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TL/Finite Length

What happens when a traveling wave reaches the end of a transmission line?
Vi

Z0

Vi
Thought Process:
Z0 •Transmission line with impedance Z0
•Cut open
Zt •Develop TEC for open transmission line
•Terminate with termination impedance Zt
Ir •Determine current It in termination impedance
Z0 It
•Split up current into two components:
•Current If (=Ii) due to forward traveling wave
If
Zt •Current Ir due to reflection
2Vi

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 235


TL/Finite Length/Reflection Coefficient
Ir
Z0 It
2Vi Vi
It = If = = Ii
If
Zt Z 0 + Zt Z0
2Vi
Vi 2Vi
Ir = If − It = −
Z 0 Z 0 + Zt
Termination current is the
superposition of the current due to
Vi Zt − Z 0
the forward traveling wave, and the
Ir = ⋅
current due to the reflection Z 0 Zt + Z 0
Famous Telegrapher’s Equation:
Ir Vr Zt − Z 0
kr = = =
• Reflection coefficient kr
• kr can be complex (and f-
dependent) Ii Vi Zt + Z 0
• but in practice it is desirable to
keep kr constant and real
29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 236
TL/Finite Length/TL/Coefficients
Zs
Z0
Zl
Vs
TLIA TLT
Hx

TLRl
Hx

TLRs
Hx

Definitions:
•TLIA(p): TL Input Acceptance Coefficient
•TLT(p): TL Output Transmission Coefficient
•TLRl(p): TL Load-End Reflection Coefficient
•TLRs(p): TL Source-End Reflection Coefficient

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 237


TL/Finite Length/Coefficients/TLRl & TLRs
Load-end reflection coefficient TLRl(p):
Definition of reflection coefficient
Zl ( p ) − Z 0( p ) kr applied to both load-end and
TLRl ( p ) = source-end of transmission line…
Zl ( p ) + Z 0( p )

Source-end reflection coefficient TLRs(p): Reflection coefficients


•No reflection if Zt=Z0
Zs ( p ) − Z 0( p ) •If Zt and Z0 are real:
TLRs ( p ) = •kr in a range [-1..+1]
Zs ( p ) + Z 0( p ) •if Zt=0 → kr=-1
•if Zt=∞ → kr=+1

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 238


TL/Finite Length/Coefficients/TLT

Output Transmission Coefficient TLT(p):

Vt
TLT ( p ) = = 1 + TLRl ( p ) because…
Vi
Zt − Z 0 Zt + Z 0 + Zt − Z 0 2 Zt
1 + TLRl = 1 + = =
Zt + Z 0 Zt + Z 0 Zt + Z 0

Zt
Vt = 2Vi
Z 0 + Zt
Ir
Z0 It

Vt = Vi (1 + TLRl ) q.e.d. If
Zt
2Vi

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 239


TL/Finite Length/Coefficients/TLIA

Input acceptance coefficient TLIA(p):

Z 0( p ) Fraction of the input voltage


TLIA( p ) = accepted by the transmission
Zs ( p ) + Z 0( p ) line…

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 240


TL/Finite Length/Transfer Function
Zs
Z0
Transfer function S∞(p) for Zl Vt
Vs
signals emerging from the
TLIA TLT
transmission line: Hx

TLRl
Hx

TLRs
S 0 ( p ) = TLIA( p ) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ TLT ( p ) Hx

S1 ( p ) = TLIA( p ) ⋅ Hx( p )(TLRl ( p ) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ TLRs ( p ) ⋅ Hx( p ) )TLT ( p )


( )N
S N ( p ) = TLIA( p ) ⋅ Hx( p ) TLRl ( p ) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ TLRs ( p ) TLT ( p )
2


TLIA( p ) ⋅ Hx ( p ) ⋅ (1 + TLRl ( p ) ) Vt ( p )
S∞ ( p ) = ∑ S N ( p ) = =
N =0 1 − TLRl ( p ) ⋅ Hx ( p ) ⋅ TLRs( p ) Vs( p )
2

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 241


TL/Finite Length/Transfer Function/Example
0
Example: Reflections on a transmission line 0 1.658
•C=140pF/m, L=350nH/m. R=G=negligible. Length=1m. 1 -1.095
•Z0=50Ω. Tp_pul=7ns/m. 2 0.722
•Vcc=5V. Zs=10Ω. Zl=10kΩ. 3 -0.477
•TLIA=0.833. TLRl=0.99. TLRs=-0.667. S∞=99.8% 4 0.315
5 -0.208
10 6 0.137
V
8.292
S= 7 -0.09
V
8 0.06
9 -0.039
v_TL_end n f 10 0.026
5
V 11 -0.017
12 0.011
13 -0.007
14 0.005
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 15 -0.003
0 t( nf) 217
n ⋅s

Case 1: Low source impedance with unterminated transmission line


29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 242
TL/Finite Length/Transfer Function/Example
6
4.598

v_TL_end n f
V
2

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250
0 t ( nf) 217
n ⋅s

Case 2: High source impedance with unterminated transmission line

Same example… different 4.975


6

termination resistors…
•top: Zs=500Ω. Zl=10kΩ. 4

(TLIA=0.091. TLRl=0.99. TLRs=0.818. v_TL_end n f


V
S∞=92%) 2

•bottom: Zs=50Ω. Zl=10kΩ.


(TLIA=0.5. TLRl=0.99. TLRs=0. 0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250
S∞=99.5%) 0 t( nf) 217
n ⋅s

Case 3: Source-end terminated

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 243


TL Part 2/Overview

– Transmission Lines
• High Frequency Mechanisms in Transmission Lines
– Skin-Effect
– Proximity Effect
• Terminations
• Transmission Lines on PCBs
– Equations

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 244


TL/Skin Effect
At low frequencies, current density inside a conductor is uniform. At high frequencies,
it isn’t.

Conductor carrying high frequency currents: J


•Current flow primarily on the surface of a conductor
•Phenomena is called skin effect
•Current density falls off exponentially with depth into
the conductor d
d

J (d ) = J 0 ⋅ e δ

ρ
with skin depth δ =
π ⋅ f ⋅µ
ρ : material resistivit y
µ : permeability

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 245


TL/Skin Effect
Skin effect
•Current density falls off exponentially with
depth into the conductor
•Modelling: Current flows uniformly in an outer
shell of the conductor with thickness δ.
•Skin depth is a material property (not a
function of conductor shape)
•For most transmission lines, skin effect is the
reason for their lossy nature

ρ
fs =
•for f<fs skin effect negligible. R=Rdc
•for f>fs skin effect. Resistance increases with
πµr 2
square root of frequency

How to tackle skin effect problems


•Litz wire
•Planar conductors

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 246


TL/Skin Effect
conducting area:

A = r 2π − (r − δ ) π
2

(
A = π 2 rδ − δ 2 )
for high frequencies δ<<r: A ≈ π 2rδ
ρ
Resistance (per unit length): R pul = δ
A r
1 fµρ
Rhf pul =
2r π

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 247


TL/Skin Effect/Example
1 .10
4
2075.127

Example: AWG24 Transmission Line


1 .10
3
•C=40pF/m, L=400nH/m, Rdc=80mΩ/m
•wire radius AWG24: r=253µm δ_Cu ( f ( fi) )
100
•skin effect frequency fs=67kHz µ ⋅ meter

10

6.562 1 3
1 .10
Plots 0.001
0.01 0.1
f ( fi)
1 10 100
100
•top right: skin depth Meg ⋅Hz

•bottom right: effective resistance per unit 1.63


10

length
1

R_potl ( f ( fi) )

0.1

R pul ≈ Rdc pul + Rhf pul


2 2

0.08 0.01 3
1 .10 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
0.001 f ( fi) 100
Meg ⋅Hz

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 248


TL/Skin Effect/Propagation Constant A
Example: AWG24 Transmission Line. Three regions:
•Low frequency: RC TL behaviour (distortion)
•Mid frequency: LC TL behaviour (no distortion, just delay)
•High frequency: Distortion because of skin effect

10
2.513

0.1

Re ( A_potl ( p( fi) ) )
0.01
Im( A_potl ( p( fi) ) )

1 .10
3

1 .10
4

01 .10 5
1 .10
3
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
0.001 f ( fi) 100
Meg ⋅Hz

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 249


TL/Skin Effect/Example
Example: Transmission of a pulse over a long AWG24 Telephone Line
•C=40pF/m, L=400nH/m, R=80mΩ/m
•Tp=4µs/km
•Length of transmission line: 1km
6
6

v1 j 4
1 ⋅V

vo j
1 ⋅V 2

0 0
1 .10
4
0 2000 4000 6000 8000
0 t( j) 9999.39
n ⋅s

Signal distortion on an RLC Transmission Line due to skin effect


29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 250
TL/Proximity Effect
Proximity Effect
H field
•Current distribution in a conductor is affected
by currents in adjacent conductors
•Like the skin effect, the proximity effect leads
to a larger effective resistance at high
frequencies
•Much harder to quantify… (use tables, graphs,
field solvers) Same Current Direction
•For same current direction increase in
resistance is modest (even if conductors almost
touch) H field
•For opposite current direction proximity effect
can be many times higher than skin effect
(depending on distance of conductors)
•Take proximity effect into account whenever
conductors are brought closer together than
about 3 times their diameter
Opposite Current Direction
29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 251
TL/Special Case
Vcc

Vcc Vcc Vcc Vcc

Cl Cl Cl Cl

Equally Spaced Capacitive Loads L


•Frequently encountered in large bus formations Z 0' =
n ⋅ Cl
(e.g. memory modules) C+
•n capacitive loads are of equal value and length
spaced evenly over the length of the
transmission line
•applicable if effective length of rising edge  n ⋅ Cl 
exceeds spacing between capacitive loads…
Tp' = L C + 
 length 
29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 252
TL/Termination
2

– Short Lines (l<lr/6) 2

1
bitstream_sampledj
• Termination required for bitstream_RLC j
0

damping
−1 1
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0 j 1023

– Transmission Lines 8.292


10

• Termination to eliminate v_TL_end n f


5

reflections V

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250
0 t( nf) 217
n ⋅s

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TL/Terminations/End Termination
End termination
Vcc Vcc
• Driver connects directly to TL
• All reflections damped by termination
Z0
resistor Rt=Z0 (TLRl=0)
Rt Cl
• Received voltage is equal to the
transmitted voltage (S∞≈100%)
• Short rise time
• Drawbacks:
•High power dissipation Assumptions:
•Imbalanced load (difficult to drive) •Rt=Z0. Hx≈1. TLIA≈1. TLRl=0.

TLIA( p) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ (1 + TLRl ( p ) )


S ∞ ( p) =
1 − TLRl ( p ) ⋅ Hx( p) ⋅ TLRs ( p )
 2.2 ⋅ Z 0 ⋅ Cl 
2

TrTLend = Trdriver +
2

 2  S ∞ ( p) = TLIA( p) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ (1 + TLRl ( p ) ) = 1

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 254


TL/Terminations/End Termination/Split
Split End termination
Vcc Vcc Vcc
•Z0=(Rt1 || Rt2)
•Advantages: Rt1
•Balanced power dissipation Z0
•Easier to drive Rt2 Cl
•For CMOS, HCMOS…
•Rt1=Rt2=2Z0

Assumptions: Worst case: Static signal (1 or 0)...


•Signal is dc-balanced (equal 1’s and 0’)
Vcc 2
Vcc 2 Pd Rt1max = Pd Rt 2 max =
Pd Rt1 = Pd Rt 2 = 2⋅Z0
4⋅Z0
(assuming that resistance of TL is negligible)
2
Vcc
Pd Rt1 + Pd Rt 2 =
2⋅Z0
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TL/Terminations/End Termination/AC Biased
AC Biased End termination Vcc Vcc
•Time constant large vs signal period
•Rt=Z0 Z0
•Advantages: Rt Cl
•Lower average power consumption
Ct
•Lower static power consumption
•Disadvantage
•Difficult to drive if signal is not dc-
balanced

Assumptions: Static signal (1 or 0)...


•Signal is dc-balanced (equal 1’s and 0’)
2 Pd Rt1 = 0
Vcc
Pd Rt1 =
4⋅Z0

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 256


TL/Terminations/End Termination/Bifurcation
Bifurcation
•Rt=2Z0
•No reflections Vcc
•Difficult to implement (Z0 vs 2Z0)
2Z0
Vcc Rt Cl

Z0
Vcc

2Z0
Rt Cl

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 257


TL/Terminations/End Termination/Daisy Chain
Diasy Chain Configuration
•Keep stubs as short as possible
•Minimise capacitive load
•Multiple stubs: Space equally

Vcc Vcc

Rt Cl

Vcc Vcc Vcc Vcc

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 258


TL/Terminations/Source Termination
Source termination Vcc Vcc
•All reflections damped at the source side
Rt
by source termination resistor Rt=Z0 Z0
(TLRs=0) Cl
•Advantages:
•Lower average drive currents
•Disadvantages
•Output impedance of driver often
not tightly specified Assumptions:
•Daisy-chaining not recommended •Rt=Z0. Hx≈1. TLIA≈0.5. TLRl=1

TLIA( p) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ (1 + TLRl ( p ) )


S ∞ ( p) =
1 − TLRl ( p ) ⋅ Hx( p) ⋅ TLRs ( p )

TrTLend = Trdriver + (2.2 ⋅ Z 0 ⋅ Cl ) S ∞ ( p) = TLIA( p) ⋅ Hx( p ) ⋅ (1 + TLRl ( p ) ) = 1


2 2

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 259


TL/Terminations/Source Termination
Vcc Vcc

Rt
Z0
Cl

v1 v2 v3 v4
Source termination
•Driving signal cut in half (TLIA=0.5) v1

•Driving signal propagates down TL t


•Reflection at load side (TLRl=1) v2

•Reflected signal travels back t


•Reflected signal damps out at the v3
source termination (TLRs=0) t
v4

t
0 Tp 2Tp

29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 260


TL/Terminations/Microstrip Equations
Example: Microstrip on FR4
w • εr=4.5. 2oz copper
d h
1 .10
3
200

Z0_microstrip_approx( h , w , d , 4.5)
Microstrip Equations Z0_microstrip( h , w , d , 4.5)
100

•Useful approximations
•Use numeric TL tools for improved
accuracy 10 10
0.1 1 10
0.2 w 10
h
10
8.494
87 Ω  5.98h 
Z0 ≈ ln  Tp_microstrip_approx_pul ( εr)

εr + 1.41  0 .8 w + d  

pico ⋅s 

m ⋅ meter 

Tp_microstrip_pul( 0.005 ⋅inch , 0.01 ⋅inch , 2 ⋅ounce , εr)


 pico ⋅s 
 
ns  m ⋅ meter 
Tp pul ≈ 3.35 0.475εr + 0.67
meter 3.348 1
1 10
1 εr 10
29/09/2005 EE6471 (KR) 261
TL/Terminations/Stripline Equations
w
d b

Stripline Equations
•Useful approximations
•Use numeric TL tools for improved
accuracy

60Ω  1.9b 
Z0 ≈ ln 
εr  0. 8 w + d 

ns
Tp pul ≈ 3.35 εr
meter
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