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Textile industry one of the oldest and largest sectors of light industry, producing fabrics, textiles, knitwear, and

other articles from various types of plant, animal, and chemical (artificial and synthetic) fibber. The textile industry occupies an important place in the production of social product and the satisfaction of personal needs. The industry includes the following divisions: initial processing of textile raw materials, fulling and felting, and the production of cotton fabrics, linen fabrics, wool fabrics, silk fabrics, nonwoven materials, hemp and jute, netting, textile clothing accessories and notions, and knitwear. Textile products are used in the manufacture of clothing and footwear and in other sectors of industry, such as the furniture industry and machine building.
Table 1. Fabric production in the USSR in 1913 and 1940 (million sq m) 1913 1940

Cotton ............... Wool ............... Silk ............... Linen ...............

1, 817 138 35.4 121

2, 715 155 67 272

The production of textile goods began in antiquity. The cultivation of cotton and the hand production of yarn and fabric were known in India, China, and Egypt many centuries before the Common Era. The textile industry was the first sector to take up machine production, giving rise in the second half of the 18th century to the industrial revolution. In Russia, in addition to cloth mills and capitalist production, there were many small domestic enterprises producing wool goods. Such enterprises belonged to gentry landowners and were based on serf labor. Cloth production, V. I. Lenin wrote, is an example of that specific phenomenon of Russian historythe employment of serf labor in industry (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 3, p. 471). In the early 18th century many large wool, flax, and silk mills were built in regions where the population had long engaged in domestic production of linen fabrics; the wool mills produced cloth, and the cotton mills manufactured primarily sails and linen. The cotton fabric industry arose in Russia much later than other sectors of the textile industry, and it developed on the basis of linen weaving. Relatively large cotton mills for cloth production appeared in the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries. In prerevolutionary Russia the textile industry was one of the chief sectors of manufacturing. In 1913 it accounted for 20.5 percent of all industrial output and approximately 32 percent of consumer goods output. The industry was located primarily in the Central Zone of European Russia; here were located the factory of the Society of the Manufactory of Vikula Morozov, the Company of the Bogorodsk-Glukhov Manufactory, the Industrial Society of the Nosov Brothers, the Musi-Guzhon Silk Mill, and the
Table 2. USSR textile industry output for the principal fabric types in the period 195075 1950 1960 1970 1975

Cotton (million sq m) ............... Wool (million sq m) ............... Silk (million sq m) ............... Linen (million sq m) ............... Knitted underwear and outerwear (millionarticles) ...............

2,745 4,838 6,152 6,635 193 106 257 197 439 675 516 583 643 707 740 778 1,146 1,508 1,230 1,417

Table 3. Fabric production in the foreign socialist countries (millions sq m) Cotton Wool Silk 1960 1975 1960 1975 1960 1975

Bulgaria ............... Czechoslovakia ...............

185.0 338.7 26.2 48.0 8.7


453.1 547.9 74.1 84.2 70.8 102.9

Table 3. Fabric production in the foreign socialist countries (millions sq m) Cotton Wool Silk 1960 1975 1960 1975 1960 1975

German Democratic Republic ............... 416.6 473.2 147.1 106.7 68.2 120.6 Hungary ............... Poland ............... Rumania ............... Yugoslavia ............... 246.5 351.4 30.8 36.2 28.4 54.5 604.0 952.7 108.7 181.3 103.8 193.3 248.3 591.1 29.8 78.1 25.3 88.8 257.0 375.5 45.8 66.1 19.4 39.5

Prokhorov Manufactory. The St. Petersburg area and Astrakhan and Saratov provinces were also important centers of the textile industry. There was no textile industry in Middle Asia or Kazakhstanthe primary sources of raw material. The development of the textile industry was held back by a shortage of raw materials and by the industrys dependence on imports. The major textile enterprises were equipped primarily with imported machinery. Domestic machine building satisfied only slightly more than 20 percent of the demand for machine tools and machinery. The production of knitwear and textile clothing accessories and notions, silk winding, and the primary processing of flax and wool were just beginning as industries. Textile industry workers labored under extremely difficult conditions, and child labor was widely used. After World War I and the Civil War of 191820, production volume dropped sharply. During the very first years of Soviet power, new factories were built and old enterprises were brought back into operation. By 1926 27, the following factories were in operation: the Lakin and Pioneer factories in Vladimir Oblast, the F. E. Dzerzhinskii Weaving Mill in Leningrad, and the F. E. Dzerzhinskii Krasnaia Talka Spinning Mill in Ivanovo. The total production of cotton, linen, wool, and silk fabrics surpassed the 1913 level. During the years of the first five-year plan (192932), 13 cotton, three linen, four wool, and several other textile enterprises were launched. Under the second five-year plan (193337), construction was completed on the first phase of the Tashkent and Barnaul cotton fabric combines, the Dushanbe Textile Combine, the linen combines in Smolensk, Orsha, and Kostroma, a cloth combine in Semipalatinsk, a silk-weaving mill in Nukha, and other textile enterprises. As a result of increased production capacities, the production of cotton fabrics in 1940 significantly surpassed the 1913 level (see Table 1). The production of knitwear increased from 8.3 million articles in 1928 to 186 million in 1940. During the prewar five-year plans, the textile industry became established in the Union republics of Middle Asia and Transcaucasia, and a new sector of textile industry emergedthe production of nonwoven, fabric-type materials. During the Great Patriotic War of 194115, the textile industry in the territory temporarily occupied by fascist German troops suffered great losses, and many enterprises were ruined. Under the fourth five-year plan (194650), the textile industry was rebuilt, and its output surpassed the prewar level. After the war all sectors of the textile industry developed significantly. Cotton enterprises were built in Kamyshin, Engels, Kherson, Barnaul (a second combine), Dushanbe (second phase), Cheboksary, Iartsevo, Omsk, Gori, Krasnodar, Alitus, Kalinin, Alma-Ata, and Bukhara. New woolen enterprises were built in Minsk, Briansk, Ivanovo, Krasnodar, Tiumen, Chernigov, Chita, and Chernogorsk. Silk enterprises were built in Krasnoiarsk, Naro-Fominsk, Kalinin, and Leningrad. Linen enterprises were established in Zhitomir, Rovno, Velikie Luki, and Panevys. Enterprises producing knitwear were built in Cheboksary, Ufa, Pinsk, Ogre, and Kursk. The introduction of new production capabilities and highly productive equipment and the transition in enterprises to the new system of planning and economic incentive helped increase the production growth rate for fabrics and knitwear. The development of the textile industry in the period 195074 is shown in Table 2. In 1975 the USSR led the world in the production of wool and linen fabrics. The growth in textile output is supported by a corresponding increase in the production of textile raw materials. In prerevolutionary Russia, which produced one-fourth as much cotton fabrics and virtually no knitwear, approximately 50 percent of the cotton fiber used was imported from the USA and Egypt. The USSR now

supplies all its own raw material needs and exports more than 500,000 tons of cotton fiber. At the same time, the qualitative composition of textile raw materials has also changed. Plants manufacturing artificial fibers have mastered the production of new types of materials, including acetate silk, Lavsan, and Nitron. Considerable attention is being devoted to improvements in the quality and expansion of the range of textile goods through the introduction of new types of fabrics and knitwear, the use of colorfast and bright dyes, and the careful finishing of fabrics. Further increases in production and quality improvements are made possible by the technical reequipping of textile enterprises, the introduction of new machinery and progressive technology, and the mechanization and automation of production. Spinning-and-twisting frames, highly productive carding and pneumatic spinning machines, and pneumatic rapier looms and other shuttleless looms are being introduced in the textile industry. Scientific and technological progress in the sectors of the textile industry and the rising qualifications of workers are promoting an increase in labor productivity. The average production of yarn per worker per hour increased 140 percent in the cotton fabric industry between 1940 and 1974; in the wool fabric industry the increase was 250 percent, and in the linen sector it was 130 percent. In the same period the average production of gray cloth per worker per hour in these sectors increased 120 percent, 140 percent, and 130 percent, respectively. As of 1975, the textile industry in the USSR is served by ten scientific research institutes and five planning institutes, employing more than 7,000 specialists in various fields. In order to train production specialists and designers for the textile industry, textile institutes have been established in Moscow, Leningrad, Ivanovo, Tashkent, Kostroma, and Kiev, and several technicums have been opened.
Table 4. Fabric production in the capitalist countries in 1975 (millions sq m) Cotton Wool Silk

*1974 France ............... Germany Federal Republic of ............... Great Britain ............... Italy ............... Japan ............... USA ............... 900 900 400 900 1 900 4000 170 100 180 250 320 100 370 420 401 280* 3000 6500

The textile industry is also developing successfully in the foreign socialist countries. Fabric production is being increased in these countries through the use of the domestic potential of each country and through comprehensive cooperation between countries. Table 3 shows the level of fabric production in the socialist countries. It is estimated that the production of cotton fabrics in the Peoples Republic of China in 1974 was 8.34 billion running meters. Among the capitalist countries, the textile industry is most highly developed in the USA, Japan, Great Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Italy. Production figures for various fabrics for 1975 are shown in Table 4 on page 549. Among the developing countries, production of cotton fabrics in 1974 was 7.95 billion running meters in India, 275 million running meters in Egypt, and 495 million running meters in Iran (197273, including fabrics made from synthetic fibers).

The Apparel Industry consists of companies that design and sell clothing, footwear and accessories. Product categories include everything from basics, such as underwear, to luxury items, for example, cashmere sweaters and alligator-skin handbags. Traditionally, Apparel companies are wholesalers, selling large quantities of goods to retailers, which mark up items and sell them to consumers for a profit. However, it's become more difficult to draw a line

between wholesalers and retailers; most Apparel companies now have both types of operations. Wholesale Business Wholesale business is what separates Apparel companies from those in the Retail (Special Lines) category. Apparel companies design and produce/source items that they sell to retailers, including department stores, specialty shops and discounters. Often, a company owns licenses to manufacture goods under particular brand names, and will market and advertise these lines. One license can cover many products. In some instances, an Apparel company may only have the rights to produce specific items under a brand, such as ties and shirts, but not pants or sleepwear. Production is often outsourced to developing countries, where labor costs are inexpensive, relative to those of the United States and Europe. The wholesale market is seasonal. Retailers stock up on merchandise before shoppers hit the stores during the peak back-to-school and holiday periods. Brand names, those familiar offerings with a good reputation for quality, style or value, are popular among shoppers. A clothing company possessing a broad lineup of well-known brands has a competitive advantage over its peers. This is not always the case, however. In tough economic times, consumers might turn to similar private-label goods to save money. Private-label goods are found in department stores and discount chains. Though they are less expensive than branded items, such goods are often more profitable for the seller. Brand-name items and private-label goods compete against each other for shelf space throughout the business cycle. Because of the seasonal nature of the wholesale market, it's better to compare sales on a year-to-year, rather than sequential-quarter, basis. Gross and operating margins are the best gauges of a company's health. Sales volume, supply chain efficiency, sourcing costs, and selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses determine profitability. Retail Operations There are a number of reasons why Apparel companies establish retail divisions. Having stores dedicated to a single brand gives a company control over a line's image and identity. Apparel companies have some control over branding and merchandising at department stores, and their influence is diluted further at the boutique level. Dedicated retail stores allow a company to highlight its own merchandise, without worrying about competing labels. Retail stores are typically more profitable than their wholesale brethren. By selling its own merchandise at retail, an Apparel company can cut out the middle man and increase profits. However, this strategy can be risky. Instead of just designing and producing clothes and filling wholesale orders, companies with retail operations also have to find store locations with good potential, manage inventory, and avoid big markdowns.

The Internet is another important platform for retailers, especially since consumers are increasingly Web-savvy and have access virtually anywhere. Shoppers want to quickly find what they are looking for on line, and demand fast processing and shipping. Direct sales via the Internet can be a boon to a company. These sales do not entail expensive storefronts and related staffing and, thus, are more profitable than traditional business. Apparel sales at the retail level tend to be highly seasonal, with the majority of revenue booked during the holiday and back-to-school periods. Market analysts review total year-to-year sales to identify trends. Notably, they focus on "comparable-store" sales, which indicate the year-to-year performance of locations open for a year or more. Sales-per-square-foot is another important metric that measures how efficiently a retailer utilizes its floor space. As with wholesalers, the success of retailers is visible in their reported gross and operating margins. Retail margins are influenced by several factors, including markdowns and promotions and SG&A expenses. Product mix also plays a roll in determining profitability. For instance, a weighting toward accessories is favorable, given their high margins. Accessories' one-size-fits-all nature involves lower costs than do fitted clothes. Investment Considerations The Apparel Industry is fragmented and highly competitive. There are a number of major players, but there are also countless niche stores and private companies that cater to specific demographics. Too, general merchandisers and foreign companies bring more competition to the sector. Consequently, Apparel companies need to be nimble and highly efficient to survive in this cutthroat industry. Having the right product is also essential. Fashion trends change frequently, and companies need to adapt to varying consumer tastes quickly. Apparel stocks are economically sensitive. Although clothing is a basic need, people have wide discretion as to when they update their wardrobes and how much they spend. When times are good, apparel sales are usually brisk, but during periods of economic uncertainty and contraction, clothing is an area where people can easily trim outlays. India clothing went through a lot of changes in the nineteenth century. During the 1930's women's fashions started to become more stylish and fashionable. Even with the changes India was making they still kept their traditional fabrics they had always used. Later in the nineteenth century a new Style of clothes that fit the body tight started to become very popular and India began to add this in their fashions. The colors of clothing were mostly bright and colorful, but some dark colors were being added to the new styles giving more variety to choose from. During this same decade India clothes for men also went though some changes but they still held onto their traditions. India men continued to wear Headdresses that had been worn by them for so long. The headdresses are things like the turban and are still being worn today. These turbans are made by fabric that was not sewed together but is one piece of material. Tracing history it would seem this has always been case with men's headgear. The India women accepted the fashion change more than the men did, but still keep a lot of tradition around. They still wore their veils and wore they traditional clothing at ceremonies and festivities. In the 80s the elders were affected by how much TV had caught the attention of, and

made an impression on the new generation. This is when they started accepting change a little better, and the India clothing became more fashionable. In today's fashions India styles are still changing; the western cuts have been introduced to the Indian fabrics and have made a beautiful and elegant fashion statement. These clothes are both beautiful and durable. Veils are still being worn by the women in India today and may always be a big part of India clothes and culture.

Apparel Category



We are engaged in supplying and exporting of a wide range of baby apparels which are the perfect clothings for babies and infants. A broad array of baby apparels made from excellent quality clothings is available in variety of colors and designs which are accepted and liked by a large group of people. Our collection of baby apparels is designed as per the latest fashion trends in todays market. They are so tiny and adorable, and designs are always cute in terms of beauty, fashion and finishes. Also these baby wears are designed keeping complete comforts for babies in mind.

Our broad range of baby apparels includes baby accessories, baby bids, baby boy clothes, baby clothes, baby diapers, baby girl clothes, baby nappies, baby nightwear, baby sweater, baby suit, baby care products, infant clothing, toddler clothing, etc. They are available in fine packaging. These baby appeals provide extreme care to infants with the safety they require. All of these items are prepared keeping complete comfort in mind.

Baby Accessory Baby Bibs Baby Boy Clothes


Baby Care Products

Baby Clothes Baby Diapers Baby Girl Clothes Baby Nappies Baby Nightwear Baby Romper Baby Suit Baby Sweater Baby Wear

Infant Clothing Nursery Products Toddler Clothing



We are offering an innovative range of beach clothing for men and women as well. We are one of leading suppliers and exporters of ladies and gents garments, specializing in beachwear. Skilled workers, designers and patterns masters, design high fashion-wear beach clothing to match everyone on the beaches. We are offering designer beachwear and accessories for girls, men and kids as well.

Our beach clothing products are prepared from different find quality fabrics. They are ideal for beach activities. They are available in various colors and designs. They are designed as per the latest fashion trends. Our range of designer beach clothing, beachwear and accessories includes bathing suits, swimwear, beach skirts, beach towels, bikinis, cover ups, kids beachwear, mens beachwear, kimonos, pareos, swim pants, thongs, beach lingerie, etc.

Bandeaus Bathing Suit Beach Pants Beach Skirts Bikinis Cover Ups Kid Beachwear Kimonos Pareos Swim Pants Thongs Women's Bathrobes



We are engaged in supplying and exporting of an innovative range of kids apparels. These kids apparels are prepared from superior quality fabrics. They are available in various designs, patterns and colors. We are offering casual wear, party wear, designer wear and daily wear for kids. They are very attractive in look and able to

impress everyone. They are prepared from quality fabrics keeping complete comfort and distinctive needs of kids in mine.

Our broad array of kids apparels includes kids blazers, kids coats, kids cargo pants, kids jeans, kids fashion accessories, kids footwear, kids jacket, kids pants, kids pullover, kids sweater, kids shirts, kids t-shirts, kids undergarment, etc. Our products are demanded, well-accepted and liked by a large group of people. They are available in fine packaging. So give your kids a cute look with our quality and latest kids apparels.

Kids Blazers And Coats Kids Cargo Pants Kids Fashion Accessories Kids Footwear Kids Jackets Kids Jeans Kids Kurta Payjama Kids Pants Kids Pullover Kids Sherwani Kids Shirts Kids Sweater Kids T-shirts Kids Undergarments

Mens Apparel
We are engaged in supplying and exporting of an innovative range of mens apparels. Our range of mens apparels is designed from superior quality fabrics keeping complete comforts and needs for men in mind. They are designed as pert the latest fashion trends in todays market. They are available in various designs and colors. We provide a wide range of mens apparels which includes fancy wear, party wear, designer wear, wedding wear, office wear, night wear, daily wear, etc for men. Our products includes blazers, coats, trousers, pants, footwear, jackets, cargo pants, sherwani, sweater, pullover, waistcoats, shirts, t-shirts, kurta, payjama, jeans, etc. All of these products are available in various colors and designs suiting distinctive

needs of men. They are available in fine packaging. So go with latest fashion trends with our quality mens apparel products.

Coats and Blazers Fashion Accessories Footwear Hoesiry & Undergarments Jackets Jeans Kurta Payjama Mens Cargo Pants Mens kurta Mens Shirts Mens Sportswear Mens T-Shirts Pants and Trousers Pullover Sherwani Sweater Waistcoats



We are engaged in offering, supplying and exporting of a wide and innovative range of wedding apparels and wears. They are available in various fabrics, designs and colors. They are very attractive in look at provide an enhanced look to the wearers personality. These apparels or garments are much demanded by a large group of people from different countries.

We are offering wedding garments, designer wedding dresses, heavy worked wedding party wears, Indian wedding garments, western wedding apparels, embroidered wedding apparels, bridal wear, designer bridal wear, bridal lehnga & choli, groom wear, designer sherwani, designer wedding sarees, etc. All of these wedding apparels are prepared from different fabrics as per the distinctive needs for wearers. Wedding apparels add special beauty and extra charm in to the personality of wears and also add special fervor to wedding ceremony ambiance.

Bridal Wear

Groom Wear Lehnga Choli Sharara Sherwani Wedding Dress Wedding Gown Wedding Sarees



Women apparel makes its own place in the standard market today. Women apparels offered by us are the clothing items which are available in different variety, patterns, designs, styles, colors, and sizes. The different category of women attire & outfits includes garments like salwar suits, saree, shirts & blouses, ladies skirts, jeans top and many other items. Women apparel presents something for every woman or girl. Fast and smart shopping could be done for women apparel online. We are engaged in supplying and exporting of a wide and innovative rage of beautiful apparels and garments for women.

These are designed with superior quality fabrics. They are available in various fabrics, designs and colors. They are designed as per the distinctive needs and comfort for women. They are available in various sizes catering distinctive needs of different ages of women and young girls. Our broad collection of womens apparels includes women blazers, women coats, capri, cardigan, dupattas, chaniya choli, lehnga choli, designer sarees, wedding sarees, bridal sarees, bridal lehnga choli, girls frocks, salwar kameej, ladies trousers, ladies jeans, ladies shirts, ladies undergarment, brassieres, panties, lingerie, ladies sweater, ladies t-shirts, skirts, tops, kurtis, ladies night suits & gowns, ladies night wear, womens sports wear, womens suit, etc. We can provide womens apparels for different occasions and events.

Blazer and Coats Capri Cardigan Chaniya Choli Dupattas Fashion Accessories Ladies Bags

Ladies Footwear Ladies Frocks Ladies Jackets Ladies Jeans Ladies Shirts Ladies Sweater Ladies Trousers Ladies T-Shirts Lehnga Choli Pareos Salwar Kameez Salwar Suits Saree Skirts Tops & Kurtis Undergarments & Nightwear Women's caftan Women's Sportswear Women's Suits



We have a large stock of animal clothing online, with both summer and winter ranges. We are offering a wide range of summer and winter clothings for animals and your pets. Our large collection of animal clothing includes animal blankets, horse rugs, horse blankets, dog collar, horse boots, dog rugs, horse winter rugs, horse summer rugs, horse saddle blankets, saddle pads, pet dog clothing, pet clothing, horse saddles, fleece rugs, stable cotton rug, etc.

These animal clothings are available in various designs and colors. These products do not provide only an enhanced look to your pets but also protect them from curse nature. These products are available in fine packing. We provide animal clothings at affordable prices.

Animal Blankets Dog Collar

Horse Boots Horse Bridle Horse Halter Horse Harness Horse Saddles Pet Clothing Pet Dog Clothing Saddle Pads

Industrial Clothing
We are one of leading suppliers and exporters of industrial clothing. We are offering a wide range of industrial clothing made from superior quality protective fabrics. Our industrial clothing products & accessories are designed as per the specific needs for different industries.

They are designed keeping in mind for utmost safety of wearers. Our range of industrial clothing products and accessories includes safety gloves, safety shirts, industrial suits, industrial jackets, boiler suit, PVC suit, industrial uniforms, flame resistant clothing, etc.

Industrial Gloves Industrial Uniforms Flame Resistant Clothing



We are one of leading suppliers and exporters of a wide range of leather clothing, leather garments and accessories. Our products are prepared from high quality leather. Our high quality leather clothing and garments are designed as per the latest fashion trends. They are synonyms with innovation and latest fashion trends. They are known for their exotic designs, styles, and fine finishes.

Our exclusive range of leather clothing & accessories includes leather jackets, leather coats, leather pants, leather gloves, leather trousers, leather skirts, leather tops, leather blazers, leather dresses, leather garments for ladies, leather garments for men, leather garments for kids, leather winter wear, etc. We are offering leather garments at affordable prices which are skin friendly and comfortable to wear.

Leather Coat

Leather Gloves Leather Jacket Leather Trousers

Nightwear or Night wear is also called as various other names, such as; sleepwear, nightclothes, nightdress, etc. It is a piece of clothing which is designed to be worn while sleeping in the night. The style of wearing nightdresses may vary with the seasons. Some styles of nightwear are worn to be visually appealing and erotic. We are engaged in offering a wide collection of nightwear made from different fine quality fabrics.

They are available in various appealing colors, designs and styles. We are offering a vibrant range of nightdresses for girls, boys, women, men and kids. Our exclusive range of nightwear includes ladies nightwear, men nightwear, nighties, night shirts, girls night wear, night suits, kids nightwear, colorful night suits for girls, men payjamas, men nightwear, night gowns, shorts & bermudas, honeymoon nightwear, loungewear, sleepwear, etc.

Kurta Pyjamas Lounge Wear Night Dresses Night Gown Night Suit Nighties Shorts & Bermudas Sleep Wear



Party wear holds an imperative role every persons life. Parties have been an integral part of today lifestyle. Everyone wants to appear at parties in fancy and appealing outfits so that they can look distinct at parties. Indeed, party wear plays a vital role in making a person to impart the charm that is able of leaving an enduring effect on others. As a leading supplier and exporter of different kinds of apparel, we have a wide range and innovative range of party wear outfits.

We have a large collection of beautifully designed and carefully manufactured party wear garments for people of different ages. We are offering party wear garments designed as per the latest fashion trends. These garments are prepared from find quality fabrics keeping in mind comfort and specific needs of wearers.

Our exclusive range of party wear outfits includes designer garments, fancy dresses, heavy worked garments, embroidered sherwani, embroidered lehnga choli, designer suits, embroidered silk sarees, designer wedding wear, safari suit, designer blazers, etc.

Fancy Dresses Formal Wear Safari Suit Silk Sarees Suits & Blazers Tuxedo Suit

As a leading supplier and exporters of different kinds of apparels & garments, we are offering a large number of sportswear, designed to successfully meet the unique and specific needs of the sports enthusiasts. These sportswear outfits are designed with specific fabrics to provide comfort sports enthusiasts. They are available in various designs and colors in different sizes. We have sportswear outfits for different sports. Our exclusive range of sportswear outfits includes tracksuits, jogging suits, jumpsuits, t-shirts, swimming suits, athletic wear, golf wear, polo shirt, sports cap, gym wear, leggings, and other accessories. These sports wear are available at affordable prices.

Tracksuits Jogging Suit T-shirt Golf Wear Athletic Wear Swimming Costume Leggings Polo Shirt

Jumpsuits Sports Caps Gym Wear

Traditional clothing

imparts unparalleled amount of charisma on wearers

personality. It is an important ethnic feature of the community. People always prefer to dress up themselves in traditional garments on various auspicious and special events such as wedding ceremonies, pooja rituals, and other many other social events. On these occasions traditional clothing provides indeed a unique look and enhanced appeal to wearers personality. We are offering an exclusive range of male traditional clothing and female traditional clothing. Our range of traditional garments includes folk dresses, dhoti, kurta payjamas, ghaghra choli, lehnga choli, designer sherwani, designer suits, designer sarees, colorful turbans, designer dupattas, Bandhani, chaniya choli, ethnic clothing, lungi, etc.

Bandhani Chania Choli Dhoti Ethnic Clothing Folk Dress Ghagra Choli Kurta Pyjama Lungi Sarongs Turbans


are a very important piece of Indian garments used as

innerwear. These garments are worn under outer garments, especially worn next to the skin. Undergarments are worn for a variety of reasons. They are also used for modesty or erotic display. We are offering an exquisite collection of undergarments for male and female both to successfully meet any diverse or distinct kind of need of wearers.

These garments are basically prepared from find quality cotton fabrics. Today other fabrics are also used as preparing undergarments. These garments are designed as per latest fashion trends keeping mind in comfort for wearers. Our range of undergarments include briefs, vests, brassiere, lingerie, underwear, camisole, curves shapers, socks & stockings, panties, innerwear, designer lingerie, designer vests, long underwear, short underwear, thongs, designer bikinis, boy shorts, string, etc.

Brassiere Briefs Camisole Curves Shaper Innerwear Lingeries Socks & Stockings Underwear Vests

Rain Wear
Rain wear is a piece of clothing which is worn in rainy season. Rain wear generally refers to a range of waterproof clothing which is worn in monsoon season for the protection from getting wet. We are offering an exclusive range of rain wear outfits which are available in different bright colors, styles and sizes. They are made from different kinds of waterproof and durable fabrics.

Beautifully designed rain wear looks very classic and are strong and very practical. They are available in various designs, texture and colors to choose from. Also they are fancy and can provide enhanced look to wearers personality. Our range of rain wear and accessories includes raincoats, rain pants, rain suits, rain boots, umbrellas, and many other types of waterproof clothing.

Rain Boot Raincoats Rainsuits Umbrellas Waterproof Clothing

Summer Wear
The warm weather of summer provides the ideal opportunity for you to get out your favorite shirts, pants, trousers, t-shirts, skirts, suits, cotton shirts, silk dresses and more. You will want wear light, bright and cheerful colors to reflect a fun, summer and light garments to stay cool in the summer styles.

We are offering an exclusive range of summer wear collection to meet comfort and specific need of people. We have an array of summer wear for all ages - kids, teens and old ages. We have collection of summer wear for women and male both. Our collection of summer wear for ladies includes cotton skirts, cotton tops, cotton suits, casual wear, t-shirts, kurtis, capri, frocks, cotton sarees, etc. Our range of summer wear for male includes casual men wear, cotton shirts, cotton t-shirts, cotton trousers, silk shirts, mens shorts, etc. These summer wear outfits are designed as per the latest fashion trends. They are available in various designs, styles, and colors. We make available them at affordable prices.

Casual Wear Cotton Shirt Printed Shirt T-shirts

Winter Wear
Winter means cold squeeze in atmosphere and it is imperative to cover your body as much as possible but it may ruin your glamour. We are offering a wide range of winter wear for men and female both. We are also offering winter wear garments for kids and children. Winter wear garments are worn for the purpose of keeping body warm during winter season.

Our exclusive range of winter wear collection includes casual winter wear, ladies winter wear, mens winter wear, sweaters, jackets, blazers, coats, overcoats, cardigans, ladies sweaters, ladies pullovers, woolen garments, knitted garments, knitwear, mufflers, caps, fleece, down garments, jerseys, fur garments, leather garments, leather jackets & blazers, leather pants, pashmina shawls, formal sweater, designer sweaters, designer pullovers, woolen mufflers, high-neck sweaters & pullovers, woolen payjamas, etc.

Cardigans Cashmere Sweater

Down Garment Fleece Fur Garments Hoodies Hosiery Products Jackets Jerseys Knitted Garments Knitwear Pullovers Sweater Woolen Garments Woolen Berets Woven Garments

Blended Clothing
We are providing blended fabrics in different designs and attractive colors. In addition to be attractive blended fabrics have also established themselves to be very useful. We are providing a variety of blended fabrics which is capable of successfully meeting any type of need and to suit all budgets.

Blended fabrics made available by us are highly appreciated by our clients. They are worldwide used in garment and apparel industry. They are prepared by using latest weaving technology. They are completely capable to impress anybody that looks at it. Blended fabrics come in a wide variety of sizes, styles and colors to choose from. They have been used throughout history to enrich the appearances. We are also offering various options regarding color, design and sizes of the weaving process, while manufacturing of blended clothing.



Cotton fabric is soft and comfortable. It is used for almost every type of clothing. It is the worlds most popular type of fabric. It is popular among people for its softness and tenderness. Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the sees of the cotton plant. The fiber is used to spin into thread and used to make soft, tender, and breathable







Today is cotton fabric is among highly demanded fabrics in garment and apparel industry worldwide. Cotton is considered as backbone of textile industry. We are offering a wide range of cotton fabrics available in various designs, textures, colors and patterns. We are offering organic cotton clothing, handmade cotton clothing, designer cotton clothing, colorful cotton clothing, printed cotton clothing, etc. We are offering cotton clothings and fabrics at affordable prices.

denim clothings

are exclusively prepared from denim fabrics.

Denim is a type of cotton clothing. It is a rugged cotton twill textile in which the weft passed under two or more warp of threads. Today, denim clothing is considered as the most impressive and exclusive range of clothing materials available. These

Today, denim clothings are widely well-accepted and demanded in garment, textile and apparel industry. Apparels or garments made from denim fabrics are very popular in todays fashion trends.

Denim clothings are used to prepare various kinds of garments such as jeans, bags, capri pants, trousers, hats, dresses, shirts, jackets, shoes, shorts, etc. Denim jeans are fashion statement of youngsters including ladies and gents both. We are offering a wide range of denim clothings and denim products at affordable prices.



We are one of leading suppliers and exporters of different kinds of dress materials of high quality. We are offering quality range of dress materials at affordable prices to suit our customers needs and budgets. Designed in compliance with latest trend, our dress materials are prepared with quality fabrics which are quality tested for thickness and stitch before being dispatched at clients end.

We are offering quality dress materials in different designs, patterns and colors. We are offering fancy ladies dress materials, fancy gents dress materials, gents suit dress materials, ladies suit dress materials, salwar suit dress materials, trouser & shirt dress materials, silk dress materials, cotton dress materials, viscose dress materials, denim dress materials, thread embroidered dress material, designer dress materials, line dress materials, woolen dress materials, suiting & shirting dress materials, wedding dress materials, etc. We are offering various kinds of dress materials in various designs and colors at affordable prices.

Linen Clothing
Linen is a fabric made of natural fiber. Linen clothes have well established themselves in textile, garment, apparel, and fashion industry. They are known for comfort they provide. There are many benefits of line clothes.

They are known to attract less lint. It requires comparatively low maintenance as compared to other clothing materials such as cotton clothing, silk clothing and stain clothing. It can be machine washed, dry cleaned, steam washed and hand washed. So it is very easy to maintain the cleanliness of linen clothes.

We are offering a wide range of line clothes at affordable prices. Our exclusive range of linen clothing & garments include linen shirt, line t-shirt, line trousers, line suiting & shirting dress materials, linen salwar kameej dress materials, linen pants, linen gents attire, designer linen outfits, linen wedding attire, linen dresses, linen baby & child wear, linen ladies wear, etc.

Nylon Clothing
Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers. Nylon fabric is widely used in apparel and garment industry to produce vibrant range of nylon garments and apparels. We are specialized in offering a wide range of nylon fabrics that are known widely for their attractive designs, patterns, and vibrant colors.

We are providing an innovative range of nylon garments and clothings at affordable prices. Our nylon fabric product range includes nylon t-shirt, nylon jackets, nylon shorts, nylon trousers, nylon track suits, nylon sports wear, nylon brief, nylon socks, nylon ladies thong, nylon pants, nylon rainwear, nylon ladies wear, nylon gents wear, nylon baby or child wear, etc. All these products are designed as per the latest fashion trends and available with us at affordable prices.

Silk Clothing
Silk is a natural protein fibre which can be woven into textiles. The most popular form of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm. The appealing and sparkling appearance of silk never fails to mesmerize you. We are offering a wide range of silk clothing, silk garments and silk fabrics available in various designs, patterns and styles. Our range of silk clothings, fabrics and garments are widely accepted and well-liked.

Our range includes designer silk clothing & fabrics, fancy silk clothing & fabrics, embroidered silk clothing & fabrics, colorful silk clothing & fabrics, ladies silk clothing, men silk clothing, designer silk sarees, wedding silk sarees, bridal silk sarees, embroidered silk sarees, embroidered silk sherwani, colored silk shirts, silk kurtis, silk tops, knitted silk tops, fancy silk garments, girls silk garments, boys silk garments, designer silk dresses, designer silk skirts, silk salwar suits, etc. We are offering silk clothing, silk fabrics and silk garments at affordable prices made from high quality silk fabrics.

Woolen Clothing
We are offering a wide range of woolen clothings and garments made from quality wool fabric that gives warmth and attractive appearance in the personality of wearers. Wool fabric is soft, yet strong and very durable. Wool clothing keeps body warm and comfortable in winter.

So winter is the only season when woolen clothings are at high demand. The fabric of woolen clothing never burns over a flame but only smolders. Wool fabric is generally collected from sheep and goats.

Widely popular cashmere sweaters or shawls are prepared from goats found in Kashmir in India. Our range of woolen clothing and fabrics includes woolen shirt fabrics, woolen salwar suit fabrics, woolen men garments, woolen ladies garments, woolen mufflers, woolen shirts, woolen trousers, woolen pants, designer woolen garments, ladies cardigans, pullovers, sweaters, designer stoles, designer shawls, winter woolen chester, woolen innerwear, woolen jackets, woolen caps, colored woolen garments, fancy woolen garments, designer woolen garments, etc.

Introduction The Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA), that had governed the extent of textile trade between nations since 1962, expired on 1 January, 2005. It is expected that, post-MFA, most tariff distortions would gradually disappear and firms with robust capabilities will gain in the global trade of textile and apparel. The prize is the $360 bn market which is expected to grow to about $600 bn by the year 2010 barely five years after the expiry of MFA. An important question facing Indian firms is whether their capabilities and their diverse supply chain are aligned to benefit from the opening up of global textile market?

The history of textiles in India dates back to the use of mordant dyes and printing blocks around 3000 BC. The diversity of fibres found in India, intricate weaving on its state-ofart manual looms and its organic dyes attracted buyers from all over the world for centuries. The British colonization of India and its industrial policies destroyed the innovative eco-system and left it technologically impoverished. Independent India saw the building up of textile capabilities, diversification of its product base, and its emergence, once again, as an important global player. Today, the textile and apparel sector employs 35.0 mn people (and is the 2nd largest employer), generates 1/5th of the total export earnings and contributes 4 per cent to the GDP thereby making it the largest industrial sector of the country. This textile economy is worth US $37 bn and its share of the global market is about 5.90 per cent. The sector aspires to grow its revenue to US $85bn, its export value to US $50bn and employment to 12 million by the year 2010 (Texmin 2005). The Textile and Apparel Supply Chain The Textile and Apparel Supply Chain comprises diverse raw material sectors, ginning facilities, spinning and extrusion processes, processing sector, weaving and knitting factories and garment (and other stitched and non-stitched) manufacturing that supply an extensive distribution channel (see Figure 1). This supply chain is perhaps one of the most diverse in terms of the raw materials used, technologies deployed and products produced. This supply chain supplies about 70 per cent by value of its production to the domestic market. The distribution channel comprises wholesalers, distributors and a large number of small retailers selling garments and textiles. It is only recently that large retail formats are emerging thereby increasing variety as well as volume on display at a single location. Another feature of the distribution channel is the strong presence of agents who secure and consolidate orders for producers. Exports are traditionally executed through Export Houses or procurement/commissioning offices of large global apparel retailers. It is estimated that there exist 65,000 garment units in the organized sector, of which about 88 per cent are for woven cloth while the remaining are for knits. However, only 3040 units are large in size (as a result of long years of reservation of non-exporting garment units for the small scale sectors a regulation that was removed recently). While these firms are spread all over the country, there are clusters emerging in the National Capital Region (NCR), Mumbai, Bangalore, Tirupur/Coimbatore, and Ludhiana employing about 3.5 mn people. According to our estimate, the total value of production in the garment sector is around Rs.1,0501,100 bn of which about 81 per cent comes from the domestic market. The value of Indian garments (eg. saree, dhoti, salwar kurta, etc.) is around Rs.200250 bn. About 40 per cent of fabric for garment production is imported a figure that is expected to rise in coming years. The weaving and knits sector lies at the heart of the industry. In 2004-05, of the total production from the weaving sector, about 46 per cent was cotton cloth, 41 per cent was

100% non-cotton including khadi, wool and silk and 13 per cent was blended cloth. Three distinctive technologies are used in the sector handlooms, powerlooms and knitting machines. They also represent very distinctive supply chains. The handloom sector (including khadi, silk and some wool) serves the low and the high ends of the value chain both mass consumption products for use in rural India as well as niche products for urban & exports markets. It produces, chiefly, textiles with geographical characterization (e.g., cotton and silk sarees in Pochampally or Varanasi) and in small batches. Handloom production in 2003-04 was around 5493 mn.sq.meters of which about 82 per cent was using cotton fibre. Handloom production is mostly rural (employing about 10 million, mostly, household weavers) and revolves around master-weavers who provide designs, raw material and often the loom. Weaving, using powerlooms, was traditionally done by composite mills that combined it with spinning and processing operations. Over the years, government incentives and demand for low cost, high volume, standard products (especially sarees and grey cloth) moved the production towards powerloom factories and away from composite mills (that were essentially full line variety producers). While some like Arvind Mills or Ashima transformed themselves into competitive units, others gradually closed down. In 200304, there remained 223 composite mills that produced 1434 mn. sq. mts. of cloth. Most of these mills are located inGujarat and Maharashtra. Most of the woven cloth comes from the powerlooms (chiefly at Surat, Bhiwandi, NCR, Chennai). In 2005, there were 425,792 registered powerloom units that produced 26,947 mn. sq. mts of cloth and employed about 4,757,383 workers. Weavingsector is predominantly small scale, has on an average 4.5 power looms per unit, suffers from outdated technology, and incurs high co-ordination costs. Knits have been more successful especially in export channels. Strong production clusters like Tirupur and Ludhiana have led to growth of accessories sector as well, albeit slowly. The hosiery sector, on the other hand, has largely a domestic focus and is growing rapidly. The spinning sector is perhaps most competitive globally in terms of variety, unit prices and production quantity. Though cotton is the fibre of preference, man-made fibre (polyster fibre and polyster filament yarn) is also produced by about 100 large and medium size producers. Spinning is done by 1566 mills and 1170 Small and Medium Enterprises (SME). Mills, chiefly located in North India, deploy 34.24 mn. spindles and 0.385 mn rotors while the SME units produce their yarn on 3.29 mn spindles and 0.119 mn. rotors producing 2270 mn kg of cotton yarn, 950 mn kg of blended yarn and about 1106 mn kg of man-made filament yarn every year. Worsted and non-worsted spindles (producing woolen yarn) have also progressively grown to 0.604 mn and 0.437 mn respectively. Spinning sector is technology intensive and productivity is affected by the quality of cotton and the cleaning process used during ginning.

The processing sector, i.e., dyeing, finishing and printing is mostly small in scale. The largest amongst these would dye and finish about 5000 m/day. The remaining are independent process houses (or part of composite mills) that use automated large batch or continuous processing and have an average scale of about 20,000 m of cloth daily. About 82.5 per cent or 10,397 units are hand processors who dye cloth or yarn manually and dry in open sunshine. Of the remaining (and these use automated and semi-automated equipment), 2076 are independent process houses. Cotton remains the most significant raw material for the Indian textile industry. In 200304, 3009 mn kg of cotton was grown over 7.785 mn acres. Other fibres produced are silk (15742 tonnes), jute (10985000 bales), wool (50.7 mn kg) and man-made fibres (1100.65 mn kg). Cotton grows mostly in western and central India, silk in southern India, jute in eastern and wool in northern India. Significant qualities of cotton, silk and wool fibres are also imported by the spinning and knitting sectors. (Except for garments, all data in this section was obtained from OTC 2004 and Texmin 2005.) Managing such a complex supply chain requires coordination through excellent managerial practices, technology and facilitating policies. Competitiveness of Indian Textile & Apparel Industry India is one of the few countries that owns the complete supply chain in close proximity from diverse fibres to a large market. It is capable of delivering packaged products to customers comprising a variety of fibres, diverse count sizes, cloths of different weight and weave, and a panoply of finishes. This permits the supply chain to mix and match variety in different segments to deliver new products and applications. This advantage is further accentuated by cost based advantages and diverse traditions in textiles. Indian strength in spinning is now well established on unit costs on ring yarn, openended (OE) yarn as well as textured yarn, Indian firms are ahead of their global competitors including China. Same is true on some woven OE yarn fabric categories (especially grey fabrics) but is not true for other woven segments. India contributes about 23 per cent of world spindles and 6 per cent of world rotors (second highest in the world after China). Fifty five per cent of total investment in technology in the last decade has been made in the spinning sector. Its share in global shuttleless loom, however, is only about 2.8 per cent of world looms (and is ranked 9th in the world). The competitiveness in the weaving sector is adversely affected by low penetration of shuttleless looms (i.e., 1.69 % of Indian looms), the unorganized nature of the sector (i.e., fragmented, small and, often, un-registered units, low investment in technology & practices especially in the powerloom, processing, handloom and knits) and higher power tariffs. There is, however, a recent trend of investment in setting up hi-tech, stand-alone mid-size weaving companies focusing on export markets. India also has the highest deployment of handlooms in the world (handlooms are low on productivity but produce specialized fabric). While production

and export of man-made fibre (and filament yarn) has increased over the years, Indian industry still lags significantly behind US, China, Europe, Taiwan etc. (Texmin, 2005.) Indian textile industry has suffered in the past from low productivity at both ends of the supply chain low farm yields affecting cotton production and inefficiency in garment sector due to restriction of size and reservation. Add to this, contamination of cotton with consequent increase in cost (as it affects quality and requires installation of additional process to clean and open cotton fibres before carding operations), poor ginning (most equipment dates back to 1940s), high average defect rates in production process (which also leads to increase in effective labour and power costs), hank yarn requirement, etc. and its competitiveness gets compromised severely. Similarly, processing technology is primarily manual and small batch oriented with visual colour matching and sun drying. This leads to inconsistency in conformance quality. Lead times across the sector continue to be affected by variability in the supply chain defect rates average over 5%, average % of orders on time is about 80%, variance in order size across firms is high (e.g., the coefficient of variability of average order size for spinning firms is about 2.6), and on an average, 16 days of sales as work-in-process inventory (the highest for garment firms) and an average of 30 days of sales in raw material inventory (the highest for spinning firms) (Chandra 2004). Some of the hurdles (eg., reservation in the garment sectors) including tariff distortions between the organized and unorganized sectors have now been systematically removed by policy initiatives of Government of India and have opened avenues for firms to compete on the basis of their capabilities. Trade data of post-MFA performance reveals some interesting trends Indian firms registered a 27 per cent growth in exports to US (against Chinas 52 per cent) during the Jan-April 2005 time period. Most of this growth has been in textiles while apparels show marginal gains. Apparels & accessories constituted 78% of global exports to USA (FICCI 2005). (India is still a relatively small yet growing player in the global apparel market.) It is expected that India will soon replace Mexico as the second largest apparel supplier to the US. Challenges facing Indian Textile and Apparel Industry Textile supply chains compete on low cost, high quality, accurate delivery and flexibility in variety and volume. Several challenges stand in the way of Indian firms before they can own a larger share of the global market: Scale: Except for spinning, all other sectors suffer from the problem of scale. Indian firms are typically smaller than their Chinese or Thai counterparts and there are fewer large firms in India. Some of the Chinese large firms have 1.5 times higher spinning capacity, 1.25 times denim (and 2 times gray fabric) capacity and about 6 times more revenue in garment than their counterparts in India thereby affecting the cost structure as well as ability to attract customers with large orders. The central tendency is to add capacity once the order has been won rather than ahead of the demand. Customers go where they see both

capacity and capabilities. Large capacity typically goes with standardized products. These firms need to develop the managerial capabilities required to manage large work force and design an appropriate supply chain. For the size of the Indian economy, it will have to have bigger firms producing standard products in large volumes as well as small and mid size firms producing large variety in small to mid size batches (the tension between the organized and un-organized sectors will have to be addressed first, though). Then there is the need for emergence of specialist firms that will consolidate orders, book capacities, manage warehouses and logistics of order delivery. Skills : Three issues must be mentioned here : (a) there is a paucity of technical manpower there exist barely 30 programmes at graduate engineering (including diploma) levels graduating about 1000 students this is insufficient for bringing about technological change in the sector; (b) Indian firms invest very little in training its existing workforce and the skills are limited to existing proceses (Chandra 1998); (c) there is an acute shortage of trained operators and supervisors in India. It is expected that Indian firms will have to invest close to Rs. 1400 bn by year 2010 to increase its global trade to $ 50 bn. This kind of investment would require, by our calculations, about 70,000 supervisors and 1.05mn operators in the textile sector and at least 112,000 supervisors and 2.8mn operators in the apparel sector (assuming a 80:20 ratio of investment between textiles and apparel). The real bottleneck to growth is going to be availability of skilled manpower. Cycle Time : Cycle time is the key to competitiveness of a firm as it affects both price and delivery schedule. Cycle time reduction is strongly correlated with high first pass yield, high throughput times, low variability in process times, low WIP and consequently cost. Indian firms have to dramatically reduce cycle times across the entire supply chain which are currently quite high (Chandra, 2004). Customs must provide a turnaround time of day for an order before Indian firms can they expect to become part of larger global supply chains. Indian firms need a strong deployment of industrial engineering with particular emphasis on cellular manufacturing, JIT and statistical process control to reduce lead times on shop floors. Penetration of IT for improving productivity is particularly low in this sector. Innovation & Technology: A review of the products imported from China to USA during JanuaryApril 2005 reveals that the top three products in terms of percentage increase in imports were Tire Cords & Tire Fabrics (843.4% increase over the previous year), Nonwoven fabrics (284.1% increase) and Textile/Fabric Finishing Mill Products (197.2% increase) (FICCI, 2005). None of these items, however, figure in the list of imports from India that have gained in these early days of post-MFA. Entry into newer application domains of industrial textiles, nano-textiles, home furnishings etc. becomes imperative if we are to grow beyond 56% of global market share as these are areas that are projected to grow significantly. Synthetic textiles comprise about 50 per cent of the global textile market. Indian synthetic industry, however, is not well entrenched. The Technology

Upgradation Fund of the government is being used to stimulate investment in new processes. However, there is little evidence that this deployment in technology has accompanied changes in the managerial regimes a necessary condition for increasing productivity and order winning ability. Domestic Market : The Indian domestic market for all textile and apparel products is estimated at $26 bn and growing. While the market is very competitive at the low end of the value chain, the mid or higher ranges are over priced (i.e., dollar pricing). Firms are not taking advantage of the large domestic market in generating economies of scale to deliver cost advantage in export markets. The Free Trade Agreement with Singapore and Thailand will allow overseas producers to meet the aspirations of domestic buyers with quality and prices that are competitive in the domestic market. Ignoring the domestic market, in the long run, will peril the export markets for domestic producers. In addition, high retail property prices and high channel margins in India will restrict growth of this market. Firms need to make their supply chain leaner in order to overcome these disadvantages. Institutional Support : Textile policy has come long ways in reducing impediments for the industry sometimes driven by global competition and, at other times, by international trade regulations. However, few areas of policy weakness stand out labour reforms (which is hindering movement towards higher scale of operations by Indian firms), power availability and its quality, customs clearance and shipment operations from ports, credit for large scale investments that are needed for upgradation of technology, and development of manpower for the industry. These are problems facing several sectors of industry in India and not by this sector alone. In conclusion, competitive strategies are developed by sector level firms and its their individual and collective initiatives that secure higher market share in global trade. While one has to be ever vigilant of non-tariff barriers in the post MFA world, the new market will be won on the basis of capabilities across the supply chain. Policy will need to facilitate this building of capabilities at the firm level and the flexible strategies that firms will need to devise periodically.

Boucle A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coats. Brocade A heavy, exquisite, jacquard-type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. Cambric A fine thin white linen fabric. Canvas A strong, durable, closely woven cotton fabric.

Cashmere A luxury fiber obtained from the soft, fleecy undergrowth of the Kashmir goat of Tibet, Mongolia, China, Iran, Iraq, and India. Most commonly used in sweaters, shawls, suits, coats, and dresses. Chambray A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns. Chantilly lace This lace has a net background, and the pattern is created by embroidering with thread and ribbon to create floral designs. The pattern has areas of design that are very dense, and the pattern is often outlined with heavier cords or threads. Charmeuse Trade name of silk and silk-like fabrics that are characterized by a shiny, soft, satin-like appearance Chenille Soft, fuzzy yarns stand out around a velvety cord on this fabric, whose name comes from the French word for "caterpillar." Chiffon A plain, woven, lightweight, extremely sheer, airy, and soft silk fabric, containing highly twisted filament yarns. The fabric, used mainly in evening dresses and scarves, can also be made from rayon and other manufactured fibers. Chintz A usually glazed printed cotton fabric. Cotton A unicellular, natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2 inches long. The longest staple fibers, longer than 1-1/2 inch, including the Pima and Egyptian varieties, produce the highest quality cotton fabrics. Crepe Used to describe all kinds of fabrics--wool, cotton, silk, rayon, synthetics and blends-that have a crinkle, crimped or grained surface. Crepe back satin A satin fabric in which highly-twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric, the fabric is called satin-back crepe. Crinkled Forming many short bends or ripples. Crocheted Loose, open knit made by looping thread with a hooked needle. Used for light, summer sweaters. Denim True denim is a twill-weave, cotton-like fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. Due to the twill construction, one color predominates on the fabric surface. Dupioni Similar to shantung, this textured fabric is recognized by irregular-sized, thick fibers woven into the base fabric. Fibers that create the texture, are thicker and heavier than those used in shantung. Elastin A protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers. Embroidered An embellishment of a fabric or garment in which colored threads are sewn into the fabric to create a design. Embroidery may be done either by hand or

machine. Fagoting an embroidery produced by pulling out horizontal threads from a fabric and tying the remaining cross threads into groups of an hourglass shape. Faille A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed, silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers. Faux fur Artificial fur made from synthetic material. Flannel A warm, soft fabric made in tightly woven twill or plain weave and finished with a light napping. Fleece A soft, bulky, deep-piled knitted or woven fabric. Foil A thin piece of material put under another material to add color or brilliance. Gabardine A tightly woven, twilled, worsted fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Wool gabardine is known as a year-round fabric for business suiting. Gauze A thin, sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or other manufactured fibers. End-uses include curtains, apparel, trimmings, and surgical dressings. Georgette A sheer lightweight fabric, often made of silk or from such manufactured fibers as polyester, with a crepe surface. End-uses include dresses and blouses. Gingham A medium-weight, plain-weave fabric with a plaid or check pattern. Heather A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (For example, black and white may be blended together to create a gray heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns. Intarsia A colored design knitted on both sides of a fabric. Jacquard Woven fabrics manufactured by using the Jacquard attachment on the loom. This attachment provides versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Thus, fabrics of almost any type or complexity can be made. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics. Jersey The consistent interlooping of yarns in the jersey stitch to produce a fabric with a smooth, flat face, and a more textured, but uniform back. Jersey fabrics may be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting machines. Knit Fabrics made from only one set of yarns, all running in the same direction. Some knits have their yarns running along the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric. Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting fabric. Wales are the ridges that run lengthwise in the fabric; courses run crosswise. knitted Formed by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with

needles. Lace An ornamental braid for trimming. Lame like glotique A woven fabric using flat silver or gold metal threads to create either the design or the background in the fabric. Lawn A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed, linen or cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish. Leather Animal skin dressed for use in clothing. Leatherette Simulated leather. Linen A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from inside the woody stem of the flax plant. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous than cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle very easily, unless blended with manufactured fibers. Lycra A DuPont trademark for its spandex fiber. Any time you see this fiber listed on a label, expect comfort, movement, and shape retention that won't wash away. Marabou A thrown silk usually dyed in the gum or a fabric made of this silk. Matte Lacks luster or gloss and has a usually smooth even surface free from shine or highlights. Mesh A type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance, and the spaces between the yarns. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions including wovens, knits, laces, or crocheted fabrics. Micro fiber Generic term for any synthetic fiber finer than silk. Fabrics made with micro fibers are soft, lightweight, breathable and durable. Net An open fabric, which is created by connecting the intersections in a woven, knitted, or crocheted construction to form a mesh-like appearance that won't ravel. Nylon The first completely synthetic fiber developed. Known for its high strength and excellent resilience, nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility. Organza A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain-weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count, made of silk, rayon, nylon, or polyester. The fabric is used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women. Ottoman A tightly woven, plain-weave, ribbed fabric with a hard, slightly lustered surface. The ribbed effect is created by weaving a finer silk or manufactured warp yarn with a heavier filler yarn, usually made of cotton, wool, or waste yarn. In the construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus creating the ribbed effect. Pearlized Given a pearlescent surface or finish. Peau satin A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured

fiber, and used for bridal gowns and evening wear. Picot A row of woven loops along the selvage of fabric or lace. Pointelle Very feminine, delicate-looking, rib-knit fabric made with a pattern of openings. Polyester A manufactured fiber which has high strength, excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly. Poplin A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Ramie A bast fiber, similar to flax, taken from the stalk of a plant grown in China. Rayon A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or other vegetable matter. Re-embroidered To outline a design (as on lace) with embroidery stitching. Rhinestoned To attach a colorless imitation stone of high luster made of glass, paste, or gem quartz. Ribbed To form vertical ridges in knitting. Ribboned Ribbon lace is made by stitching ribbon onto mesh or net fabrics. The design is usually a random pattern rather than floral. Rib knit A basic stitch used in weft knitting in which the knitting machines require two sets of needles operating at right angles to each other. Rib knits have a very high degree of elasticity in the crosswise direction. This knitted fabric is used for complete garments and for such specialized uses as sleeve bands, neck bands, sweater waistbands, and special types of trims for use with other knit or woven fabrics. Lightweight sweaters in rib knits provide a close, body-hugging fit. Satin A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and royal satin. Seersucker A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Sequined Ornamented with a small plate of shining metal or plastic. Shantung A medium-weight, plain-weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits. Sheer Any very light-weight fabric (e.g., chiffon, georgette, voile, sheer crepe). Usually

has an open weave. Sheers mostly feel cool. Silk It is obtained from cocoons of certain species of caterpillars. It is soft and has a brilliant sheen. It is one of the finest textiles. It is also very strong and absorbent. Spandex A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length. Suede Leather with a napped surface. Taffeta A lustrous, medium-weight, plain-weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices. Tencel A trademark of Courtaulds for a high performance fiber used to make soft, beautifully draping rayon fabrics. Tencel is made from wood pulp that is harvested from replenished tree farms. So it's environmentally sensitive and it's washable! Terry A woven fabric, usually cotton, with loop pile on one or both sides. Tri-acetate A manufactured fiber, which, like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. Tri-acetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried, with relatively good wrinkle recovery. Twill A fabric that shows a distinct diagonal wale on the face (e.g., denim, gabardine, tricotine). Velour A medium-weight, closely-woven fabric with a thick pile. It can be made using either a plain weave or a satin weave construction. It resembles velvet, but has a lower cut pile. Velvet A medium-weight, cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight. It is woven using two sets of warp yarns; the extra set creates the pile. Velvet, a luxurious fabric, is commonly made with a filament fiber for high luster and smooth hand. Venice lace This lace often has a high profile, and is made using a needlepoint technique rather than embroidery. A heavier weight lace, the patterns vary from geometric to floral. Each pattern is attached to the others by bars made of thread. Viscose The most common type of rayon. It is produced in much greater quantity than cuprammonium rayon, the other commercial type. Voile A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. Similar in appearance to organdy and organza. Wool Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lambs. However, the term "wool" can also apply to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna.

Main Types of Fabric Because of the wide variety of silk fabrics, we can only give a few main types, with their common manufacturing techniques and particularities. Taffetas This is another word for basic cloth, ie, the simplest way of intertwining a warp and a weft yarn. This fabric is usually shiny, yarndyed, very fine-grained, with a dry and rustling feel. Poult and faille: soft, thick taffetas with clear cross-wise ribs. They can be treated as moir fabrics by crushing during finishing. Crepes: a group of fabrics made up of yarns which have been highly twisted before weaving, giving the fabrics a particular appearance considerable suppleness. There are an enormous number of varieties of crepe, including crepe de Chine, Moroccan crepe, crepe georgette. Chiffon, organdie, voile, grenadine: a light, matt fabrics made from fine twisted yarns, spaced out to make the fabric transparent. Silk toilles, pongees shantungs (heavy fabrics with an uneven grain) and tussah are also part of the taffeta group of fabrics. Twills The way in which the yarns are woven produces an effect of diagonal ribs and grooves. The main fabrics using this type of weave are the serges, surahs, diagonals, herringbone, diamond-shaped. Satins Fabrics which usually have a shiny look, and in which the points where the warp and the weft intersect are hidden, so that the fabric has a smooth, brilliant surface and seems to be made of yarns laid side-by-side. There is a wide range of satins : duchess satins, Lyons satins, doublefaced radzimir satins, satin crepes with a weft made from twisted yarns, charmeuses (heavy satin crepes with a very soft feel). Composite or fancy weaves These are various weaves combining the three above-mentioned types. Reps, regencies, piques: fabrics with straight vertical ribs. Ottomans, grosgrains, fluted fabrics: fabrics with transverse ribs, of varying thickness. Velvets: The luxurious fabric par excellence, characterised by yarns which are cut off at the same height, forming a surface resembling fur. Gauzes, bayaderes, tartans, etc. Pattern-weaves The pattern-woven fabric carries a pattern which is created by the interplay of the warp and weft yarns. It is also called a Jacquard fabric, and fabrics are known as Jacquard taffeta, Jacquard velvet etc. Brocades and Lams: In these fabrics, the pattern is partially or totally made up of gold and silver threads. There are also damasks, quilted and eloqu fabrics. Furnishing fabrics: double damasks, lampas, brocades, Jacquard velvet, etc.
Identifying fabric is important. More important is the comparison of fabrics. This makes us know the true quality of a fabric by differentiating it from its substitutes. The following chart gives a complete information upon different types of fabric at a glance. It gives information about the weaves of the fabric, its characteristics and the uses, the important part of comparison.

Another table is given at the bottom, which shows the comparison of only the characteristics of few fabrics. For example, water retention is very high in cotton and the lowest in polypropylene. Same with the drying time taken, very long in cotton and vice versa in polypropylene. Cotton and wool shrinks more than polyester and nylon.

Fabrics Acetate Acrylic Alpaca Angora goat Angora rabbit Beaver Broadcloth


Characteristics Soft, crisp feel and durable. Durable, soft and wooly feel.

Uses Clothing, uniforms, lingerie, linings, interlinings. Used as replacement of wool.

Various weaves, Fine, silk-like, soft, knits and weights. lightweight, and warm. Various weaves and knitted. Various weaves and knitted.

Plain weave.

Camel hair

Twill or plain

Canvas Cashmere (Kashmir) Challis Chiffon

Plain. All weaves but mostly plain or twill. All knits. Plain. Plain. Mostly plain but various weaves. Figured onJacquardloom.



Men's and Women's suits, coats, and sportswear, linings, sweaters. Smooth, very strong, Carpet, upholstery, curtain, and and high luster. automobile cloth. Long, very fine, light Knit wear - gloves, scarves, weight, extremely warm sweaters, etc. for children and and fluffy. women. Fur coats, trimming fur and Soft, silky, shiny. fabric garments. Shirts, dresses, particularly the Closely woven with tailored type in plain colors, smooth finish. blouses, summer wear. Coats, women's suits, sports coats, sweaters, some blankets Light weight, lustrous and put in some very expensive and soft. oriental rugs. Also used in (fine) overcoating, topcoating, hosiery and transmission belts. Hair canvas is an interfacing Mostly rugged. material in various weights. Knitted into sweaters for men Soft, silky and very and women, also women's lightweight. dresses. Women's and children's dresses Soft and very and blouses, kimonos, neckties, lightweight. and sportswear. Lightweight, sheer, and Evening wear, blouses and transparent. scarves. Depending on weight, it is used Crinkled and puckered for dresses of all types, including surface with rough feel long dinner dresses, suits, and and appearance. coats. Reversible fabric with woven pattern. Sheds dirt.

Originally had dark blue, brown or dark gray warp with a white or gray Pants, caps, uniforms, Twill - right hand filling giving a mottled bedspreads, slipcovers, may be L2/1 or Denim look and used only for draperies, upholstery, L3/1. work clothes. Comes in sportswear. heavy and lighter weights. Irregular with many slubs. It is imitated in Douppioni Plain. rayon and some synthetics Uniforms, work clothes, slip Closer, flatter wales that Twill. covers, sportswear, and many Drill gabardine. industrial uses. Soft, with a napped surface that partially cancels the weave. Dull finish. Made in a variety Blazers, dresses, skirts, suits and Usually twill, of weights. Shrinks if coats. Boys suits, jackets, and Flannel some plain. not pre-shrunk. Sags shirts. with wear, unless underlined. Does not shine or hold a crease. Clear finish, tightly woven, firm, durable. Men's and women's tailored Wears extremely well. suits, coats, raincoats, uniforms, Gabardine Steep twill Inclined to shine with and men's shirts. wear. Hard to press properly. It is characterized by it's crispness, body and Plain. outstanding durability. It Georgette is sheer and has a dull face. It is usually created in Suitings, top coatings, sports Herringbone Twill. wool and has varying coats. twill qualities. Weaned into an irregular Broken twill check of a four pointed sportcoats, suits. Houndstooth weave. star. Linings, pile fabrics, Plain or twill or Smooth, glossy, and suitings, upholsteryfabrics, Mohair knitted. wiry. braids, dress materials, felt hats, and sweaters. Very strong, resistant to Women's hosiery, knitted or both abrasion chemicals. woven lingerie, socks and Nylon It is elastic, easy to wash sweaters.







and is quite lustrous. It returns easily to it's original shape and is non-absorbent. It is fast drying, resistant to some dyes. Made with tightly twisted yarns. Crispness is due to a finish with starch and calendaring which washes out, or a Plain. permanent crispness obtained with chemicals. Wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish. Fine, sheer, lightweight, crisp fabric. It has a very wiry feel. It crushes or musses fairly easily, but Plain. it is easily pressed. Dressy type of fabric, sometimes has a silvery sheen. Warp has two fine yarns which travel as one and Plain variations one heavier softly-spun usually basket 2 x bulky filling which gives 1. it a basket-weave look. Rather heavy. It is lightweight, strong and resistant to creasing, shrinking, stretching, mildew and abrasion. It is readily washable and is not damaged by sunlight or weather and is resistant to moths and mildew. Plain. Light or medium weight. Its drapability and dyeability are excellent and it is fairly soft. Rayon does have a tendency to shrink but does not melt in high temperatures. It is resistant to moths and is

Collars and cuffs, artificial flowers, millinery, summer formals, blouses, aprons.

Evening dresses, trimming, millinery, underlinings for delicate, sheer materials.

Men's shirts mostly. Summer jackets, shirts, skirts, dresses, and sportswear.

Vary, depending on blend.

Dresses, blouses, summer suits.

Clothing, hose.


Sateen filling-face weave.





Usually plain with a fine cross rib.


Usually plain but also in twill.


Thick, plush pile, with a plain or satin ground, or sometimes knitted.


Pile, made with an extra warp yarn.


Plain, loosely woven.

not affected by ordinary household bleaches and chemicals. Lustrous and smooth with the sheen in a filling direction. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Usually has a lustrous surface and a dull back. Made in many colors, weights, varieties, qualities, and degrees of stiffness. It is lightweight and flexible. It resists deterioration from perspiration, detergent and body oils. It is characterized by its strength and durability. It is smooth with a sheen on its surface. The textures vary considerably. They have a crispness and stiffness. It is coarse, strong, and uneven. Dull lustre and rather stiff. Has a rough texture with many slubs, knots, and bumps. The pile is characterized by uneven lengths (usually two) which gives it a rough look. The two lengths of pile create light and shaded areas on the surface. A rather pebbled effect. velvet may be crush resistant, water resistant, and drapes well. Has to be handled with care, and pressed on a velvet board. Sheer and very light weight. To obtain a top quality fabric, very

Dresses, sportswear, robes, pajamas.

Slips, evening wear, coats, capes, and jackets, lining fabrics, millinery.

Athletic wear and foundation garments.

Dressy evening wear: suits and coats, slips, ribbons, blouses, dresses.

In lighter weights, dresses. In heavier weights, coats and suits and ensembles.

Dressing gowns, dresses, waistcoats.

Eveningwear, at home wear.

Dresses, blouses.


highly twisted yarns are used. Voile drapes and gathers very well. It is very resilient and resistant to wrinkling. It is renewed by moisture Clothing, blankets, winter wear. and well known for it's warmth.

Fabric Characteristics Cotton Wool Polyester Polypropylene Nylon High High Low Lowest Medium Water Retention Long Long Short Shortest Short Drying Time Low Low Low Medium Heat Conduction (Wet) High Medium High Medium Medium Comfort Level (Dry) High High High Low High Low Shrinkage Medium Medium High Medium High Durability High High High Low High Colour Choice Low Low High Medium Medium Paddling Suitability Medium High High Medium Medium Camping Suitability

Wool Fabric - Wool means warmth, softness and strength. It is resistant to wrinkle, dirt and wear and tear. Wool as a clothing was discovered some twelve thousand years ago. Today, it is obtained from sheep, goat, angora goat and angora rabbit and camel. Leather Fabric - The fabric which never ages. It is firm, soft, elastic and weather friendly. Commercially it is obtained from cattle, calf, goat, sheep, lamb, horse, pig, kangaroo, deer, reptile, seal, and walrus. The major exporters of goatskin leather in the world are India, China and Pakistan. In sheepskin leather, China, New Zealand, Australia and Iran are the important exporters. USA, Europe, Brazil and USSR are key players in exporting leathers obtained from bovine. Hemp Fabric - The warmth, softness and durability of hemp fabric is rarely found in any other fabric. It is very versatile with UV protective and insulative quality. It is used as apparel, accessories, shoes, furniture, and home furnishing. It is obtained from stems of plant. The finest comes from Italy and the leading producer is China. Coir Fabric - It is known for its resilience and durable quality. It is the perfect fabric for controlling soil erosion. In horticulture, coir fabric is used as a substitute for peat because it is bacteria free and free from fungal spores. It is an environmental friendly fabric and fully bio-degradable. Jute Fabric - It is eco-friendly with good strength and durability. It is widely used as bags and sacks. Fashionable cloths, home furnishing and fashion accessories are some of the

innovation of jute. India is leading jute manufacturer in the world. Linen Fabric - It is the fabric of luxury. Lustrous, beautiful and elegant. It is antibacterial and antifungi with a property of UV protection. It is being used for more than 10,000 years. Egyptians made extensive use of linen. It is obtained from flax plant. Ramie Fabric - A summer fabric with air-permeability and moisture-absorption quality. It is obtained from ramie plant, a tall shrub grown in South-east Asia. China is the leading producer of ramie followed by Brazil, Korea and Philippines. Fabric Blends- are one which is made up of two or more different types of fibres twisted or spun together. Blending adds to the quality of the final product.

Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Cotton Fabric is noted for its versatility and its natural comfort. Cotton cloth has been used since primitive ages dating back to about 3000 B.C. Today, the main uses of cotton is in the form of garments, home furnishings, and industrial cloths. Cloth made of cotton is more comfortable, durable and suitable to resist all kinds of weather. The comfort quality of the cotton is due to its twisted or coiled shape. It traps air within the fabric structure and help for a thermal insulation process, resulting protection from heat in summer and cold in winter.

For the fabrics strength, absorbency quality, capacity to be washed and dyed, cotton has become the principal clothing fabric of the world. It is obtained from a bushy plant scientifically known as Gossypium. The fruit (boll) part of the plant is used to make cotton fabric. There are four main types of cotton namely American Upland, Egyptian, Sea Island and Asiatic. In the world production of cotton, China is the leading followed by United States, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Turkey and Greece. Today, production of cotton is one of the major factors in world prosperity and economic stability.

Process of creating the Cotton Fabric

Cotton fiber undergoes several process to reach the stage of final cloth. The processes are as mentioned below: Ginning Ginning is the method of separating the cotton fibers from the seedpods, and sometimes

with the sticky seeds. This is done in the cotton field with the help of machines. Spinning Spinning is the succeeding step to ginning. This process involves the making of yarn from the cotton fiber. The cotton yarns are made of different thickness in this stage. Weaving Weaving is the most important process in the making of cotton cloth. In this process, two yarn is placed to make warp and weft of a loom which successively turn them into a cloth. Fabric finishes and treatments After weaving the cotton fabric passes through different processing stages till it reaches to the state of final product. The stages are mentioned below, but it is not necessary for the fabric to undergo all the process for e.g. grain bags cloth are used unbleached.
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Singeing - This process burns off the fibers sticking in the goods. Desizing - This process involves removing the size material from warp yarns in woven fabrics. Scouring - The cleaning part of the fabrics are involved in this process. Bleaching - The fabrics are bleached here to make it more whiter and lighter. Mercerizing - In this process, the fabric is immersed in alkali to make it more strong, shining, durable, shrink free and stretch free. Dyeing - This process involves the changing of the fabric color by the treatment with a dye. Finishing - In this process, the fabric is treated with some chemicals or other useful agents to make it qualitatively more better, for e.g. cotton is made sun protected by treating it with UV protecting agent.

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Characteristics of Cotton Fabric

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It is soft and comfortable. It has good strength. It is easy to handle and sew. It drapes well. It is flame retardant. It is machine-washable and dry-cleanable. It is hydrophilic, which means that cotton have excellent absorbing capabilities. Garments made of cotton absorb perspiration, thus keeping one more comfortable. Cotton wrinkles easily. To resist this, cotton is being blended with many other natural or synthetic fibers. The blending of cotton also gives a bouncy and elasticity property to the cotton.

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100% untreated cotton fabric has pleasant matte luster. It is hypoallergenic, which means it has a low tendency to cause allergic reactions.

We can cater to all types of Cotton Fabrics for various industries. If you have any kind of sourcing requirement in bulk please send us an enquiry and we will send you the best quotations from genuine suppliers.

Uses of Cotton Fabric


Cotton Apparel / Garments - Garments made of cotton are very soft, comfortable and weather friendly. They are either 100% or blended with some natural or synthetic fibers. Normally all types of garments are made of cotton fabrics; formal, casual and even industrial clothing. Cotton Home Furnishing - Cotton home furnishing is preferred because of the fabrics strength and durability characteristics. A good example of cotton home furnishing is rugs or durries, draperies and curtains, bedding products, etc. Cotton Handbags and Luggages - Due to strength, cotton handbags and luggages are more widely preferred. The heavier cotton fabric is used in these kind of products. Cotton Canvas - Medium to heavyweight cotton fabric is used in range of canvas products like shoes, tents, tarpaulins, etc. Apart from these, cotton fabrics are also used in medical and surgical products, bookbinding cloths and tobacco cloths.

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Yarn Production
Modernization efforts have brought major changes to the U.S. textile industry. Equipment has been streamlined and many operations have been fully automated with computers. Machine speeds have greatly increased. At most mills the opening of cotton bales is fully automated. Lint from several bales is mixed and blended together to provide a uniform blend of fiber properties. To ensure that the new high-speed automated feeding equipment performs at peak efficiency and that fiber properties are consistent, computers group the bales for production/feeding according to fiber properties. The blended lint is blown by air from the feeder through chutes to cleaning and carding machines that separate and align the fibers into a thin web. Carding machines can process cotton in excess of 100 pounds per hour. The web of fibers at the front of the card is then drawn through a funnel-shaped device called a trumpet, providing a soft, rope-like strand

called a sliver (pronounced SLY-ver). As many as eight strands of sliver are blended together in the drawing process. Drawing speeds have increased tremendously over the past few years and now can exceed 1,500 feet per minute. Roving frames draw or draft the slivers out even more thinly and add a gentle twist as the first step in ring spinning of yarn. Ring spinning machines further draw the roving and add twist making it tighter and thinner until it reaches the yarn thickness or count needed for weaving or knitting fabric. The yarns can be twisted many times per inch. Ring spinning frames continue to play a role in this country, but open-end spinning, with rotors that can spin five to six times as fast as a ring spinning machine, are becoming more widespread. In open-end spinning, yarn is produced directly from sliver. The roving process is eliminated. Other spinning systems have also eliminated the need for roving, as well as addressing the key limitation of both ring and open-end spinning, which is mechanical twisting. These systems, air jet and Vortex, use compressed air currents to stabilize the yarn. By removing the mechanical twisting methods, air jet and Vortex are faster and more productive than any other short-staple spinning system. After spinning, the yarns are tightly wound around bobbins or tubes and are ready for fabric forming. Ply yarns are two or more single yarns twisted together. Cord is plied yarn twisted


Fabric refers to any textile material made through weaving, knitting, braiding or plaiting and bonding of fibers. The term fabric has its origin in the Latin term fabrica meaning a workshop. It means that which is put together like building. Fabric can be classified based on various criteria. On the basis of fiber used for manufacturing, it can be classified as natural fabrics such as Cashmere, Cotton, Hemp, Jute, Linen, Ramie, Silk, Wool and synthetic or man-made fabrics like Acetate, Acrylic, Chiffon, Denim, Georgette, Lastex, Nylon, Organza, Polyester Fabrics, Rayon, Satin, Velvet etc. It can also be categorized on the basis of its usage for making Apparel, Curtains, Drapery, Home Furnishing, Quilting, Upholstery among others. Other than the traditional fabrics, in view of the increased demand of textile for technical and industrial use, many speciality fabrics have also gained importance. Among these are included Abrasive, Aluminized, Awning, Blended, Carbon, Fiberglass, Flame Resistant, Narrow, Tarpaulin, Vinyl Fabric to name a few.

Fabric Manufacturing Techniques

The traditional methods of manufacturing fabrics are weaving, knitting and braiding. The more unconventional method include bonding fibers by mechanical, thermal, chemical or solvent means.

Weaving is described as inter-lacing, usually at right angles, of two sets of threads to form cloth, rug or other types of woven textiles. Today this process is mostly automated for mass production. In it, two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced with each other to form a fabric. The lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom are called the warp. The crosswise yarns are the filling or weft. A loom is a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling threads are woven through them.

After weaving, the most prevalent method of fabric construction is knitting. The fabrics follows a meandering path ,forming symmetric loops or stitches. When loops run lengthwise, each row is called a wale. A wale can be compared with weaving. When the loops run across the fabric, each row is called a course. A to the filling, or weft. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting In weft knitting, one continuous yarn forms courses across the fabric. In warp knitting, a series of yarns form wales in the lengthwise direction of the fabric.

yarn in knitted the interlocking the warp in course corresponds and warp knitting.

A braid is a rope like thing, which is made by interweaving three or more strands, strips, or lengths, in a diagonally overlapping pattern. Braiding is one of the major fabrication methods for composite reinforcement structures. It is done by intertwining of yarns in whatever direction suited to the manufacturer's purpose. From a domestic art of making laces, it evolved as a fabric made by narrow width looms. Of late, Crochet knitting machines have replaced large numbers of traditional braiding machines. Braiding can be classified as two and three-dimensional braiding. Two-dimensional braid structure can be circular or flat braid. They are formed by crossing a number of yarns diagonally so that each yarn passes alternately over and under one or more of the others. Two dimensional braids are produced through circular braiding machine and rotary machine. Three-dimensional braiding is relatively new and was developed mainly for composite structures. In it, a two dimensional array of interconnected 2-D circular braids is created on two basic types of machines- the horn gear and cartesian machines.
Nonwoven Fabrics

Nonwoven fabrics are made by bonding or interlocking fibers or filaments by Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical or Solvent means. For making Staple non-wovens, fibers are first spun, cut to a few centimeters length, and put into bales. These bales are then scattered on a conveyor belt, and the fibers are spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid process or by carding. These nonwovens are either bonded thermally or by using resin. The Spunlaid non-wovens are made in one continuous process. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or with air streams. Meltblown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. Spunlaid is also bonded either thermally or by using resin. Both staple and spunbonded nonwovens would have no mechanical resistance without the bonding step. Nonwoven Fabric has gradually gained importance in various industrial applications along with medicine, personal care, hygiene and household uses. They are used in Interlinings and apparel, Carpet backing and underlay, Needle punched felt for backing of PVC floor covering, Home furnishing and household products, Medical, sanitary and surgical applications, Book cloths, Industrial wiping cloths, Filtration, Shoe Linings, Automotive applications, Laundry & carry bags in Hospitality industry etc.

Speciality Fabrics
Along with quantity and quality, the textile industry is continuously emphasizing on the "functionality" of fabrics in this era of Global Competition. Some of the innovations in speciality fabrics have indeed brought revolution in the textile industry.

Aluminized fabrics

Aluminized fabrics are specifically designed to provide protection from extreme heat, molten metal or high-pressure steam. They enhance the performance of firefighters and industrial workers etc. by helping them withstand extreme temperatures.
Awning fabric

The awning fabrics like woven acrylic, vinyl-coated fabrics, and PVC Mesh are water-repellent and colorfast. At the same time they provide ventilation, filtered sunlight, and improved outward visibility, making them ideal for the purpose.
Blended Fabrics

Blended Fabrics are made of different types of fibres twisted together. Polyester blended with cotton, Silk blended with wool, Ramie blended with acrylic results in softer fabrics easier to care for and more comfortable.
Carbon Fabrics

Carbon Fabrics made up of carbon atoms is unbelievably strong. Its qualities include high tensile strength, low weight, and low thermal expansion due to which it is in great demand in aerospace, military, motor sports, and other competition sports.
Fiberglass Fabric

Fiberglass Fabric. made from molten glass is strong, durable, and impervious to many caustics and to extreme temperatures. Fiberglass fabrics resemble silk and cotton and are used for curtains, drapery and for industrial purposes.
Narrow Fabric

Sometimes referred to as 'small wares' , they do not exceed 4S cm in width with 2 selvedges. They include any trimming, elastic, tape, ribbon, lace, cording etc. They are mostly formed by needle looms using materials such as cotton, satin, velvet, polyester, jute, nylon, fibre glass among others. They are largely used to decorate dresses and can also be attached to curtains, bed covers, etc and in industrial applications

Mens Clothing

Mens Shorts Mens Sleepwear Mens Suits Mens Sweaters Mens T-Shirts Mens Trousers

Mens Coats Mens Jackets Mens Jeans

Mens Shirts

Womens Clothing

Womens Coats Womens Jackets Womens Jeans

Ladies Frocks Ladies Tops Ladies Trousers

Womens Capris

Womens Knitted Wear Womens One Pieces Womens Shorts Womens Skirts Womens Sleepwear

Kids Clothing

Kids Jackets

Kids Bottoms Kids Caps Kids Coat

Kids Hats

Kids Other Dresses Kids Sleepwear Kids Top

Infant Wear

Baby Sleepwear Baby Tops

Baby Jackets Baby One Pieces Baby Other Dresses

Baby Pants

Baby Wear Materials Kids Bib Kids Diapers

Clothing By Fabrics

Knitted Clothing Leather Clothing

Blended Fabric Clothing Crocheted Clothing Denim Clothing

Embroidered Clothing

Natural Fabric Clothing Satin Clothing Speciality Fabric Clothing Synthetic Fabric Clothing Twill Clothing Woven Clothing


Beachwear Belt Bermudas Bibs Blazers

Anoraks Apron Baby Suits


Blouses Bra Briefs

Fashion Clothing

Swim Wear Wedding Wear

Beach Wear Inner Wears Maternity Wear

Rain Wear

Industrial Clothing

Industrial Wear By Material Industrial Wear By Products Industrial Wear By Usage

Sports Wear

Sports Accessories Sports Clothing Sports Protective Gear

Animal Clothing

Horse Bridle Horse Halters Horse Harness Horse Saddle

Animal Blankets Harness Sets Horse Boot

Leather Equestrian Leather Harness Saddle Pads

6 Fibre to Fabric 6.1 Introduction You all know that food, clothing and shelter are the three basic needs of life. You eat food to survive and protect yourself from diseases, you need a house to live in. Why do

you wear clothes? You wear clothes for protection against climate, for modesty and beauty, and also to show status. The material that you use for clothing is called fabric. If you go to a shop to buy fabric for your dress, you would see a variety of fabrics there. Do you wonder what these fabrics are made of? How you get variety in fabrics? Why are some materials warm, some soft and others rough? Why do some materials go bad after washing while others remain the same? In this lesson you will find answers to these and other similar questions. 6.2 Objectives After reading this lesson you will be able to do the following: z describe and classify fibres; z use the burning test to identify various fibres; z state the characteristics of fibres; z define a yarn; z explain the methods of fabric formation.84 :: Home Science 6.3 Fibres Do you know what fabrics are made of? Take a cloth and pull out a thread. Untwist to loosen this thread. You will see that it is made up of smaller threads or hair like strands. Pull out one of these. This single hair like strand is called a fibre. A fibre is a hair like strand from which all fabrics are made. Classification of fibres Instead of a cloth, now pull fibres from a ball of cotton. What do you see? These fibres are very small. These are called staple fibres. Try and pull fibres from a fibres from a nylon fabric. These are long fibres. Such fibres are called filament fibres or simply filaments. Hence, you can classify fibres into two groups. See the following box. Short fibres - Staple fibre Long fibres - Filament fibre Fibres can also be classifed on the basis of their origin.

Natural Fibres: Some fibres are obtained from natural sources, that is, from plants and animals. Fibres from such sources are called natural fibres. Some examples of fibres from natural sources are cotton, Jute, silk, wool, etc. Man-made Fibres: The other type of fibres are obtained from chemical substance. These are called manmade fibres. They are rayon, polyester, nylon, acrylic (cashmilon) etc. Now can you say what is the second way to classify fibres? See the following box. Natural fibres - Plants and animals Man made fibres - Chemical substances For your understanding we are putting the two classifications together in the figure given below:Fibre to Fabric :: 85 FIBRE On basis of length On basis of origin Staple (short) Filament (long) Natural Man-made e.g. e.g. Vegetables animals e.g. Cotton, Silk, e.g. e.g. Rayon, Jute, Nylon, Cotton Jute Wool Silk Polyester Acrylic. Nylon, Wool, Rayon, e.g. e.g. Polyester, Polyester Cotton, Wool, Acrylic Jute, Silk 1. Natural Fibres (i) Vegetable Fibres These fibres are obtained from different plants. Some are well known and useful to man. Cotton can you think of any such fibre? That is right, cotton, jute and coir. Cotton is obtained from seed of the plant, jute is obtained from the stem of a plant and coir is the outer covering of coconut. Fig. 6.1 (i) Animal Fibres

These fibres are obtained from different animal sources. Can you name the fibre we get from sheep and goat? Thats right, we get wool from their hair. Wool can also be obtained from the hair of rabbits and camels. Another animal fibre you all are familiar with is silk. It is the secretion of an insect called the silk worm. 2. Man-made Fibres When you go to the market to buy fabrics, you must have heard from the shopkeeper that it is a synthetic material. Dont get disturbed. Synthetic is another name for manmade fabrics. The first man-made fibre is known as rayon and was produced in the latter part of 19th century. Man-made fibres are generally filament fibres. Other examples are nylon, polyester, and acrylic. INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.1 1. Complete the following chart by classifying fibres on the basis of origin and length. Fibre (a) Origin (b) (c) (d) (e)86 :: Home Science

2. Classify the following fibres as man-made and natural: (i) Nylon (ii) Wool (iii) Cotton (iv) Silk (v) Polyester (vi) Rayon (vii) Acrylic (viii) Jute 3. State whether the following are true or false and correct the false statements: (i) Fibre is the basic unit of all fabrics. (ii) Filament are short fibres. (iii) Jute is the outer covering of coconut. (iv) Silk is prepared from the stem of a plant. (v) Polyester is a staple fibre. 6.4 Identification of Fibres

BURNING TEST This test helps to identify fibres. Once fibres are identified it will help the buyer to choose as per requirement, and not be cheated by salesmen. Procedure:- For the burning test:Take out a yarn from the fabric. Burn one end of the yarn either with a match stick or burning candle. Check the following. 1. How the fibre catches fire. 2. Type of flame. 3. Smell after burning. 4. Ash left behind. Answers to all these points will to help to identify the fibres. FIBRE INFLAME TYPE OF FLAME SMELL ASH COTTON AND Catches fire continues to Smell of Light feathery RAYON easily burn with a bright burning ash yellow flame . paper SILK AND Does not catch Burns with a yellow Smell of burning Black WOOL fire easily flame. Does not hair crushable bead continue to burn NYLON, Does not catch fire Shrinks away from No definite smell Hard, POLYSTER easily, melts flame. Burns with uncrushable ACRYLIC away sputtering beadFibre to Fabric :: 87 6.5 Yarns Do you remember pulling a thread from a cloth and opening it? Yes, you found hair like fibres. That thread which was made of fibres is called yarn. Yarns are made up of a number of fibres twisted together. Fibres are thin and small and cannot be made into a fabric directly. So they are first converted into yarns which are longer, thicker and

stronger. We use these yarns to make fabrics. A yarns is a continuous strand made up of a number of fibres which are twisted together. YARN MAKING The process of making yarns from fibres is called spinning. Here the fibres are not only twisted but also pulled out or drawn. You can try spinning and making a yarn yourself. Take some cotton and start pulling out a few fibres. While pulling also twist. You will see that a yarn is formed. The spinning process helps to hold the fibres together and makes the yarns strong, smooth and fine. Even the filament fibres are twisted together to form a stronger, finer and smoother yarn. Spinning can be done by using a takli (spindle), a charkha or a spinning machine. BLENDS You all must have heard of fabrics with names like terecot and cotswool. These are the names of mixed fabrics. Cotswool is a mixture of cotton and wool, and terewool of wool and terene. Blends are made from more than one kind of fibres. At the yarn stage itself, two types of fibres are mixed, pulled out and twisted together to form the yarn. Can you name some more mixed fabrics?88 :: Home Science INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.2 1. Write the missing steps in the process of yarn formation: Fibre ...........(i)...............(ii)...............(iii).................... Yarn. 2. State whether the following are true or false: (i) Yarn is made of a number of fibres. (ii) Staple fibres are used to make a yarn. (iii) Spinning is a process of making fibres. (iv) Spinning increases the strength of yarns. (v) Twisting increases the strength of the yarns. (vi) Smoothness of a yarn depends on the twisting of the fibres.

(vii) Blends are made from different fibres. 6.6 Fabrics The term fabric doesnt need any explanation because you all know what it means. So we can describe it as: Fabric is the material that is used to make clothing or household articles. You all must have seen the seat of a chair or a charpoy made with nylon or cotton. These are made with tape - when two sets of tapes are interlaced with each other at right angles.Similarily a fabric is also made by interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles. This whole process of interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles to make a fabric is called weaving. Weaving is the process of interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles to each other to form a fabric. Weaving is done on looms. Hand operated looms are called handlooms and power operated ones are called power looms. 6.7 Weaving Weaving is done by fitting one set of yarns on the loom which forms the length of the fabric. These are called the warps. The other set of yarns interlaced at right angles with the warps, are called wefts.Fibre to Fabric :: 89 The yarns can be interlaced in many different ways. These different ways of in terlacing of yarns is called weaving. There are many types of weaves used to make different kinds of fabrics like cambric, popline, matt, satin, velvet, towels, denims, etc. Common weaves used for most of the fabrics are: (i) Plain weave (ii) Twill weave (iii) Satin weave (iv) Plain Weave

(i) Plain weave It is the most simple and inexpensive method of weaving. In this case, the warp and weft yarns alternate with each other, that is, each weft yarn goes over one warp yarn and under the next warp yarn, as is shown in the figure. Examine, the weave of fabrics like mulmul, cambric, organdy, silk, etc. These fabrics are made by the plain weave. (ii) Twill Weave We can change the way of interlacing yarns so as to get many different designs. If we get a diagonal line effect on the fabric, then we call it the twill weave. Fabrics made by this weave are stronger as compared to plain weave. Fabrics like denims, Jeans meterial are made by the twill weave. (iii) Satin Weave Satin weave fabrics differ in appearance from twill weave fabrics because the diagonal line of twill weave is not visible. In the case of satin weave, there are long lengths of warp yarns between the wefts. As a result the warp yarns are seen more on the surface of the fabric. Reflection of light from these yarns give a shine to the fabric. Moreover, the yarns used for making this weave have lesser twist as compared to the yarns used for other weaves. All these together give the fabric a soft, smooth and shiny appearance. The other method of making a fabric is: KNITTING Pick up a sweater and any other woven fabric and compare the two? Yes, in case of a sweater, there is interlocking of loops. You must have seen your mother knitting sweat-90 :: Home Science ers with needles. If you try to do it yourself, you will see that every time you make new loops from previous ones the length increases. Knitting is also done on machines. Besides sweaters, you can make other garments also. For example, T Shirts. Examine a gents baniyan or vest. Can you tell how it is made? Knitting is interlooping of one or more set of yarns.

When compared with wovens, knitted fabrics are more stretchable and can therefore be used for undergarments. They are also used for T-shirts, short pants for sports, socks, etc, because they allow freedom of movements along with a close fit. ACTIVITY Collect one sample each of plain weave fabric, twill weave fabric, satin weave fabric, and knitted fabric, and paste them in your record file. Note: these can be collected from tailors. INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 1. Fabrics are made by ...................... and ..................... . 2. The three basic weaves are ................... 3. Length wise yarns are known as .................... 4. Widthwise yarns are known as ....................... 5. ............................. fabrics are stretchable. 6.8 Characteristics of Fabrics Now let us look at some of the properties of the various fibres which, if considered, prove a great help in the selection, use and maintenance of fabrics.Fibre to Fabric :: 91 INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.4 1. Match the following statements: (a) Polyester (i) Strongest fibre (b) Nylon (ii) high moisture absorption (c) Wool (iii) Can not tolerate hot iron (d) Cotton (iv) Longest natural fibre (e) Silk (v) Poor heat conduction 2. State whether the following statement are true or false: (i) Cottons have a smooth look. (ii) Wool sweaters conserve body heat.

(iii) Silk shirts get dirty easily. (iv) Nylon ropes are used by mountaineers. (v) Polyester is good for making towels. 3. Choose the correct alternative to answer the following questions: (i) Which of the fabric is most suitable for summer? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon (c) Silk (d) Terelene. (ii) Which of the following fabrics does not take stains easily? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon (c) Wool (d) Silk (iii) Which of the following fabrics is a bad conductor? (a) Nylon (b) Wool92 :: Home Science (c) Rayon (d) Cotton (iv) Which fabric is made of staple fibre? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon (c) Polyester (d) Silk (v) Which is the strongest fibre? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon

(c) Rayon (d) Wool (vi) Which fabric has a dull surface? (a) Nylon (b) Polyester (c) Silk (d) Wool (vii) Cotton is most desirable fabric for making undergarments because it is : (a) Absorbant (b) Dull (c) Shinning (d) StrongFibre to Fabric :: 93 6.9 What You Have Learnt In order to make it easy for you to remember, here are the main points of the lesson: Properties have FIBRES are classifed as NATURAL MAN MADE STAPLE FILAMENT Veg. Animal e.g. e.g. cotton e.g. rayon e.g. e.g. polyester cotton wool. nylon jute silk used in the process of SPINNING to give

YARN through KNITTING WEAVING Gives FABRIC Length Appearance Absorbency Conductivity Strength Straighteening Drawing Twisting consists of Plain Twill Satin94 :: Home Science 6.10Terminal Exercise 1. How will you classify fibres on the basis of their origin? 2. What is the difference between rayon and nylon, though both are man-made fibres? 3. How do you get yarn from a cotton ball? Explain the steps with help of a diagram. 4. How will you make a fabric and how will you get different designs? 5. Why do we all prefer cottons over nylons in summer? 6.11 Answers to Intext Questions 6.1 1. (a) Length (b) Staple (c) Filament

(d) Natural (e) Man-made 2. Man-made: (i), (v), (vi), (vii) Natural: (ii), (iii), (iv), (viii) 3. (i) T (ii) F - Filaments are long fibres (iii) F - Jute is obtained from the stem of the jute plant (iv) F - from secretion of the silk worm (v) T 6.2 (i) Straightening (ii) Drawing (iii) Twisting 1. (i) T (ii) T (iii) F (iv) F (v) T (vi) T (vii) T

6.3 1. Weaving, Knitting 2. Plain, twill, satin 3. Warp 4. Weft 5. Knitted 6.4 1. (a) (iii), (b) (i), (c) (v), (d) (ii), (e) (iv) 2. (i) F, (ii) T, (iii) F (iv) T, (v) F 3. (i) (a), (ii) (d), (iii)(b) (iv)(a) (v)(b) (vi)d (vii) (a)

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Formal Shirts
Formal shirts for men are made from the finest quality fabrics and are available in different patterns and styles. Manufacturers all across the globe use high quality fabrics, advanced technology and machinery for making superior and premium range of formal shirts. These shirts are suitable for business, corporate wear and can be worn on different formal occasions. Wrinkle-free cotton shirts are being made these days on a large scale for making certain that the garment does not ruffle throughout the day. These shirts can have both full sleeves and half sleeves. Manufacturers are focusing on quality of shirts these days. These shirts have re-enforced stitching, re-enforced buttons and undergo rigorous quality checks. Stress is also laid on the color fastness of the garment. Fabrics Used Formal shirts are made from a variety of high quality fibers to ensure, comfort, good fit and durability of the shirt. Some of the fabrics widely used are:

Oxford: This is one of the most widely used fabrics for manufacturing men's formal or dress shirts. The fabric is heavy and has an elevated woven pattern. It is also in demand because of its look, feel and durability. Shirts made from this fabric can be worn on both formal and casu al occasions. Pinpoint Oxford: This is another popular type of fabric used for making dress or formal shirts. The fabric is light and smooth in feel. This fine fabric is lighter than the oxford fabric. Poplin: It is also widely used for making quality and light men's formal shirts. The fabric is as light as a pinpoint fabric. It is available in smooth finish and is plain. The fabric is also used for making customized formal or dress shirts. Twill: is one of the most fine fabrics available for making men's dress shirts. It is heavier poplin and pinpoint fabric. Tough a simple twill has smooth finish, a woven twill is little coarse. Twill has a high cotton content and is used for making men's formal and casual shirts. Woven Fabrics: There are a variety of woven fabrics that are used for making formal shirts for men. These fabrics are woven twill, herringbone etc. These dress shirts are luxurious and have a smooth feel. The fabric is also thicker and heavier as compared to other fabrics. Herringbone broadcloth: is also used for making superior formal shirts. The fabric is available in both plain and woven ribbed effect. These fabrics are fancier when compared to other fabrics. Cotton: formal shirts are made from either 100% pure cotton or cotton-polyester blend in 80/20 ratio. Pure cotton shirts tend to crumple easily and give a "already worn" look. Blended cotton shirts are wrinkle and stain resistant and are much in demand.

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Fabric Finish When selecting fabrics for dress shirts, it is important to focus on the finish of the fabric. Manufacturer provide special finish to these shirts fir giving a soft handle, stability after washing, easy to iron properties and colour - fastness. Thread Count Fine quality shirts have a direct relation with the thread count; higher the thread count, softer the shirt. The overall quality of the shirt is not only dependent on the thread count, but also the finish. If the finish is bad, then if a fine fabric shirt will not look good. Always insist on the thread count and finish of the shirt.