4 91

23 33 3 63 0 3 3 90 9 101 10 121

33 6 90 96 103 112 120 126 133 130

30 104 110 11 123 136 146 134 164 14

0 133 140 130 160 14 1 19 211 23

93 161 10 13 193 211 22 241 23 29

120 16 19 212 226 243 263 20 300 33

130 226 243 261 23 304 324 346 39

13 236 20 29 323 34 31 39 44

240 300 330 332 32 409 439 40 330

Fig. C21a: Current-carrying capacity in amperes (table B.52-1 of IEC 60364-5-52)

Correction Iactors are given in igure G21b Ior groups oI several circuits or multi-core
cables:


Arrangement Number of c|rcu|ts or mu|t|core cab|
1 2 3 4 6 9 12 16 20


Lm
bed
ded
or
enc
los
ed




10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
03
3
03
0
04
3
04
0
04
0


Sln
gle
lay
er
on
wal
ls
floo
rs
or
on
unp
erf
ora
Led
Lray
10
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0


s

Sln
gle
lay
er
flxe
d
dlre
cLly
und
er a
celll
ng
09
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
06
3
06
0



Sln
gle
lay
er
on
per
for
aLe
d
orlz
onL
al
Lray
s or
on
verL
lcal
Lray
s
10
0
09
0
0
0
0
3
0
3
0
0



Sln
gle
lay
10
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


er
on
cab
le
lad
der
sup
por
Ls
or
clea
Ls
eLc


Fig. C21b: Reduction factors for groups of several circuits or of several multi-core
cables(table B.52-3 of IEC 60364-5-52)

O 8urled cables


Inst
a||a
t|o
n
me
tho
d
|z
e
mm
2

Nu
mb
er
of
|oa
ded
con
duc
tor
s
and
typ
e of
|ns
u|at
|on


1w
o
V
C
1hr
ee
V
C
1w
o
kL
L
1hr
ee
kL
L

D













Copper
13 22 1 26 22

23 29 24 34 29

4 3 31 44 3

6 4 39 36 46

10 63 32 3 61

16 1 6 93 9

23 104 6 121 101

33 123 103 146 122

30 14 122 13 144

0 13 131 213 1

93 216 19 232 211

120 246 203 2 240

130 2 230 324 21


13 312 23 363 304
240 361 29 419 331

300 40 336 44 396

D






A|u
m|n
|um










23 22 1
3
26 22

4 29 24 34 29

6 36 30 42 36

10 4 40 36 4

16 62 32 3 61

23 0 66 93

33 96 0 112 94

30 113 94 132 112

0 140 11 163 13

93 166 13 193 164

120 19 13 220 16

130 213 1 249 210

13 240 200 29 236

240 2 230 322 22

300 313 260 364 30

Fig. C22: Current-carrying capacity in amperes (table B.52-1 of IEC 60364-5-52)


edit] Busbar trunking systems
%he selection oI busbar trunking systems is very straightIorward, using the data provided
by the manuIacturer. Methods oI installation, insulation materials, correction Iactors Ior
grouping are not relevant parameters Ior this technology.
%he cross section area oI any given model has been determined by the manuIacturer based
on:
O 1e raLed currenL
O An amblenL alr LemperaLure equal Lo 33 C
O 3 loaded conducLors
edit] Rated current
%he rated current can be calculated taking account oI:
O 1e layouL
O 1e currenL absorbed by Le dlfferenL loads connecLed along Le Lrunklng sysLem
edit] Ambient temperature
A correction Iactor has to be applied Ior temperature higher than 35 C. %he correction
Iactor applicable to medium and high power range (up to 4,000 A) is given in igure
G23a.


C 3S 40 4S S0 SS

Cor
recL
lon
facL
or
1 09

09
3
09
0
0
6

Fig. C23a: Correction factor for air temperature higher than 35 C

edit] Neutral current
Where 3
rd
harmonic currents are circulating, the neutral conductor may be carrying a
signiIicant current and the corresponding additional power losses must be taken into
account.
igure G23b represents the maximum admissible phase and neutral currents (per unit) in a
high power busbar trunking system as Iunctions oI 3
rd
harmonic level.





















liq 62lb Moxlmom oJmlsslble cotteots (po) lo o bosbot ttookloq system os fooctloos of tbe JtJ
botmoolc level

%he layout oI the trunking system depends on the position oI the current consumers, the
location oI the power source and the possibilities Ior Iixing the system.
- One single distribution line serves a 4 to 6 meter area
- Protection devices Ior current consumers are placed in tap-oII units, connected directly
to usage points.
- One single Ieeder supplies all current consumers oI diIIerent powers.
Once the trunking system layout is established, it is possible to calculate the absorbed
current I
n
on the distribution line.
I
n
is equal to the sum oI absorbed currents by the current I
n
consumers: I
n
L I
B
.
%he current consumers do not all work at the same time and are not permanently on Iull
load, so we have to use a clustering coeIIicient k
$
: In L (I
B
. k
$
).


Ap
p||c
at|o
n
Nu
mb
er
of
cur
ren
t
con
su
me
ks
Coe
ff|c|
ent
rs

LlgLlng PeaLlng 1

ulsLrlbuLlon
(englneerlng
worksop)
23 09

4
3
0


69 0
1040 06


40 and over 09 03
Note: Ior industrial installations, remember to take account oI upgrading oI the machine
equipment base. As Ior a switchboard, a 20 margin is recommended:
I
n
_ I
B
x k
s
x 1.2.
Fig C24: Clustering coefficient according to the number of current consumers

ractical metbod for determining tbe smallest allowable cross-sectional
area of circuit conductors
General
General method Ior cables
Recommended simpliIied approach Ior cables
Busbar trunking systems
etermination of voltage drop
Maximum voltage drop limit
Calculation oI voltage drop in steady load conditions
%he impedance oI circuit conductors is low but not negligible: when carrying load current
there is a voltage drop between the origin oI the circuit and the load terminals. %he correct
operation oI a load (a motor, lighting circuit, etc.) depends on the voltage at its terminals
being maintained at a value close to its rated value. It is necessary thereIore to determine
the circuit conductors such that at Iull-load current, the load terminal voltage is maintained
within the limits required Ior correct perIormance.
%his section deals with methods oI determining voltage drops, in order to check that:
O 1ey comply wlL Le parLlcular sLandards and regulaLlons ln force
O 1ey can be LoleraLed by Le load
O 1ey saLlsfy Le essenLlal operaLlonal requlremenLs
Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O

edit]
Maximum voltage drop
Maximum allowable voltage-drop vary Irom one country to another. %ypical values Ior LV
installations are given below in igure G25.


1yp
e of
|nst
a||a
t|o
ns
L|g
ht|
ng
c|rc
u|ts
Cth
er
use
s
(he
at|n
g
and
po
wer
)

A
low

volL
age
ser
vlce
con
nec
Llon
fro
m a
Lv
pub
llc
po
wer
3 3
dlsL
rlbu
Llon
neL
wor
k

Con
su
me
rs
Mv
/Lv
sub
sLaL
lon
sup
plle
d
fro
m a
pub
llc
dlsL
rlbu
Llon
Mv
sysL
em
6

Fig. C25: Maximum voltage-drop between the service-connection point and the point of
utili:ation

%hese voltage-drop limits reIer to normal steady-state operating conditions and do not
apply at times oI motor starting, simultaneous switching (by chance) oI several loads, etc.
as mentioned in Chapter A (Iactor oI simultaneity, etc.).
When voltage drops exceed the values shown in Figure G25, larger cables (wires) must be
used to correct the condition.
%he value oI 8, while permitted, can lead to problems Ior motor loads; Ior example:
O ln general saLlsfacLory moLor performance requlres a volLage wlLln 3 of lLs raLed
nomlnal value ln sLeadysLaLe operaLlon
O SLarLlng currenL of a moLor can be 3 Lo Llmes lLs fullload value (or even lger) lf an
volLage drop occurs aL fullload currenL Len a drop of 40 or more wlll occur durlng
sLarLup ln suc condlLlons Le moLor wlll elLer
- $tall (i.e. remain stationary due to insuIIicient torque to overcome the load torque) with
consequent over-heating and eventual trip-out
- Or accelerate very slowly, so that the heavy current loading (with possibly undesirable
low-voltage eIIects on other equipment) will continue beyond the normal start-up period
O llnally an volLage drop represenLs a conLlnuous power loss wlc for conLlnuous
loads wlll be a slgnlflcanL wasLe of (meLered) energy lor Lese reasons lL ls recommended
LaL Le maxlmum value of ln sLeady operaLlng condlLlons sould noL be reaced on
clrculLs wlc are senslLlve Lo undervolLage problems (see I|g G26)




















liq 62 Moxlmom voltoqe Jtop

edit] Calculation of voltage drop in steady load conditions
edit] Use of formulae
igure G27 below gives Iormulae commonly used to calculate voltage drop in a given
circuit per kilometre oI length.
II:
O l8 1e full load currenL ln amps
O L LengL of Le cable ln kllomeLres
O 8 8eslsLance of Le cable conducLor ln U/km
Ior copper

Ior aluminium
Note: R is negligible above a c.s.a. oI 500 mm
2

O x lnducLlve reacLance of a conducLor ln U/km
Note: X is negligible Ior conductors oI c.s.a. less than 50 mm
2
. In the absence oI any other
inIormation, take X as being equal to 0.08 O/km.
O pase angle beLween volLage and currenL ln Le clrculL consldered generally
- Incandescent lighting: cos 1
- Motor power:
- At start-up: cos 0.35
- In normal service: cos 0.8
O un paseLopase volLage
O vn paseLoneuLral volLage
For preIabricated pre-wired ducts and bustrunking, resistance and inductive reactance
values are given by the manuIacturer.
















Fig. C27: Joltage-drop formulae

edit] Simplified table
Calculations may be avoided by using igure G28, which gives, with an
adequate approximation, the phase-to-phase voltage drop per km oI cable per
ampere, in terms oI:
O klnds of clrculL use moLor clrculLs wlL cosclose Lo 0 or llgLlng wlL a
cosclose Lo 1
O 1ype of cable slnglepase or 3pase
Voltage drop in a cable is then given by:
K x IB x L
K is given by the table,
IB is the Iull-load current in amps,
L is the length oI cable in km.
%he column motor power 'cos 0.35 oI Figure G28 may be used to compute
the voltage drop occurring during the start-up period oI a motor (see example
no. 1 aIter the Figure G28).


C|rc
u|t
Vo|
tag
e
dro
p
(U
)

|n vo|ts
Slngle pase pase/pase

Sln
gle
pa
se
pa
se/
neu
Lral

8al
anc
ed
3
pa
se
3
pa
ses
(wlL
or
wlL
ou
L
neu
Lral
)

csa |n mm
2
|ng|ephase c|rcu|t 8a|anced threephase c|rcu|t
Motor
power
L|ght|ng Motor
power
L|ght|ng

Nor
ma|
ser
v|c
e
ta
rt
up
Nor
ma|
ser
v|c
e
ta
rt
up


Cu AI cos

08
cos

03
S
cos

1
cos

08
cos

03
S
cos

1

13 24 10
6
30 20 94 23

23 14
4
64 1 12 3 13

4 91 41 11
2
36 93

6 10 61 29 3 33 23 62

10 16 3 1 43 32 13 36

16 23 23
6
11
3
2 20
3
1 24

23 33 13 0
3
1 13 06
3
13

33 30 11
3
06 12
9
1 03
2
11

30 0 0
6
04

09
3
0
3
04
1
0


0 120 06
4
03

06
4
03
6
03
2
03
3

93 130 04

03
0
04

04
2
02
6
04

120 13 03
9
02
6
03

03
4
02
3
03
1

130 240 03
3
02
4
03
0
02
9
02
1
02


13 300 02
9
02
2
02
4
02
3
01
9
02

240 400 02
4
02 01
9
02
1
01

01
6

300 300 02
1
01
9
01
3
01

01
6
01
3

Fig. C28: Phase-to-phase voltage drop AU for a circuit, in volts per ampere per km

edit] Examples
Example 1 (see ig. G29)
A three-phase 35 mm
2
copper cable 50 metres long supplies a 400 V motor taking:
O 100 A aL a cos 0 on normal permanenL load
O 300 A (3 ln) aL a cos 033 durlng sLarLup
%he voltage drop at the origin oI the motor cable in normal circumstances (i.e. with the
distribution board oI Figure G29 distributing a total oI 1,000 A) is 10 V phase-to-phase.
What is the voltage drop at the motor terminals:
O ln normal servlce?
O uurlng sLarLup?
$olution:
O volLage drop ln normal servlce condlLlons
%able G28 shows 1 V/A/km so that:
AU Ior the cable 1 x 100 x 0.05 5 V
AU total 10 5 15 V i.e.
%his value is less than that authorized (8) and is satisIactory.
O volLage drop durlng moLor sLarLup
A Ucable 0.52 x 500 x 0.05 13 V
Owing to the additional current taken by the motor when starting, the voltage drop at the
distribution board will exceed 10 Volts.
$upposing that the inIeed to the distribution board during motor starting is 900 500
1,400 A then the voltage drop at the distribution board will increase approximately pro rata,
i.e.
AU distribution board 14 V
AU Ior the motor cable 13 V
AU total 13 14 27 V i.e.

a value which is satisIactory during motor starting.






























liq 629 xomple 1

Example 2 (see ig. G30)
A 3-phase 4-wire copper line oI 70 mm
2
c.s.a. and a length oI 50 m passes a current oI 150
A. %he line supplies, among other loads, 3 single-phase lighting circuits, each oI 2.5 mm
2

c.s.a. copper 20 m long, and each passing 20 A.
It is assumed that the currents in the 70 mm
2
line are balanced and that the three lighting
circuits are all connected to it at the same point.
What is the voltage drop at the end oI the lighting circuits?
$olution:
O volLage drop ln Le 4wlre llne
Figure G28 shows 0.55 V/A/km
AU line 0.55 x 150 x 0.05 4.125 V phase-to-phase
which gives: phase to neutral.
O volLage drop ln any one of Le llgLlng slnglepase clrculLs
AU Ior a single-phase circuit 18 x 20 x 0.02 7.2 V
%he total voltage drop is thereIore
7.2 2.38 9.6 V

%his value is satisIactory, being less than the maximum permitted voltage drop oI 6.






























Fig. C3: Example 2
bort-circuit current
$hort-circuit current at the secondary terminals oI a MV/LV distribution transIormer
3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation
Isc at the receiving end oI a Ieeder in terms oI the Isc at its sending end
$hort-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter
kno
wln
g
Le
lev
els
of
3
pa
se
sy
mm
eLrl
cal
so
rL
clrc
ulL
cur
ren
Ls
(lsc
) aL
dlff
ere
nL
pol
nLs
ln
an
lnsL
alla
Llon
ls
an
ess
enLl
al
feaL
ure
of
lLs
des
lgn

A knowledge oI 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit current values (Isc) at strategic points oI
an installation is necessary in order to determine switchgear (Iault current rating), cables
(thermal withstand rating), protective devices (discriminative trip settings) and so on...
In the Iollowing notes a 3-phase short-circuit oI zero impedance (the so-called bolted short-
circuit) Ied through a typical MV/LV distribution transIormer will be examined. Except in
very unusual circumstances, this type oI Iault is the most severe, and is certainly the
simplest to calculate.
$hort-circuit currents occurring in a network supplied Irom a generator and also in C
systems are dealt with in Chapter N.
%he simpliIied calculations and practical rules which Iollow give conservative results oI
suIIicient accuracy, in the large majority oI cases, Ior installation design purposes.
Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O
O
O

edit]
Short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a MV/LV distribution transformer
edit] The case of one transformer
O ln a slmpllfled approac Le lmpedance of Le Mv sysLem ls assumed Lo be negllglbly
small so LaL were and
P kVA rating oI the transIormer
U
20
phase-to-phase secondary volts on open circuit
In nominal current in amps
Isc short-circuit Iault current in amps
Usc short-circuit impedance voltage oI the transIormer in .
%ypical values oI Usc Ior distribution transIormers are given in igure G31


1ransformer rat|ng
(kVA)
Usc |n
C||
|mmersed
Cast
res|n dry
type

30
Lo
30
4 6

00
Lo
32
00
6 6

Fig. C31: Typical values of Usc for different kJA ratings of transformers with MJ
windings y 20 kJ

O Lxample
400 kVA transIormer, 420 V at no load
Usc 4

edit] The case of several transformers in parallel feeding a busbar
%he value oI Iault current on an outgoing circuit immediately downstream oI the busbars
(see ig. G32) can be estimated as the sum oI the Isc Irom each transIormer calculated
separately.
It is assumed that all transIormers are supplied Irom the same MV network, in which case
the values obtained Irom Figure G31 when added together will give a slightly higher Iault-
level value than would actually occur.
Other Iactors which have not been taken into account are the impedance oI the busbars and
oI the circuit-breakers.
%he conservative Iault-current value obtained however, is suIIiciently accurate Ior basic
installation design purposes. %he choice oI circuit-breakers and incorporated protective
devices against short-circuit Iault currents is described in Chapter H.


















liq 6l2 cose of sevetol ttoosfotmets lo potollel


edit] 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation
In a 3-phase installation Isc at any point is given by:
where

U
20
phase-to-phase voltage oI the open circuited secondary windings oI the power supply
transIormer(s).
Z
%
total impedance per phase oI the installation upstream oI the Iault location (in O)
edit] Method of calculating Z
T

Each component oI an installation (MV network, transIormer, cable, circuit-breaker,
busbar, and so on...) is characterized by its impedance Z, comprising an element oI
resistance (R) and an inductive reactance (X). It may be noted that capacitive reactances are
not important in short-circuit current calculations.
%he parameters R, X and Z are expressed in ohms, and are related by the sides oI a right
angled triangle, as shown in the impedance diagram oI igure G33.


















liq 6ll lmpeJooce Jloqtom

%he method consists in dividing the network into convenient sections, and to calculate the
R and X values Ior each.
Where sections are connected in series in the network, all the resistive elements in the
section are added arithmetically; likewise Ior the reactances, to give R
%
and X
%
. %he
impedance (Z
%
) Ior the combined sections concerned is then calculated Irom
Any two sections oI the network which are connected in parallel, can, iI predominantly
both resistive (or both inductive) be combined to give a single equivalent resistance (or
reactance) as Iollows:
Let R1 and R2 be the two resistances connected in parallel, then the equivalent resistance
R3 will be given by:
or Ior reactances
It should be noted that the calculation oI X3 concerns only separated circuit without mutual
inductance. II the circuits in parallel are close togother the value oI X3 will be notably
higher.
edit] Determination of the impedance of each component
O Network upstream of the MV]LV transformer (see I|g G34)
%he 3-phase short-circuit Iault level P
$C
, in kA or in MVA
(1)
is given by the power supply
authority concerned, Irom which an equivalent impedance can be deduced.


sc Uo
(V)
ka
(m
u)
ka
(m
u)

230
Mv
A
420 00

0

300 MvA 420 0033 0331
Fig. C34: The impedance of the MJ network referred to the LJ side of the MJ/LJ
transformer

A Iormula which makes this deduction and at the same time converts the impedance to an
equivalent value at LV is given, as Iollows: where
Zs impedance oI the MV voltage network, expessed in milli-ohms
Uo phase-to-phase no-load LV voltage, expressed in volts
Psc MV 3-phase short-circuit Iault level, expressed in kVA
%he upstream (MV) resistance Ra is generally Iound to be negligible compared with the
corresponding Xa, the latter then being taken as the ohmic value Ior Za. II more accurate
calculations are necessary, Xa may be taken to be equal to 0.995 Za and Ra equal to 0.1 Xa.
Figure G36 gives values Ior Ra and Xa corresponding to the most common MV
(2)
short-
circuit levels in utility power-supply networks, namely, 250 MVA and 500 MVA.
(1)
So
rL
clrc
ulL
Mv
A
L
L

lsc
w
ere
O
O
(2)
up
to
36
kV

O 1ransformers (see I|g G3S)
%he impedance Ztr oI a transIormer, viewed Irom the LV terminals, is given by the
Iormula: where:
U
20
open-circuit secondary phase-to-phase voltage expressed in volts
Pn rating oI the transIormer (in kVA)
Usc the short-circuit impedance voltage oI the transIormer expressed in
%he transIormer windings resistance Rtr can be derived Irom the total losses as Iollows: in
milli-ohms where
Pcu total losses in watts
In nominal Iull-load current in amps
Rtr resistance oI one phase oI the transIormer in milli-ohms (the LV and corresponding
MV winding Ior one LV phase are included in this resistance value).
For an approximate calculation Rtr may be ignored since X - Z in standard distribution
type transIormers.


kat
ed
o
wer
(kV
A)
C||
|m
me
rse
d
Cas
t
res|
n

Usc
()
ktr
(m
u)
ktr
(m
u)
2tr
(m
u)
Usc
()
ktr
(m
u)
ktr
(m
u)
2tr
(m
u)

100 4 3
9
39
3
0
6
6 3
0
99
1
103


160 4 16
2
41
0
44
1
6 1
6
63
3
66
2

200 4 11
9
33
2
33
3
6 14
1
31
0
32
9

230 4 92 26 2 6 10 41 42
2 0 3

313 4 62 21
3
22
4
6 0 32
6
33
6

400 4 31 16
9
1
6
6 61 23

26
3

300 4 3 13
6
14
1
6 46 20

21
2

630 4 29 10

11
2
6 33 16
4
16


00 6 29 12
9
13
2
6 26 13
0
13
2

10
00
6 23 10
3
10
6
6 19 10
4
10
6

12
30
6 1 3 3 6 13 3 3

16
00
6 14 63 66 6 11 63 66

20
00
6 11 32 33 6 09 32 33

Fig. C35: Resistance, reactance and impedance values for typical distribution 400 J
transformers with MJ windings _20 kJ

O C|rcu|tbreakers
In LV circuits, the impedance oI circuit-breakers upstream oI the Iault location must be
taken into account. %he reactance value conventionally assumed is 0.15 mO per CB, while
the resistance is neglected.
O 8usbars
%he resistance oI busbars is generally negligible, so that the impedance is practically all
reactive, and amounts to approximately 0.15 mO/metre
(1)
length Ior LV busbars (doubling
the spacing between the bars increases the reactance by about 10 only).
O C|rcu|t conductors
%he resistance oI a conductor is given by the Iormula:
where
p the resistivity constant oI the conductor material at the normal operating temperature
being:
- 22.5 mO.mm
2
/m Ior copper
- 36 mO.mm
2
/m Ior aluminium
L length oI the conductor in m
$ c.s.a. oI conductor in mm
2

(1) lor 30 Pz sysLems buL 01 mU/m lengL aL 60 Pz
Cable reactance values can be obtained Irom the manuIacturers. For c.s.a. oI less than 50
mm
2
reactance may be ignored. In the absence oI other inIormation, a value oI 0.08
mO/metre may be used (Ior 50 Hz systems) or 0.096 mO/metre (Ior 60 Hz systems). For
preIabricated bus-trunking and similar pre-wired ducting systems, the manuIacturer should
be consulted.
O Motors
At the instant oI short-circuit, a running motor will act (Ior a brieI period) as a generator,
and Ieed current into the Iault.
In general, this Iault-current contribution may be ignored. However, iI the total power oI
motors running simultaneously is higher than 25 oI the total power oI transIormers, the
inIluence oI motors must be taken into account. %heir total contribution can be estimated
Irom the Iormula:
Iscm 3.5 In Irom each motor i.e. 3.5m In Ior m similar motors operating concurrently.
%he motors concerned will be the 3-phase motors only; single-phase-motor contribution
being insigniIicant.
O Iau|tarc res|stance
$hort-circuit Iaults generally Iorm an arc which has the properties oI a resistance.
%he resistance is not stable and its average value is low, but at low voltage this resistance is
suIIicient to reduce the Iault-current to some extent. Experience has shown that a reduction
oI the order oI 20 may be expected. %his phenomenon will eIIectively ease the current-
breaking duty oI a CB, but aIIords no relieI Ior its Iault-current making duty.
O 8ecaplLulaLlon Lable (see I|g G36)


arts of powersupp|y system k (mu) k (mu)
Supply
neLwork
llgure C34
Xa
0.995
Za



1ransformer
llgure C33

Rtr is oIten negligible compared to Xtr
Ior transIormers ~ 100 kVA
with


ClrculLbreaker negllglble x
u
013 m
8usbars negllglble for S 200 mm
2
ln Le formula x
8
013 m
ClrculL
conducLors
(2)

Cables
xc
00
mU/m


MoLors
See Subclause 42 MoLors
(ofLen negllglble aL Lv)
1hreephase short
c|rcu|t current |n kA

U
20
: Phase-to-phase no-load secondary voltage oI MV/LV transIormer (in volts).
Psc: 3-phase short-circuit power at MV terminals oI the MV/LV transIormers (in kVA).
Pcu: 3-phase total losses oI the MV/LV transIormer (in watts).
Pn: Rating oI the MV/LV transIormer (in kVA).
Usc: $hort-circuit impedance voltage oI the MV/LV transIomer (in ).
R
%
: %otal resistance. X
%
: %otal reactance
(1) p resistivity at normal temperature oI conductors in service
O 223 mU x mm
2
/m for copper
O 36 mU x mm
2
/m for alumlnlum
(2) II there are several conductors in parallel per phase, then divide the resistance oI one
conductor by the number oI conductors. %he reactance remains practically unchanged.
Fig. C3: Recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system

O Lxample of sorLclrculL calculaLlons (see llg C3)


LV
|nst
a||a
t|o
n
k
(m
u)


k
(m
u)
k1
(m
u)
k1
(m
u)


Mv
neL
wor
k
sc

300
Mv
00
33
03
31


A

1ra
nsf
or
me
r
20
kv/
420
v
n

100
0
kvA
usc

3
cu

13
3 x
10
3

waL
Ls
22
4
1
0



Slnglecore cables
3 m copper
4 x 240 mm
2
/pase
xc 00 x 3 040 24
Maln
clrculLbreaker
8u 0 xu 013

8usbars 10 m 88 0 x8 13 24
1reecore cable
100 m
93 mm
2
copper
xc 100 x 00 26
1reecore cable
20 m
10 mm
2
copper
flnal clrculLs
xc 20 x 00 16 1
Fig. C37: Example of short-circuit current calculations for a LJ installation supplied at
400 J (nominal) from a 1,000 kJA MJ/LJ transformer


edit] Isc at the receiving end of a feeder as a function of the Isc at its sending end
%he network shown in igure G38 typiIies a case Ior the application oI igure G39 ,
derived by the method oI composition (mentioned in Chapter F ). %hese tables give a
rapid and suIIiciently accurate value oI short-circuit current at a point in a network,
knowing:
O 1e value of sorLclrculL currenL upsLream of Le polnL consldered
O 1e lengL and composlLlon of Le clrculL beLween Le polnL aL wlc Le sorLclrculL
currenL level ls known and Le polnL aL wlc Le level ls Lo be deLermlned
It is then suIIicient to select a circuit-breaker with an appropriate short-circuit Iault rating
immediately above that indicated in the tables.
II more precise values are required, it is possible to make a detailled calculation or to use a
soItware package, such as Ecodial. In such a case, moreover, the possibility oI using the
cascading technique should be considered, in which the use oI a current limiting circuit-
breaker at the upstream position would allow all circuit-breakers downstream oI the limiter
to have a short-circuit current rating much lower than would otherwise be necessary ($ee
chapter H ).
Method
$elect the c.s.a. oI the conductor in the column Ior copper conductors (in this example the
c.s.a. is 47.5 mm
2
).
$earch along the row corresponding to 47.5 mm
2
Ior the length oI conductor equal to that
oI the circuit concerned (or the nearest possible on the low side). escend vertically the
column in which the length is located, and stop at a row in the middle section (oI the 3
sections oI the Figure) corresponding to the known Iault-current level (or the nearest to it
on the high side).
In this case 30 kA is the nearest to 28 kA on the high side. %he value oI short-circuit current
at the downstream end oI the 20 metre circuit is given at the intersection oI the vertical
column in which the length is located, and the horizontal row corresponding to the
upstream Isc (or nearest to it on the high side).
%his value in the example is seen to be 14.7 kA.
%he procedure Ior aluminium conductors is similar, but the vertical column must be
ascended into the middle section oI the table.
In consequence, a IN-rail-mounted circuit-breaker rated at 63 A and Isc oI 25 kA (such as
a NG 125N unit) can be used Ior the 55 A circuit in Figure G38.
A Compact rated at 160 A with an Isc capacity oI 25 kA (such as a N$160 unit) can be used
to protect the 160 A circuit.
























liq 6l8 uetetmlootloo of Jowostteom sbottcltcolt cotteot level lsc osloq llqote CJ9


Cop
per
230
V ]
400
V

cs
aof
ph
ase

con
duc
tor
s
(m
m
2
)
Len
gth
of
c|rc
u|t
(|n
me
tres
)

13 13 1 26 36 32 3 10
3
14
6
21

23 11 13 21 30 43 61 6 12
1
1
2
24 34

4 12 1 24 34 49 69 9 13

19
4
2 39 33

6 1 26 36 32 3 10
3
14
6
21 29 41 3 2

10 22 30 43 61 6 12
2
1
2
24 34 49 69 9 13

16 1 24 34 49 69 9 13

19
4
2 39 33 110 133 220

23 13 19 2 3 34 6 10

13
2
21 30 43 61 6 121 12 243 343

33 19 2 3 33 3 10
6
13
1
21 30 43 60 3 120 10 240 340 40

4
3
1 26 36 31 2 10
2
14
4
20 29 41 3 2 113 163 231 326 461

0 2 3 33 3 10

13
1
21 30 43 60 3 120 10 240 340

93 26 36 31 2 10
2
14
3
20 29 41 3 2 113 163 231 326 461

120 16 23 32 46 63 91 12
9
1
3
26 3 32 3 103 146 206 291 412

130 12 1 23 33 30 0 99 14
0
19

2 40 36 9 112 139 224 31 44

13 13 21 29 42 39 3 11

16
6
23 33 4 66 94 133 1 263 34 329

240 1 26 3 32 3 10
3
46 21 29 41 3 3 11 163 233 330 466 639

300 22 31 44 62 12
4
1
6
23 33 30 0 99 140 19 20 396 361

2x1
20
23 32 46 63 91 12
9
1
3
26 3 32 3 103 146 206 292 412 33

2x1
30
23 33 30 0 99 14
0
20 2 40 36 9 112 139 224 31 44 634

2x1
3
29 42 39 3 11

16
6
23 33 4 66 94 133 1 263 33 330 49

3x1
20
34 49 69 9 13

19
4
2 39 33 110 133 219 309 43 619

3x1
30
3 33 3 10
3
14
9
21 30 42 60 4 119 16 23 336 46 62

3x1
3
44 62 12
3
1
6
23 33 30 0 100 141 199 21 39 362

Isc upstream
(|n kA)
Isc downstream
(|n kA)
100 93 90 2 0 62 34 43 3 29 22 10 126 93 6 49 33 2

90 4 2 9 3 1 63 3 31 43 33 2 22 16

12
3
92 6 4 33 23 1 13 09

0 3 4 1 6 64 39 34 4 40 34 2 21 16
3
12
2
91 66 4 33 23 1 13 09

0 66 63 63 61 3 34 49 44 3 32 26 20 13 12 9 66 4 34 23 1 13 09
0

60 3 36 33 33 31 4 44 39 33 29 24 20 13
2
11
6
63 4 34 23 1 13 09

30 4 4 46 43 43 41 3 33 31 2 22 1
3
14
3
11
2
3 63 46 34 24 1 12 09

40 39 3 3 3 36 34 32 30 2 24 20 16

13
3
10
6
1 61 43 33 24 1 12 09

33 34 34 33 33 32 30 29 2 24 22 1

13

12
9
10
2
9 60 43 33 24 1 12 09

30 29 29 29 2 2 2 23 24 22 20 1
3
14

12
2
9 6 3 44 32 24 1 12 09

23 23 24 24 24 23 23 22 21 19
1
1
4
13
3
13
4
11
2
92 3 36 42 32 23 1 12 09

20 20 20 19
4
19
2
1

1
4
1

1
0
16
1
14
9
13
4
11

10
1
4 6 33 41 31 23 1 12 09

13 14

41

14

14
3
14
3
14
1
13

33 12

11
9
11
0
99 4 61 49 3 29 22 16 12 09

10 99 99 9 9 9 96 94 92 9 3 0 4 6 39 31 42 34 2 20 13 11 0

0 69 69 69 69 6 6 66 64 62 60 36 32 4 42 36 30 24 19 14 11 0

3 30 30 30 49 49 49 49 4 4 46 43 43 40 3 34 30 23 21 1 13 10 0

4 40 40 40 40 40 39 39 39 3 3 36 33 33 31 29 26 22 19 16 12 10 0

3 30 30 30 30 30 30 29 29 29 29 2 2 26 23 23 21 19 16 14 11 09 0

2 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 12
0
19 19 19 1 1 1 16 14 13 11 10 0 06

1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 09 09 09 0 0 0 06 06 03

A|u
m|n
|um
230
V ]
400
V

cs
a
of
pha
se
con
duc
tor
s (
mm
2
)
Len
gth
of
c|rc
u|t
(|n
me
tres
)

23 14 19 2 3 34 6 10

13
3
22

4 11 13 22 31 43 61 6 12
2
1
3
24 33

6 16 23 32 46 63 92 13
0
1
3
26 3 32

10 19 2 3 34 10

31
3
22 31 43 61 6

16 22 31 43 61 12
2
1
3
24 33 49 69 9 13

23 1
1
24 34 4 6 96 13
3
19
1
2 3 34 6 10 133 216

33 1 24 34 4 6 93 13
4
1
9
2 3 34 6 10 131 214 302

4
3
16 23 32 46 64 91 12
9
1
2
26 36 31 3 103 14 203 290 410

0 24 34 4 6 93 13
4
19
0
2 3 34 6 1 131 214 303 42

93 23 32 46 64 91 12
9
1
2
26 36 31 3 103 143 203 290 411

120 29 41 3 1 11
3
16
3
23 32 46 63 92 130 14 239 36

130 31 44 63 12
3
1

23 33 30 1 100 141 199 22 399

13 26 3 32 4 10
4
14

21 30 42 39 3 11 16 236 333 41

240 12 16 23 33 46 63 92 13
0
1
4
26 3 32 3 104 14 20 294 413

300 14 20 2 39 33 11
1
13
6
22 31 34 62 123 1 230 333 499

2x1
20
14 20 29 41 3 1 11
3
16
3
23 33 46 63 92 130 14 260 36 319

2x1
30
16 22 31 44 63 12
3
1

23 33 30 1 100 141 200 20 399

2x1
3
19 26 2 32 4 10
3
14

21 13 42 39 3 11 16 236 334 42

2x2
40
23 33 46 63 92 13
0
1
4
26 3 32 4 104 14 20 294 413 3

3x1
20
22 31 43 61 6 12
2
1
3
24 34 49 69 9 13 193 23 39 331

3x1
30
23 33 4 66 94 13
3
1

2 3 33 3 106 130 212 299 423 39

3x1
3
2 39 33 11
1
13

22 31 44 63 9 123 1 230 334 300 0

3x2
40
33 49 69 9 13

19
3
2 39 33 110 136 220 312 441 623

Note: Ior a 3-phase system having 230 V between phases, divide the above lengths by
Fig. C39: Isc at a point downstream, as a function of a known upstream fault-current value
and the length and c.s.a. of the intervening conductors, in a 230/400 J 3-phase system


edit] Short-circuit current supplied by a generator or an inverter
!lease refer to Chapter N

articular cases of sbort-circuit current
Calculation oI minimum levels oI short-circuit current
VeriIication oI the withstand capabilities oI cables under short-circuit conditions
Contentx
lde
O 1 CalculaLlon of mlnlmum levels of sorLclrculL currenL
4 11 Lxamples of suc arrangemenLs
4 12 CondlLlons Lo be fulfllled
4 13 racLlcal meLod of calculaLlng Lmax
4 14 1abulaLed values for Lmax
4 13 Lxamples
O 2 verlflcaLlon of Le wlLsLand capablllLles of cables under sorLclrculL condlLlons
4 21 1ermal consLralnLs
4 22 LlecLrodynamlc consLralnLs
edit]
Calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current
lf a proLecLlve devlce ln a clrculL ls lnLended only Lo proLecL
agalnsL sorLclrculL faulLs lL ls essenLlal LaL lL wlll
operaLe wlL cerLalnLy aL Le lowesL posslble level of
sorLclrculL currenL LaL can occur on Le clrculL
In general, on LV circuits, a single protective device protects against all levels oI current,
Irom the overload threshold through the maximum rated short-circuit current-breaking
capability oI the device.
In certain cases, however, overload protective devices and separate short-circuit protective
devices are used.
edit] Examples of such arrangements
igures G40 to G42 show some common arrangements where overload and short-circuit
protections are achieved by separate devices.



















liq 640 cltcolt ptotecteJ by oM foses



















liq 641 cltcolt ptotecteJ by cltcoltbteoket wltboot tbetmol ovetlooJ teloy




















liq 642o cltcoltbteoket u ptovlJes ptotectloo oqolost sbottcltcolt foolts os fot os ooJ locloJloq
tbe looJ

As shown in Figures G40 and G41, the most common circuits using separate devices
control and protect motors.
Figure G42a constitutes a derogation in the basic protection rules, and is generally used on
circuits oI preIabricated bustrunking, lighting rails, etc.
Variable speed drive
Figure G42b shows the Iunctions provided by the variable speed drive, and iI necessary
some additional Iunctions provided by devices such as circuit-breaker, thermal relay, RC.































Fig. C42b: Protection to be provided for variable speeed drive applications

edit] Conditions to be fulfilled
ro
tect
|on
to
be
pro
v|d
ed
ro
tect
|on
gen
era|
|y
pro
v|d
ed
by
the
var|
ab|
e
spe
ed
dr|v
e
Ad
d|t|
ona
|
pro
tect
|on
Cab
le
ove
rloa
d
?es

(1)
noL
nec
ess
ary
lf
(1)
Mo
Lor
ove
rloa
d
?es

(2)
noL
nec
ess
ary
lf
(2)
uo
wns
Lre
am
so
rL
clrc
ulL
?es
varl
abl
e
spe
ed
drlv
e
?es
1e proLecLlve devlce musL fulflll
O lnsLanLaneous Lrlp seLLlng lm lsc
mln
for a clrculLbreaker
O fuslon currenL la lsc
mln
for a fuse
%he protective device must thereIore satisIy the two Iollowing conditions:
O lLs faulLcurrenL breaklng raLlng musL be greaLer Lan lsc Le 3pase sorLclrculL currenL
aL lLs polnL of lnsLallaLlon
O LllmlnaLlon of Le mlnlmum sorLclrculL currenL posslble ln Le clrculL ln a Llme Lc
compaLlble wlL Le Lermal consLralnLs of Le clrculL conducLors were
(valid Ior tc 5 seconds)
Comparison oI the tripping or Iusing perIormance curve oI protective devices, with the
limit curves oI thermal constraint Ior a conductor shows that this condition is satisIied iI:
O lsc (mln) lm (lnsLanLaneous or sorL Llmedelay clrculLbreaker Lrlp seLLlng currenL level)
(see I|g G4S)
O lsc (mln) la for proLecLlon by fuses 1e value of Le currenL la corresponds Lo Le
crosslng polnL of Le fuse curve and Le cable Lermal wlLsLand curve (see I|g G44 and
G4S)

















liq 64l ltotectloo by cltcoltbteoket

















liq 644 ltotectloo by oMtype foses

















liq 645 ltotectloo by qltype foses

edit] !ractical method of calculating Lmax
ln
pra
cLlc
e
Lls
me
ans
La
L
Le
len
gL
of
clrc
ulL
do
wns
Lre
am
of
Le
pro
LecL
lve
dev
lce
mu
sL
noL
exc
eed
a
calc
ulaL
ed
ma
xlm
um
len
gL


%he limiting eIIect oI the impedance oI long circuit conductors on the value oI short-circuit
currents must be checked and the length oI a circuit must be restricted accordingly.
%he method oI calculating the maximum permitted length has already been demonstrated in
%N- and I%- earthed schemes Ior single and double earth Iaults, respectively. %wo cases are
considered below:
1 - Calculation of L
max
for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit
%he minimum short-circuit current will occur when two phase wires are short-circuited at
the remote end oI the circuit (see ig. G46).









liq 64 uefloltloo of l fot o Jpbose Jwlte cltcolt

Using the 'conventional method, the voltage at the point oI protection P is assumed to be
80 oI the nominal voltage during a short-circuit Iault, so that 0.8 U Isc Zd, where:
Zd impedance oI the Iault loop
Isc short-circuit current (ph/ph)
U phase-to-phase nominal voltage
For cables _ 120 mm
2
, reactance may be neglected, so that
where:
p resistivity oI conductor material at the average temperature during a short-circuit,
$ph c.s.a. oI a phase conductor in mm
2

L length in metres
%he condition Ior the cable protection is Im _ Isc with Im magnetic trip current setting oI
the CB.
%his leads to which gives with U 400 V
p 1.25 x 0.018 0.023 O.mm
2
/m
(2)
(Cu)
Lmax maximum circuit length in metres
2 - Calculation of L
max
for a 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit
%he minimum Isc will occur when the short-circuit is between a phase conductor and the
neutral.
A calculation similar to that oI example 1 above is required, but using the Iollowing
Iormulae (Ior cable _ 120 mm
2

(1)
).
O Were Sn for Le neuLral conducLor Sp for Le pase conducLor
O lf Sn for Le neuLral conducLor Sp Len were

For larger c.s.a.`s than those listed, reactance values must be combined with those oI
resistance to give an impedance. Reactance may be taken as 0.08 mO/m Ior cables (at 50
Hz). At 60 Hz the value is 0.096 mO/m.







edit]

Tabulated values for Lmax
igure G47 below gives maximum circuit lengths (Lmax) in metres, Ior:
O 3pase 4wlre 400 v clrculLs (le wlL neuLral) and
O 1pase 2wlre 230 v clrculLs
protected by general-purpose circuit-breakers. In other cases, apply correction Iactors
(given in Figure G53) to the lengths obtained. %he calculations are based on the above
methods, and a short-circuit trip level within 20 oI the adjusted value Im. For the
50 mm
2
c.s.a., calculation are based on a 47.5 mm
2
real c.s.a.


(1)
lor
larg
er
cs
a's
Le
resl
sLa
nce
calc
ulaL
ed
for
Le
con
duc
Lors
mu
sL
be
lncr
eas
ed
Lo
acc
oun
L
for
Le
non

unlf
or
m
cur
ren
L
den
slLy
ln
Le
con
duc
Lor
(du
e Lo


























Cp
era
t|ng
cur
ren
t
|ev
e|
Im
of
the
|nst
ant
ane
ous
ma
gne
t|c
tr|p
p|n
g
e|e
me
nt
(|n
A)
cs
a
(no
m|n
a|
cro
ss
sec
t|o
na|
are
a)
of
con
duc
tor
s
(|n
mm
2
)
1S 2S 4 6 10 16 2S 3S S0 70 9S 120 1S0 18S 240
30 100 16 26 400
63 9 133 212 31
0 63 104 16 230 41
100 30 3 133 200 333
123 40 6 10 160 26 42
160 31 32 3 123 20 333
200 23 42 6 100 16 26 41
230 20 33 33 0 133 213 333 46
320 16 26 42 63 104 16 260 363 493
400 13 21 33 30 3 133 20 292 396
300 10 1 2 40 6 10 16 233 31
360 9 13 24 36 60 93 149 20 23 41











































300
0
4 11 1 23 32 4 63 0 103 12
630
0
3 13 19 23 3 30 63 69 2 102
00
0
4 10 13 20 29 40 30 34 64 0
100
00
3 12 16 23 32 40 43 31 64
123
00
4 9 13 19 23 32 33 41 31



Fig. C47: Maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium, the
lengths must be multiplied by 0.62)

igures G48 to G50 give maximum circuit length (Lmax) in metres Ior:
O 3pase 4wlre 400 v clrculLs (le wlL neuLral) and
O 1pase 2wlre 230 v clrculLs
protected in both cases by domestic-type circuit-breakers or with circuit-breakers having
similar tripping/current characteristics. In other cases, apply correction Iactors to the
lengths indicated. %hese Iactors are given in igure G51.














kated current of c|rcu|tbreakers (|n A) csa (nom|na| crosssect|ona|area) of conductors (|n mm
2
)
13 23 4 6 10 16 23 33 30
6 200 333 333 00
10 120 200 320 40 00
16 3 123 200 300 300 00
20 60 100 160 240 400 640
23 4 0 12 192 320 312 00
32 3 62 100 130 230 400 623 3
40 30 30 0 120 200 320 300 00
30 24 40 64 96 160 236 400 360 60
63 19 32 31 6 12 203 31 444 603
0 13 23 40 60 100 160 230 330 43
100 12 20 32 4 0 12 200 20 30
123 10 16 26 3 64 102 160 224 304

















Fig. C48: Maximum length of copper-conductor circuits in metres protected by B-type
circuit-breakers






kated current of c|rcu|tbreakers (|n A)

csa (nom|na| crosssect|ona|area) of conductors (|n mm
2
)
13 23 4 6 10 16 23 33 30
6 100 16 26 400 66
10 60 100 160 240 400 640
16 3 62 100 130 230 400 623 3



























20 30 30 0 120 200 320 300 00
23 24 40 64 96 160 236 400 360 60
32 1
0
31 30 3 123 200 313 43 394
40 13
0
23 40 60 100 160 230 330 43
30 12
0
20 32 4 0 12 200 20 30
63 93 16
0
26 3 64 102 139 222 302
0 3 12
3
20 30 30 0 123 13 23
100 60 10
0
16
0
24 40 64 100 140 190
123 30 0 13
0
19
0
32 31 0 112 132
Fig. C49: Maximum length of copper-conductor circuits in metres protected by C-type
circuit-breakers






















kated current of c|rcu|tbreakers (|n A)

csa (nom|na| crosssect|ona|area) of conductors (|n mm
2
)
13 23 4 6 10 16 23 33 30
1 429 14
2 214 33 31 3
3 143 23 31 31 932
4 10 19 26 429 14
6 1 119 190 26 46 62
10 43 1 114 11 26 43 14
16 2 43 1 10 19 26 446 623 4
20 21 36 3 6 143 229 33 300 69
23 1
0
29 46 69 114 13 26 400 343
32 13
0
22 36 34 9 143 223 313 424
40 11
0
1
0
29 43 1 114 19 230 339
30 90 14
0
23 34 3 91 143 200 21
63 0 11
0
1
0
2 43 3 113 139 213
0 30 90 14
0
21 36 3 9 123 10
100 40 0 11
0
1
0
29 46 1 100 136
123 30 60 90 14
0
23 3 3 0 109




















Fig. C5: Maximum length oI copper-conductor circuits in metres protected by -type
circuit-breakers


C|rcu|t deta||









Fig. C51: Correction factor to apply to lengths obtained from Figures G47 to
G50

Note: IEC 60898 accepts an upper short-circuit-current tripping range oI 10-50
In Ior type circuit-breakers. European standards, and Figure G50 however,
are based on a range oI 10-20 In, a range which covers the vast majority oI
domestic and similar installations.
edit] Examples
Example 1
In a 1-phase 2-wire installation the protection is provided by a 50 A circuit-
breaker type N$X80HMA, the instantaneous short-circuit current trip, is set at
500 A (accuracy oI 20), i.e. in the worst case would require 500 x 1,2 600
A to trip. %he cable c.s.a. 10 mm
2
and the conductor material is copper.
In Figure G47, the row Im 500 A crosses the column c.s.a. 10 mm
2
at the
value Ior Lmax oI 67 m. %he circuit-breaker protects the cable against short-
circuit Iaults, thereIore, provided that its length does not exceed 67 metres.
Example 2
In a 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit (without neutral), the protection is provided
by a 220 A circuit-breaker type N$X250N with an instantaneous short-circuit
current trip unit type MA set at 2,000 A ( 20), i.e. a worst case oI 2,400 A to
be certain oI tripping. %he cable c.s.a. 120 mm
2
and the conductor material is
copper.
In Figure G47 the row Im 2,000 A crosses the column c.s.a. 120 mm
2
at the
value Ior Lmax oI 200 m. Being a 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit (without
neutral), a correction Iactor Irom Figure G51 must be applied. %his Iactor is
seen to be 1.73.
3
pa
se
3
wlr
e
400
v
clrc
ulL
or
1
pa
se
2
wlr
e
400
v
clrc
ulL
(no
neu
Lral
)
1
3
1pase 2wlre (pase and neuLral) 230 v clrculL
3
pa
se
4
wlr
e
230
/40
0 v
clrc
ulL
or
2
pa
se
3
wlr
e
230
/40
Sp
/ S
neu
Lral
1
1
%he circuit-breaker will thereIore protect the cable against short-circuit current, provided
that its length does not exceed 200 x 1.73 346 metres.

edit] Verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit
conditions



edit] Thermal constraints
When the duration oI short-circuit current is brieI (several tenths oI a second up to Iive
seconds maximum) all oI the heat produced is assumed to remain in the conductor, causing
its temperature to rise. %he heating process is said to be adiabatic, an assumption that
simpliIies the calculation and gives a pessimistic result, i.e. a higher conductor temperature
than that which would actually occur, since in practice, some heat would leave the
conductor and pass into the insulation.
For a period oI 5 seconds or less, the relationship I
2
t k
2
$
2
characterizes the time in
seconds during which a conductor oI c.s.a. $ (in mm
2
) can be allowed to carry a current I,
beIore its temperature reaches a level which would damage the surrounding insulation.
%he Iactor k
2
is given in igure G52 below.


Insu|at|on Conductor copper (Cu) Conductor a|um|n|um (A|)
vC 13223 36

xL
L
20
449

36

Fig. C52: Jalue of the constant k
2

ln general verlflcaLlon of Le LermalwlLsLand capablllLy of a cable ls noL necessary excepL ln cases were cables of sm
lnsLalled close Lo or feedlng dlrecLly from Le maln general dlsLrlbuLlon board

%he method oI veriIication consists in checking that the thermal energy I
2
t per ohm oI
conductor material, allowed to pass by the protecting circuit-breaker (Irom manuIacturers
catalogues) is less than that permitted Ior the particular conductor (as given in igure G53
below).

























(m
m
2
)
V
C
kL
L
Cop
per
A|u
m|n
|um
Cop
per
A|u
m|n
|um
13 00
29
00
130
00
460
00
199
23 00
26
00
361
01
2
00
332
4 02
116
00
924
03
22
01
414
6 04
61
02
09
0
362
03
11
10 13223 036 20430 036
16 3336 146 32330 22620
23 2
636
36
100
12
0
6
33
223
33 162006 036 230300 10241
30 29
39
13
032
46
133
19
936

Fig. C53: Maximum allowable thermal stress for cables I
2
t (expressed in ampere
2
x second
x 10
6
)

Example
Is a copper-cored XLPE cable oI 4 mm
2
c.s.a. adequately protected by a C60N circuit-
breaker?
Figure G53 shows that the I
2
t value Ior the cable is 0.3272 x 10
6
, while the maximum 'let-
through value by the circuit-breaker, as given in the manuIacturer`s catalogue, is
considerably less ( 0.1.10
6
A
2
s).
%he cable is thereIore adequately protected by the circuit-breaker up to its Iull rated
breaking capability.
edit] Electrodynamic constraints
For all type oI circuit (conductors or bus-trunking), it is necessary to take electrodynamic
eIIects into account.
%o withstand the electrodynamic constraints, the conductors must be solidly Iixed and the
connection must be strongly tightened.
For bus-trunking, rails, etc. it is also necessary to veriIy that the electrodynamic withstand
perIormance is satisIactory when carrying short-circuit currents. %he peak value oI current,
limited by the circuit-breaker or Iuse, must be less than the busbar system rating. %ables oI
coordination ensuring adequate protection oI their products are generally published by the
manuIacturers and provide a major advantage oI such systems.


rotective eartbing conductor
Connection and choice
Conductor sizing
Protective conductor between MV/LV transIormer and the main general distribution board
(MGB)
Equipotential conductor
Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O
O

edit]
Connection and choice
Protective (PE) conductors provide the bonding connection between all exposed and
extraneous conductive parts oI an installation, to create the main equipotential bonding
system. %hese conductors conduct Iault current due to insulation Iailure (between a phase
conductor and an exposed conductive part) to the earthed neutral oI the source. PE
conductors are connected to the main earthing terminal oI the installation.
%he main earthing terminal is connected to the earthing electrode (see Chapter E) by the
earthing conductor (grounding electrode conductor in the U$A).
PE conductors must be:
O lnsulaLed and coloured yellow and green (sLrlpes)
O roLecLed agalnsL mecanlcal and cemlcal damage
In I% and %N-earthed schemes it is strongly recommended that PE conductors should be
installed in close proximity (i.e. in the same conduits, on the same cable tray, etc.) as the
live cables oI the related circuit. %his arrangement ensures the minimum possible inductive
reactance in the earth-Iault current carrying circuits.
It should be noted that this arrangement is originally provided by bus-trunking.
edit] Connection
PE conductors must:
O noL lnclude any means of breaklng Le conLlnulLy of Le clrculL (suc as a swlLc
removable llnks eLc)
O ConnecL exposed conducLlve parLs lndlvldually Lo Le maln L conducLor le ln parallel
noL ln serles as sown ln I|gure GS4
O Pave an lndlvldual Lermlnal on common earLlng bars ln dlsLrlbuLlon boards























liq 654 A poot coooectloo lo o setles ottooqemeot wlll leove oll Jowostteom oppllooces
ooptotecteJ

TT scheme
%he PE conductor need not necessarily be installed in close proximity to the live conductors
oI the corresponding circuit, since high values oI earth-Iault current are not needed to
operate the RC-type oI protection used in %% installations.
IT and TN schemes
%he PE or PEN conductor, as previously noted, must be installed as close as possible to the
corresponding live conductors oI the circuit and no Ierro-magnetic material must be
interposed between them. A PEN conductor must always be connected directly to the earth
terminal oI an appliance, with a looped connection Irom the earth terminal to the neutral
terminal oI the appliance (see ig. G55).
O 1nC sceme (Le neuLral and L conducLor are one and Le same referred Lo as a Ln
conducLor)
%he protective Iunction oI a PEN conductor has priority, so that all rules governing PE
conductors apply strictly to PEN conductors
O 1nC Lo 1nS LranslLlon
%he PE conductor Ior the installation is connected to the PEN terminal or bar (seeFig. G56)
generally at the origin oI the installation. ownstream oI the point oI separation, no PE
conductor can be connected to the neutral conductor.













liq 655 ultect coooectloo of tbe lN cooJoctot to tbe eottb tetmlool of oo oppllooce









liq 65 1be 1Nc5 scbeme

edit] Types of materials
Materials oI the kinds mentioned below in igure G57 can be used Ior PE conductors,
provided that the conditions mentioned in the last column are satisIied.


1yp
e of
pro
tect
|ve
ear
th|
ng
con
duc
tor(
L)

I1
sch
em
e
1N
sch
em
e
11 s
che
me

Con
d|t|
ons
to
be
res
pec
ted

SupplemenLary ln Le same cable as
conducLor Le pasesor ln Le
same cable run
SLrongly
recommended
SLrongly
recommended
CorrecL 1e L conducLor musL be lnsul
same level as Le pases
lndependenL of Le
pase conducLors
osslble
(1)
osslble
(1)

(2)
CorrecL O 1e L conducLor may
lnsulaLed
(2)

O

1e elecLrlcal conLlnulL
assured by proLecLlon
agalnsL deLerloraLlon b
mecanlcal cemlcal a
elecLrocemlcal azard
O 1elr conducLance
musL be adequaLe
MeLalllc
ouslng of
busLrunklng
or of oLer
prefabrlcaLed
prewlred
ducLlng
(3)

osslble
(3)
L
posslble
(3)
Ln
posslble
()

CorrecL

LxL
ern
al
se
os
slbl
e
(3)

L
pos
slbl
e
(3)

os
slbl
e

aL
of
exLr
ude
d
mln
eral

lns
ulaL
ed
con
duc
Lors
(eg

py
roL
ena
x
Lyp
e
sysL
em
s)
L
n
noL
rec
om
me
nde
d
(2)(3)


Cer
Laln
exLr
ane
ous
con
duc
Llve
ele
me
nLs
(
6)
suc

os
slbl
e
(4)

L
pos
slbl
e
(4)
L
n
for
bld
den
os
slbl
e

as
O
O
O

MeLalllc cable ways suc as condulLs
(9)

ducLs Lrunklng Lrays ladders and so on
osslble
(4)
L posslble
(4)
Ln noL recommended
(2)(4)

lorbldden for use as L conducLors are meLal condulLs(9) gas plpes oLwaLer plpes cablearmourlng Lapes
(9)
or wlre
(1) In %N and I% schemes, Iault clearance is generally achieved by overcurrent devices
(Iuses or circuit-breakers) so that the impedance oI the Iault-current loop must be
suIIiciently low to assure positive protective device operation. %he surest means oI
achieving a low loop impedance is to use a supplementary core in the same cable as the
circuit conductors (or taking the same route as the circuit conductors). %his solution
minimizes the inductive reactance and thereIore the impedance oI the loop.
(2) %he PEN conductor is a neutral conductor that is also used as a protective earth
conductor. %his means that a current may be Ilowing through it at any time (in the absence
oI an earth Iault). For this reason an insulated conductor is recommended Ior PEN
operation.
(3) %he manuIacturer provides the necessary values oI R and X components oI the
impedances (phase/PE, phase/PEN) to include in the calculation oI the earth-Iault loop
impedance.
(4) Possible, but not recomended, since the impedance oI the earth-Iault loop cannot be
known at the design stage. Measurements on the completed installation are the only
practical means oI assuring adequate protection Ior persons.
(5) It must allow the connection oI other PE conductors. Note: these elements must carry an
indivual green/yellow striped visual indication, 15 to 100 mm long (or the letters PE at less
than 15 cm Irom each extremity).
(6) %hese elements must be demountable only iI other means have been provided to ensure
uninterrupted continuity oI protection.
(7) With the agreement oI the appropriate water authorities.
(8) In the preIabricated pre-wired trunking and similar elements, the metallic housing may
be used as a PEN conductor, in parallel with the corresponding bar, or other PE conductor
in the housing.
(9) Forbidden in some countries only. Universally allowed to be used Ior supplementary
equipotential conductors.
Fig. C57: Choice of protective conductors (PE)


edit] Conductor sizing
igure G58 below is based on IEC 60364-5-54. %his table provides two methods oI
determining the appropriate c.s.a. Ior both PE or PEN conductors.


cs
a
of
pha
se
con
duc
tor
s
ph
(m
m
2
)
M|
n|m
um
cs
a
of
L
con
duc
tor
(m
m
2
)
M|
n|m
um
cs
a
of
L
N
con
duc
tor
(m
m
2
)

Cu



AI

|m
p||f|
ed
me
tho
S
p

16
S
p
(
2)

S
p
(
3)

S
p
(
3)

d
(1)



16 S
p
23 16 16
23

S
p

33
23


33 S
p
30 S
p
/2 S
p
/2

S
p
30 S
p
/2
Ad|abat|c
method
Any
slze

(3)
(4)


(1) ata valid iI the prospective conductor is oI the same material as the line conductor.
Otherwise, a correction Iactor must be applied.
(2) When the PE conductor is separated Irom the circuit phase conductors, the Iollowing
minimum values must be respected:
O 23 mm
2
lf Le L ls mecanlcally proLecLed
O 4 mm
2
lf Le L ls noL mecanlcally proLecLed
(3) For mechanical reasons, a PEN conductor, shall have a cross-sectional area not less than
10 mm
2
in copper or 16 mm
2
in aluminium.
(4) ReIer to table G53 Ior the application oI this Iormula.
Fig. C58: Minimum cross section area of protective conductors

%he two methods are:
O AdlabaLlc (wlc corresponds wlL LaL descrlbed ln lLC 6024)
%his method, while being economical and assuring protection oI the conductor against
overheating, leads to small c.s.a.`s compared to those oI the corresponding circuit phase
conductors. %he result is sometimes incompatible with the necessity in I% and %N schemes
to minimize the impedance oI the circuit earth-Iault loop, to ensure positive operation by
instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. %his method is used in practice, thereIore, Ior
%% installations, and Ior dimensioning an earthing conductor
(1)
.
O Slmpllfled
%his method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those oI the corresponding
circuit phase conductors, assuming that the same conductor material is used in each case.
%hus, in Figure G58 Ior:
$ph _ 16 mm
2
$PE $ph
16 $ph _ 35 mm
2
$PE 16 mm
2

$ph ~ 35 mm
2

Note: when, in a %% scheme, the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone oI inIluence
oI the source earthing electrode, the c.s.a. oI the PE conductor can be limited to 25 mm
2

(Ior copper) or 35 mm
2
(Ior aluminium).
%he neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c.s.a. is equal to or larger than 10
mm
2
(copper) or 16 mm
2
(aluminium).
Moreover, a PEN conductor is not allowed in a Ilexible cable. $ince a PEN conductor
Iunctions also as a neutral conductor, its c.s.a. cannot, in any case, be less than that
necessary Ior the neutral.
%his c.s.a. cannot be less than that oI the phase conductors unless:
O 1e kvA raLlng of slnglepase loads ls less Lan 10 of Le LoLal kvA load and
O lmax llkely Lo pass Lroug Le neuLral ln normal clrcumsLances ls less Lan Le currenL
permlLLed for Le selecLed cable slze
Furthermore, protection oI the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective devices
provided Ior phase-conductor protection.
(1)
Cro
und
lng
ele
cLro
de
con
duc
Lor

Values of factor k to be used in the formulae
%hese values are identical in several national standards, and the temperature rise ranges,
together with Iactor k values and the upper temperature limits Ior the diIIerent classes oI
insulation, correspond with those published in IEC 60724 (1984).
%he data presented in igure G59 are those most commonly needed Ior LV installation
design.


k
va|
ues
Nat
ure
of
|ns
u|at
|on

o|
yv|
ny|
ch|
or|
de
(V
C)
Cro
ss
||nk
ed
po|
yet
hy|
ene
(kL
L)
Lth
y|e
ne
pro
py|
ene

rub
ber
(L
k)


lln
al
Lem
160 230
per
aLu
re
(C)

lnlLlal LemperaLure (C) 30
lnsulaLed conducLors noL lncoporaLed ln cables or bare conducLors ln conLacL
wlL cable [ackeLs
Copper 143
Alumlnlum 93
SLeel 32 64


ConducLors of a mulLlcorecable Copper 113 143
Alumlnlum 6 94


Fig. C59: k factor values for LJ PE conductors, commonly used in national standards and
complying with IEC 60724


edit] !rotective conductor between MV/LV transformer and the main general
distribution board (MGDB)
1e
se
con
duc
Lors
mu
sL
be
slze
d
acc
ordl
ng
Lo
naLl
ona
l
pra
cLlc
es

All phase and neutral conductors upstream oI the main incoming circuit-breaker controlling
and protecting the MGB are protected by devices at the MV side oI the transIormer. %he
conductors in question, together with the PE conductor, must be dimensioned accordingly.
imensioning oI the phase and neutral conductors Irom the transIormer is exempliIied (Ior
circuit C1 oI the system illustrated in ig. G65).
Recommended conductor sizes Ior bare and insulated PE conductors Irom the transIormer
neutral point, shown in igure G60, are indicated below in igure G61.
%he kVA rating to consider is the sum oI all (iI more than one) transIormers connected to
the MGB.















liq 60 l cooJoctot to tbe molo eottb bot lo tbe MCu8

%he table indicates the c.s.a. oI the conductors in mm
2
according to:
O 1e nomlnal raLlng of Le Mv/Lv Lransformer(s) ln kvA
O 1e faulLcurrenL clearance Llme by Le Mv proLecLlve devlces ln seconds
O 1e klnds of lnsulaLlon and conducLor maLerlals
II the MV protection is by Iuses, then use the 0.2 seconds columns.
In I% schemes, iI an overvoltage protection device is installed (between the transIormer
neutral point and earth) the conductors Ior connection oI the device should also be
dimensioned in the same way as that described above Ior PE conductors.


1ra
nsf
or
me
r
rat|
ng
|n k
VA
(23
0]4
00
V
out
put
)
Con
duc
tor
ma
ter|
a|
8ar
e
con
duc
tor
s
V
C
|ns
u|at
ed
con
duc
tor
s
kL
L
|ns
u|at
ed
con
duc
tor
s

Cop
per
t(s)
02 0S 02 0S 02 0S

A|u
m|n
|um
t(s)
02 0S 02 0S 02 0S


100
cs
a
of
L
con
duc
Lors
SL
(m
m
2
)
23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23

160 23 23 33 23 23 30 23 23 33

200 23 33 30 23 33 30 23 23 30

230 23 33 0 33 30 0 23 33 30

313 33 30 0 33 30 93 33 30 0

400 30 0 93 30 0 93 33 30 93

300 30 0 120 0 93 120 30 0 93

630 0 93 130 0 93 130 0 93 120

00 0 120 130 93 120 13 0 93 130

10
00
93 120 13 93 120 13 0 120 130

12
30
93 130 13 120 130 240 93 120 13

Fig. C1: Recommended c.s.a. of PE conductor between the MJ/LJ transformer and the
MGDB, as a function of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times.


edit] Equipotential conductor
edit] The main equipotential conductor
%his conductor must, in general, have a c.s.a. at least equal to halI oI that oI the largest PE
conductor, but in no case need exceed 25 mm
2
(copper) or 35 mm
2
(aluminium) while its
minimum c.s.a. is 6 mm
2
(copper) or 10 mm
2
(aluminium).
edit] Supplementary equipotential conductor
%his conductor allows an exposed conductive part which is remote Irom the nearest main
equipotential conductor (PE conductor) to be connected to a local protective conductor. Its
c.s.a. must be at least halI oI that oI the protective conductor to which it is connected.
II it connects two exposed conductive parts (M1 and M2 in igure G62) its c.s.a. must be
at least equal to that oI the smaller oI the two PE conductors (Ior M1 and M2).
Equipotential conductors which are not incorporated in a cable, should be protected
mechanically by conduits, ducting, etc. wherever possible.
Other important uses Ior supplementary equipotential conductors concern the reduction oI
the earth-Iault loop impedance, particulary Ior indirect-contact protection schemes in %N-
or I%-earthed installations, and in special locations with increased electrical risk (reIer to
IEC 60364-4-41).
















Fig. C2: Supplementary equipotential conductors
be neutral conductor
$izing the neutral conductor
Protection oI the neutral conductor
Breaking oI the neutral conductor
Isolation oI the neutral conductor
%he c.s.a. and the protection oI the neutral conductor, apart Irom its current-carrying
requirement, depend on several Iactors, namely:
O 1e Lype of earLlng sysLem 11 1n eLc
O 1e armonlc currenLs
O 1e meLod of proLecLlon agalnsL lndlrecL conLacL azards accordlng Lo Le meLods
descrlbed below
%he color oI the neutral conductor is statutorily blue. PEN conductor, when insulated,
shall be marked by one oI the Iollowing
methods:
O Creenandyellow LrougouL lLs lengL wlL ln addlLlon llgL blue marklngs aL Le
LermlnaLlons or
O LlgL blue LrougouL lLs lengL wlL ln addlLlon greenandyellow marklngs aL Le
LermlnaLlons

Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O
O
O

edit]
Sizing the neutral conductor
edit] Influence of the type of earthing system
TT and TN-S schemes
O Slnglepase clrculLs or Lose of csa 16 mm
2
(copper) 23 mm
2
(alumlnlum) Le csa of
Le neuLral conducLor musL be equal Lo LaL of Le pases
O 1reepase clrculLs of csa 16 mm
2
copper or 23 mm
2
alumlnlum Le csa of Le
neuLral may be cosen Lo be
- Equal to that oI the phase conductors, or
- $maller, on condition that:
- %he current likely to Ilow through the neutral in normal conditions is less than the
permitted value Iz. %he inIluence oI triplen
(1)

harmonics must be given particular consideration or
- %he neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit, in accordance with the
Iollowing $ub-clause G-7.2
- %he size oI the neutral conductor is at least equal to 16 mm
2
in copper or 25 mm
2
in
aluminium
(1)
Par
mo
nlcs
of
ord
er 3
and
mul
Llpl
e of
3

TN-C scheme
%he same conditions apply in theory as those mentioned above, but in practice, the neutral
conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since it constitutes a PE as
well as a neutral conductor (see igure G58 'c.s.a. oI PEN conductor column).
IT scheme
In general, it is not recommended to distribute the neutral conductor, i.e. a 3-phase 3-wire
scheme is preIerred. When a 3-phase 4-wire installation is necessary, however, the
conditions described above Ior %% and %N-$ schemes are applicable.
edit] Influence of harmonic currents
Effects of triplen harmonics
Harmonics are generated by the non-linear loads oI the installation (computers, Iluorescent
lighting, rectiIiers, power electronic choppers) and can produce high currents in the
Neutral. In particular triplen harmonics oI the three Phases have a tendency to cumulate in
the Neutral as:
O lundamenLal currenLs are ouLofpase by 2n/3 so LaL Lelr sum ls zero
O n Le oLer and Lrlplen armonlcs of Le Lree ases are always poslLloned ln Le
same manner wlL respecL Lo Lelr own fundamenLal and are ln pase wlL eac oLer
(see I|g G63a)
















liq 6lo 1tlpleo botmoolcs ote lo pbose ooJ comolote lo tbe Neottol

igure G63b shows the load Iactor oI the neutral conductor as a Iunction oI the percentage
oI 3
rd
harmonic.
In practice, this maximum load Iactor cannot exceed .






















liq 6lb looJ foctot of tbe oeottol cooJoctot vs tbe petceotoqe of J
tJ
botmoolc

Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables with four
cores carrying current
%he basic calculation oI a cable concerns only cables with three loaded conductors i.e there
is no current in the neutral conductor. Because oI the third harmonic current, there is a
current in the neutral. As a result, this neutral current creates an hot environment Ior the 3
phase conductors and Ior this reason, a reduction Iactor Ior phase conductors is necessary
(see Fig. G63).
Reduction Iactors, applied to the current-carrying capacity oI a cable with three loaded
conductors, give the current-carrying capacity oI a cable with Iour loaded conductors,
where the current in the Iourth conductor is due to harmonics. %he reduction Iactors also
take the heating eIIect oI the harmonic current in the phase conductors into account.
O Were Le neuLral currenL ls expecLed Lo be lger Lan Le pase currenL Len Le cable
slze sould be selecLed on Le basls of Le neuLral currenL
O Were Le cable slze selecLlon ls based on a neuLral currenL wlc ls noL slgnlflcanLly
lger Lan Le pase currenL lL ls necessary Lo reduce Le LabulaLed currenL carrylng
capaclLy for Lree loaded conducLors
O lf Le neuLral currenL ls more Lan 133 of Le pase currenL and Le cable slze ls selecLed
on Le basls of Le neuLral currenL Len Le Lree pase conducLors wlll noL be fully
loaded 1e reducLlon ln eaL generaLed by Le pase conducLors offseLs Le eaL
generaLed by Le neuLral conducLor Lo Le exLenL LaL lL ls noL necessary Lo apply any
reducLlon facLor Lo Le currenL carrylng capaclLy for Lree loaded conducLors
O ln order Lo proLecL cables Le fuse or clrculLbreaker as Lo be slzed Laklng lnLo accounL
Le greaLesL of Le values of Le llne currenLs (pase or neuLral) Powever Lere are
speclal devlces (for example Le CompacL nSx clrculL breaker equlpped wlL Le Sn
Lrlpplng unlL) LaL allow Le use of a csa of Le pase conducLors smaller Lan Le csa
of Le neuLral conducLor A blg economlc galn can Lus be made











compoct N5\100 cltcolt bteoket


1h|rd harmon|c content of phase current () keduct|on factor
|ze se|ect|on |s
based on phase
current
|ze se|ect|on |s
based on neutra|
current

0
13







10

13
33
0
6


33
43
0
6


43



10










Fig. C3: Reduction factors for harmonic currents in four-core and five-core cables
(according to IEC 60364-5-52)

Examples
Consider a three-phase circuit with a design load oI 37 A to be installed using Iour-core
PVC insulated cable clipped to a wall, installation method C. From Figure G24, a 6 mm
2

cable with copper conductors has a current-carrying capacity oI 40 A and hence is suitable
iI harmonics are not present in the circuit.
O lf 20 Llrd armonlc ls presenL Len a reducLlon facLor of 06 ls applled and Le deslgn
load becomes 3/06 43 A lor Lls load a 10 mm
2
cable ls necessary ln Lls case Le
use of a speclal proLecLlve devlce (CompacL nSx equlpped wlL Le Sn Lrlp unlL for
lnsLance) would allow Le use of a 6 mm
2
cable for Le pases and of 10 mm
2
for Le
neuLral
O lf 40 Llrd armonlc ls presenL Le cable slze selecLlon ls based on Le neuLral currenL
wlc ls 3 x 04 x 3 444 A and a reducLlon facLor of 06 ls applled leadlng Lo a deslgn
load of 444/06 316 A lor Lls load a 10 mm
2
cable ls sulLable
O lf 30 Llrd armonlc ls presenL Le cable slze ls agaln selecLed on Le basls of Le
neuLral currenL wlc ls 3 x 03 x 3 333 Aln Lls case Le raLlng facLor ls 1 and a 16
mm
2
cable ls requlred ln Lls case Le use of a speclal proLecLlve devlce (CompacL nSx
equlpped wlL Le Sn Lrlp for lnsLance) would allow Le use of a 6 mm
2
cable for Le
pases and of 10mm
2
for Le neuLral
edit]
!rotection of the neutral conductor
(see ig. G64)
edit] !rotection against overload
lf Le neuLral conducLor ls correcLly slzed (lncludlng armonlcs) no speclflc proLecLlon of Le
neuLral conducLor ls requlred because lL ls proLecLed by Le pase proLecLlon
Powever ln pracLlce lf Le csa of Le neuLral conducLor ls lower Lan Le pase csa a neuLral
overload proLecLlon musL be lnsLalled



edit]
!rotection against short-circuit
lf Le csa of Le neuLral conducLor ls lower Lan Le csa of Le pase conducLor Le neuLral
conducLor musL be proLecLed agalnsL sorLclrculL
lf Le csa of Le neuLral conducLor ls equal or greaLer Lan Le csa of Le pase conducLor no
speclflc proLecLlon of Le neuLral conducLor ls requlred because lL ls proLecLed by Le pase
proLecLlon




edit]
Breaking of the neutral conductor




(see I|g G64)
1e need Lo break or noL Le neuLral conducLor ls relaLed Lo Le proLecLlon agalnsL lndlrecL
conLacL
In 1NC scheme
1e neuLral conducLor musL noL be openclrculLed under any clrcumsLances slnce lL consLlLuLes a
L as well as a neuLral conducLor
In 11 1N and I1 schemes
ln Le evenL of a faulL Le clrculLbreaker wlll open all poles lncludlng Le neuLral pole le Le
clrculLbreaker ls omnlpolar
1e acLlon can only be acleved wlL fuses ln an lndlrecL way ln wlc Le operaLlon of one or
more fuses Lrlggers a mecanlcal LrlpouL of all poles of an assoclaLed serlesconnecLed loadbreak
swlLc
edit]
Isolation of the neutral conductor




(see I|g G64)
lL ls consldered Lo be Le good pracLlce LaL every clrculL be provlded wlL Le means for lLs
lsolaLlon


11 1N 1N I1
C

Slnglepase
(aseneuLral)





or




















(8


o

Slnglepase
(asease)



(A)

or












(A)

or









1reepase
four wlres
Sn Sp










































(8

1reepase
four wlres
Sn Sp































(8

(A) Authorized Ior %% or %N-$ systems iI a RC is installed at the origin oI the circuit or
upstream oI it, and iI no artiIicial neutral is
distributed downstream oI its location
(B) %he neutral overcurrent protection is not necessary:
O lf Le neuLral conducLor ls proLecLed agalnsL sorLclrculLs by a devlce placed upsLream or
O lf Le clrculL ls proLecLed by a 8Cu wlc senslLlvlLy ls less Lan 13 of Le neuLral
admlsslble currenL
Fig. C4: The various situations in which the neutral conductor may appear

orked example of cable calculation
Worked example of cable calculation
(see ig. G65)
%he installation is supplied through a 630 kVA transIormer. %he process requires a high
degree oI supply continuity and part oI the installation can be supplied by a 250 kVA
standby generator. %he global earthing system is %N-$, except Ior the most critical loads
supplied by an isolation transIormer with a downstream I% conIiguration.
%he single-line diagram is shown in igure G65 below. %he results oI a computer study Ior
the circuit Irom transIormer %1 down to the cable C7 is reproduced on Figure G66. %his
study was carried out with Ecodial 3.4 soItware (a $chneider Electric product).
%his is Iollowed by the same calculations carried out by the simpliIied method described in
this guide.


































liq 65 xomple of sloqlelloe Jloqtom

Calculation using software Ecodial 3.3


Ge
ner


nu
mb
44
a|
net
wo
rk
cha
ract
er|s
t|cs











































er
of
pol
es
and
pro
LecL
ed
pol
es
d




LarLlng sysLem 1nS

1rlpplng unlL Mlcrologlc 23
neuLral dlsLrlbuLed no verload Lrlp lr (A) 310
volLage (v) 400 SorLdelay Lrlp lm / lsd (A) 3100
lrequency (Pz) 30 Cab|e C3
upsLream faulL level (MvA) 300 LengL 20
8eslsLance
of Mv
neLwork
(mU)
00331 Maxlmum
load
currenL
(A)
309

8ea
cLa
nce
of
Mv
neL
wor
k
(m
U)
03
31
1yp
e of
lns
ulaL
lon
vC

1ra
nsf
or
me
r 11

Am
ble
nL
Lem
per
aLu
re
(C)
30

8aLlng (kvA) 630

ConducLor maLerlal Co
SorLclrculL lmpedance volLage () 4 Slnglecore or mulLlcore cable Sln
1ransformer reslsLance 81 (mU) 342 lnsLallaLlon meLod l
1ransformer reacLance x1 (mU) 1064 ase conducLor selecLed csa (mm
2
) 2 x
3pase
sorL
clrculL
currenL
lk
3
(kA)
2134 neuLral
conducLor
selecLed
csa (mm
2
)
2 x
93

Cab
|e
C1
L
con
duc
Lor
sele
cLe
d
csa
(m
m
2
)
1 x
93

Len
gL
(m)
3 Cab
le
volL
age
dro
p
Au
()
03
3

Ma
xlm
um
60 1oL
al
volL
06
3
loa
d
cur
ren
L
(A)
age
dro
p
Au
()

1yp
e of
lns
ulaL
lon
vC 3
pa
se
so
rL
clrc
ulL
cur
ren
L lk
3

(kA
)
19
1

Am
ble
nL
Lem
per
aLu
re
(C)
30 1
pa
se
Lo
ear
L
faul
L
cur
ren
L ld
(kA
)
11
3

Con
duc
Lor
maL
Cop
per
w|
tch
boa
rd
erla
l
86

Sln
gle
cor
e or
mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
le
Sln
gle
8ef
ere
nce
Lln
erg
y
00

lnsLallaLlon meLod l

8aLed currenL (A) 30
number
of
layers
1 C|rcu|t
breaker
7

ase conducLor selecLed csa (mm
2
) 2 x 240

Load currenL (A) 233
neuLral conducLor selecLed csa (mm
2
) 2 x 240 1ype CompacL
L
conducLor
selecLed
csa (mm
2
)
1 x
120
8eference nSx400l

vol
Lag
e
dro
p
Au
()
01
22
8aL
ed
cur
ren
L
(A)
400

3
pa
se
so
rL
clrc
ulL
cur
ren
L lk
3

(kA
)
21
3
nu
mb
er
of
pol
es
and
pro
LecL
ed
pol
es
33
d

Cou
ran
L de
def
auL
pa
se
Lerr
e ld
(kA
)
13
9
1rlp
pln
g
unlL
Mlc
rolo
glc
23

C|rc
u|t
bre
ake
r
1

ve
rloa
d
Lrlp
lr
(A)
23


Loa
d
cur
ren
L
60 So
rL
del
ay
Lrlp
23
6
(A) lm
/
lsd
(A)

1ype CompacL

Cab|e C7
8eference nS1000n LengL 3

8aLed currenL (A) 1000

Maxlmum load currenL (A)
number
of poles
and
proLecLed
poles
44d 1ype of
lnsulaLlon
vC

1rlp
pln
g
unlL
Mlc
rolo
glc
30
Am
ble
nL
Lem
per
aLu
re
(C)
30

ve
rloa
d
Lrlp
lr
(A)
900 Con
duc
Lor
maL
erla
l
Cop
per

So
rL
del
900
0
Sln
gle
cor
Sln
gle
ay
Lrlp
lm
/
lsd
(A)
e or
mul
Ll
cor
e
cab
le

1rlpplng Llme Lm (ms) 30

lnsLallaLlon meLod
w|tchboard
82
ase
conducLor
selecLed
csa (mm
2
)
1 x
93

8eference Llnergy 1230

neuLral conducLor selecLed csa (mm
2
)
8aLed currenL (A) 1030 L conducLor selecLed csa (mm
2
)
C|rcu|t breaker 3 Cable volLage drop Au ()
Load currenL (A) 309 1oLal volLage drop Au ()
1ype CompacL 3
pase
sorL
clrculL
currenL
lk
3
(kA)
10

8ef
ere
nce
nSx
630
l
1
pa
se
Lo
ear
L
faul
L
10
0
cur
ren
L ld
(kA
)

8aLed currenL (A) 630
Fig. C: Partial results of calculation carried out with Ecodial 3.4 software (Schneider
Electric)

edit] The same calculation using the simplified method recommended in this guide
O D|mens|on|ng c|rcu|t C1
%he MV/LV 630 kVA transIormer has a rated no-load voltage oI 420 V. Circuit C1 must be
suitable Ior a current oI: per phase
%wo single-core PVC-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used Ior each phase.%hese
cables will be laid on cable trays according to method F.
Each conductor will thereIore carry 433A. Figure G21a indicates that Ior 3 loaded
conductors with PVC isolation, the required c.s.a. is 240mm.
%he resistance and the inductive reactance, Ior the two conductors in parallel, and Ior a
length oI 5 metres, are: (cable resistance: 22.5 mO.mm
2
/m)
X 0,08 x 5 0,4 mO (cable reactance: 0.08 mO/m)
O D|mens|on|ng c|rcu|t C3
Circuit C3 supplies two 150kW loads with cos 0.85, so the total load current is:
%wo single-core PVC-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used Ior each phase. %hese
cables will be laid on cable trays according to method F.
Each conductor will thereIore carry 255A. Figure G21a indicates that Ior 3 loaded
conductors with PVC isolation, the required c.s.a. is 95mm
2
.
%he resistance and the inductive reactance, Ior the two conductors in parallel, and Ior a
length oI 20 metres, are:


O D|mens|on|ng c|rcu|t C7
Circuit C7 supplies one 150kW load with cos 0.85, so the total load current is:
One single-core PVC-insulated copper cable will be used Ior each phase. %he cables will be
laid on cable trays according to method F.
Each conductor will thereIore carry 255A. Figure G21a indicates that Ior 3 loaded
conductors with PVC isolation, the required c.s.a. is 95mm
2
.
%he resistance and the inductive reactance Ior a length oI 20 metres is:
(cable resistance: 22.5 mO.mm
2
/m)
(cable reactance: 0.08 mO/m)
O Ca|cu|at|on of shortc|rcu|t currents for the se|ect|on of c|rcu|tbreakers 1 3 7 (see
I|g G67)


C|rc
u|t
co
mp
one
nts
k
(m
u)
k
(m
u)
2
(m
u)
Ikm
ax
(kA
)

upsLream Mv neLwork 300MvA faulL level (see llg C34) 0033 0331
1ransformer 630kvA
4 (see llg C33)
29 10

Cable C1 023 04
ubtota| 316 1133 119 202
Cable C3 23 16
ubtota| 333 1313 1426 1
Cable C 11 04
ub
tota|
61 1333 1312 16

Fig. C7: Example of short-circuit current evaluation

O 1he protect|ve conductor
When using the adiabatic method, the minimum c.s.a. Ior the protective earth conductor
(PE) can be calculated by the Iormula given in Figure G58: For circuit C1, I 20.2kA and
k 143.
t is the maximum operating time oI the MV protection, e.g. 0.5s
%his gives:
A single 120 mm
2
conductor is thereIore largely suIIicient, provided that it also satisIies the
requirements Ior indirect contact protection (i.e. that its impedance is suIIiciently low).
Generally, Ior circuits with phase conductor c.s.a. $ph _ 50 mm
2
, the PE conductor
minimum c.s.a. will be $ph / 2. %hen, Ior circuit C3, the PE conductor will be 95mm2, and
Ior circuit C7, the PE conductor will be 50mm
2
.
O rotect|on aga|nst |nd|rectcontact hazards
For circuit C3 oI Figure G65, Figures F41 and F40, or the Iormula given page 25 may be
used Ior a 3-phase 4-wire circuit.
%he maximum permitted length oI the circuit is given by:
(%he value in the denominator 630 x 11 is the maximum current level at which the
instantaneous short-circuit magnetic trip oI the 630 A circuit-breaker operates).
%he length oI 20 metres is thereIore Iully protected by 'instantaneous over-current
devices.
O Vo|tage drop
%he voltage drop is calculated using the data given in igure G28, Ior balanced three-phase
circuits, motor power normal service (cos 0.8).
%he results are summarized on figure G68:


cs
a
C1 C3 C7

2 x
240
mm

2 x
93
mm

1 x
93
mm


U per conductor
(V]A]km) see I|g G28
021 042 042
Load current (A) 66 309 233
Length
(m)
3 20 3

Vo|tage drop (V) 043 21 033
Vo|tage drop () 011 033 013
Fig. C8: Joltage drop introduced by the different cables

%he total voltage drop at the end oI cable C7 is then: 0.77.
1e role of swlLcgear ls
O LlecLrlcal proLecLlon
O Safe lsolaLlon from llve parLs
O Local or remoLe swlLclng
National and international standards deIine the manner in which electric circuits oI LV
installations must be realized, and the capabilities and limitations oI the various switching
devices which are collectively reIerred to as switchgear.
%he main Iunctions oI switchgear are:
O LlecLrlcal proLecLlon
O LlecLrlcal lsolaLlon of secLlons of an lnsLallaLlon
O Local or remoLe swlLclng
%hese Iunctions are summarized below in igure H1.
Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart Irom Iuses) normally incorporated in circuit-
breakers, in the Iorm oI thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated tripping
devices (less-commonly, residual voltage- operated devices - acceptable to, but not
recommended by IEC).
In addition to those Iunctions shown in Figure H1, other Iunctions, namely:
O vervolLage proLecLlon
O undervolLage proLecLlon
are provided by speciIic devices (lightning and various other types oI voltage-surge
arrester, relays associated with contactors, remotely controlled circuit-breakers, and with
combined circuit-breaker/isolators. and so on)


L|e
ctr|
ca|
pro
tect
|on
aga
|nst

Iso|
at|o
n
Con
tro|

O O O
O
O
O
O
O
O

Fig. H1: Basic functions of LJ switchgear


Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O
O

edit]
Electrical protection
Lle
cLrl
cal
pro
LecL
lon
ass
ure
s
O
O
O

%he aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences oI excessive
(short-circuit) currents, or those due to overloading and insulation Iailure, and to separate
the deIective circuit Irom the rest oI the installation.
A distinction is made between the protection oI:
O 1e elemenLs of Le lnsLallaLlon (cables wlres swlLcgear)
O ersons and anlmals
O LqulpmenL and appllances supplled from Le lnsLallaLlon
The protection of circuits
- Against overload; a condition oI excessive current being drawn Irom a healthy
(unIaulted) installation
- Against short-circuit currents due to complete Iailure oI insulation between conductors
oI diIIerent phases or (in %N systems) between
a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor
Protection in these cases is provided either by Iuses or circuit-breaker, in the distribution
board at the origin oI the Iinal circuit (i.e. the circuit to which the load is connected).
Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some national standards, as noted in
chapter H1.
The protection of persons
- Against insulation Iailures. According to the system oI earthing Ior the installation (%N,
%% or I%) the protection will be provided by
Iuses or circuit-breakers, residual current devices, and/or permanent monitoring oI the
insulation resistance oI the installation to earth
The protection of electric motors
- Against overheating, due, Ior example, to long term overloading, stalled rotor, single-
phasing, etc. %hermal relays, specially designed
to match the particular characteristics oI motors are used.
$uch relays may, iI required, also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload.
$hort-circuit protection is provided either by type
aM Iuses or by a circuit-breaker Irom which the thermal (overload) protective element
has been removed, or otherwise made
inoperative.

edit]
Isolation
A sLaLe of lsolaLlon clearly lndlcaLed by an approved fallproof" lndlcaLor or Le vlslble separaLlon of conLacLs are boL
saLlsfy Le naLlonal sLandards of many counLrles
%he aim oI isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus (such as a motor, etc.) Irom the
remainder oI a system which is energized, in order that personnel may carry out work on
the isolated part in perIect saIety.
In principle, all circuits oI an LV installation shall have means to be isolated.
In practice, in order to maintain an optimum continuity oI service, it is preIerred to provide
a means oI isolation at the origin oI each circuit.
An isolating device must IulIil the Iollowing requirements:
O All poles of a clrculL lncludlng Le neuLral (excepL were Le neuLral ls a Ln conducLor)
musL open
(1)

O lL musL be provlded wlL a locklng sysLem ln open poslLlon wlL a key (eg by means of a
padlock) ln order Lo avold an unauLorlzed reclosure by lnadverLence
O lL musL comply wlL a recognlzed naLlonal or lnLernaLlonal sLandard (eg lLC 60943)
concernlng clearance beLween conLacLs creepage dlsLances overvolLage wlLsLand
capablllLy eLc
Other requirements apply:
- VeriIication that the contacts oI the isolating device are, in Iact, open.
%he veriIication may be:
- Either visual, where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be seen
(some national standards impose this condition Ior an isolating device located at the origin
oI a LV installation supplied directly Irom a MV/LV transIormer)
- Or mechanical, by means oI an indicator solidly welded to the operating shaIt oI the
device. In this case the construction oI the device must be such that, in the eventuality that
the contacts become welded together in the closed position, the indicator cannot possibly
indicate that it is in the open position
- Leakage currents. With the isolating device open, leakage currents between the open
contacts oI each phase must not exceed:
- 0.5 mA Ior a new device
- 6.0 mA at the end oI its useIul liIe
- Voltage-surge withstand capability, across open contacts. %he isolating device,
when open must withstand a 1.2/50 s impulse, having a peak value oI 6, 8 or 12 kV
according to its service voltage, as shown in igure H2. %he device must satisIy these
conditions Ior altitudes up to 2,000 metres. Correction Iactors are given in IEC 60664-1 Ior
altitudes greater than 2,000 metres.
Consequently, iI tests are carried out at sea level, the test values must be increased by 23
to take into account the eIIect oI altitude. $ee standard IEC 60947.


er
v|c
e (n
om|
Imp
u|s
e
w|t
na|)
vo|t
age
(V)
hst
and
vo|t
age
pea
k
cat
ego
ry
(for
20
00
me
tres
)
(kV
)

III IV

230
/40
0
4 6

400
/69
0
6

690/1000 12
Fig. H2: Peak value oI impulse voltage according to normal service voltage oI test
specimen. %he degrees III and IV are degrees oI pollution deIined in IEC 60664-1

(1)
Le
con
cur
ren
L
ope
nln
g of
all
llve
con
duc
Lors

wl
le
noL
alw
ays
obll
gaL
ory
ls
o
we
ver
sLro
ngl
y
rec
om
me
nde
d
(for
rea
son
s of
gre
aLe
r
saf
eLy
and
facl
llLy
of
ope
raLl
on)
1e
neu
Lral
con
LacL
ope
ns
afLe
r
Le
pa
se
con
LacL
s
and
clos
es
bef
ore
Le
m
(lLC
609
4
1)

be basic functions of LV switcbgear

edit] Switchgear control
Swl
Lc
gea
r
con
Lrol
fun
cLlo
ns
allo
w
sysL
em
ope
raLl
ng
per
son
nel
Lo
mo
dlfy
a
loa
ded
sysL
em
aL
any
mo
me
nL
acc
ordl
ng
Lo
req
ulre
me
nLs
and
lncl
ude

O
O
O

In broad terms 'control signiIies any Iacility Ior saIely modiIying a load-carrying power
system at all levels oI an installation. %he operation oI switchgear is an important part oI
power-system control.
edit] unctional control
%his control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions Ior energizing
or de-energizing a part oI a system or installation, or an individual piece oI equipment, item
oI plant, etc.
$witchgear intended Ior such duty must be installed at least:
O AL Le orlgln of any lnsLallaLlon
O AL Le flnal load clrculL or clrculLs (one swlLc may conLrol several loads)
Marking (oI the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous.
In order to provide the maximum Ilexibility and continuity oI operation, particularly where
the switching device also constitutes the protection (e.g. a circuit-breaker or switch-Iuse) it
is preIerable to include a switch at each level oI distribution, i.e. on each outgoing way oI
all distribution and subdistribution boards.
%he manouvre may be:
O LlLer manual (by means of an operaLlng lever on Le swlLc) or
O LlecLrlc by pusbuLLon on Le swlLc or aL a remoLe locaLlon (loadseddlng and
reconnecLlon for example)
%hese switches operate instantaneously (i.e. with no deliberate delay), and those that
provide protection are invariably omni-polar
(1)
.
%he main circuit-breaker Ior the entire installation, as well as any circuit-breakers used Ior
change-over (Irom one source to another) must be omni-polar units.
edit] Emergency switching - emergency stop
An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is, or could become,
dangerous (electric shock or Iire).
An emergency stop is intended to halt a movement which has become dangerous.
In the two cases:
O 1e emergency conLrol devlce or lLs means of operaLlon (local or aL remoLe locaLlon(s))
suc as a large red musroomeaded emergencysLop pusbuLLon musL be recognlzable
and readlly accesslble ln proxlmlLy Lo any poslLlon aL wlc danger could arlse or be seen
O A slngle acLlon musL resulL ln a compleLe swlLclngoff of all llve conducLors
(2) (3)

O A break glass" emergency swlLclng lnlLlaLlon devlce ls auLorlzed buL ln unmanned
lnsLallaLlons Le reenerglzlng of Le clrculL can only be acleved by means of a key eld by
an auLorlzed person
It should be noted that in certain cases, an emergency system oI braking, may require that
the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until Iinal stoppage oI the
machinery.
edit] Switching-off for mechanical maintenance work
%his operation assures the stopping oI a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently
restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery.
%he shutdown is generally carried out at the Iunctional switching device, with the use oI a
suitable saIety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism.
(1) ne break ln eac pase and (were approprlaLe) one break ln Le neuLral
(2) 1aklng lnLo accounL sLalled moLors
(3) ln a 1n scema Le Ln conducLor musL never be opened slnce lL funcLlons as a proLecLlve earLlng wlre as well as L
neuLral conducLor


be switcbgear

Co
nt
en
tx
ld
e
O
O

edit]
Elementary switching devices
edit] Disconnector (or isolator)
(see ig. H5)
%his switch is a manually-operated, lockable, two-position device (open/closed) which
provides saIe isolation oI a circuit when locked in the open position. Its characteristics are
deIined in IEC 60947-3. A disconnector is not designed to make or to break current
(1)
and
no rated values Ior these Iunctions are given in standards. It must, however, be capable oI
withstanding the passage oI short-circuit currents and is assigned a rated short-time
withstand capability, generally Ior 1 second, unless otherwise agreed between user and
manuIacturer. %his capability is normally more than adequate Ior longer periods oI (lower-
valued) operational overcurrents, such as those oI motor-starting. $tandardized mechanical-
endurance, overvoltage, and leakage-current tests, must also be satisIied.
(1) le a Lv dlsconnecLor ls essenLlally a dead sysLem swlLclng devlce Lo be operaLed wlL no volLage on elLer slde of l
wen closlng because of Le posslblllLy of an unsuspecLed sorLclrculL on Le downsLream slde lnLerlocklng wlL an up
swlLc or clrculLbreaker ls frequenLly used









liq n5 5ymbol fot o Jlscoooectot (ot lsolotot)

edit] Load-breaking switch
(see ig. H6)
%his control switch is generally operated manually (but is sometimes provided with
electrical tripping Ior operator convenience) and is a non-automatic two-position device
(open/closed).
It is used to close and open loaded circuits under normal unIaulted circuit conditions.
It does not consequently, provide any protection Ior the circuit it controls.
IEC standard 60947-3 deIines:
O 1e frequency of swlLc operaLlon (600 close/open cycles per our maxlmum)
O Mecanlcal and elecLrlcal endurance (generally less Lan LaL of a conLacLor)
O CurrenL maklng and breaklng raLlngs for normal and lnfrequenL slLuaLlons
When closing a switch to energize a circuit there is always the possibility that an
unsuspected short-circuit exists on the circuit. For this reason, load-break switches are
assigned a Iault-current making rating, i.e. successIul closure against the electrodynamic
Iorces oI short-circuit current is assured. $uch switches are commonly reIerred to as 'Iault-
make load-break switches. Upstream protective devices are relied upon to clear the short-
circuit Iault









liq n 5ymbol fot o looJbteok swltcb

Category AC-23 includes occasional switching oI individual motors. %he switching oI
capacitors or oI tungsten Iilament lamps shall be subject to agreement between
manuIacturer and user.
%he utilization categories reIerred to in igure H7 do not apply to an equipment normally
used to start, accelerate and/or stop individual motors.
Example
A 100 A load-break switch oI category AC-23 (inductive load) must be able:
O 1o make a currenL of 10 ln ( 1000 A) aL a power facLor of 033 lagglng
O 1o break a currenL of ln ( 00 A) aL a power facLor of 043 lagglng
O 1o wlLsLand sorL duraLlon sorLclrculL currenLs wen closed


Ut||
|zat
|on
cat
ego
ry
1yp
|ca|
app
||ca
t|o
ns
Cos


Ma
k|n
g
cur
ren
t x
In
8re
ak|
ng
cur
ren
t x
In


Ire
que
nt
ope
rat|
ons
Infr
equ
ent
ope
rat|
ons


AC AC Con
20A 208 nec
Llng
and
dlsc
onn
ecLl
ng
und
er
no
loa
d
con
dlLl
ons

AC21A AC218 SwlLclng of reslsLlve loads lncludlng moderaLe overloads 0
AC22A AC228 SwlLclng of mlxed reslsLlve
and lnducLlve loads lncludlng
moderaLe overloads
0
AC
23A
AC
238
SwlLclng
of moLor
loads or
oLer
lgly
lnducLlve
loads
043
for l

100
A
033
for l

100
A
10

Fig. H7: Utili:ation categories of LJ AC switches according to IEC 60947-3

edit] Remote control switch
(see ig. H8)
%his device is extensively used in the control oI lighting circuits where the depression oI a
pushbutton (at a remote control position) will open an already-closed switch or close an
opened switch in a bistable sequence.
%ypical applications are:
O 1woway swlLclng on sLalrways of large bulldlngs
O SLagellgLlng scemes
O lacLory lllumlnaLlon eLc
Auxiliary devices are available to provide:
O 8emoLe lndlcaLlon of lLs sLaLe aL any lnsLanL
O 1lmedelay funcLlons
O MalnLalnedconLacL feaLures









liq n8 5ymbol fot o blstoble temote coottol swltcb

edit] Contactor
(see ig. H9)
%he contactor is a solenoid-operated switching device which is generally held closed by (a
reduced) current through the closing solenoid (although various mechanically-latched types
exist Ior speciIic duties). Contactors are designed to carry out numerous close/open cycles
and are commonly controlled remotely by on-oII pushbuttons. %he large number oI
repetitive operating cycles is standardized in table VIII oI IEC 60947-4-1 by:
O 1e operaLlng duraLlon ours unlnLerrupLed lnLermlLLenL Lemporary of 3 10 30 60
and 90 mlnuLes
O uLlllzaLlon caLegory for example a conLacLor of caLegory AC3 can be used for Le sLarLlng
and sLopplng of a cage moLor
O 1e sLarLsLop cycles (1 Lo 1200 cyles per our)
O Mecanlcal endurance (number of offload manouvres)
O LlecLrlcal endurance (number of onload manouvres)
O A raLed currenL maklng and breaklng performance accordlng Lo Le caLegory of uLlllzaLlon
concerned











liq n9 5ymbol fot o cootoctot

Example:
A 150 A contactor oI category AC3 must have a minimum current-breaking capability oI 8
In ( 1,200 A) and a minimum current-making rating oI 10 In ( 1,500 A) at a power Iactor
(lagging) oI 0.35.
edit] Discontactor
(1)

A contactor equipped with a thermal-type relay Ior protection against overloading deIines a
'discontactor. iscontactors are used extensively Ior remote push-button control oI
lighting circuits, etc., and may also be considered as an essential element in a motor
controller. 'combined switchgear elements. %he discontactor is not the equivalent oI a
circuit-breaker, since its short-circuit current breaking capability is limited to 8 or 10 In.
For short-circuit protection thereIore, it is necessary to include either Iuses or a circuit-
breaker in series with, and upstream oI, the discontactor contacts.
(1) 1ls Lerm ls noL deflned ln lLC publlcaLlons buL ls commonly used ln some counLrles
edit] uses
(see ig. H10)








Fig. H1: Symbol for fuses

1wo classes of Lv carLrldge fuse are very wldely used
O lor domesLlc and slmllar lnsLallaLlons Lype gC
O lor lndusLrlal lnsLallaLlons Lype gC gM or aM
%he Iirst letter indicates the breaking range:
O g" fusellnks (fullrange breaklngcapaclLy fusellnk)
O a" fusellnks (parLlalrange breaklngcapaclLy fusellnk)
%he second letter indicates the utilization category; this letter deIines with accuracy the
time-current characteristics, conventional times and currents, gates.
For example
O gC" lndlcaLes fusellnks wlL a fullrange breaklng capaclLy for general appllcaLlon
O gM" lndlcaLes fusellnks wlL a fullrange breaklng capaclLy for Le proLecLlon of moLor
clrculLs
O aM" lndlcaLes fusellnks wlL a parLlal range breaklng capaclLy for Le proLecLlon of moLor
clrculLs
Fuses exist with and without 'Iuse-blown mechanical indicators. Fuses break a circuit by
controlled melting oI the Iuse element when a current exceeds a given value Ior a
corresponding period oI time; the current/time relationship being presented in the Iorm oI a
perIormance curve Ior each type oI Iuse. $tandards deIine two classes oI Iuse:
O 1ose lnLended for domesLlc lnsLallaLlons manufacLured ln Le form of a carLrldge for
raLed currenLs up Lo 100 A and deslgnaLed Lype gC ln lLC 602691 and 3
O 1ose for lndusLrlal use wlL carLrldge Lypes deslgnaLed gC (general use) and gM and aM
(for moLorclrculLs) ln lLC 602691 and 2
%he main diIIerences between domestic and industrial Iuses are the nominal voltage and
current levels (which require much larger physical dimensions) and their Iault-current
breaking capabilities. %ype gG Iuse-links are oIten used Ior the protection oI motor circuits,
which is possible when their characteristics are capable oI withstanding the motor-starting
current without deterioration.
A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC oI a Iuse-type gM Ior motor
protection, designed to cover starting, and short-circuit conditions. %his type oI Iuse is more
popular in some countries than in others, but at the present time the aM Iuse in combination
with a thermal overload relay is more-widely used. A gM Iuse-link, which has a dual rating
is characterized by two current values. %he Iirst value In denotes both the rated current oI
the Iuse-link and the rated current oI the Iuseholder; the second value Ich denotes the time-
current characteristic oI the Iuse-link as deIined by the gates in %ables II, III and VI oI IEC
60269-1.
%hese two ratings are separated by a letter which deIines the applications.
For example: In M Ich denotes a Iuse intended to be used Ior protection oI motor circuits
and having the characteristic G. %he Iirst value In corresponds to the maximum continuous
current Ior the whole Iuse and the second value Ich corresponds to the G characteristic oI
the Iuse link.
An aM Iuse-link is characterized by one current value In and time-current characteristic as
shown in Figure H14 .
Important: $ome national standards use a gI (industrial) type Iuse, similar in all main
essentails to type gG Iuses.
%ype gI Iuses should never be used, however, in domestic and similar installations.
edit] using zones - conventional currents
gM fuses requlre a separaLe overload relay as descrlbed ln Le noLe aL Le end of subclause 21
%he conditions oI Iusing (melting) oI a Iuse are deIined by standards, according to their
class.
Class gG fuses
%hese Iuses provide protection against overloads and short-circuits.
Conventional non-Iusing and Iusing currents are standardized, as shown in igure H12 and
in igure H13.


















liq n12 ooes of fosloq ooJ ooofosloq fot qC ooJ qM foses

O 1e convenLlonal nonfuslng currenL lnf ls Le value of currenL LaL Le fuslble elemenL
can carry for a speclfled Llme wlLouL melLlng
Example: A 32 A Iuse carrying a current oI 1.25 In (i.e. 40 A) must not melt in less than
one hour (table H13)
O 1e convenLlonal fuslng currenL lf ( l2 ln llg P12) ls Le value of currenL wlc wlll cause
melLlng of Le fuslble elemenL before Le explraLlon of Le speclfled Llme
Example: A 32 A Iuse carrying a current oI 1.6 In (i.e. 52.1 A) must melt in one hour or
less IEC 60269-1 standardized tests require that a Iuse-operating characteristic lies between
the two limiting curves (shown in Figure H12) Ior the particular Iuse under test. %his means
that two Iuses which satisIy the test can have signiIicantly diIIerent operating times at low
levels oI overloading.


kated current
(1)
In (A)
Convent|ona| nonfus|ng current Inf Convent|ona| fus|ng current I2 Convent|ona| t|
ln
4 A
13
ln
21
ln
1

4 ln 16 A 13 ln 19 ln 1
16
ln

63
123
ln
16
ln
1
A

63
ln

160
A
12
3 ln
16
ln
2

160
ln

400
A
12
3 ln
16
ln
3

400 ln 123 ln 16 ln
Fig. H13: ones of fusing and non-fusing for LJ types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 60269-
1 and 60269-2-1)

(1) lc for gM fuses
O 1e Lwo examples glven above for a 32 A fuse LogeLer wlL Le foregolng noLes on
sLandard LesL requlremenLs explaln wy Lese fuses ave a poor performance ln Le low
overload range
O lL ls Lerefore necessary Lo lnsLall a cable larger ln ampaclLy Lan LaL normally requlred
for a clrculL ln order Lo avold Le consequences of posslble long Lerm overloadlng (60
overload for up Lo one our ln Le worsL case)
By way oI comparison, a circuit-breaker oI similar current rating:
O Wlc passes 103 ln musL noL Lrlp ln less Lan one our and
O Wen passlng 123 ln lL musL Lrlp ln one our or less (23 overload for up Lo one our ln
Le worsL case)
Class aM (motor) fuses
Class aM fuses proLecL agalnsL sorLclrculL currenLs only and musL always be assoclaLed wlL anoLer devlce wlc pro
agalnsL overload
%hese Iuses aIIord protection against short-circuit currents only and must necessarily be
associated with other switchgear (such as discontactors or circuit-breakers) in order to
ensure overload protection 4 In. %hey are not thereIore autonomous. $ince aM Iuses are
not intended to protect against low values oI overload current, no levels oI conventional
non-Iusing and Iusing currents are Iixed. %he characteristic curves Ior testing these Iuses
are given Ior values oI Iault current exceeding approximately 4 In (see ig. H14), and Iuses
tested to IEC 60269 must give operating curves which Iall within the shaded area.

















liq n14 5tooJotJlzeJ zooes of fosloq fot type oM foses (oll cotteot totloqs)

Note: the small 'arrowheads in the diagram indicate the current/time 'gate values Ior the
diIIerent Iuses to be tested (IEC 60269).
edit] Rated short-circuit breaking currents
A characteristic oI modern cartridge Iuses is that, owing to the rapidity oI Iusion in the case
oI high short-circuit current levels
(1)
, a current cut-oII begins beIore the occurrence oI the
Iirst major peak, so that the Iault current never reaches its prospective peak value (see ig.
H15).
























Fig. H15: Current limitation by a fuse

%his limitation oI current reduces signiIicantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which
would otherwise occur, thereby minimizing danger and damage at the Iault position. %he
rated short-circuit breaking current oI the Iuse is thereIore based on the rms value oI the AC
component oI the prospective Iault current.
No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to Iuses.
Reminder
$hort-circuit currents initially contain C components, the magnitude and duration oI
which depend on the XL/R ratio oI the Iault current loop.
Close to the source (MV/LV transIormer) the relationship Ipeak / Irms (oI ACcomponent)
immediately Iollowing the instant oI Iault, can be as high as 2.5 (standardized by IEC, and
shown in igure H16).
























liq n1 llmlteJ peok cotteot vetsos ptospectlve tms voloes of tbe Ac compooeot of foolt cotteot
fot lv foses

At lower levels oI distribution in an installation, as previously noted, XL is small compared
with R and so Ior Iinal circuits Ipeak / Irms ~ 1.41, a condition which corresponds with
Figure H15.
%he peak-current-limitation eIIect occurs only when the prospective rms AC component oI
Iault current attains a certain level. For example, in the Figure H16 graph, the 100 A Iuse
will begin to cut oII the peak at a prospective Iault current (rms) oI 2kA (a). %he same Iuse
Ior a condition oI 20 kA rms prospective current will limit the peak current to 10 kA (b).
Without a current-limiting Iuse the peak current could attain 50 kA (c) in this particular
case. As already mentioned, at lower distribution levels in an installation, R greatly
predominates XL, and Iault levels are generally low. %his means that the level oI Iault
current may not attain values high enough to cause peak current limitation. On the other
hand, the C transients (in this case) have an insigniIicant eIIect on the magnitude oI the
current peak, as previously mentioned.
Note: On gM Iuse ratings
A gM type Iuse is essentially a gG Iuse, the Iusible element oI which corresponds to the
current value Ich (ch characteristic) which may be, Ior example, 63 A. %his is the IEC
testing value, so that its time/ current characteristic is identical to that oI a 63A gG Iuse.
%his value (63 A) is selected to withstand the high starting currents oI a motor, the steady
state operating current (In) oI which may be in the 10-20 A range.
%his means that a physically smaller Iuse barrel and metallic parts can be used, since the
heat dissipation required in normal service is related to the lower Iigures (10-20 A). A
standard gM Iuse, suitable Ior this situation would be designated 32M63 (i.e. In M Ich).
%he Iirst current rating In concerns the steady-load thermal perIormance oI the Iuselink,
while the second current rating (Ich) relates to its (short-time) starting-current perIormance.
It is evident that, although suitable Ior short-circuit protection, overload protection Ior the
motor is not provided by the Iuse, and so a separate thermal-type relay is always necessary
when using gM Iuses. %he only advantage oIIered by gM Iuses, thereIore, when compared
with aM Iuses, are reduced physical dimensions and slightly lower cost.
(1)
lor
cur
ren
Ls
exc
eed
lng
a
cerL
aln
lev
el
dep
end
lng
on
Le
fus
e
no
mln
al
cur
ren
L
raLl
ng
as
so
wn
bel
ow
ln
llg
ure
P1
6


edit] Combined switchgear elements
$ingle units oI switchgear do not, in general, IulIil all the requirements oI the three basic
Iunctions, viz: Protection, control and isolation.
Where the installation oI a circuit-breaker is not appropriate (notably where the switching
rate is high, over extended periods) combinations oI units speciIically designed Ior such a
perIormance are employed. %he most commonly-used combinations are described below.
edit] Switch and fuse combinations
%wo cases are distinguished:
O 1e Lype ln wlc Le operaLlon of one (or more) fuse(s) causes Le swlLc Lo open 1ls ls
acleved by Le use of fuses flLLed wlL sLrlker plns and a sysLem of swlLc Lrlpplng sprlngs
and Loggle mecanlsms (see I|g 17)














liq n17 5ymbol fot oo ootomotlc ttlpploq swltcbfose

O 1e Lype ln wlc a nonauLomaLlc swlLc ls assoclaLed wlL a seL of fuses ln a common
enclosure
In some countries, and in IEC 60947-3, the terms 'switch-Iuse and 'Iuse-switch have
speciIic meanings, viz:
- A switch-Iuse comprises a switch (generally 2 breaks per pole) on the upstream side oI
three Iixed Iuse-bases, into which the Iuse
carriers are inserted (see ig.H18)






liq n18 5ymbol fot o oooootomotlc foseswltcb

- A Iuse-switch consists oI three switch blades each constituting a double-break per
phase.
%hese blades are not continuous throughout their length, but each has a gap in the centre
which is bridged by the Iuse cartridge. $ome designs have only a single break per phase, as
shown in igure H19.











Fig. H19: Symbol for a non-automatic switch-fuse

%he current range Ior these devices is limited to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase, while
their principal use is in domestic and similar installations. %o avoid conIusion between the
Iirst group (i.e. automatic tripping) and the second group, the term 'switch-Iuse should be
qualiIied by the adjectives 'automatic or 'non-automatic.
use - disconnector + discontactor
use - switch-disconnector + discontactor
As previously mentioned, a discontactor does not provide protection against short-circuit
Iaults. It is necessary, thereIore, to add Iuses (generally oI type aM) to perIorm this
Iunction. %he combination is used mainly Ior motor control circuits, where the disconnector
or switch-disconnector allows saIe operations such as:
O 1e canglng of fuse llnks (wlL Le clrculL lsolaLed)
O Work on Le clrculL downsLream of Le dlsconLacLor (rlsk of remoLe closure of Le
dlsconLacLor)
%he Iuse-disconnector must be interlocked with the discontactor such that no opening or
closing manouvre oI the Iuse disconnector is possible unless the discontactor is open (
igure H20), since the Iuse disconnector has no load-switching capability.














Fig. H2: Symbol for a fuse disconnector discontactor

A Iuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) requires no interlocking (igure H21).
%he switch must be oI class AC22 or AC23 iI the circuit supplies a motor.















Fig. H21: Symbol for a fuse-switch disconnector discontactor

Circuit-breaker + contactor
Circuit-breaker + discontactor
%hese combinations are used in remotely controlled distribution systems in which the rate
oI switching is high, or Ior control and protection oI a circuit supplying motors.
Cboice of switcbgear
Switchgear selection
$oItware is being used more and more in the Iield oI optimal selection oI switchgear. Each
circuit is considered one at a time, and a list is drawn up oI the required protection
Iunctions and exploitation oI the installation, among those mentioned in Figure H22 and
summarized in Figure H1.
A number oI switchgear combinations are studied and compared with each other against
relevant criteria, with the aim oI achieving:
O SaLlsfacLory performance
O CompaLlblllLy among Le lndlvldual lLems from Le raLed currenL ln Lo Le faulLlevel
raLlng lcu
O CompaLlblllLy wlL upsLream swlLcgear or Laklng lnLo accounL lLs conLrlbuLlon
O ConformlLy wlL all regulaLlons and speclflcaLlons concernlng safe and rellable clrculL
performance
In order to determine the number oI poles Ior an item oI switchgear, reIerence is made to
chapter G.MultiIunction switchgear, initially more costly, reduces installation costs and
problems oI installation or exploitation. It is oIten Iound that such switchgear provides the
best solution.
edit]
Tabulated functional capabilities
AIter having studied the basic Iunctions oI LV switchgear (Figure H1) and the diIIerent
components oI switchgear,igure H22 summarizes the capabilities oI the various
components to perIorm the basic Iunctions.











w|tchgear |tem Iso|at|on Contro| L|ectr|ca| protect|on
Iun
ct|o
na|
Lm
erg
enc
y
sw|
tch|
ng
Lm
erg
enc
y
sto
p
(me
cha
n|c
a|)
w|
tch|
ng
for
me
cha
n|c
a|
ma|
nte
nan
ce
Cv
er|
oad
ho
rt
c|rc
u|t
L|e
ctr|
c
sho
ck
lsol
aLo
r
(or
dlsc
onn
ecL
or)
(
4)


Swl
Lc
(

(1)

(1)
(2)










































(1) Where cut-oII oI all active conductors is provided
(2) It may be necessary to maintain supply to a braking
system
(3) II it is associated with a thermal relay (the
Clrc
ulL
bre
ake
r
dlsc
onn
ecL
or
(3)


(1)

(1)
(2)


8es
ldu
al
and
ove
rcu
rre
nL
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
r
(8C
8)
(3)


(1)

(1)
(2)


ol
nL
of
lnsL
alla
Llon
(ge
ner
al
prln
clpl
e)
rl
gln
of
eac

clrc
ulL
All
pol
nLs
w
ere
for
ope
raLl
ona
l
rea
son
s lL
ma
y
be
nec
ess
ary
Lo
sLo
ln
gen
eral
aL
Le
lnc
oml
ng
clrc
ulL
Lo
eve
ry
dlsL
rlbu
Llon
boa
rd
AL
Le
sup
ply
pol
nL
Lo
eac

ma
cl
ne
and
/or
on
Le
ma
cl
ne
con
cer
AL
Le
sup
ply
pol
nL
Lo
eac

ma
cl
ne
rl
gln
of
eac

clrc
ulL
rl
gln
of
eac

clrc
ulL
rl
gln
of
clrc
ulLs
w
ere
Le
ear
Lln
g
sysL
em
ls a
ppr
oprl
aLe
1n
S
l1
11
combination is commonly reIerred to as a 'discontactor)
(4) In certain countries a disconnector with visible contacts is mandatory at the origin oI a
LV installation supplied directly Irom a MV/LV transIormer
(5) Certain items oI switchgear are suitable Ior isolation duties (e.g. RCCBs according to
IEC 61008) without being explicitly marked as such
Fig. H22: Functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear
Circuit-breaker
1e
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
r/dl
sco
nne
cLor
fulfl
lls
all
of
Le
basl
c
swl
Lc
gea
r
fun
cLlo
ns
wl
le
by
me
ans
of
acc
ess
orle
s
nu
me
rou
s
oL
er
pos
slbll
lLle
s
exls
L

As shown in igure H23 the circuit-breaker/disconnector is the only item oI switchgear
capable oI simultaneously satisIying all the basic Iunctions necessary in an electrical
installation.
Moreover, it can, by means oI auxiliary units, provide a wide range oI other Iunctions, Ior
example: indication (on-oII - tripped on Iault); undervoltage tripping; remote control. etc.
%hese Ieatures make a circuit-breaker/ disconnector the basic unit oI switchgear Ior any
electrical installation.


Iun
ct|o
ns
os
s|b|
e
con
d|t|
ons

lsol
aLlo
n


ConLrol luncLlonal

Lmergency (WlL Le
swlLclng posslblllLy of a
Lrlpplng coll
for remoLe
conLrol)
SwlLclngoff
for mecanlcal
malnLenance

roLecLlon verload


SorLclrculL

lnsulaLlon
faulL
(WlL
dlfferenLlal
currenL
relay)


undervolLage
(WlL
undervolLageLrlp
coll)
8emoLe conLrol
Added or
lncorporaLed
lndlcaLlon
and
measuremenL


(Cenerally
opLlonal
wlL an
elecLronlc
Lrlpplng
devlce)

Fig. H23: Functions performed by a circuit-breaker/disconnector


Contentx
lde
O 1 SLandards and descrlpLlon
4 11 SLandards
4 12 uescrlpLlon
O 2 lundamenLal caracLerlsLlcs of a clrculLbreaker
4 21 8aLed operaLlonal volLage (ue)
4 22 8aLed currenL (ln)
4 23 lrameslze raLlng
4 24 verload relay LrlpcurrenL seLLlng (lrL or lr)
4 23 SorLclrculL relay LrlpcurrenL seLLlng (lm)
4 26 lsolaLlng feaLure
4 2 8aLed sorLclrculL breaklng capaclLy (lcu or lcn)
O 3 Ler caracLerlsLlcs of a clrculLbreaker
4 31 8aLed lnsulaLlon volLage (ul)
4 32 8aLed lmpulsewlLsLand volLage (ulmp)
4 33 CaLegory (A or 8) and raLed sorLLlme wlLsLand currenL (lcw)
4 34 8aLed maklng capaclLy (lcm)
4 33 8aLed servlce sorLclrculL breaklng capaclLy (lcs)
4 36 laulLcurrenL llmlLaLlon
4 3 1e advanLages of currenL llmlLaLlon
O 4 SelecLlon of a clrculLbreaker
4 41 Colce of a clrculLbreaker
4 42 Colce of raLed currenL ln Lerms of amblenL LemperaLure
4 43 uncompensaLed Lermal magneLlc Lrlpplng unlLs
4 44 CompensaLed LermalmagneLlc Lrlpplng unlLs
4 43 LlecLronlc Lrlp unlLs
4 46 SelecLlon of an lnsLanLaneous or sorLLlmedelay Lrlpplng Lresold
4 4 SelecLlon of a clrculLbreaker accordlng Lo Le sorLclrculL breaklng capaclLy
requlremenLs
4 4 1e selecLlon of maln and prlnclpal clrculLbreakers
4 49 Colce of ouLgolngclrculL C8s and flnalclrculL C8s
O 3 CoordlnaLlon beLween clrculLbreakers
4 31 Cascadlng (or 8ackup proLecLlon)
4 32 CondlLlons of lmplemenLaLlon
4 33 AdvanLages of cascadlng
4 34 rlnclples of dlscrlmlnaLlve Lrlpplng (selecLlvlLy)
4 33 CurrenLlevel dlscrlmlnaLlon
4 36 1lme dlscrlmlnaLlon
4 3 Lnergy dlscrlmlnaLlon wlL currenL llmlLaLlon
4 3 naLural LoLal dlscrlmlnlLaLlon wlL CompacL nSx
4 39 Loglc dlscrlmlnaLlon or Zone Sequence lnLerlocklng ZSl"
4 310 rlnclples
4 311 peraLlon
O 6 ulscrlmlnaLlon Mv/Lv ln a consumer's subsLaLlon
O ulLrarapld clrculL breaker
4 1 yroLecnlc lnLerrupLlon swlLclng devlce
4 2 ower clrculL breaker based soluLlon
4 3 Lxample of llmlLaLlon offered by MasLerpacL u8 ln decoupllng bus bars ln case
of sorL clrculL
edit]
Standards and description
edit] Standards
lndusLrlal clrculLbreakers musL comply wlL lLC 60941 and 60942 or oLer equlvalenL sLandards
uomesLlcLype clrculLbreakers musL comply wlL lLC sLandard 609 or an equlvalenL naLlonal sLandard
For industrial LV installations the relevant IEC standards are, or are due to be:
O 60941 general rules
O 60942 parL 2 clrculLbreakers
O 60943 parL 3 swlLces dlsconnecLors swlLcdlsconnecLors and fuse comblnaLlon unlLs
O 60944 parL 4 conLacLors and moLor sLarLers
O 60943 parL 3 conLrolclrculL devlces and swlLclng elemenLs
O 60946 parL 6 mulLlple funcLlon swlLclng devlces
O 6094 parL anclllary equlpmenL
For domestic and similar LV installations, the appropriate standard is IEC 60898, or an
equivalent national standard.
edit] Description
igure H24 shows schematically the main parts oI a LV circuit-breaker and its Iour
essential Iunctions:
O 1e clrculLbreaklng componenLs comprlslng Le flxed and movlng conLacLs and Le arc
dlvldlng camber
O 1e laLclng mecanlsm wlc becomes unlaLced by Le Lrlpplng devlce on deLecLlon of
abnormal currenL condlLlons
%his mechanism is also linked to the operation handle oI the breaker.
O A Lrlpmecanlsm acLuaLlng devlce
- Either: a thermal-magnetic device, in which a thermally-operated bi-metal strip detects
an overload condition, while an electromagnetic
striker pin operates at current levels reached in short-circuit conditions, or
- An electronic relay operated Irom current transIormers, one oI which is installed on each
phase
O A space allocaLed Lo Le several Lypes of Lermlnal currenLly used for Le maln power
clrculL conducLors



























Fig. H24: Main parts of a circuit-breaker

omestic circuit-breakers (see ig. H25) complying with IEC 60898 and similar national
standards perIorm the basic Iunctions oI:
O lsolaLlon
O roLecLlon agalnsL overcurrenL
















Fig. H25: Domestic-type circuit-breaker providing overcurrent protection and circuit
isolation features

$ome models can be adapted to provide sensitive detection (30 mA) oI earth-leakage
current with CB tripping, by the addition oI a modular block, while other models (RCBOs,
complying with IEC 61009 and CBRs complying with IEC 60947-2 Annex B) have this
residual current Ieature incorporated as shown in igure H26.
















Fig. H2: Domestic-type circuit-breaker as above (Fig. H25) with incorparated protection
against electric shocks

Apart Irom the above-mentioned Iunctions Iurther Ieatures can be associated with the basic
circuit-breaker by means oI additional modules, as shown in igure H27; notably remote
control and indication (on-oII-Iault).





















Fig. H27: Multi 9` system of LJ modular switchgear components

Moulded-case circuit-breakers complying with IEC 60947-2 are available Irom 100 to 630
A and provide a similar range oI auxiliary Iunctions to those described above (see igure
H28).













Fig. H28: Example of a Compact NSX industrial type of circuit-breaker capable of
numerous auxiliary functions

Air circuit-breakers oI large current ratings, complying with IEC 60947-2, are generally
used in the main switch board and provide protector Ior currents Irom 630 A to 6300 A,
typically.(see igure H29).
In addition to the protection Iunctions, the Micrologic unit provides optimized Iunctions
such as measurement (including power quality Iunctions), diagnosis, communication,
control and monitoring.




















Fig. H29: Example of air circuit-breakers. Masterpact provides many control features in
its Micrologic` tripping unit


edit] undamental characteristics of a circuit-breaker
%he Iundamental characteristics oI a circuit-breaker are:
O lLs raLed volLage ue
O lLs raLed currenL ln
O lLs LrlpplngcurrenLlevel ad[usLmenL ranges for overload proLecLlon (lr
(1)
or lrL
(1)
) and for
sorLclrculL proLecLlon (lm)
(1)

O lLs sorLclrculL currenL breaklng raLlng (lcu for lndusLrlal C8s lcn for domesLlcLype C8s)
(1)
Cur
ren
L
lev
el
seLL
lng
val
ues
wl
c
ref
er
Lo
Le
cur
ren
L
ope
raL
ed
Le
rma
l
and
lns
Lan
Lan
eou
s"
ma
gne
Llc
Lrlp
pln
g
dev
lces
for
ove
r
loa
d
and
so
rL
clrc
ulL
pro
LecL
lon

edit] Rated operational voltage (Ue)
%his is the voltage at which the circuit-breaker has been designed to operate, in normal
(undisturbed) conditions.
Other values oI voltage are also assigned to the circuit-breaker, corresponding to disturbed
conditions.
edit] Rated current (In)
%his is the maximum value oI current that a circuit-breaker, Iitted with a speciIied
overcurrent tripping relay, can carry indeIinitely at an ambient temperature stated by the
manuIacturer, without exceeding the speciIied temperature limits oI the current carrying
parts.
Example
A circuit-breaker rated at In 125 A Ior an ambient temperature oI 40 C will be equipped
with a suitably calibrated overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A). %he same circuit-breaker
can be used at higher values oI ambient temperature however, iI suitably 'derated. %hus,
the circuit-breaker in an ambient temperature oI 50 C could carry only 117 A indeIinitely,
or again, only 109 A at 60 C, while complying with the speciIied temperature limit.
erating a circuit-breaker is achieved thereIore, by reducing the trip-current setting oI its
overload relay, and marking the CB accordingly. %he use oI an electronic-type oI tripping
unit, designed to withstand high temperatures, allows circuit-breakers (derated as
described) to operate at 60 C (or even at 70 C) ambient.
Note: In Ior circuit-breakers (in IEC 60947-2) is equal to Iu Ior switchgear generally, Iu
being the rated uninterrupted current.
edit] rame-size rating
A circuit-breaker which can be Iitted with overcurrent tripping units oI diIIerent current
level-setting ranges, is assigned a rating which corresponds to the highest current-level-
setting tripping unit that can be Iitted.
Example
A Compact N$X630N circuit-breaker can be equipped with 11 electronic trip units Irom
150 A to 630 A. %he size oI the circuit-breaker is 630A.
edit] Overload relay trip-current setting (Irth or Ir)
Apart Irom small circuit-breakers which are very easily replaced, industrial circuit-breakers
are equipped with removable, i.e. exchangeable, overcurrent-trip relays. Moreover, in order
to adapt a circuit-breaker to the requirements oI the circuit it controls, and to avoid the need
to install over-sized cables, the trip relays are generally adjustable. %he trip-current setting
Ir or Irth (both designations are in common use) is the current above which the circuit-
breaker will trip. It also represents the maximum current that the circuit-breaker can carry
without tripping. %hat value must be greater than the maximum load current IB, but less
than the maximum current permitted in the circuit Iz (see chapter G).
%he thermal-trip relays are generally adjustable Irom 0.7 to 1.0 times In, but when
electronic devices are used Ior this duty, the adjustment range is greater; typically 0.4 to 1
times In.
Example (see ig. H30)
A N$X630N circuit-breaker equipped with a 400 A Micrologic 6.3E overcurrent trip relay,
set at 0.9, will have a trip-current setting:
Ir 400 x 0.9 360 A
Note: For circuit-breakers equipped with non-adjustable overcurrent-trip relays, Ir In.
Example: Ior C60N 20 A circuit-breaker, Ir In 20 A.















liq nl0 xomple of o N5\6J0N cltcoltbteoket epolppeJ wltb o Mlctoloqlc 6J ttlp oolt oJjosteJ
to 09 to qlve lt J60 A

edit] Short-circuit relay trip-current setting (Im)
$hort-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or slightly time-delayed) are intended to trip the
circuit-breaker rapidly on the occurrence oI high values oI Iault current. %heir tripping
threshold Im is:
O LlLer flxed by sLandards for domesLlc Lype C8s eg lLC 609 or
O lndlcaLed by Le manufacLurer for lndusLrlal Lype C8s accordlng Lo relaLed sLandards
noLably lLC 60942
For the latter circuit-breakers there exists a wide variety oI tripping devices which allow a
user to adapt the protective perIormance oI the circuit-breaker to the particular
requirements oI a load (see ig. H31, ig. H32 and ig. H33).


1yp
e of
pro
tect
|ve
re|a
y
Cv
er|
oad
pro
tect
|on
ho
rt
c|rc
u|t
pro
tect
|on

uomesLlc
breakers
lLC 609
1ermal magneLlc lr ln Low seLLlng
Lype 8
3 ln lm 3 ln
SLandard seLLlng
Lype C
3 ln lm 10 ln
Plg seLL
Lype u
10 ln lm
Modular
lndusLrlal
(2)

clrculLbreakers
1ermal magneLlc lr ln
flxed
Low seLLlng
Lype 8 or Z
32 ln flxed 4 ln
SLandard seLLlng
Lype C
ln flxed 10 ln
Plg seLL
Lype u or
10 ln fl
lndusLrlal
(2)

clrculL
breakers
lLC 6094
2
1ermal
magneLlc
lr
ln
flxed
llxed
lm
Lo
10 ln

Ad[
usL
abl
e
0
ln
lr
ln


Ad[
usL
abl
e

Lo
w
seLL
lng
2
Lo 3
ln

SLa
nda
rd
seLL
lng
3 Lo
10
ln

Lle
cLro
nlc
Lon
g
del
ay
04
ln
lr
ln
So
rL
del
ay
ad[
usL
abl
e
13
lr
lm

10
lr
lnsL
anL
ane
ous
(l)
flxe
d l

12
Lo
13
ln


(1) 50 In in IEC 60898, which is considered to be unrealistically high by most European
manuIacturers (Merlin Gerin 10 to 14 In).
(2) For industrial use, IEC standards do not speciIy values. %he above values are given only
as being those in common use.
Fig. H31: Tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LJ
circuit-breakers
























liq nl2 letfotmooce cotve of o cltcoltbteoket tbetmolmoqoetlc ptotectlve scbeme























lr verload (Lermal or longdelay) relay LrlpcurrenL seLLlng
lm SorLclrculL (magneLlc or sorLdelay) relay LrlpcurrenL seLLlng
ll SorLclrculL lnsLanLaneous relay LrlpcurrenL seLLlng
lcu 8reaklng capaclLy
liq nll letfotmooce cotve of o cltcoltbteoket electtoolc ptotectlve scbeme

edit] Isolating feature
A clrculLbreaker ls sulLable for lsolaLlng a clrculL lf lL fulfllls all Le condlLlons prescrlbed for a
dlsconnecLor (aL lLs raLed volLage) ln Le relevanL sLandard ln suc a case lL ls referred Lo as a
clrculLbreakerdlsconnecLor and marked on lLs fronL face wlL Le symbol


All MulLl 9 CompacL nSx and MasLerpacL Lv swlLcgear of Scnelder LlecLrlc ranges are ln Lls
caLegory

edit]
Rated short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu or Icn)
1e
so
rL
clrc
ulL
cur
ren
L
bre
akl
ng
per
for
ma
nce
of a
Lv
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
r ls
rela
Led
(ap
pro
xlm
aLel
y)
Lo
Le
cos

of
Le
faul
L
cur
ren
L
loo
p
SLa
nda
rd
val
ues
for
Lls
rela
Llon
sl
p
av
e
bee
n
esL
abll
se
d ln
so
me
sLa
nda
rds

%he short-circuit current-breaking rating oI a CB is the highest (prospective) value oI
current that the CB is capable oI breaking without being damaged. %he value oI current
quoted in the standards is the rms value oI the AC component oI the Iault current, i.e. the
C transient component (which is always present in the worst possible case oI short-
circuit) is assumed to be zero Ior calculating the standardized value. %his rated value (Icu)
Ior industrial CBs and (Icn) Ior domestic-type CBs is normally given in kA rms.
Icu (rated ultimate s.c. breaking capacity) and Ics (rated service s.c. breaking capacity) are
deIined in IEC 60947-2 together with a table relating Ics with Icu Ior diIIerent categories oI
utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B (time-delayed tripping).
%ests Ior proving the rated s.c. breaking capacities oI CBs are governed by standards, and
include:
O peraLlng sequences comprlslng a successlon of operaLlons le closlng and openlng on
sorLclrculL
O CurrenL and volLage pase dlsplacemenL Wen Le currenL ls ln pase wlL Le supply
volLage (cos for Le clrculL 1) lnLerrupLlon of Le currenL ls easler Lan LaL aL any
oLer power facLor 8reaklng a currenL aL low lagglng values of cos ls conslderably more
dlfflculL Lo acleve a zero powerfacLor clrculL belng (LeoreLlcally) Le mosL onerous
case
In practice, all power-system short-circuit Iault currents are (more or less) at lagging power
Iactors, and standards are based on values commonly considered to be representative oI the
majority oI power systems. In general, the greater the level oI Iault current (at a given
voltage), the lower the power Iactor oI the Iault-current loop, Ior example, close to
generators or large transIormers.
igure H34 below extracted Irom IEC 60947-2 relates standardized values oI cos to
industrial circuit-breakers according to their rated Icu.
O lollowlng an open Llme delay close/open sequence Lo LesL Le lcu capaclLy of a C8
furLer LesLs are made Lo ensure LaL
- %he dielectric withstand capability
- %he disconnection (isolation) perIormance and
- %he correct operation oI the overload protection have not been impaired by the test.


Icu cos
6
kA

lcu

10
kA
03

10
kA

03
lcu

20
kA

20 kA lcu 30 kA 023
30 kA
lcu
02

Fig. H34: Icu related to power factor (cos) of fault-current circuit (IEC 60947-2)


edit] Other characteristics of a circuit-breaker
lamlllarlLy wlL Le followlng caracLerlsLlcs of Lv clrculLbreakers ls ofLen necessary wen maklng a flnal colce
edit] Rated insulation voltage (Ui)
%his is the value oI voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than 2
Ui) and creepage distances are reIerred to.
%he maximum value oI rated operational voltage must never exceed that oI the rated
insulation voltage, i.e. Ue _ Ui.
edit] Rated impulse-withstand voltage (Uimp)
%his characteristic expresses, in kV peak (oI a prescribed Iorm and polarity) the value oI
voltage which the equipment is capable oI withstanding without Iailure, under test
conditions.
Generally, Ior industrial circuit-breakers, Uimp 8 kV and Ior domestic types, Uimp 6
kV.
edit] Category (A or B) and rated short-time withstand current (Icw)
As already brieIly mentioned there are two categories oI LV industrial switchgear, A and B,
according to IEC 60947-2:
O 1ose of caLegory A for wlc Lere ls no dellberaLe delay ln Le operaLlon of Le
lnsLanLaneous" sorLclrculL magneLlc Lrlpplng devlce (see I|g 3S) are generally
mouldedcase Lype clrculLbreakers and




















liq nl5 coteqoty A cltcoltbteoket

O 1ose of caLegory 8 for wlc ln order Lo dlscrlmlnaLe wlL oLer clrculLbreakers on a
Llme basls lL ls posslble Lo delay Le Lrlpplng of Le C8 were Le faulLcurrenL level ls
lower Lan LaL of Le sorLLlme wlLsLand currenL raLlng (lcw) of Le C8 (see I|g 36)
1ls ls generally applled Lo large openLype clrculLbreakers and Lo cerLaln eavyduLy
mouldedcase Lypes lcw ls Le maxlmum currenL LaL Le 8 caLegory C8 can wlLsLand
Lermally and elecLrodynamlcally wlLouL susLalnlng damage for a perlod of Llme glven
by Le manufacLurer





















liq nl coteqoty 8 cltcoltbteoket

edit] Rated making capacity (Icm)
Icm is the highest instantaneous value oI current that the circuit-breaker can establish at
rated voltage in speciIied conditions. In AC systems this instantaneous peak value is related
to Icu (i.e. to the rated breaking current) by the Iactor k, which depends on the power Iactor
(cos ) oI the short-circuit current loop (as shown in igure H37 ).


Icu cos

Icm

kIc
u

6
kA

lcu

10
03 1
x
lcu
kA

10 kA lcu 20 kA 03 2 x lcu
20 kA
lcu
30
kA
023 21 x
lcu

30
kA

lcu
02 22
x
lcu

Fig. H37: Relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at
different power-factor values of short-circuit current, as standardi:ed in IEC 60947-2

Example: A Masterpact NW08H2 circuit-breaker has a rated breaking capacity Icu oI 100
kA. %he peak value oI its rated making capacity Icm will be 100 x 2.2 220 kA.
edit] Rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics)
ln a
cor
recL
ly
des
lgn
ed
lnsL
alla
Llon
a
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
r ls
nev
er
req
ulre
d Lo
ope
raL
e aL
lLs
ma
xlm
um
bre
akl
ng
cur
ren
L
lcu
lor
Lls
rea
son
a
ne
w
ca
racL
erls
Llc
lcs
as
bee
n
lnLr
odu
ced

lL ls
exp
ress
ed
ln
lLC
609
4
2 as
a
per
cen
Lag
e of
lcu
(23
30
3
100
)

%he rated breaking capacity (Icu) or (Icn) is the maximum Iault-current a circuit-breaker
can successIully interrupt without being damaged. %he probability oI such a current
occurring is extremely low, and in normal circumstances the Iault-currents are considerably
less than the rated breaking capacity (Icu) oI the CB. On the other hand it is important that
high currents (oI low probability) be interrupted under good conditions, so that the CB is
immediately available Ior reclosure, aIter the Iaulty circuit has been repaired. It is Ior these
reasons that a new characteristic (Ics) has been created, expressed as a percentage oI Icu,
viz: 25, 50, 75, 100 Ior industrial circuit-breakers. %he standard test sequence is as
Iollows:
O C C
(1)
(aL lcs)
O 1esLs carrled ouL followlng Lls sequence are lnLended Lo verlfy LaL Le C8 ls ln a good
sLaLe and avallable for normal servlce
For domestic CBs, Ics k Icn. %he Iactor k values are given in IEC 60898 table XIV.
In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k Iactor oI 100 so that Ics Icu.
(1) represenLs an openlng operaLlonC represenLs a closlng operaLlon followed by an openlng operaLlon
edit] ault-current limitation
Many deslgns of Lv clrculLbreakers feaLure a sorLclrculL currenL llmlLaLlon capablllLy wereby Le currenL ls reduced
from reaclng lLs (oLerwlse) maxlmum peak value (see llg P3) 1e currenLllmlLaLlon performance of Lese C8s ls pr
form of graps Lyplfled by LaL sown ln llgure P39 dlagram (a)
%he Iault-current limitation capacity oI a CB concerns its ability, more or less eIIective, in
preventing the passage oI the maximum prospective Iault-current, permitting only a limited
amount oI current to Ilow, as shown in igure H38.

















liq nl8 ltospectlve ooJ octool cotteots

%he current-limitation perIormance is given by the CB manuIacturer in the Iorm oI curves
(see ig. H39).
O ulagram (a) sows Le llmlLed peak value of currenL ploLLed agalnsL Le rms value of Le
AC componenL of Le prospecLlve faulL currenL (prospecLlve" faulLcurrenL refers Lo Le
faulLcurrenL wlc would flow lf Le C8 ad no currenLllmlLlng capablllLy)
O LlmlLaLlon of Le currenL greaLly reduces Le Lermal sLresses (proporLlonal l
2
L) and Lls ls
sown by Le curve of dlagram (b) of llgure P39 agaln versus Le rms value of Le AC
componenL of Le prospecLlve faulL currenL
LV circuit-breakers Ior domestic and similar installations are classiIied in certain standards
(notably European $tandard EN 60 898). CBs belonging to one class (oI current limiters)
have standardized limiting I
2
t let-through characteristics deIined by that class.
In these cases, manuIacturers do not normally provide characteristic perIormance curves.


a)

b)

















liq nl9 letfotmooce cotves of o typlcol lv cotteotllmltloq cltcoltbteoket

edit] The advantages of current limitation
Cur
ren
L
llml
LaLl
on
red
uce
s
boL

Le
rma
l
and
ele
cLro
dyn
aml
c
sLre
sse
s
on
all
clrc
ulL
ele
me
nLs
Lr
oug

wl
c
Le
cur
ren
L
pas
ses
Le
reb
y
prol
ong
lng
Le
use
ful
llfe
of
Le
se
ele
me
nLs
lur
Le
rm
ore
Le
llml
LaLl
on
feaL
ure
allo
ws
ca
sca
dln
g"
Lec
nl
que
s Lo
be
use
d
(se
e
43)
Le
reb
y
slgn
lflc
anLl
y
red
ucl
ng
des
lgn
and
lnsL
alla
Llon
cos
Ls

%he use oI current-limiting CBs aIIords numerous advantages:
O 8eLLer conservaLlon of lnsLallaLlon neLworks currenLllmlLlng C8s sLrongly aLLenuaLe all
armful effecLs assoclaLed wlL sorLclrculL currenLs
O 8educLlon of Lermal effecLs ConducLors (and Lerefore lnsulaLlon) eaLlng ls slgnlflcanLly
reduced so LaL Le llfe of cables ls correspondlngly lncreased
O 8educLlon of mecanlcal effecLs forces due Lo elecLromagneLlc repulslon are lower wlL
less rlsk of deformaLlon and posslble rupLure excesslve burnlng of conLacLs eLc
O 8educLlon of elecLromagneLlclnLerference effecLs
- Less inIluence on measuring instruments and associated circuits, telecommunication
systems, etc.
%hese circuit-breakers thereIore contribute towards an improved exploitation oI:
O Cables and wlrlng
O refabrlcaLed cableLrunklng sysLems
O SwlLcgear Lereby reduclng Le agelng of Le lnsLallaLlon
Example
On a system having a prospective shortcircuit current oI 150 kA rms, a Compact L circuit-
breaker limits the peak current to less than 10 oI the calculated prospective peak value,
and the thermal eIIects to less than 1 oI those calculated.
Cascading oI the several levels oI distribution in an installation, downstream oI a limiting
CB, will also result in important savings.
%he technique oI cascading allows, in Iact, substantial savings on switchgear (lower
perIormance permissible downstream oI the limiting CB(s)) enclosures, and design studies,
oI up to 20 (overall).
iscriminative protection schemes and cascading are compatible, in the Compact N$X
range, up to the Iull short-circuit breaking capacity oI the switchgear.
edit] Selection of a circuit-breaker
1e
co
lce
of a
ran
ge
of
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
rs ls
deL
er
mln
ed
by
Le
ele
cLrl
cal
ca
racL
erls
Llcs
of
Le
lnsL
alla
Llon

Le
env
lron
me
nL
Le
loa
ds
and
a
nee
d
for
re
mo
Le
con
Lrol

Log
eL
er
wlL

Le
Lyp
e of
Lele
co
mm
unl
caLl
ons
sysL
em
env
lsag
ed

edit] Choice of a circuit-breaker
%he choice oI a CB is made in terms oI:
O LlecLrlcal caracLerlsLlcs of Le lnsLallaLlon for wlc Le C8 ls lnLended
O lLs evenLual envlronmenL amblenL LemperaLure ln a klosk or swlLcboard enclosure
cllmaLlc condlLlons eLc
O SorLclrculL currenL breaklng and maklng requlremenLs
O peraLlonal speclflcaLlons dlscrlmlnaLlve Lrlpplng requlremenLs (or noL) for remoLe
conLrol and lndlcaLlon and relaLed auxlllary conLacLs auxlllary Lrlpplng colls connecLlon
O lnsLallaLlon regulaLlons ln parLlcular proLecLlon of persons
O Load caracLerlsLlcs suc as moLors fluorescenL llgLlng Lv/Lv Lransformers
%he Iollowing notes relate to the choice LV circuit-breaker Ior use in distribution systems.
edit] Choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature
%he rated current oI a circuit-breaker is deIined Ior operation at a given ambient
temperature, in general:
O 30 C for domesLlcLype C8s
O 40 C for lndusLrlalLype C8s
PerIormance oI these CBs in a diIIerent ambient temperature depends mainly on the
technology oI their tripping units (see ig. H40).

















liq n40 Ambleot tempetotote

edit] Uncompensated thermal magnetic tripping units
Clrc
ulL
bre
ake
rs
wlL

unc
om
pen
saL
ed
Le
rma
l
Lrlp
pln
g
unlL
s
av
e a
Lrlp
cur
ren
L
lev
el
La
L
dep
end
s
on
Le
surr
oun
dln
g
Lem
per
aLu
re

Circuit-breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-current
level that depends on the surrounding temperature. II the CB is installed in an enclosure, or
in a hot location (boiler room, etc.), the current required to trip the CB on overload will be
sensibly reduced. When the temperature in which the CB is located exceeds its reIerence
temperature, it will thereIore be 'derated. For this reason, CB manuIacturers provide
tables which indicate Iactors to apply at temperatures diIIerent to the CB reIerence
temperature. It may be noted Irom typical examples oI such tables (see ig. H41) that a
lower temperature than the reIerence value produces an up-rating oI the CB. Moreover,
small modular-type CBs mounted in juxtaposition, as shown typically in Figure H27, are
usually mounted in a small closed metal case. In this situation, mutual heating, when
passing normal load currents, generally requires them to be derated by a Iactor oI 0.8.
Example
What rating (In) should be selected Ior a C60 N?
O roLecLlng a clrculL Le maxlmum load currenL of wlc ls esLlmaLed Lo be 34 A
O lnsLalled sldebyslde wlL oLer C8s ln a closed dlsLrlbuLlon box
O ln an amblenL LemperaLure of 30 C
A C60N circuit-breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 35.6 A in ambient air at 50 C
(see Fig. H41). %o allow Ior mutual heating in the enclosed space, however, the 0.8 Iactor
noted above must be employed, so that, 35.6 x 0.8 28.5 A, which is not suitable Ior the 34
A load.
A 50 A circuit-breaker would thereIore be selected, giving a (derated) current rating oI 44 x
0.8 35.2 A.
edit] Compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units
%hese tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload trip-
current setting (Ir or Irth) to be adjusted, within a speciIied range, irrespective oI the
ambient temperature.
For example:
O ln cerLaln counLrles Le 11 sysLem ls sLandard on Lv dlsLrlbuLlon sysLems and domesLlc
(and slmllar) lnsLallaLlons are proLecLed aL Le servlce poslLlon by a clrculLbreaker
provlded by Le supply auLorlLy 1ls C8 besldes affordlng proLecLlon agalnsL lndlrecL
conLacL azard wlll Lrlp on overload ln Lls case lf Le consumer exceeds Le currenL
level sLaLed ln ls supply conLracL wlL Le power auLorlLy 1e clrculLbreaker ( 60 A) ls
compensaLed for a LemperaLure range of 3 C Lo + 40 C
O Lv clrculLbreakers aL raLlngs 630 A are commonly equlpped wlL compensaLed Lrlpplng
unlLs for Lls range ( 3 C Lo + 40 C)


C60a, C60H: curve C. C60N: curves B and C (reIerence temperature: 30 C)
kat
|ng
(A)
20
C
2S
C
30
C
3S
C
40
C
4S
C
S0
C
SS
C
60
C

1 10
3
10
2
10
0
09

09
3
09
3
09
0
0

0
3

2 20

20
4
20
0
19
6
19
2
1

1
4
1
0
1
4

3 31

30
9
30
0
29
1
2
2
2
0
26
1
24
9
23


4 42
4
41
2
40
0
3

3
6
36
4
33
2
33
6
32
4

6 62
4
61
2
60
0
3

3
6
36
4
33
2
34
0
33
0

10 10
6
10
3
10
0
9
0
93
0
90
0
6
0
2
0

0

16 16

16
3
16
0
13
3
13
2
14

14
2
13

13
3

20 21
0
20
6
20
0
19
4
19
0
1
4
1

1
4
16


23 26
2
23

23
0
24
2
23

23
0
22
2
21
3
20


32 33
3
32
9
32
0
31
4
30
4
29

2
4
2
2
2
3

40 42
0
41
2
40
0
3

3
0
36

33
6
34
4
33
2

30 32
3
31
3
30
0
4
3
4
4
43
3
44
0
42
3
40
3

63 66
2
64
9
63
0
61
1
3
0
36

34
2
31

49
2


Compact NSX100-250 N/H/L equippment with TM-D or TM-G trip units
kat|ng 1emperature (C)
(A) 10 1S 20 2S 30 3S 40 4S S0 SS

16 1
4
1

1 1 1 16
6
16 13
6
13
2
14

14
3
14 13


23 2

2 2
3
23 26
3
23
6
23 24
3
24 23
3
23 22 21

32 36

36 33
2
34
4
33
6
32

32 31
3
30
3
30 29
3
29 2
3

40 46 43 44 43 42 41 40 39 3 3 36 33 34

30 3
3
36 33 34 32
3
31 30 49 4 4 46 43 44

63 2 1 69 6 66 63 63 61
3
60 3 3 33 34

0 92 90 6 4 2 0 6 4 2 0 6

100 113 113 110 10 103 103 100 9
3
93 92
3
90
3
3

123 144 141 13 134 131 12 123 122 119 116 113 109 106

160 14 10 16 12 16 164 160 136 132 14 144 140 136

200 230 223 220 213 210 203 200 193 190 13 10 13 10

230 2 21 2 269 263 236 230 244

23 231 223 219 213

Fig. H41: Examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to
CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units, according to temperature

edit] Electronic trip units
LlecLronlc Lrlpplng unlLs are lgly sLable ln canglng LemperaLure levels
An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable perIormance in
changing temperature conditions. However, the switchgear itselI oIten imposes operational
limits in elevated temperatures, so that manuIacturers generally provide an operating chart
relating the maximum values oI permissible trip-current levels to the ambient temperature
(see ig. H42).
Moreover, electronic trip units can provide inIormation that can be used Ior a better
management oI the electrical distribution, including energy eIIiciency and power quality.


Ma
ster
pac
t
NW
20
ver
s|o
n
40
C
4S
C
S0
C
SS
C
60
C

P1/
P2/
P3
WlL
dr
aw
abl
e
wlL

orl
zon
Lal
plu
gs
ln
(A)
20
00
20
00
20
00
19
0
1
90

Ma
xlm
um
ad[
usL
me
nL
lr
1 1 1 09
9
09
3

L1 WlL
dr
aw
abl
e
wlL
ln
(A)
20
00
200 19
00
1
30
1
00

on
edg
e
plu
gs

Ma
xlm
um
ad[
usL
me
nL
lr
1 1 09
3
09
3
09
0





















liq n42 uetotloq of Mostetpoct Nw20 cltcoltbteoket occotJloq to tbe tempetotote

edit] Selection of an instantaneous, or short-time-delay, tripping threshold
igure H43 below summarizes the main characteristics oI the instantaneous or short-time
delay trip units.


1ype 1r|pp|ng un|t App||cat|ons

Low seLLlng
Lype 8
O Sources produclng low sorLclrculL currenL levels (sLandby generaLors)
O Long lengLs of llne or cable

SLandard
seLLlng
Lype C
O roLecLlon of clrculLs general case

Plg seLLlng
Lype u or k
O roLecLlon of clrculLs avlng lg lnlLlal LranslenL currenL levels (eg moLors Lransformers
reslsLlve loads)

12 ln
Lype MA
O roLecLlon of moLors ln assoclaLlon wlL dlsconLacLors (conLacLors wlL overload proLecLlo
Fig. H43: Different tripping units, instantaneous or short-time-delayed

edit] Selection of a circuit-breaker according to the short-circuit breaking capacity requirements
1e
lnsL
alla
Llon
of a
Lv
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
r
req
ulre
s
La
L lLs
so
rL
clrc
ulL
bre
akl
ng
cap
aclL
y
(or
La
L of
Le
C8
Log
eL
er
wlL

an
ass
ocl
aLe
d
dev
lce)
be
equ
al
Lo
or
exc
eed
s
Le
calc
ulaL
ed
pro
spe
cLlv
e
so
rL
clrc
ulL
cur
ren
L aL
lLs
pol
nL
of
lnsL
alla
Llon

%he installation oI a circuit-breaker in a LV installation must IulIil one oI the two Iollowing
conditions:
O LlLer ave a raLed sorLclrculL breaklng capaclLy lcu (or lcn) wlc ls equal Lo or exceeds
Le prospecLlve sorLclrculL currenL calculaLed for lLs polnL of lnsLallaLlon or
O lf Lls ls noL Le case be assoclaLed wlL anoLer devlce wlc ls locaLed upsLream and
wlc as Le requlred sorLclrculL breaklng capaclLy
In the second case, the characteristics oI the two devices must be co-ordinated such that the
energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which the
downstream device and all associated cables, wires and other components can withstand,
without being damaged in any way. %his technique is proIitably employed in:
O AssoclaLlons of fuses and clrculLbreakers
O AssoclaLlons of currenLllmlLlng clrculLbreakers and sLandard clrculLbreakers
%he technique is known as 'cascading
edit] The selection of main and principal circuit-breakers
1e clrculLbreaker aL Le ouLpuL of Le smallesL Lransformer musL ave a sorLclrculL capaclLy adequaLe for a faulL cur
lger Lan LaL Lroug any of Le oLer Lransformer Lv clrculLbreakers
A single transformer
II the transIormer is located in a consumer`s substation, certain national standards require a
LV circuit-breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible such as Compact N$X
withdrawable circuit-breaker.
Example (see ig. H44 )
What type oI circuit-breaker is suitable Ior the main circuit-breaker oI an installation
supplied through a 250 kVA MV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transIormer in a consumer`s
substation?
In transIormer 360 A
Isc (3-phase) 8.9 kA
A Compact N$X400N with an adjustable tripping-unit range oI 160 A - 400 A and a short-
circuit breaking capacity (Icu) oI 50 kA would be a suitable choice Ior this duty.












liq n44 xomple of o ttoosfotmet lo o coosomets sobstotloo

Several transformers in parallel (see ig. H45)
O 1e clrculLbreakers C8 ouLgolng from Le Lv dlsLrlbuLlon board musL eac be capable of
breaklng Le LoLal faulL currenL from all Lransformers connecLed Lo Le busbars vlz lsc1 +
lsc2 + lsc3
O 1e clrculLbreakers C8M eac conLrolllng Le ouLpuL of a Lransformer musL be capable
of deallng wlL a maxlmum sorLclrculL currenL of (for example) lsc2 + lsc3 only for a
sorLclrculL locaLed on Le upsLream slde of C8M1
From these considerations, it will be seen that the circuit-breaker oI the smallest
transIormer will be subjected to the highest level oI Iault current in these circumstances,
while the circuit-breaker oI the largest transIormer will pass the lowest level oI short-circuit
current
O 1e raLlngs of C8Ms musL be cosen accordlng Lo Le kvA raLlngs of Le assoclaLed
Lransformers
















liq n45 1toosfotmets lo potollel

Note: %he essential conditions Ior the successIul operation oI 3-phase transIormers in
parallel may be summarized as Iollows:
1. the phase shiIt oI the voltages, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units to be
paralleled.
2. the open-circuit voltage ratios, primary to secondary, must be the same in all units.
3. the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc) must be the same Ior all units.
For example, a 750 kVA transIormer with a Zsc 6 will share the load correctly with a
1,000 kVA transIormer having a Zsc oI 6, i.e. the transIormers will be loaded
automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. For transIormers having a ratio oI kVA
ratings exceeding 2, parallel operation is not recommended.
igure H46 indicates, Ior the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transIormers oI equal kVA
ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal CBs (CBM and
CBP respectively, in Figure H45) are subjected. It is based on the Iollowing hypotheses:
O 1e sorLclrculL 3pase power on Le Mv slde of Le Lransformer ls 300 MvA
O 1e Lransformers are sLandard 20/04 kv dlsLrlbuLlonLype unlLs raLed as llsLed
O 1e cables from eac Lransformer Lo lLs Lv clrculLbreaker comprlse 3 meLres of slngle core
conducLors
O 8eLween eac lncomlngclrculL C8M and eac ouLgolngclrculL C8 Lere ls 1 meLre of
busbar
O 1e swlLcgear ls lnsLalled ln a floormounLed enclosed swlLcboard ln an amblenLalr
LemperaLure of 30 C
Moreover, this table shows selected circuit-breakers oI M-G manuIacture recommended Ior
main and principal circuit-breakers in each case.


Nu
mb
er
and
kV
A
rat|
ngs
of
20]
04
kV
tra
nsf
or
me
rs
M|
n|m
um
C
bre
ak|
ng
cap
ac|t
y of
ma|
n
C8s
(Icu
) kA
Ma|
n
c|rc
u|t
bre
ake
rs
(C8
M)
tot
a|
d|sc
r|m
|nat
|on
w|t
h
out
go|
ng
c|rc
u|t
bre
ake
rs
(C8
)
M|
n|m
um
C
bre
ak|
ng
cap
ac|t
y of
pr|
nc|
pa|
C8s
(Icu
) kA
kat
ed
cur
ren
t In
of
pr|
nc|
pa|
c|rc
u|t
bre
ake
r
(C
8)
2S0
A

2 x
400
14 nW
0
n1/
nS
00
n
2 nSx
230
P

3 x 400 2 nW0n1/nS00n 42 nSx230P
2 x
630
22 nW10n1/nS1000n 42 nSx230P

3 x
630
44 nW
10
n1/
nS1
000
n
6 nSx
230
P

2 x 00 19 nW12n1/nS1230n 3 nSx230P
3 x
00
3 nW12n1/nS1230n 36 nSx230P

2 x
10
00
23 nW
16
n1/
nS1
600
n
4 nSx
230
P

3 x 1000 4 nW16n1/nS1600n 0 nSx230P
2 x 29 nW20n1/nS2000n 39 nSx230P
1230

3 x 1230 39 nW20n1/nS2000n nSx230L
2 x
1600
3 nW23n1/nS2300n 3 nSx230L

3 x
16
00
3 nW
23
n1/
nS2
300
n
113 nSx
230
L

2 x
20
00
4 nW
32
n1/
nS3
200
n
94 nSx
230
L

3 x 2000 94 nW32n1/nS3200n 141 nSx230L
Fig. H4: Maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal
circuit-breakers (CBM and CBP respectively), for several transformers in parallel

Example (see ig. H47 )
O ClrculLbreaker selecLlon for C8M duLy
For a 800 kVA transIormer In 1.126 A; Icu (minimum) 38 kA (Irom Figure H46), the
CBM indicated in the table is a Compact N$1250N (Icu 50 kA)
O ClrculLbreaker selecLlon for C8 duLy
%he s.c. breaking capacity (Icu) required Ior these circuit-breakers is given in the Figure
H46 as 56 kA.
A recommended choice Ior the three outgoing circuits 1, 2 and 3 would be current-limiting
circuit-breakers types N$X400 L, N$X250 L and N$X100 L. %he Icu rating in each case
150 kA.

















Fig. H47: Transformers in parallel

%hese circuit-breakers provide the advantages oI:
- Absolute discrimination with the upstream (CBM) breakers
- Exploitation oI the 'cascading technique, with its associated savings Ior all downstream
components
edit] Choice of outgoing-circuit CBs and final-circuit CBs
SorLclrculL faulLcurrenL levels aL any polnL ln an lnsLallaLlon may be obLalned from Lables
Use of table G40
From this table, the value oI 3-phase short-circuit current can be determined rapidly Ior any
point in the installation, knowing:
O 1e value of sorLclrculL currenL aL a polnL upsLream of LaL lnLended for Le C8
concerned
O 1e lengL csa and Le composlLlon of Le conducLors beLween Le Lwo polnLs
A circuit-breaker rated Ior a short-circuit breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated value
may then be selected.
Detailed calculation of the short-circuit current level
In order to calculate more precisely the short-circuit current, notably, when the short-circuit
current-breaking capacity oI a CB is slightly less than that derived Irom the table, it is
necessary to use the method indicated in chapter G.
Two-pole circuit-breakers (for phase and neutral) with one protected pole only
%hese CBs are generally provided with an overcurrent protective device on the phase pole
only, and may be used in %%, %N-$ and I% schemes. In an I% scheme, however, the
Iollowing conditions must be respected:
O CondlLlon (8) of Lable C6 for Le proLecLlon of Le neuLral conducLor agalnsL overcurrenL
ln Le case of a double faulL
O SorLclrculL currenLbreaklng raLlng A 2pole paseneuLral C8 musL by convenLlon be
capable of breaklng on one pole (aL Le paseLopase volLage) Le currenL of a double
faulL equal Lo 13 of Le 3pase sorLclrculL currenL aL Le polnL of lLs lnsLallaLlon lf LaL
currenL ls 10 kA or 23 of Le 3pase sorLclrculL currenL lf lL exceeds 10 kA
O roLecLlon agalnsL lndlrecL conLacL Lls proLecLlon ls provlded accordlng Lo Le rules for l1
scemes
Insufficient short-circuit current breaking rating In low-voltage distribution systems it
sometimes happens, especially in heavy-duty networks, that the Isc calculated exceeds the
Icu rating oI the CBs available Ior installation, or system changes upstream result in lower
level CB ratings being exceeded
O SoluLlon 1 Ceck weLer or noL approprlaLe C8s upsLream of Le C8s affecLed are of Le
currenLllmlLlng Lype allowlng Le prlnclple of cascadlng (descrlbed ln subclause 43) Lo
be applled
O SoluLlon 2 lnsLall a range of C8s avlng a lger raLlng 1ls soluLlon ls economlcally
lnLeresLlng only were one or Lwo C8s are affecLed
O SoluLlon 3 AssoclaLe currenLllmlLlng fuses (gC or aM) wlL Le C8s concerned on Le
upsLream slde 1ls arrangemenL musL owever respecL Le followlng rules
- %he Iuse rating must be appropriate
- No Iuse in the neutral conductor, except in certain I% installations where a double Iault
produces a current in the neutral which
exceeds the short-circuit breaking rating oI the CB. In this case, the blowing oI the
neutral Iuse must cause the CB to trip on all
phases.
edit] Coordination between circuit-breakers
edit] Cascading (or Back-up protection)
1e
Lec
nl
que
of
ca
sca
dln
g"
use
s
Le
pro
per
Lles
of
cur
ren
L
llml
Llng
clrc
ulL
bre
ake
rs
Lo
per
mlL
Le
lnsL
alla
Llon
of
all
do
wns
Lre
am
swl
Lc
gea
r
cab
les
and
oL
er
clrc
ulL
co
mp
one
nLs
of
slgn
lflc
anLl
y
low
er
per
for
ma
nce
La
n
wo
uld
oL
erw
lse
be
nec
ess
ary
Le
reb
y
slm
pllf
yln
g
and
red
ucl
ng
Le
cos
L of
an
lnsL
alla
Llon

Definition of the cascading technique
By limiting the peak value oI short-circuit current passing through it, a current-limiting CB
permits the use, in all circuits downstream oI its location, oI switchgear and circuit
components having much lower short-circuit breaking capacities, and thermal and
electromechanical withstand capabilities than would otherwise be necessary. Reduced
physical size and lower perIormance requirements lead to substantial economy and to the
simpliIication oI installation work. It may be noted that, while a current-limiting circuit-
breaker has the eIIect on downstream circuits oI (apparently) increasing the source
impedance during short-circuit conditions, it has no such eIIect in any other condition; Ior
example, during the starting oI a large motor (where a low source impedance is highly
desirable). %he range oI Compact N$X current-limiting circuit-breakers with powerIul
limiting perIormances is particularly interesting.
edit] Conditions of implementation
ln
gen
eral

lab
ora
Lor
y
LesL
s
are
nec
ess
ary
Lo
ens
ure
La
L
Le
con
dlLl
ons
of
lmp
lem
enL
aLlo
n
req
ulre
d
by
naLl
ona
l
sLa
nda
rds
are
meL
and
co
mp
aLlb
le
swl
Lc
gea
r
co
mbl
naLl
ons
mu
sL
be
pro
vld
ed
by
Le
ma
nuf
acL
ure
r

Most national standards admit the cascading technique, on condition that the amount oI
energy 'let through by the limiting CB is less than the energy all downstream CBs and
components are able to withstand without damage.
In practice this can only be veriIied Ior CBs by tests perIormed in a laboratory. $uch tests
are carried out by manuIacturers who provide the inIormation in the Iorm oI tables, so that
users can conIidently design a cascading scheme based on the combination oI
recommended circuit-breaker types. As an example, igure H48 indicates the cascading
possibilities oI circuit-breaker types C60, %40N, C120 and NG125 when installed
downstream oI current-limiting CBs Compact N$X 250 N, H or L Ior a 230/400 V or
240/415 V 3-phase installation.


kAr
ms


ho
rt
c|rc
u|t
bre
ak|
ng
cap
ac|t
y of
130

nSx
230
L
the
ups
tre
am
(||m
|ter
)
C8s


0 nSx230P
30 nSx230n




oss|b|e shortc|rcu|t break|ng capac|ty of the downstream C8s
(benef|t|ng from the cascad|ng techn|que)
130 nC123L
0 nC123L

36 nC
123
n
nC
123
n



30 C60n/P32A C60n/P32A C60n/P32A
30 C60L23A C60L23A(*)
Culck 8u
40/20/
C60L23A
23 C60P40A
C120n/P
C60P40A
C120n/P
C60P40A
C120n/P


20 C60n40A C60n40A C60n40A
(*) Quick PR with integrated circuit-breaker as disconnector see chapter J
Fig. H48: Example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 J or 240/415 J 3-phase
installation

edit] Advantages of cascading
%he current limitation beneIits all downstream circuits that are controlled by the current-
limiting CB concerned.
%he principle is not restrictive, i.e. current-limiting CBs can be installed at any point in an
installation where the downstream circuits would otherwise be inadequately rated.
%he result is:
O Slmpllfled sorLclrculL currenL calculaLlons
O SlmpllflcaLlon le a wlder colce of downsLream swlLcgear and appllances
O 1e use of llgLerduLy swlLcgear and appllances wlL consequenLly lower cosL
O Lconomy of space requlremenLs slnce llgLduLy equlpmenL ave generally a smaller
volume
edit] !rinciples of discriminative tripping (selectivity)
uls
crl
mln
aLlo
n
ma
y
be
LoL
al
or
par
Llal
and
bas
ed
on
Le
prln
clpl
es
of
cur
ren
L
lev
els
or
Llm
e
del
ays
or a
co
mbl
naLl
on
of
boL
A
mo
re
rec
enL
dev
elo
pm
enL
ls
bas
ed
on
Le
logl
c
Lec
nl
que
s
1e
Sc
nel
der
Lle
cLrl
c
sysL
em
Lak
es
adv
anL
age
s of
boL

cur
ren
L
llml
LaLl
on
and
dlsc
rlml
naLl
on

iscrimination is achieved by automatic protective devices iI a Iault condition, occurring at
any point in the installation, is cleared by the protective device located immediately
upstream oI the Iault, while all other protective devices remain unaIIected (see ig. H49).


















liq n49 1otol ooJ pottlol Jlsctlmlootloo

iscrimination between circuit-breakers A and B is total iI the maximum value oI short-
circuit-current on circuit B (Isc B) does not exceed the short-circuit trip setting oI circuit-
breaker A (Im A). For this condition, B only will trip (see ig. H50).



















liq n50 1otol Jlsctlmlootloo betweeo c8s A ooJ 8

iscrimination is partial iI the maximum possible short-circuit current on circuit B exceeds
the short-circuit trip-current setting oI circuit-breaker A. For this maximum condition, both
A and B will trip (see ig. H51).



















liq n51 lottlol Jlsctlmlootloo betweeo c8s A ooJ 8

!rotection against overload : discrimination based on current levels
(see ig. H52a)
%his method is realized by setting successive tripping thresholds at stepped levels, Irom
downstream relays (lower settings) towards the source (higher settings). iscrimination is
total or partial, depending on particular conditions, as noted above.














liq n52o ulsctlmlootloo

As a rule oI thumb, discrimination is achieved when:
O lrA/lr8 2
!rotection against low level short-circuit currents : discrimination based on stepped
time delays (see ig. H52b)
%his method is implemented by adjusting the time-delayed tripping units, such that
downstream relays have the shortest operating times, with progressively longer delays
towards the source.
In the two-level arrangement shown, upstream circuit-breaker A is delayed suIIiciently to
ensure total discrimination with B (Ior example: Masterpact with electronic trip unit).















liq n52b ulsctlmlootloo

Discrimination based on a combination of the two previous methods (see ig. H52c)
A time-delay added to a current level scheme can improve the overall discrimination
perIormance.
%he upstream CB has two high-speed magnetic tripping thresholds:
O lm A delayed magneLlc Lrlp or sorLdelay elecLronlc Lrlp
O ll lnsLanLaneous sLrlp
iscrimination is total iI Isc B Ii (instantaneous).














liq n52c ulsctlmlootloo

!rotection against high level short-circuit currents: discrimination based on arc-
energy levels
%his technology implemented in the Compact N$X range (current limiting circuit- breaker)
is extremely eIIective Ior achievement oI total discrimination.
Principle: When a very high level short-circuit current is detected by the two circuits-
breaker A and B, their contacts open simultaneously. As a result, the current is highly
limited.
O 1e very lg arcenergy aL level 8 lnduces Le Lrlpplng of clrculLbreaker 8
O 1en Le arcenergy ls llmlLed aL level A and ls noL sufflclenL Lo lnduce Le Lrlpplng of A
As a rule oI thumb, the discrimination between Compact N$X is total iI the size ratio
between A and B is greater than 2.5.
edit] Current-level discrimination
%his technique is directly linked to the staging oI the Long %ime (L%) tripping curves oI
two serial-connected circuit-breakers.



















liq n5l cotteot Jlsctlmlootloo

%he discrimination limit ls is:
O ls lsd2 lf Le Lresolds lsd1 and lsd2 are Loo close or merge
O ls lsd1 lf Le Lresolds lsd1 and lsd2 are sufflclenLly far aparL
As a rule, current discrimination is achieved when:
O lr1 / lr2 2
O lsd1 / lsd2 2
%he discrimination limit is:
O ls lsd1
D|s
cr|
m|n
at|o
n
qua
||ty
uls
crl
mln
aLlo
n ls
LoL
al lf
ls
lsc(
u2)

le
lsd
1
lsc(
u2)

1ls
nor
mal
ly
lmp
lles
O
O
Cu
rre
nt
dis
cri
mi
nat
ion
is
nor
ma
lly
use
d
in
fin
al
dis
tri
but
ion
.

edit] Time discrimination
ulscrlmlnaLlon based on Llmedelayed Lrlpplng uses C8s referred Lo as selecLlve" (ln some counLrles)
lmplemenLaLlon of Lese C8s ls relaLlvely slmple and conslsLs ln delaylng Le lnsLanL of Lrlpplng of Le several serlescon
breakers ln a sLepped Llme sequence
%his is the extension oI current discrimination and is obtained by staging over time oI the
tripping curves. %his technique consists oI giving a time delay oI t to the $hort %ime ($%)
tripping oI 1.



















Fig. H54: Time discrimination

%he thresholds (Ir1, Isd1) oI 1 and (Ir2, Isd2) comply with the staging rules oI current
discrimination.
%he discrimination limit ls oI the association is at least equal to li1, the instantaneous
threshold oI 1.
Discrimination quality
O on f|na| and]or |ntermed|ate feeders
A category circuit-breakers can be used with time-delayed tripping oI the upstream circuit-breaker. %his allow
oI current discrimination up to the instantaneous threshold li1 oI the upstream circuit-breaker: Is li1.
If Isc(D2) is not too high - case of a final feeder - total discrimination can be obtained.
O on the |ncomers and feeders of the M8
At this level, as continuity oI supply takes priority, the installation characteristics allow use oI B category circu
designed Ior time-delayed tripping. %hese circuit-breakers have a high thermal withstand (Icw _ 50 Icn Ior t
Icw1.
Even Ior high lsc(2), time discrimination normally provides total discrimination: Icw1 > Icc(D2).
Note: Use oI B category circuit-breakers means that the installation must withstand high
electrodynamic and thermal stresses.
Consequently, these circuit-breakers have a high instantaneous threshold li that can be
adjusted and disabled in order to protect the busbars iI necessary.
!ractical example of discrimination at several levels with Schneider Electric circuit-
breakers (with electronic trip units)
"Masterpact N% is totally selective with any moulded-case Compact N$X circuit breaker,
i.e., the downstream circuit-breaker will trip Ior any short-circuit value up to its breaking
capacity. Further, all Compact N$X CBs are totally selective, as long as the ration between
sizes is greater than 1.6 and the ratio between ratings is greater than 2.5. %he same rules
apply Ior the total selectivity with the miniature circuit-breakers Multi9 Iurther downstream
(see ig. H55).








































Fig. H55: 4 level discrimination with Schneider Electric circuit breakers Masterpact NT
Compact NSX and Multi 9

edit] Energy discrimination with current limitation
Cascading between 2 devices is normally achieved by using the tripping oI the upstream
circuit-breaker A to help the downstream circuit-breaker B to break the current. %he
discrimination limit Is is consequently equal to the ultimate breaking current Icu B oI
circuit-breaker B acting alone, as cascading requires the tripping oI both devices.
%he energy discrimination technology implemented in Compact N$X circuit-breakers
allows to improve the discrimination limit to a value higher than the ultimate breaking
current Icu B oI the downstream circuit-breaker. %he principle is as Iollows:
O 1e downsLream llmlLlng clrculLbreaker 8 sees a very lg sorLclrculL currenL 1e
Lrlpplng ls very fasL (1 ms) and Len Le currenL ls llmlLed
O 1e upsLream clrculLbreaker A sees a llmlLed sorLclrculL currenL compared Lo lLs
breaklng capablllLy buL Lls currenL lnduces a repulslon of Le conLacLs As a resulL Le
arclng volLage lncreases Le currenL llmlLaLlon Powever Le arc energy ls noL lg enoug
Lo lnduce Le Lrlpplng of Le clrculLbreaker So Le clrculLbreaker A elps Le clrculL
breaker 8 Lo Lrlp wlLouL Lrlpplng lLself 1e dlscrlmlnaLlon llmlL can be lger Lan lcu 8
and Le dlscrlmlnaLlon becomes LoLal wlL a reduced cosL of Le devlces
edit] Natural total discriminitation with Compact NSX
%he major advantage oI the Compact N$X range is to provide a natural total discrimination
between two series-connected devices iI:
O 1e raLlo of Le Lwo LrlpunlL currenL raLlngs ls 16
O 1e raLlo of raLed currenLs of Le Lwo clrculLbreakers ls 23
edit] Logic discrimination or ~Zone Sequence Interlocking - ZSI
uls
crl
mln
aLlo
n
sc
em
es
bas
ed
on
logl
c
Lec
nl
que
s
are
pos
slbl
e
usl
ng
C8s
equ
lpp
ed
wlL

ele
cLro
nlc
Lrlp
pln
g
unlL
s
des
lgn
ed
for
Le
pur
pos
e
(Co
mp
acL
Ma
sLer
pac
L)
and
lnLe
rco
nne
cLe
d
wlL

pllo
L
wlr
es

%his type oI discrimination can be achieved with circuit-breakers equipped with specially
designed electronic trip units (Compact, Masterpact): only the $hort %ime Protection ($%P)
and Ground Fault Protection (GFP) Iunctions oI the controlled devices are managed by
Logic iscrimination. In particular, the Instantaneous Protection Iunction - inherent
protection Iunction - is not concerned.
Settings of controlled circuit-breakers
O Llme delay Lere are no rules buL sLaglng (lf any)of Le Llme delays of Llme dlscrlmlnaLlon
musL be applled (ALu1 ALu2 ALu3)
O Lresolds Lere are no Lresold rules Lo be applled buL naLural sLaglng of Le
proLecLlon devlce raLlngs musL be complled wlL (lcru1 lcru2 lcru3)
Note: %his technique ensures discrimination even with circuit-breakers oI similar ratings.
edit] !rinciples
Activation oI the Logic iscrimination Iunction is via transmission oI inIormation on the
pilot wire:
O ZSl lnpuL
- low level (no downstream Iaults): the Protection Iunction is on standby with a reduced
time delay (y 0,1 s),
- high level (presence oI downstream Iaults): the relevant Protection Iunction moves to the
time delay status set on the device.
O ZSl ouLpuL
- low level: the trip unit detects no Iaults and sends no orders,
- high level: the trip unit detects a Iault and sends an order.
edit] Operation
A pilot wire connects in cascading Iorm the protection devices oI an installation (see ig.
H56). When a fault occurs, each circuit-breaker upstream oI the Iault (detecting a Iault)
sends an order (high level output) and moves the upstream circuit-breaker to its natural time
delay (high level input). %he circuitbreaker placed just above the Iault does not receive any
orders (low level input) and thus trips almost instantaneously.

















Fig. H5: Logic discrimination.

D|scr|m|nat|on qua||ty
1ls Lecnlque enables
O easy aclevemenL as sLandard of dlscrlmlnaLlon on 3 levels or more
O ellmlnaLlon of lmporLanL sLresses on Le lnsLallaLlon relaLlng Lo Llmedelayed Lrlpplng of Le proLecLlon devlce
faulL dlrecLly on Le upsLream busbars
All the protection devices are thus virtually instantaneous,
O easy aclevemenL of downsLream dlscrlmlnaLlon wlL nonconLrolled clrculLbreakers

edit] Discrimination MV/LV in a consumer`s substation
In general the transIormer in a consumer`s substation is protected by MV Iuses, suitably
rated to match the transIormer, in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC 60787
and IEC 60420, by Iollowing the advice oI the Iuse manuIacturer.
%he basic requirement is that a MV Iuse will not operate Ior LV Iaults occurring
downstream oI the transIormer LV circuit-breaker, so that the tripping characteristic curve
oI the latter must be to the leIt oI that oI the MV Iuse pre-arcing curve.
%his requirement generally Iixes the maximum settings Ior the LV circuit-breaker
protection:
O Maxlmum sorLclrculL currenLlevel seLLlng of Le magneLlc Lrlpplng elemenL
O Maxlmum Llmedelay allowable for Le sorLclrculL currenL Lrlpplng elemenL
(see ig. H57)


















liq n57 xomple

Example:
O SorLclrculL level aL Mv Lermlnals of Lransformer 230 MvA
O 1ransformer Mv/Lv 1230 kvA 20/04 kv
O Mv fuses 63 A
O Cabllng Lransformer Lv clrculLbreaker 10 meLres slnglecore cables
O Lv clrculLbreaker CompacL nSx 2000 seL aL 100 A (lr)
What is the maximum short-circuit trip current setting and its maximum time delay
allowable?
%he curves oI igure H58 show that discrimination is assured iI the short-time delay
tripping unit oI the CB is set at:
O A level 6 lr 10 kA
O A Llmedelay seLLlng of sLep 1 or 2




























liq n58 cotves of Mv foses ooJ lv cltcoltbteoket

edit] Ultra-rapid circuit breaker
As installed power increases, electrical distribution has to shiIt Irom a LV design to a HV
design. Indeed, a high short-circuit level can be a threat to the installation and make
impossible the selection oI low voltage equipments ($witchboard and bus bars, circuit
breaker.)
%hese situations could be met in the Iollowing applications:
Bus bars coupling onboard merchant vessels, oII shore platIorm, loop networks (in
industry), where the current and energy are important because oI the installed power
(several transIormers or generators in parallel) and HV design not easy.
Two solutions could be used:
edit]
- !yrotechnic interruption switching device
edit] - !ower circuit breaker based solution
$ome power circuit breakers with additionnal Ieature (based on the %homson eIIect
technology Ior instance) provide an ultra
rapid opening system on very high short-circuit level. %he breaking perIormance makes it
possible to limit the
short-circuit current and prospective energy, and consequently protect the electrical
installation against the electrodynamic and thermal eIIects oI short-circuit.

Example of ultra rapid power circuit breaker: Masterpact UR


edit] Example of limitation offered by Masterpact UR in decoupling bus bars in case
of short circuit:

When a short-circuit occurs downstream in the installation (A) with no tie breaker, the
short-circuit level will be the total sum oI all the generated power (illustrated by curve 1).


By inserting a tie breaker - Masterpact UR - to separate the sources under Iault conditions,
the short circuit at (A) will consist in:
a limited short circuit coming Irom generator G1 and G2 interrupted by the Masterpact UR
(see curve 2) a non limited short circuit Irom generators G3 and G4 (see curve 3).

%he resulting short circuit level is illustrated by curve 4.

%he consequence oI the strong limitation oI the short circuit current and the prospective
energy allows the design oI a LV network instead oI a MV design.
%his also prevents the network Irom being totally shutdown (black out) in case oI short
circuit in the main switchboard.

%he Iollowing table give some example oI limitation with MAsterpact UR as a tie breaker
between source 1 & 2



Energy Efficiency in electrical distribution
%he aim oI this chapter is to Iacilitate communication between the designers oI electrical
installations and the energy consumers who use them. Consumers Irequently require advice
on how best to reduce consumption and the amount they spend on energy.
While there are a number oI Iactors inIluencing attitudes and opinions towards energy
eIIiciency, particularly the increasing cost oI energy and a growing awareness oI our
responsibilities towards the environment, legislation probably has the greatest impact on
changing behaviour and practices. Various governments across the world are setting
themselves energy saving targets and passing regulations to ensure these are met. Reducing
greenhouse gas emissions is a global target set at the Kyoto Earth $ummit in 1997 and was
Iinally ratiIied by 169 countries in ecember 2006.
Under the Kyoto Protocol industrialised countries have agreed to reduce their collective
emissions oI greenhouse gases by 5.2 compared to the year 1990 between 2008 and 2012
(this represents a 29 reduction in terms oI the emissions levels expected Ior 2012 prior to
the Protocol). One oI Europe`s targets is a 20 reduction in Ior CO
2
by 2020. Given that
27 oI CO
2
emissions originate Irom transport, 16 Irom residential buildings, 8 Irom
the service sector and 49 Irom industry proper, up to 50 oI emissions can be attributed
to electricity consumption associated with residential and commercial buildings. Moreover,
as the use oI domestic appliances and other equipment such as ventilation and air
conditioning systems increases, electricity consumption is rising at a Iaster rate than other
Iorms oI energy.
Against this background, the Iollowing conditions will have to be satisIied in order to
achieve a 20 reduction in consumption by 2020:
O All new buildings constructed must consume 50 less energy.
O 1 in 10 existing buildings must reduce consumption by 30 each year.
As Iar as most countries are concerned, it is clear that 80 oI the buildings which will be
standing in 2020 have already been constructed. %he reIurbishment oI existing building
stock and improving energy management is vital in meeting emission reduction targets.
Given that in the western world, most buildings have already undergone thermal
perIormance upgrades such as cavity wall insulation, loIt insulation and double-glazing, the
only potential Ior Iurther savings lies in reducing the amount oI energy consumed. Action
to improve the thermal and energy perIormance oI existing buildings will almost certainly
become compulsory in order to meet the targets that have been set out.
%echnology exists to help promote energy eIIiciency on many levels, Irom reducing
electricity consumption to managing other energy sources more eIIiciently. Ambitious
regulatory measures may be required to ensure these technologies are adopted quickly
enough to achieve the 2020 targets
Energy efficiency and electricity

Une rglementation volontariste partout dans le monde



%he Kyoto Protocol saw governments start to set out clear commitments in terms oI
quantitative targets and speciIic agendas Ior reducing CO
2
emissions.
In addition to their Kyoto obligations, many countries have set themselves Iixed, long-
term targets in line with the latest EEIG (European Economic Interest Group)
recommendations to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change) regarding energy saving and based on stabilising CO
2
levels.
%he European Union is setting a good example with its Iirm commitment, signed by all
the national EU leaders in March 2007, to a 20 reduction by 2020. Known as 3x20,
this agreement aims to reduce CO
2
emissions by 20, improve energy eIIiciency by
20 and increase the contribution made by renewable energies to 20. $ome
European Countries are looking at a 50 reduction by 2050. Reaching these targets,
however, wiII require signiIicant changes, with governments stepping up their use oI
regulations, legislation and standardisation.
Across the world, legislation and regulations are serving to underline stakeholder
obligations and put taxation and Iinancial structures in place.
O ln Le uSA
- %he Energy Policy Act oI 2005,
- Construction regulations,
- Energy regulations (10CFR434),
- Energy management programmes Ior various states (10CFR420),
- Rules Ior energy conservation Ior consumer products (10CFR430).
O ln Clna
- Energy conservation law,
- Architecture law (energy eIIiciency and construction),
- lRenewable energy law,
- 1000 major energy conservation programmes Ior industry dans l`Union Europeenne
O ln Le Luropean unlon
- %he EU Emission %rading $cheme
- %he Energy PerIormance oI Building irective
- %he Energy Using Product irective
- %he Energy End-use EIIiciency and Energy $ervices irective.

See (Guide de l`installation lectrique)
edit]
How to achieve energy efficiency
Lne
rgy
savl
ng
reg
ulaL
lon
s
affe
cL
all
bull
dln
gs
boL

ne
w
and
exls
Llng
as
wel
l as
Lel
r
ele
cLrl
cal
lnsL
alla
Llon
s
Whilst it is currently possible to obtain energy savings oI up to 30, this potential
reduction can only really be understood in terms oI the diIIerences which exist between
active and passive Iorms oI energy eIIiciency.
edit] Active and passive energy efficiency
Passive energy eIIiciency is achieved by such measures as reducing heat loss and using
equipment which requires little energy. Active energy eIIiciency is achieved by putting in
place an inIrastructure Ior measuring, monitoring and controlling energy use with a view to
making lasting changes.
%It is possible to build on the savings achieved here by perIorming analyses and
introducing more suitable remedial measures. For example, although savings oI between
5 and 15 may be obtained by improving how installations are used or by optimising the
equipment itselI (decommissioning redundant systems, adjusting motors and heating), more
signiIicant savings can also be achieved.
- Up to 40 on energy Ior motors by using control and automation mechanisms to
manage motorised systems,
- Up to 30 on lighting by introducing an automated management mechanism based on
optimal use.
It is important to remember, however, that savings may be lost through.
O unplanned/unmanaged downLlme affecLlng equlpmenL and processes
O A lack of auLomaLlon/ad[usLmenL mecanlsms (moLors eaLlng)
O A fallure Lo ensure energy savlng measures are adopLed aL all Llmes
A realistic approach would be to establish the identity oI energy consumers and adopt
passive Iollowed by active saving measures, beIore Iinally implementing inspection and
support devices to ensure that any savings made can be sustained over the long term. %his
involves a Iour-stage process:
O 1e flrsL sLage ls concerned wlL dlagnosls and prlmarlly alms Lo geL a beLLer ldea of were
and ow energy ls belng consumed 1ls requlres Le developmenL of lnlLlal measures and
a comparaLlve assessmenL process wlL a vlew Lo evaluaLlng performance deflnlng Le
maln areas for lmprovemenL and esLlmaLlng aclevable energy savlng levels 1e loglc
belnd Lls approac ls based on Le reallsaLlon LaL you can only lmprove waL you can
measure
O 1e nexL sLage lnvolves esLabllslng baslc requlremenLs ln Lerms of passlve energy
efflclency 1ese lnclude
- Replacing existing equipment/devices with low-consumption alternatives (bulbs, motors,
etc.),
- Improving thermal insulation and ensuring that energy quality supports work in a stable
environment where savings can be sustained over time.
O 1e sLage LaL follows Lls lnvolves auLomaLlon and acLlve energy efflclency AnyLlng
responslble for energy consumpLlon musL be sub[ecLed Lo a process of acLlve managemenL
almed aL aclevlng permanenL savlngs
Active energy eIIiciency does not require highly energy-eIIicient devices and equipment to
be already installed, as the approach can be applied to all types oI equipment. Good
management is essential Ior maximum eIIiciency there is no point in having low-
consumption bulbs iI you are going to waste energy by leaving them switched on in empty
rooms!
All things considered, energy management is the key to optimising use and eliminating
waste.
O 1e flnal sLage conslsLs of lmplemenLlng baslc canges lnLroduclng auLomaLlon and
puLLlng ln place an lnfrasLrucLure based around monlLorlng supporL and conLlnuous
lmprovemenL 1ls lnfrasLrucLure and Le ongolng processes assoclaLed wlL lL wlll
underpln Le pursulL of energy efflclency over fuLure years (see I|g k1)



1
u
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g
2
Imp
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3
Aut
om
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4
Mo
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and
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Fig. K1: Les 4 conditions de la perennite des economies

edit] The key to sustainable savings
As igure K2 illustrates, energy savings amounting to 30 are readily
achievable as things stand, although annual losses oI 8 must be expected
iI there is neither proper support nor monitoring oI key indicators. It is
clear, thereIore, that inIormation is crucial to ensuring that energy savings
are sustained over the long term.
















liq k2 ooJ mooltotloq tecbooloqy eosotes sovloqs ote sostoloeJ ovet tbe looq
tetm
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O

Consequently, energy monitoring and inIormation systems are essential and must be put in
place to deal with the challenges ahead.
Approaches to energy eIIiciency must have a proper structure iI signiIicant long-term
savings are to be achieved, but only those companies with suIIicient resources to actively
intervene at any stage oI a process will be in a position to pass the savings promised on to
their customers. %his is where $chneider Electric can help with its approach based on
managing the liIe cycle oI customer products (see ig. K3).
Ultimately, the objectives set can only be achieved by sharing risks and developing a win-
win relationship between those involved in the approach.
%he reports provided by the energy monitoring or inIormation systems can be used to
Iormulate suitable energy eIIiciency projects in line with diIIerent strategies acceptable to
all those involved.
O SLarL wlL a slmple pro[ecL lnvolvlng relaLlvely llLLle expense and geared Lowards qulck
wlns before golng on Lo make more slgnlflcanL lnvesLmenLs (Lls ls ofLen Le preferred
buslness soluLlon)
O 1lnk ln Lerms of ow Le lnvesLmenL for a pro[ecL can and musL be recouped wen
devlslng a pro[ecL (Lls ls a popular meLod for assesslng and selecLlng pro[ecLs) 1e
advanLage of Lls meLod ls Le slmpllclLy of Le analysls lnvolved lLs dlsadvanLage ls Le
lmposslblllLy of Lracklng Le full lmpacL of a pro[ecL over Le long Lerm
















liq kl oetqy efflcleocy solotloos boseJ oo tbe llfe cycle

O Ler more complex sLraLegles may be selecLed 1ese lnvolve an analysls of varlous
managemenL parameLers suc as Le currenL neL value or Le lnLernal reLurnon
lnvesLmenL raLe WllsL Le analysls requlred under Lese sLraLegles demands more work
Ley provlde a more preclse lndlcaLlon of Le overall lmpacL of Le pro[ecL

iagnosis tbrougb electrical measurement

Electrical measurements
edit] Voltage and current, two key values for understanding (almost) everything
As Iar as electrical measurements are concerned, voltage and current are the two values on
which other values are based (power, energy, power Iactor, etc.).
You should have a Iull range oI measuring devices capable oI providing the speciIic
measurements required Ior the application. You can signiIicantly increase the value oI your
inIormation by obtaining other data Irom the same measurements:
O peraLlng poslLlons for devlces (sLarL/sLop open/closed eLc)
O number of operaLlng ours/swlLclng operaLlons
O MoLor load
O 8aLLery carge
O LqulpmenL fallures
O eLc
%here is no such thing as a 'one-size-Iits-all solution. It is a question oI Iinding the best
compromise, in technological and Iinancial terms, Ior the particular needs oI the given
situation, whilst remembering that measurement accuracy involves costs which have to be
compared against the anticipated returns on investment.
In addition, when the operator`s electrical network is expected to undergo Irequent changes
given the activities in which it is involved, these changes should prompt a search Ior
immediate and signiIicant optimisation measures.
Approaches to energy eIIiciency also need to take other parameters into account
(temperature, light, pressure, etc.), since, assuming energy is transIormed without any
losses, the energy consumed by a piece oI equipment may exceed the useIul energy it
produces. One example oI this is a motor, which converts the energy it consumes into heat
as well as mechanical energy.
edit] Collating relevant electrical data for specific objectives
As well as contributing towards energy eIIiciency, the inIormation gleaned Irom electrical
data is commonly used to support a number oI other objectives:
O lncreaslng user undersLandlng and provldlng opporLunlLles for opLlmlslng equlpmenL and
procedures
O pLlmlslng funcLlonallLy and exLendlng Le servlce llfe of equlpmenL assoclaLed wlL Le
elecLrlcal neLwork
O laylng a plvoLal role ln lncreaslng Le producLlvlLy of assoclaLed processes (lndusLrlal or
even admlnlsLraLlve/managemenL procedures) by avoldlng/reduclng perlods of losL
producLlvlLy and guaranLeelng Le avallablllLy of a lgquallLy energy supply
edit]
Adapted measuring instruments
Electronic equipment is increasingly replacing analogue equipment in electrical
installations. It supports more accurate measurement oI new values and is able to make
these available to users at both local and remote locations.
All these various measuring devices (reIerred to as 'PM Ior 'PerIormance Measuring
and Monitoring evice) have to meet the requirements oI international standard IEC
61557-12. According to this standard, devices have a code denoting their installation
options, operating temperature range and accuracy class. As a result, it has become
signiIicantly easier to select and identiIy these devices (see ig. K4).


























liq k4 lJeotlfyloq meosotloq Jevlces lo occotJooce wltb lc 6155712

A number oI devices have been designed Ior inclusion in this category. %hese include
$epam overload and measuring relays, %e$ys U motor controllers, NRC 12 capacitor
battery controllers and Galaxy outage-Iree supply devices. %he new Masterpact and
Compact circuit breakers with integrated Micrologic measuring devices (see ig. K5) also
simpliIy matters by multiplying measurement points.


















liq k5 compoct N5\ cltcolt bteoket epolppeJ wltb o Mlctoloqlc ttlp oolt ooJ 1e5ys u coottollet
(5cboelJet lecttlc)

It is also now possible to broadcast measurements via digital networks. %he table in igure
K6 shows examples oI measurements available via Modbus, R$485 or Ethernet.





















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8aLLery follow up



























Fig. K: Examples of measurements available via Modbus, RS485 or Ethernet