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Meher Prasad

Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras email: prasadam@iitm.ac.in

Dynamic - Loads change with time Nonlinear - Loaded beyond Elastic Limit

Linear Dynamic Response Spectrum Nonlinear Static Nonlinear Dynamic Pushover Analysis Time History

Overview

What is pushover analysis? What are its fundamental techniques? What tools can be used? Common pitfalls in pushover analysis Example of pushover analysis application

Static Nonlinear Analysis technique, also known as sequential yield analysis, or simply "push-over" analysis has gained significant importance during the past few years. It is one of the three analysis techniques recommended by FEMA 273/274 and a main component of the Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40). Proper application can provide valuable insights into the expected performance of structural systems and components Misuse can lead to an erroneous understanding of the performance characteristics.

Push-over analysis is a technique by which a computer model of the building is subjected to a lateral load of a certain shape (i.e., parabolic, inverted triangular or uniform). The intensity of the lateral load is slowly increased and the sequence of cracks, yielding, plastic hinge formations, and failure of various structural components is recorded. Push-over analysis can provide a significant insight into the weak links in seismic performance of a structure.

A series of iterations are usually required during which, the structural deficiencies observed in one iteration, are rectified and followed by another. This iterative analysis and design process continues until the design satisfies a pre-established performance criteria. The performance criteria for push-over analysis is generally established as the desired state of the building given a roof-top or spectral displacement amplitude.

To obtain the maximum shear strength of the structure, Vb, and the mechanism of collapse. To evaluate if the structure can achieve the collapse mechanism without exhausting the plastic rotation capacity of the members. To obtain the monotonic displacement and global ductility capacity of the structure. To estimate the concentration of damage and IDI (Interstorey Drift Index) that can be expected during the nonlinear seismic response.

V/W (Acceleration)

Using simple modal analysis equations spectral displacement and roof-top displacement may be converted to each other. High-Strength; High-Stiffness; Brittle

Roof-top Displacement

Ordinary Design

Co V/W (Acceleration) nst an tP

V/W (Acceleration)

er io d

Li ne s

Period

DESIGN SPECTRUM

ELASTIC DEMAND SPECTRUM

Nonlinear Analysis software with built-in push-over analysis capabilities Nonlinear Analysis software with built-in push-over analysis capabilities DRAIN DRAIN IDARC IDARC SAP2000NL SAP2000NL ETABS ETABS ANSYS ANSYS SAVE SAVE Spread Plasticity Spread Plasticity Spread and Point Plasticity Spread and Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Spread Plasticity Spread Plasticity Point Plasticity (Public version) Point Plasticity (Public version) Spread Plasticity (Research version) Spread Plasticity (Research version)

Sequential application of linear analysis software Sequential application of linear analysis software

1. Nonlinearity is assumed to be distributed along the length of the plastic hinge. 2. It provides a more accurate representation of the actual non-linear behaviour of the element 1. Plasticity is assumed to be concentrated at the critical locations. In addition to usual moment hinges, there can be axial hinges and shear hinges. 2. Plastification of the section is assumed to occur suddenly, and not gradually or fibre-by-fibre.

Plastic Hinge

Curvature diagram along the length of the member

No building can be pushed to infinity without failure. Performance point is where the Seismic Capacity and the

Seismic Demand curves meet.

point is acceptable, we have a building that satisfies the push-over criterion.

ATC-40 Method

This is an iterative procedure involving several analyses. For each analysis an effective period for an equivalent elastic system and a corresponding elastic displacement are calculated. This displacement is then divided by a damping factor to obtain an estimate of real displacement at that step of analysis.

V/W (Acceleration)

T0

eff = 0 + 0.05

T e ff

e/B

SRA =

5% damped elastic spectrum

SRV =

Roof-top Displacement

1.

2.

3.

4. Plot the demand diagram and capacity diagram together Intersection point gives the displacement demand Avoids nonlinear RHA; instead analyse equivalent linear systems

1. Do not underestimate the importance of the loading or displacement shape function. Know your performance objectives before you push the building. If it is not designed, it cannot be pushed. Do not ignore gravity loads. Do not push beyond failure unless otherwise you can model failure. Pay attention to rebar development and lap lengths. Do not ignore shear failure mechanisms P-Delta effects may be more important than you think. Do not confuse the Push-over with the real earthquake loading. Three-dimensional buildings may require more than a planar push.

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

The loading or deformation shape function is selected to represent the predominant dynamic mode shape of the building. It is most common to keep the load shape constant during the push. Loading shape importance increases for tall buildings whose earthquake response is not dominated by a single mode shape. For these buildings, a loading shape function based on the first mode shape may seriously underestimate the seismic demand on the intermediate floor levels.

0.16 0.14 0.12 Vb/W 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Inverted Triangle

Uniform

parabola

/H(%)

So called higher mode effects as the load distribution changes Limit base moment increases adapts for maximum shear force Limit base shear increases adapts for maximum bending moment Not apparent from linear analysis

No building can be displaced to infinity without damage. building can be displaced It is of paramount importance to understand the specific performance objectives desired for the building. Performance objectives such as collapse prevention, life safety, or immediate occupancy have to be translated into technical terms such as: (a) a given set of design spectra, and (b) specific limit states acceptable for various structural components A push-over analysis without a clearly defined performance objectives is of little use.

Structural Performance Levels and Ranges

Nonstructural Performance Levels S-1 Immediate Occupancy S-2 Damage Control S-3 Life Safety S-4 Limited Safety S-5 Collapse Prevention S-6 Not Considered

N-A Operational

1- A Operational

2- A

NR

NR

NR

NR

1- B Immediate Occupancy

2- B

3- B

NR

NR

NR

1- C

2- C

3- C Life Safety

4- C

5- C

6- C

NR

2- D

3- D

4- D

5- D

6- D

NR

NR

3-E

4-E

No rehabilitation

Earthquake levels p t years Serviceability earthquake - 1 Serviceability earthquake - 2 Design basis earthquake (DBE) 50% 20% 10% 5% 10% 2% 10% 50 50 50 50 100 50 250 N years 72 224 475 975 1000 949 2475 2500 2373 Very rare Approximate N years 75 225 500 Frequent Occasional Rare Remarks

Extremely rare

Earthquake levels Probability of Exceedance in a period Target building performance level Operational Immediate Occupancy Life Safety Collapse Prevention

50% in 50 years

20% in 50 years

10% in 50 years

Ba s

2% in 50 years

ick Sa fe ty

o

Ob jep c ti v

E, I, and A are not sufficient. Push-over characteristics are strong functions of force-displacement characteristics of individual members and their connections. If detailed characteristics are not known, the pushover analysis will be an exercise in futility.

Inclusion or exclusion of the gravity loads can have a pronounced effect on the shape of the push-over curve and the member yielding and failure sequence. Example: Due to the unsymmetric distribution of + and - reinforcements in R/C beams, gravity load delays the onset of yielding and cracking in the beams, resulting in a stiffer structure at lower magnitudes of base shear. The ultimate capacity of the structure, is usually reduced with increasing gravity load.

5. Do not push beyond failure unless otherwise you can model failure

Ultimate Capacity

Lateral Force

Actual

Force or Moment

Displacement

Displacement or Curvature

For R/C members of existing structures, it is very important to note the development lengths when calculating member capacities. If inadequate development lengths are present, as they are in most of the older buildings, the contributing steel area should be reduced to account for this inadequacy. Failure to do so will result in overestimating the actual capacity of the members and results in an inaccurate push-over curve.

Joint Detailing

If the shear capacity of structural members is not sufficient to permit the formation of flexural plastic hinges, shear failure will precede the formation of plastic hinges at the end of the member. In R/C members, even if the shear capacity is sufficient, but lateral reinforcement is not spaced close enough at the plastic hinge zones, the concrete may crush in the absence of sufficient confinement. If this happens, the plastic capacity is suddenly dropped to what can be provided by the longitudinal steel alone.

Shear Failure

This failure can be avoided by providing special confining reinforcement over entire column length

The P- effects become increasingly significant with larger lateral displacements and larger axial column forces. Strong column - weak beam design strategy commonly deals with the moment capacity of columns in the undeformed state. In a substantially deformed state, the moment capacity of columns may be sufficiently reduced to counteract the strong column - weak beam behaviour envisioned by the design. Cases of plastic hinge formations during a push-over analysis in columns "designed" to be stronger than the beams are not rare.

The push-over load is monotonically increased The earthquake generated forces continually change in amplitude and direction during the duration of earthquake ground motion. Push-over loads and structural response are in phase Earthquake excitations and building response are not necessarily in phase. This is particularly true for near-fault ground motions which tend to concentrate the damage on the lower floors, an effect which is difficult to model by the push-over loads.

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

IDARC SAP 0.16g 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.25g 0.3g 0.35g

Vb/W

-0.1

-0.15

-0.2

/H

For building with strong asymmetry in plan, or with numerous non-orthogonal elements, a planar (two dimensional) push-over analysis may not suffice. For such cases a 3D model of the building must be constructed and subjected to push-over analysis. Three dimensional buildings may be pushed in the principal directions independently, or pushed simultaneously in orthogonal directions.

Create 3D Model Gravity Pushover (Force controlled) DL+0.25LL Lateral Pushover (Displacement controlled)

(Lateral Load at centre of mass)

Material Properties

Concrete Properties

Reinforcing Steel Properties

E c = 5000 f ck )

Modification Factors

Factors to estimate the expected strength 1.5 times the Concrete compressive strength (fck) Steel yield stress (fy) (Factor of 1.25 used for capacity estimation considering strain hardening of steel)

Knowledge Factors, mk

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description of available information Original construction documents, including material testing report Documentation as in (1) but no material testing undertaken Documentation as in (2) and minor deteriorations of original condition Incomplete but usable original construction documents Documentation as in (4) and limited inspection and material test results with large variation. Little knowledge about the details of components mk 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

Material Properties

Frame Elements

Infill (struts)

Beams and columns Slab Flat slabs Beam column joints Asymmetric Structures 3D Frame elements Diaphragm action (ignore the out of plane stiffness) Plate elements End offsets (Rigid zone factor 1) Centre of mass (add non structural mass to corresponding beams) Centre of stiffness Include water tanks, cantilever slabs

Inclusion of appendages

Stairway slabs Shear Walls Infill walls Foundation Isolated footings Single pile Multiple piles Plinth beams Fixity of columns at top of pile cap Frame elements Hinged at the bottom of foundation Fixed at five times the diameter of pile Equivalent frame elements Wide Column Elements Equivalent strut method

3D Frame Elements Cross Sectional dimensions, reinforcement details, material type Effective moment of inertia Beams Rectangular T-Beam L-Beam Columns 0.5 Ig 0.7 Ig 0.6 Ig 0.7 Ig

Modeling of Beams

Modeling of Columns

End offsets (Rigid zone factor 1)

Modeling of Slab

Step 1. Equivalent Strut Properties Smith and Carter Model a) Strength of infill, P b) Initial modulus of elasticity of infill, Ei c) Equivalent strut width (when force in the strut = R), w d) Thickness of infill, t

Type I Model - Single Lift Core Column Equivalent Wide Column Elements connected to the frame through rigid links

BEAM

y x

MASTER NODE

t L

Beam elements with rigid ends

Type II Model - Single Lift Core Column The lift core can be treated as a single column with master node defined at the centroid and the beams connected by rigid links

SLAVE NODE

(Lift Core Column Properties)

For axial and torsional rigidity, the full cross-sectional area should be used

BEAM

y x

FOR A, J

SLAVE NODE

(Lift Core Column Properties)

For shear along y axis and bending about x-axis (ground motion along y-axis), the walls in the direction of ground motion should be considered as two parallel elements

BEAM

y x

SLAVE NODE

(Lift Core Column Properties)

For shear along x axis and bending about y-axis (ground motion along x-axis), the walls in the direction of ground motion should be considered as three parallel elements

BEAM

y x

SLAVE NODE

b a

Lateral Load

1.0

D c A y

Lateral Deformation

Shear capacity

Shear strength (V)

V sy = f y A sv

d 0 .6 s v

Vy

Vu = 1.05Vy

=0

0.2 Vy

y

1.5y

m=15y

Shear deformation ()

b a

Lateral Load

1.0

D c A y

Lateral Deformation

* ATC 40 Volume 1

Shear capacity

0.8 f ck ( 1 + 5 1) c = 6 0.116 f ck bd w h ere = 1.0 100 A st

3Pu = 1+ 1.5 Ag f ck

Vc = c bd

V sy = f y A sv

d 0 .6 s v

3 Pu 0 .5 A g f ck

Yield deformation (y) is to be calculated using the following formula.

Rl = G 0.75 Ag

Where G = Shear modulus of the reinforced concrete section Ag = Gross area of the section l = Length of member

The ultimate shear strength (Vu) is taken as 5% more than yield shear strength (Vy) and residual shear strength is taken as 20% of the yield shear strength for modelling of the shear hinges as shown in Figure.

Shear strength (V) Vy Vu = 1.05Vy

0.2 Vy

y

y Shear

1.5 m=15y

deformation ()

Similarly maximum shear deformation is taken as 15 times the yield deformation. The values were taken as per SAP 2000 manual recommendations.

Determination of the Load pattern: (IS 1893 (part 1) : 2002 ) Fundamental natural period Design Base Shear Design Lateral Force

0 . 09 h d

Ta =

Q3

VB = Ah W

Wi hi Qi = VB 2 W j hj

2

Q2

Q1

Building Data

Building frame system Usage Built in Zone Number of stories Footing Symmetry Material used Plan dimensions Building height Soil Type (assumed) RC OMRF Residential 1999 V G+4 Multiple Piles About Y-axis M15 & Fe 415 25.2m X 13.95m 15.7m Type-II (Medium)

floor)

Comments

Visual inspection did not reveal concrete deterioration. Knowledge factor was not applied. Architectural drawings were not available. Location of infill walls was postulated. Geotechnical data was not available. Rebar detailing was not complete in the available structural drawings. Building considered to be noncompliant with IS 13920: 1993 (R = 3). Fixity considered at pile cap. Soil-structure interaction neglected. Elevator walls not considered as lateral load resisting elements.

Gravity Load Analysis Lateral Load Analysis Linear static analysis (Equivalent Static Method, IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002) Response Spectrum Method (IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002) Non-linear Static Analysis (Pushover Analysis, ATC 40)

Structural Parameters

Center of Mass (m)

Xdirection Ydirection

Floor

Xdirection Ydirection

Xdirection Ydirection

Xdirection Ydirection

5 4 3 2 1

Base shear, VB = AhW W Z I R = Total seismic weight of the building = 0.36 (for Zone V) = 1 (for normal building) = 3 (for OMRF)

ZI Sa Ah = 2R g

Ah = 0.15 VB = 0.15 20270 kN = 3039 kN

Without infill stiffness Analysis methods Vx (kN) Equivalent Static Method EQX EQY 2796 2796 Vy (kN)

3039 -

3039

Empirical Formulae With infill stiffness Time Period (s) Sa/g Tax= 0.28 2.50 Tay= 0.38 2.50 Without infill stiffness 0.59 2.30 Computational Model With infill stiffness 0.73 1.87 Without infill stiffness 0.83 1.64

Without infill Mode T (s) 0.83 0.78 0.42 0.25 0.24 Mass Participation (%) UX 1 2 3 4 5 88.34 2.22 1.23 6.05 0.14 Uy 1.95 86.71 0.47 0.16 8.02 0.73 0.69 0.38 0.22 0.21 T (s)

With infill Mass Participation (%) UX 92.29 1.26 0.72 4.44 0.11 Uy 1.10 90.23 0.59 0.13 6.33

Mode Shapes

Mode Shapes

Mode Shapes

Y

Section

Absolute Capacities

y Pu x

ey

ex Pu

Puz

Y

PuR

MuR,y

P (kN)

M2 (kNm)

M3 (kNm)

P (kN)

M2 (kNm)

M3 (kNm)

P (kN)

M2 (kNm)

M3 (kNm)

Muy1

0 Muy = Pu ey

2 2 M uR = M ux + M uy

Mux = Pu ex

Sections Absolute Capacities Absolute Demand (With infill stiffness) Vd (kN) 184 226 189 227 231 154 0.74 0.87 0.69 0.80 0.81 0.55 DCR Absolute Demand (Without infill stiffness) Vd (kN) 161 206 177 209 212 231 DCR

Vu (kN) 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 2C5 250 259 275 282 285 282

Vu is higher of the shear from analysis and the shear corresponding to the flexural capacity Mu (Vu = Mu / Ls)

5 4 Storey Level 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Displacement (mm)

With Infill

Without Infill

18 16 14 12 Storey level (m) Storey level (m) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40

-2

With infill

Without infill

Performance Objective

1.

Design Basis Earthquake + Life Safety (2% total drift) Maximum Considered Earthquake + Collapse Prevention (4% total drift)

2.

Q5= 15.22 Q4= 11.70 Q3= 6.83 Q2= 3.25 Q1= 1.00 5 4 3 2 1

Hinge Property

1.2

B IO LS

CP

B IO

0.8

Moment/SF

0.6

LS Life Safety

D A

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 Rotation/SF 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04

0.4

CP Collapse Prevention

E

0.2

Ultimate state

Demand Spectrum

Seismic Coefficient, CA Soil Type I Type II Type III Zone II (0.10) 0.10 0.10 0.10 Zone III (0.16) 0.16 0.16 0.16 Seismic Coefficient, CV Type I Type II Type III 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.16 0.22 0.27 0.24 0.33 0.40 0.36 0.49 0.60 Zone IV (0.24) 0.24 0.24 0.24 Zone V (0.36) 0.36 0.36 0.36

4000

1.5VB

3500 3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

Without infill stiffness With infill stiffness

500

0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

4000 3500

1.5VB

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

Without infill stiffness With infill stiffness

500

0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

1.0 Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4

Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30

Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 Spectral Displacement (m)

Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

Retrofitting Scheme

1. 2.

Continuing infill walls only at a few locations. Strengthening of the ground floor columns.

9000

8000

C B A

/h=0.28% /h=0.48% /h=0.75%

7000

6000

5000

VB

4000

3000

2000

/h = 1 %

1000

0 0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.20

A, /h=0.28%

B, /h=0.48%

C, /h=0.75%

D, /h=1%

1.0

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0

5%

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Storey Displacements

18

15

12

H(m)

0

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20

Displacement (m)

IDI

5

B A D C

3 H(m) 2 1 0 0.000

0.005

0.010 IDI

0.015

0.020

FE

V/W (Acceleration)

FI

Roof-top Displacement

FE

V/W (Acceleration)

FI

Roof-top Displacement

FE

V/W (Acceleration) REDUCE SEISMIC DEMAND BY: ADDING DAMPING OR ISOLATION

FI

Roof-top Displacement

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