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Green Chemistry

M Melt That Ice


Background: When green chemists design the chemical pathway for making a product, energy use is high on their list of concerns. They look for alternative ways to make the same product, always considering whether the product would be more benign if made by a method requiring less energy. With many factors to consider starting materials, solvents, and the likethe decision is seldom clear-cut. Once theyve settled on the right chemistry, they think about finding the most efficient way to deliver the energy to the reaction. Does one way conserve precious energy dollars and the fuel resources better than other ways? What is the best way to supply energy to a reaction? When you use a microware or a hot plate to heat a container of water, not all of the heat is absorbed by the water, some of the heat produced is absorbed by the container and some is released to the immediate surroundings. In this activity, you will have to determine the best way to supply energy to a reaction. In the production of your crayons, you were using electrical (heat) energy to initiate the reaction to melt the wax. Because wax presents some hazards due to its flammability, for this exercise we will melt a more benign substance ice. Goal: To allow students to determine what is the most efficient method to supply energy to a reaction. Objectives: Students will: Determine the best method to supply heat to a reaction Calculate the amount of heat necessary to complete the reaction Materials (for a class of 28 working in groups of 2): 112 clear ice cubes of approximately the same size 28 - 8oz paper cups 28 one-quart double seal Ziploc bags 14 scales (digital or triple beam) 28 Student Sheets 2 hair dryers 2 microwave ovens 2 electric heating plates (no exposed coils) 2 small alcohol burners 10 heating stands 2 heat guns 2 heat lamps plus sockets 2 butane torches (substitute candles if necessary) 2 books of matches 14 -- 250 ml beakers Access to electrical outlets 28 pairs of safety glasses 10 watt-meters

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

1 Raytek infrared thermometer (Raytek Raynger ST20 Pro Infrared Thermometer, $185, http://www.forestrysuppliers.com/product_pages/view_catalog_page.asp?id=3051

Time Required: 1 to 2 -- 45-60 minute periods Standards Met: M12, M13, S2, S6, S7, S8 Green Chemistry principles addressed: 6, 7, 8, 12 Preparation before class: Using ice cube trays, prepare at least 112 regular ice cubes Procedure: Part 1 Begin by asking the following questions of the students: We are going to need a heat source to melt the ice. Presently, millions of chemical reactions are happening in this room that are exothermic (produce heat). Question: Where are these chemical reactions occurring? Answer: Millions of exothermic chemical reaction are happening within our bodies every second. These reactions occur during the processes of respiration and digestion. Question: What regulates the heat that our body produces? Answer: The part of the brain called the hypothalamus controls the amount of heat that our body produces through a series of negative and positive feedback systems. Question: How does our body get eliminate excess heat? Answer: Our body eliminates excess heat through radiation, sweating, and panting. Question: What part of the body radiates the most heat? Answer: This depends on the individual, but usually the head and the back of the neck radiate the most heat. Question: What part of the body radiates the least amount of heat. Answer: Again, this depends on the individual, but usually the extremities (hands and feet) radiate the least amount of heat. The difference between the amount of heat radiated from the head and the amount radiated from the extremities could possibly be a measurement of the efficiency of the individuals circulation system. At this point, ask for volunteers to measure the temperature variance between the back of their necks and the palm of their hands using the infrared thermometer.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Discuss the results with the class. We will now try to use our body heat to carry out a reaction in which we will melt two ice cubes.

Place the students into groups of 2. Pass out one set of Student Sheets to each student. Have one student from each group go to the supply area and pick up 1 scale, 2 Ziploc bags, and 2 8oz paper cups. Tell students to zero the scale. Instruct each student to find the mass of their cup with the Ziploc bag inside of it and record this mass in Table 1. Pass out 2 clear ice cubes to each student and have them place them quickly into the Ziploc bag and seal it tightly. Tell each student to find the mass of the bag, ice, and cup together and record this mass Table 1. Have the students calculate how many grams of ice they have. Instruct the students that they are to find the fastest way (have them record their starting and finishing time in Table 1) to melt the ice that is in their bag following the below restrictions: The bag cannot be opened at any time Students cannot leave their assigned area. No holes can be made in the bag. The ice cube cannot be crushed or broken into pieces. All ice in the bag must be turned into water. Have the students calculate the amount of heat that they supplied to the reaction by using the formula: Heat required to melt ice (in calories) = Mass of ice (grams) x 80 calories/gram

Instruct them to record the amount of heat required in Table 1.

Part 2 Have the students form groups of 2. Inform each student to put on a pair of safety glasses. Give 2 groups of students hair dryers, 2 groups heat guns, 2 groups a small alcohol burner with 1 book of matches, 2 groups an electric hot plate, 2 groups an infrared heat lamp with electrical sockets, 2 groups a small microwave, and two groups a small butane torch (or candles). Give a watt-meter to each group that is using an electrical appliance. Give a heating stand to all groups except the microwave group and the electric hot plate group. Have the students with electrical appliances plug them in but not turn them on. Supply a scale to each of the groups. Have each group pick up a 250 ml beaker and find the mass when it is empty on the scale and record the result in Table 2.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Place 4 ice cubes in each of the students beakers and have them find the mass again (beaker plus ice) and record their results in Table 2. Instruct the students that when you say go, they are to melt the ice in their beakers as quickly as possible. Instruct the groups with electrical appliances that they should record the amount of energy required to melt their ice using the watt-meters and record it in Table 2. Have each group record in Table 2 their start and ending times. When several of the groups have completed their task, stop the class. Have the students clean up their lab stations and return all equipment to the supply area.

Assessment/ Homework As homework, should answer the questions on the Student Sheets.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Melt That Ice-Student Sheet


Date: Name: Introduction: In this lab, you will be determining how much energy in the form of heat it requires to complete a reaction. Materials: Part 1 (For each group of 2) 4 clear ice cubes of approximately the same size 2 8oz paper cups 2 one-quart double Ziploc bags 1 scales (digital or triple beam) 2 pairs of safety glasses 2 Student Sheets Part 2 (For each group of 2) The equipment requirements varying between groups. Your instructor will explain the variations to you when the experiment begins. 4 clear ice cubes of approximately the same size 1 scale (digital or triple beam) 2 Student Sheets hair dryer microwave oven electric heating plate (no exposed coils) small alcohol burner heating stand heat gun heat lamp plus socket butane torch (substitute a candle if necessary) book of matches 250 ml beaker Access to an electrical outlet 2 pairs of safety glasses watt meter Procedure: Part 1 Get into groups of 2. One student from each group should go to the supply area and pick up 1 scale, 2 Ziploc bags, and 2 8oz paper cups. Zero the scale. Find the mass of each of your cups with the Ziploc bag inside of it. Record this mass in Table 1. Have the instructor place 2 clear ice cubes into each of the Ziploc bag, then seal them tightly. Find the mass of each of the bags, ice, and cups.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Record this mass Table 1. Calculate how many grams of ice you have in each of your bags. Record this mass in Table 1. When the instructor tells you to begin, determine the fastest way (record your starting and finishing time in Table 1) to melt the ice that is in your bag following the below restrictions: The bag cannot be opened at any time. Students cannot leave their assigned area. No holes can be made in the bag. The ice cube cannot be crushed or broken into pieces. All ice in the bag must be turned into water. Calculate the amount of heat that you have supplied to the reaction by using the formula: Heat required to melt ice (in calories) = Mass of ice (grams) x 80 calories/gram

Record the amount of heat required in Table 1.

Part 2 Form groups of 2. Put on a pair of safety glasses. Your instructor will now tell you what equipment you will need for the next part of the experiment. Find the mass of your beaker empty and record in it in Table 2. Place 4 ice cubes in your beaker and determine the mass of the ice similar to the procedure in Part 1. Record the mass of the ice in Table 2. When the instructor says go, melt the ice in your beaker as quickly as possible using the equipment that the instructor has supplied to you. Record the starting and ending times in Table 2. When several of the groups have completed their task, stop. Explain to the class the procedure that you used to try to melt the ice. Clean up your lab stations and return all equipment to the supply area. Answer the questions on the Student Sheets.

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Green Chemistry

Table 1
Name Mass of Cup and Ziploc Bag (Grams) Mass of Cup, Ziploc Bag and Ice (Grams) Mss of Ice (Grams) Starting Time Ending Time (All Ice Melted) Heat Required to Melt Ice (Calories)

Use the space below to show all of your calculations and formulas.

Table 2
Name Mass of Beaker Empty (Grams) Mass of Beaker with Ice (Grams) Mass of Ice (Grams) Starting Time Ending Time Watts Used (if using an electrical appliance)

Questions for Thought: 1. Is using your body heat an effective way to melt ice? Explain why or why not.

2. In Part 2 of this lab, what do you think was the most effective plan/materials to melt the ice?

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

3. One of the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry is to minimize the amount of energy needed to complete a reaction. Do you think the method you selected in question 2 follows this principle of Green Chemistry? Explain your answer.

4. Can you think of another method of supplying energy to this reaction that would follow the principles of Green Chemistry? Would this method be more Green than your answer to question 2? Explain.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Melt That Ice-Teacher Answer Key


Date: Name: Introduction: In this lab, you will be detrmining how much energy in the form of heat it requires to complete a reaction. Materials: Part 1 (For each group of 2) 4 clear ice cubes of approximately the same size 2 8oz paper cups 2 one-quart double Ziploc bags 1 scales (digital or triple beam) 2 pairs of safety glasses 2 Student Sheets Part 2 (For each group of 2) The equipment requirements varying between groups. Your instructor will explain the variations to you when the experiment begins. 4 clear ice cubes of approximately the same size 1 scale (digital or triple beam) 2 Student Sheets hair dryer microwave oven electric heating plate (no exposed coils) small alcohol burner heating stand heat gun heat lamp plus socket butane torch (substitute a candle if necessary) book of matches 250 ml beaker Access to an electrical outlet 2 pairs of safety glasses watt-meter Procedure: Part 1 Get into groups of 2. One student from each group should go to the supply area and pick up 1 scale, 2 Ziploc bags, and 2 8oz paper cups. Zero the scale. Find the mass of each of your cups with the Ziploc bag inside of it. Record this mass in Table 1. Have the instructor place 2 clear ice cubes into each of the Ziploc bag, then seal them tightly. Find the mass of each of the bags, ice, and cups.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Record this mass Table 1. Calculate how many grams of ice you have in each of your bags. Record this mass in Table 1. When the instructor tells you to begin, determine the fastest way (record your starting and finishing time in Table 1) to melt the ice that is in your bag following the below restrictions: The bag cannot be opened at any time Students cannot leave their assigned area. No holes can be made in the bag. The ice cube cannot be crushed or broken into pieces. All ice in the bag must be turned into water. Calculate the amount of heat that you have supplied to the reaction by using the formula: Heat required to melt ice (in calories) = Mass of ice (grams) x 80 calories/gram

Record the amount of heat required in Table 1.

Part 2 Form groups of 2. Put on a pair of safety glasses. Your instructor will now tell you what equipment you will need for the next part of the experiment. Find the mass of you beaker empty and record in it in Table 2. Place 4 ice cubes in your beaker and determine the mass of the ice similar to the procedure in Part 1. Record the mass of the ice in Table 2. When the instructor says go, melt the ice in your beaker as quickly as possible using the equipment that the instructor has supplied to you. Record the starting and ending times in Table 2. When several of the groups have completed their task stop. Explain to the class the procedure that you used to try to melt the ice. Clean up your lab stations and return all equipment to the supply area. Answer the questions on the Student Sheets.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Melt That Ice-Teacher Answer Key


Table 1
Name Mass of Cup and Ziploc Bag (Grams) Answers will vary Mass of Cup, Ziploc Bag and Ice (Grams) Mss of Ice (Grams) Starting Time Ending Time (All Ice Melted) Heat Required to Melt Ice (Calories)

Use the space below to show all of your calculations and formulas.

Table 2
Name Mass of Beaker Empty (Grams) Answers will vary Mass of Beaker with Ice (Grams) Mass of Ice (Grams) Starting Time Ending Time Watts Used (if using an electrical appliance)

Questions for Thought: 4. Is using your body heat an effective way to melt ice? Explain why or why not. Answer will vary, but students will more than likely say that body heat is not a very effective way to melt ice. Their explanation should include that body does not supply heat fast enough, or the heat that is supplied is not at a high enough temperature to effectively melt ice.

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Green Chemistry

5. In Part 2 of this lab, what do you think was the most effective plan/materials to melt the ice? Answers will vary.

6. One of the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry is to minimize the amount of energy needed to complete a reaction. Do you think the method you selected in question 2 follows this principle of Green Chemistry? Explain your answer. Answers will vary.

4. Can you think of another method of supplying energy to this reaction that would follow the principles of Green Chemistry? Would this method be more Green than your answer to question 2? Explain. Answers will vary.

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Day 6

Green Chemistry

Melt that ice-Questions for Thought


Name: 1. Which device was the most energy efficient? Date:

2. Was there any difference between the energy rating found on the appliance and the reading obtained from the Watts-Up meter? If yes, try to explain why.

3. Do you think that a green chemist would use a microwave or a hot plate to promote a chemical reaction in the production of a product? Explain your answer.

4. In your Company group decide which form of energy you will use.

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