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Wrapping The Package

Devices & Data Encapsulation

By: Allan Johnson


Evolution of LAN Devices

NICs, Repeaters, & Hubs


Bridges
Switches
Routers
NIC Specifics
NICs provide hosts with access to
media by using a MAC address.
MAC stands for Media Access
Control
NICs operate at Layer 2 !!
NICs, Repeaters, & Hubs
The First LAN
NIC NIC

To connect two computers, you


must...
 Install NIC
Attach acomputers
NIC card inusing
each.a crossover
cable
You will make a crossover cable in
Ch. 5
NICs, Repeaters, & Hubs
Repeaters can be
used to increase the
NIC NIC
distance

So what can we
What’s the maximum
Repeaters use
amplify if this
100distance
meters
and isor approx.
greater
retime than
signals 300100feet
distance meters?
for Cat 5 cable?
NICs, Repeaters, & Hubs

NIC NIC

Using repeaters was fine as long as a


business only needed two computers
networked.
What if a business
NIC wanted a third computer NIC
attached?
Or a fourth? What
device would they
need?
NICs, Repeaters, & Hubs
A multi-port repeater!
Also called a...
NIC Hub NIC

NIC NIC
As businesses expanded
A Dilemma! their networks, they
began to cascade hubs.

NIC NIC

NIC NIC
What’s The Problem?
1) Hubs share bandwidth between
all attached devices.
2) Hubs are stupid, Layer 1 devices.
They cannot filter traffic.
3) Most LANs use a “broadcast
topology,” so every device sees
every packet sent down the
media.
Let’s take a look at how broadcasting works
In this picture, all hubs
Broadcasts forward all traffic to all
devices.
So, if Host 1 wants ping Host 2,
Broadcasts all hosts see the ping. This is
what we mean by a broadcast
topology
1
2

The red arrows show that all hosts


receive the ping request. Only Host 2 will
What’s The Solution?
We need a smarter hub!
What’s a “smarter hub” called?
A Bridge!
Bridges filter network traffic based
on MAC addresses.
Let’s take a look at how this
works.
To lessen the amount of LAN
Bridge traffic, businesses began to uses
bridges to filter frames based on
MAC addresses.
Now, if Host 1 pings Host 2, only
Bridge the hosts on that LAN segment
see the ping. The bridges stop the
ping.
1
2
A switch (also know as a multi-
port bridge), can effectively
Switch replace these four bridges.
Another benefit of a switch is that
Switch each LAN segment gets dedicated
bandwidth.

10 Mbps

10 Mbps
The Cloud

10 Mbps

10 Mbps 10 Mbps
Switc Since
But a switch
a switch is a stop
cannot multi-port
a ping
h bridge, we
destined
pings from
segment from
know
for a it willLAN
different
traveling
travelingtoto
stop local
other
all other
network
LAN segments.
segments.
1
2
Switc For example, Host 1 pings Host 16. Since
h Host 16 isdevice
What on another LAN this
will solve segment, the
switch will flood the ping request out all
problem?
ports.
1

16
Route Routers filter traffic based on IP
r addresses. The IP address tells the
router which LAN segment the ping
belongs to.
1

16
Devices Function At
Layers

Know These!
Devices Function At
Layers

Also know that each


device not only
works at its layer,
but all layers below
it.
Devices Function At
Layers

For example, a
router is a layer 3
device but also uses
MAC addresses (layer
2) and repeats the
signal (layer 1)
Devices Function At
Layers
One last bit of information from
Chapter 3
At what layers
ALL
do 7these
LAYERS!!
two
operate?
The Cloud
G L
On uck
ood
The
Test!
!