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lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs

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uescrlpLlon
A brlef knowledge abouL l8
roperLy Law8lghLs
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resenLaLlon 1ranscrlpL ln1LLLLC1uAL 8CL81? 8lCP1S ln1LLLLC1uAL 8CL81? 8lCP1S 8?
uLLALl SPA8MAln1LLLLC1uAL 8CL81? 8lCP1S ln1LLLLC1uAL 8CL81? 8lCP1S 1he rlghL of an
lndlvldual Lo derlve beneflLs from hls lnLellecLual properLy and Lo exclude oLhers from dolng so ls
referred Lo as lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs 1he rlghLs Lo lnLanglble properLy LhaL ls Lhe producL of Lhe
human lnLellecL lnLellecLual properLy may be proLecLed by copyrlghL Lrademark or paLenL 1he holder
of lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs ls usually Lhe person or persons who developed Lhe producL or Lhe
organlzaLlon LhaL funded lLkey forms of lnLellecLual properLy key forms of lnLellecLual properLy 1rade
secreLs aLenLs CopyrlghL 1rade marks1rade secreLs 1rade secreLs Any lnformaLlon LhaL may be used ln
Lhe operaLlon of a buslness and LhaL ls sufflclenLly valuable Lo afford an acLual or poLenLlal economlc
advanLage ls consldered a Lrade secreL Lxamples of Lrade secreLs can be formulas for producLs such as
Lhe formula for CocaCola AdvanLages of Lrade secreLs unllmlLed duraLlon Lack of legal formallLles and
requlremenLsConLd ConLd 8educed rlsk of someone lmprovlng upon Lhe process formulaLlon eLc
no need for flllng appllcaLlon ConLesLlng and enforclng l8LlmlLaLlons of Lrade secreL LlmlLaLlons of
Lrade secreL CosLly malnLenance no proLecLlon from lndependenL lnvenLlon lL cannoL be applled Lo
many lnLellecLual properLles 1he nondlsclosure hampers furLher lnnovaLlons and Lhus delays
sclenLlflc/Lechnologlcal progressaLenLs aLenLs A paLenL ls Lhe form of a cerLlflcaLe granLed by a
governmenL lL glves Lhe lnvenLor Lhe rlghL Lo exclude oLhers from lmlLaLlng manufacLurlng uslng or
selllng Lhe lnvenLlon ln quesLlon for commerclal use durlng Lhe speclfled perlodleaLures of paLenL
leaLures of paLenL valld only ln Lhe counLry LhaL has granLed lL lL ls granLed for an lnnovaLlon lnvenLlon
process of produclng a producL and a concepL8equlremenLs for award of paLenLs 8equlremenLs for
award of paLenLs novelLy lnvenLlveness lndusLrlal appllcaLlons and usefulness aLenLablllLy
dlsclosurerocedure for obLalnlng paLenLs rocedure for obLalnlng paLenLs sLeps reparaLlon of
appllcaLlon acc 1o prescrlbed erforma llllng of appllcaLlon wlLh paLenLs offlce SecurlLlzaLlon of
appllcaLlon by paLenL offlcer and publlcaLlon of lnformaLlon for award of paLenL Challenges agalnsL
lnformaLlon can be flled ln paLenL offlce Pearlng of ob[ecLlons by compeLenL auLhorlLles lf ob[ecLlons
are cleared paLenLs are awarded lf ob[ecLlons are valld Lhan lnformaLlon ls dlsclosed for a
LlmeLlmlLaLlons of paLenLs LlmlLaLlons of paLenLs 1lme llmlLaLlon 1errlLory llmlLaLlonCopyrlghL
CopyrlghL CopyrlghL ls a legal Lerm descrlblng Lhe economlc rlghLs glven Lo creaLors of llLerary and
arLlsLlc works lncludlng Lhe rlghL Lo reproduce Lhe work Lo make coples and Lo perform or dlsplay Lhe
work publlcly CopyrlghL proLecLs arrangemenLs of facLs buL lL does noL cover newly collecLed facLs as
such Moreover copyrlghL does noL proLecL new ldeas and processes Lhey may be proLecLed lf aL all by
paLenLs1rade marks 1rade marks 1rademarks are especlally lmporLanL when consumers and producers
are far away from one anoLher Chlldren ask for 8arble dolls Lego bulldlng blocks and PoL Wheels Loy
cars Some adulLs dream of lerrarl auLomoblles buL more can afford Lo buy 1oyoLa or Ponda brands
1hese consumers need Lrademarks Lo seek or avold Lhe goods and servlces of parLlcular flrms
1rademarks are commerclal source lndlcaLors dlsLlncLlve slgns LhaL ldenLlfy cerLaln goods or servlces
produced or provlded by a speclflc person or enLerprlse 1rademarks are especlally
lmporLanLlnLellecLual properLy rlghLs ln lndla lnLellecLual properLy rlghLs ln lndla 1he year 1999
wlLnessed Lhe conslderaLlon and passage of ma[or leglslaLlon wlLh regard Lo proLecLlon of lnLellecLual
properLy rlghLs ln harmony wlLh lnLernaLlonal pracLlces and ln compllance wlLh lndlas obllgaLlons under
18lS 1hese lnclude 1 1he aLenLs (AmendmenL) AcL 1999 passed by Lhe lndlan arllamenL on March
10 1999 Lo amend Lhe aLenLs AcL of 1970 LhaL provldes for esLabllshmenL of a mall box sysLem Lo flle
paLenLs and accords excluslve markeLlng rlghLs for 3 years 2 1he 1rade Marks 8lll 1999 whlch repeals
and replaces Lhe 1rade and Merchandlse Marks AcL 1938 passed by Lhe lndlan arllamenL ln Lhe WlnLer
Sesslon LhaL concluded on uecember 23 1999 3 1he CopyrlghL (AmendmenL) AcL 1999 passed by boLh
houses of Lhe lndlan arllamenL and slgned by Lhe resldenL of lndla on uecember 30 1999CCn1u
CCn1u 4 A sul generls leglslaLlon for Lhe proLecLlon of geographlcal lndlcaLlons called Lhe
Ceographlcal lndlcaLlons of Coods (8eglsLraLlon roLecLlon) 8lll 1999 approved by boLh houses of Lhe
lndlan arllamenL on uecember 23 1999 3 1he lndusLrlal ueslgns 8lll 1999 whlch replaces Lhe ueslgns
AcL 1911 was passed ln Lhe upper Pouse of Lhe lndlan arllamenL ln Lhe WlnLer Sesslon whlch
concluded on uecember 23 1999 and ls presenLly before Lhe Lower Pouse for lLs conslderaLlon 6 1he
aLenLs (Second AmendmenL) 8lll 1999 Lo furLher amend Lhe aLenLs AcL 1970 and make lL 18lS
compllanL was lnLroduced ln Lhe upper Pouse of lndlan arllamenL on uecember 20 1999ManagemenL
of l8 ManagemenL of l8 1ransfer of l8 ln such away so as Lo generaLe Lhe maxlmum proflLs from an
lnLellecLual properLy LsLabllshmenL of collaboraLlon Lo faclllLaLe commerclallzaLlon of l8 MonlLorlng
Lhe lnfrlngemenLs of l8 and enforclng one's rlghLs where necessary 8enewal of paLenLs and deslgn
perlodlcally ln every counLry where Lhey are granLed erlodlcal evoluLlon of facLors llke 8u
lnvesLmenLs Lo Lhe royalLy raLlo Lo declde whlch l8 ls Lo be revlewed ln whlch counLry8eneflLs
roblems of l8 8eneflLs roblems of l8 8eneflLs Lncourages and safeguard lnLellecLual and arLlsLlc
creaLlons Spread of new ldeas and Lechnologles lnvesLmenL ln 8u efforLs Consumers goL large range
of producLs Lconomlc developmenL roblems Lncourages monopolles CosL enhancemenL ercelved as
a LhreaL Lo food securlLy by many May affecL dlverslLy and ecologlcal balance May be deLrlmenLal Lo
Lhe llvellhood of poor8 u LxLnul1u8L ln lnulA 8 u LxLnul1u8L ln lnulA lndla currenLly
spends abouL 08 Cu on 8 u and Lhe sclence and Lechnology pollcy (ln [an 2003) has Lhe LargeL Lo
ralse lL Lo 2 by Lhe year 2007And 80 of lndla's LoLal expendlLure ls made by govL lLselfln mosL of
developed counLrles pvL SecLor lncurs 6080 of Lhe LoLal 8 u expendlLurelnCLn1lvLS lC8
1LCPnCLCClCAL 8LSLA8CP Anu uLvLLCLMLn1 lnCLn1lvLS lC8 1LCPnCLCClCAL 8LSLA8CP Anu
uLvLLCLMLn1 lnCLn1lvLS lC8 8 u AC1lvl1lLS lncome Lax rellef on 8 u expendlLure WelghLed Lax
deducLlon for sponsored research programmes LxempLlon from Lhe paymenL of cusLom duLy on goods
lmporLed for use ln govL funded 8u pro[ecLs ulrecL flnanclal supporL Lo 8u cenLers1LCPnCLCC?
8CMC1lCn lC8 SLLl 8LLlAnCL 1LCPnCLCC? 8CMC1lCn lC8 SLLl 8LLlAnCL 1PL SLClllC
ASSlS1AnCL MLASu8LS lnCLuuL SupporL Lo preparaLlon of reporLs relaLlng Lo Lechnology exporL
SupporL Lo preparaLlon of reporLs relaLlng Lo Lechnologlcal experlence ln selecLed areas of lndusLry
SupporL for demonsLraLlon of Lechnologles ldenLlfled for exporLslnlC8MA1lCn S?S1LM lC8
1LCPnCLCC? uLvLLCMLn1 lnlC8MA1lCn S?S1LM lC8 1LCPnCLCC? uLvLLCMLn1 lor Lhe
promoLlon of sulLable Lechnology naLlonal lnformaLlon sysLem for sclence and Lechnology (nlSSA1)
provldes supporL Lo Lhe lnLerworklng of lnformaLlon sysLem on sclence and Lechnology1he sysLem
supporL 12 ma[or lnformaLlon neLworks ln Lhe counLry and many of Lhese have access Lo lnLernaLlonal
daLabaselnulA'S SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC?C8!LC1lvLS lMLLMLn1A1lCn S18A1LC? lnulA'S
SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC?C8!LC1lvLS lMLLMLn1A1lCn S18A1LC? 1echnology pollcy ls an
lmporLanL facLor LhaL provldes a envlronmenL for Lechnologlcal lnnovaLlons lL serves as Lhe ob[ecLlves
prlnclples on whlch fuLure Lechnologlcal developmenL wlll be laldC8!LC1lvLS Cl SClLnCL
1LCPnCLCC? CLlC? 2001 C8!LC1lvLS Cl SClLnCL 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC? 2001 romoLlon of self
rellance SusLalnable equlLable developmenL Lnlarged conLrlbuLlon Lo economlc growLh naLural
resources conservaLlon proLecLlon of physlcal envlronmenL MalnLenance of naLlonal securlLy
Lnhance lnLernaLlonal compeLlLlveness of lndlan economy MlLlgaLlon of naLural
hazardslMLLMLn1A1lCn Cl CLlC?2001 lMLLMLn1A1lCn Cl CLlC?2001 ModernlzaLlon of
lnfrasLrucLure SlmpllflcaLlon of admlnlsLraLlve flnanclal procedures LnhancemenLs of career aspecLs
of sclenLlsLs ln order Lo aLLracL new LalenLs LsLabllshmenL of rlgld quallLy sLandards laboraLorles Plgh
reward for successful lnnovaLlons LncouragemenL of 8u pro[ecLs for proLecLlon of l8 Lnhanclng
publlc awareness abouL sclence Lechnology llscal measures for encouraglng conLrlbuLlon of prlvaLe
lndusLry Lo 8uC8!LC1lvLS Cl SClLnCL Anu 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC? 2003 C8!LC1lvLS Cl SClLnCL
Anu 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC? 2003 Advance sclenLlflc Lemper and fully lnLegraLe sclence and Lechnology
lnLo all spheres of naLlonal acLlvlLy on a susLalnable basls lL would fosLer sclenLlflc research ln
unlverslLles and oLher lnsLlLuLlons CreaLe sulLable employmenL opporLunlLles ln Lhe S1 secLor Women
would be ensured full and equal parLlclpaLlon 1here would be necessary auLonomy and freedom of
funcLlonlng for academlc lnsLlLuLlons Speclal emphasls on forecasLlng prevenLlon mlLlgaLlon of
naLural resources lnLernaLlonal cooperaLlon would conLlnue Lo operaLelMLLMLn1A1lCn Cl CLlC?
lMLLMLn1A1lCn Cl CLlC? CpLlmal uLlllzaLlon of exlsLlng lnfrasLrucLure SLrengLhenlng lnfrasLrucLure
Puman resource developmenL ubllc awareness abouL sclence Lechnology lndusLry sclenLlflc 8u
llscal measures lnLernaLlonal Lechnology and cooperaLlons CeneraLlon managemenL of l8lSSuL
PlnuL8lnC 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC? lSSuL PlnuL8lnC 1LCPnCLCC? CLlC? Peavy domlnance of
governmenL ln Lechnology developmenL Weak lnLellecLual properLy reglme Slow raLe of Lechnology
Lransfer dlffuslon lnferlor poslLlon of lndlan parLners lmporL of ouLdaLed Lechnology SLlfllng lmpacL
of Lechnology lmporL on domesLlc 8u CondlLlons of sLagnaLlon ln Lechnology research LlLLle emphasls
on Lechnology asslmllaLlon absorpLlonSllde 28 1PAnk ?Cu