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ART AND POWER IN COLONIAL INDIA MODEL LESSON PLAN

Name, Grade Level Unit Topic Content Standards

Karna Cruz, World History Grade 10


COLONIAL INDIA
10.4: Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines. 10.4.3: Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule. -Robert Clives account of the Battle of Plassey, 1757; Paul Halsall, ed., 1998; www.fordham.edu -India: Regulating Act, 1773; Paul Halsall, ed., 1998; www.fordham.edu -Edmund Burkes Speech in Commons on India, 1783; Paul Halsall, ed., 1998; www.fordham.edu Explain how imperial control impacted the lives of colonized people/How did imperial control change the lives colonized people? As imperialists sought to gain economic influence and domination over their colonies, the lives of colonized people changed through the reduction of their economic independence, imposition of foreign political structures or powers, and the encouragement or creation of strict social structures. At the same time, colonialism's effects were uneven: while some groups suffered, others prospered, and while some social structures grew more rigid, others opened up. How did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal empire to the British during the late 18th century? With the Battle of Plassey control of Bengal shifted to the EEIC, which established a nawal puppet ruler and in turn, eventually gained control of that region's revenue. In order to establish economic dominance the EEIC became more immersed in Mughal politics in order to stabilize their control of East Indies trade supplies. -Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings, by Bichitr (act. 161550)India, Mughal period, ca. 166070 Opaque watercolor, gold, and ink on paper; http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/southasian/paint2.htm - Benjamin West, Shah 'Alam Conveying the Grant of the Diwani to Lord Clive, August 1765 (1818); http://www.anselm.edu/academic/history/hdubrulle/BritEmp/2009/text/grading/food/fdwk04b.htm -The Marquis Cornwallis receiving the Hostage Princes, sons of Tippoo Sultaun, in view of Seringapatam Daniel Orme, British, 17661832, 1799, Hand-colored engraving. Asian Art Museum, from the Collection of William K. Ehrenfield, MD, 2005.64.190 Document Analysis Chart CAMPS Analysis of written Primary sources Five Paragraph Essay Outline and research Essay Alternative for EL/Sheltered Classes: Intermediate Paragraph Frame Outline and 3 paragraph Research Essay

Text/Sources Textbook Pgs. Unit Focus Question Unit Teaching Thesis

Lesson Focus Question Lesson Teaching Thesis Primary Source and Strategy

Lesson Assessment

CAAMPING UP
Title of Document: Type of doc: Title of Document: Type of doc: Title of Document: Type of doc:

Context
--When and where was this taking place? --What was going on before, during, & after event or era being studied? --What else was happening? --How might have surrounding events shaped this document?

Author
--Who was the author? --What were the authors background, social class qualifications, sex & race? --When did the author write this?

Audience
--Who would have been expected to see or read this source?

M P

Message --What does this document tell us? --What is the documents main idea or thesis?

Perspective
--What perspective or point of view does the document present? --What loaded words give you clues about the authors point of view?

Significance

--Taken together, what story do the documents tell? --How do these sources help us answer our focus question?

Lesson Focus Question: How did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal empire to the British during the late 18th century?

Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings, by Bichitr (act. 161550)India, Mughal period, ca. 166070 Opaque watercolor, gold, and ink on paper; http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/southasian/paint2.htm

The Marquis Cornwallis receiving the Hostage Princes, sons of Tippoo Sultaun, in view of Seringapatam Daniel Orme, British, 1766-1832, 1799, Handcolored engraving. Asian Art Museum, from the Collection of William K. Ehrenfield, MD, 2005.64.190

Benjamin West, Shah 'Alam Conveying the Grant of the Diwani to Lord Clive, August 1765 (1818); http://www.anselm.edu/academic/history/hdubrulle/BritEmp/2009/text/grading/food/fdwk04b.htm

CAAMPING UP KEY
Title of Document:
Robert Clives account of the Battle of Plassey

Title of Document:
India: Regulating Act

Title of Document:
Edmund Burkes Speech in Commons on India Type of doc: Written speech to Commons -1783, House of Commons, Britain -The British Parliament was still seeking to bring political control to India in order to consolidate power within India

Type of doc:first hand account, letter

Type of doc: Government Document


-1773, In British Parliament -Throughout the English East Indias control of more and more Indian territory, The British Empire became more critical of East India companies corrupt policies and sought to take a greater role/control of it.

Context
--When and where was this taking place? --What was going on before, during, & after event or era being studied? --What else was happening? --How might have surrounding events shaped this document?

-1757; After the Battle of Plassey in the Bengal region of India -Before the Battle of Plassey the French and English were competing for trading supremacy. Both sides began getting involved in political intrigue and this eventually led to the Battle of Plassey and the establishment of English control in Bengal -Robert Clive, British middle class male - had a set social status within Britain, increased it within East India Company went from accountant to military leader unofficially -celebrated later by empire but not at the time -1757 after the Battle of Plassey -Parliament, government officials

Author
--Who was the author? --What were the authors background, social class qualifications, sex & race? --When did the author write this?

-British Parliament, ruling body in Britain -upper-class citizens, nobility, males -1773

-Edmond Burke -British, wealthy/priviledged, member of the House of Commons -Written in 1783

Audience
--Who would have been expected to see or read this source?

Governing officials in India, government officials in Britain

Parliament, government officials

Message --What does this document tell us? --What is the documents main idea or thesis?

Perspective

--What perspective or point of view does the document present? --What loaded words give you clues about the authors point of view?

-Robert Clive gets immersed within Mughal Politics in order to consolidate dominance within Bengal by appointing a new nawal who consequently assisted the company in establishing regional control of the area through military might and political intrigue -British -higher importance, dilatory, intimated, overthrow, overtures, detested

--Rule of Bengal needed to be organized into duties and political offices in order to combat corruption and inefficiency. Also failure was not an option due to territorial acquisition and taxes that the Empire would receive from the regions it held. -British -better management, territorial acquisition, injury of the public credit, united company

-In order to consolidate British power in India an infrastructure needed to be built that included schools, roads, churches, hospitals, as well as palaces and monuments. British Empire needed to mark the area as their own to make a dent upon the region to claim lasting authority and dominance. -British -conquest, impetuosity of youth, crude, sudden fortune, remote settlements, inglorious period of dominion, beneficence

Significance

--Taken together, what story do the documents tell? --How do these sources help us answer our focus question?

Power was a primary concern of the British Empire in India in order to establish dominance and consolidate trading power. Concern also alludes to desire to make regions permanent areas of empire so that trade and authority cannot be lost or taken away. The fact that government documents and treaties are being created suggests a great concern with lasting authority.

Lesson Focus Question: How did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal Parliament, government officials Empire to the British during the late 18th century?

Document Analysis Chart


Doc # What type of document (text, photo, map)? Who created it? When and where is the document from?

1
DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE What do you see? What is the document talking about? MEANING How does this document help answer the focus question? Why? Message/Argument

Because.

CATEGORY/ARGUMENT Complete this section after creating your main categories. Doc # What type of document (text, photo, map)? Who created it? When and where is the document from?

2
DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE What do you see? What is the document talking about? MEANING How does this document help answer the focus question? Why? Message/Argument

Because.

CATEGORY/ARGUMENT Complete this section after creating your main categories. Doc # What type of document (text, photo, map)? Who created it? When and where is the document from?

3
DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE What do you see? What is the document talking about? MEANING How does this document help answer the focus question? Why? Message/Argument

Because.

CATEGORY/ARGUMENT Complete this section after creating your main categories.

Lesson Focus Question: How did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal Empire to the British during the late 18th century?

Document Analysis Chart KEY


Doc # What type of document (text, photo, map)? Who created it? When and where is the document from? India, Mughal period, ca. 166070 Painting; Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings, by Bichitr DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE MEANING How does this document help answer the focus What do you see? What is the document talking question? Why? about? Message/Argument Emperor is on an hourglass Upon visiting the emperor, the English did not have Shaikh is receiving a book much respect or recognition for them; however the One mughal is holding a painting Mughal Emperors time was soon running out Another Mughal is watching the emperor Because. A European King is standing looking away Within the picture, King James stands in a position Cherubs at the base of the hourglass that does not show prominence, while other Mughals are attending the emperor, but the emperor is placed upon a hourglass of running sand. CATEGORY/ARGUMENT Complete this section after creating your main categories. Doc # What type of document (text, photo, map)? Who created it? When and where is the document from?

August 1765 (1818); Painting; Benjamin West, Shah 'Alam Conveying the Grant of the Diwani to Lord Clive DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE MEANING How does this document help answer the focus What do you see? What is the document talking question? Why? about? Message/Argument The shah is handing Englishmen a The English and Mughals have come to an document agreement regarding lands within the Mughal The Shah is sitting in a shaded throne of Empire sorts Because. The Englishmen are standing The English are receiving a document with flags Englishmen are on one side with sepoys, flying overhead and both military groups are shown. Mughal warriors and subjects are on the other side Flags are flying on both sides CATEGORY/ARGUMENT Complete this section after creating your main categories. Doc # What type of document (text, photo, map)? Who When and where is the document from? created it? Daniel Orme, British, 1799 Painting; The Marquis Cornwallis receiving the Hostage Princes, sons of Tippoo Sultaun, in view of Seringapatam Daniel Orme DESCRIPTION OF SOURCE MEANING How does this document help answer the focus What do you see? What is the document talking question? Why? about? Message/Argument Cornwallis has two Mughal princes At the end of another conflict between the Mughals His English military and flags are behind and English, Cornwallis took two of the sultans sons him back to England as hostages, gaining equal, or Mughals are in front of him perhaps more power and prominence for the East Some are bowing, or kneeling, some have India Company. their arms outstretched Because. The Sultan is sitting on a pillow being held Mughals have their arms outstretched to the

up with his arms outstretched

princes, but were not stopping Cornwallis, who is represented as being taller than the sultan even though the sultan is being held up.

CATEGORY/ARGUMENT Complete this section after creating your main categories.

Lesson Focus Question: How did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal Empire to the British during the late 18th century? English went from vying for Mughal favor in order to establish trading practices to usurping some authority from the empire through military strength and diplomacy.

Lesson Question: According to the passages, how did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal Empire to the British during the late 18th century?
CAAMPS: Document 1 I gave you an account of the taking of Chandernagore in my last letter; the subject of this address is an event of much higher importance, no less than the entire overthrow of Nabob Suraj-ud-Daulah, and the placing of Meer Jaffier on the throne. I intimated in my last how dilatory Suraj-ud-Daulah appeared in fulfilling the articles of the treaty. This disposition not only continued but increased, and we discovered that he was designing our ruin by a conjunction with the French. About this time some of his principal officers made overtures to us for dethroning him. At the head of these was Meer Jaffier, then Bukhshee to the army, a man as generally esteemed as the other was detested. As we had reason to believe this disaffection pretty general, we soon entered into engagements with Meer Jaffier to put the crown on his head. All necessary preparations being completed with the utmost secrecy, the army, consisting of about one thousand Europeans and two thousand sepoys, with eight pieces of cannon, marched from Chandernagore on the 13th and arrived on the 18th at Cutwa Fort. The 22nd, in the evening, we crossed the river, and landing on the island, marched straight for Plassey Grove, where we arrived by one in the morning.
Source: Robert Clives account of the Battle of Plassey, 1757; Paul Halsall, ed., 1998; www.fordham.edu

CAAMPS: Document 2 An Act For Establishing Certain Regulations For The Better Management Of The Affairs Of The East India Company, As Well In India As In Europe Whereas the several powers and authorities granted by charters to the united company of merchants in England trading to the East Indies have been found, by experience, not to have sufficient force and efficacy to prevent various abuses which have prevailed in the government and administration of the affairs of the said united company, as well at home as in India, to the manifest injury of the public credit, and of the commercial interests of the said company; and it is therefore become highly expedient that certain further regulations, better adapted to their present circumstances and condition, should be provided and established: ... [The Act then lays down provisions governing the election of Directors.] ... And, for the better management of the said united company's affairs in India, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That, for the government of the presidency of Fort William in Bengal, there shall be appointed a governor-general, and four counsellors; and that the whole civil and military government of the said presidency, and also the ordering, management and government of all the territorial acquisitions and revenues in the kingdoms of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa, shall, during such time as the territorial acquisitions and revenues shall remain in the possession of the said united company, be, and are hereby vested in the said governor-general and council of the said presidency of Fort William in Bengal, in like manner, to all intents and purposes whatsoever; as the same now are, or at any time heretofore might have been exercised by the president and council, or select committee, in the said kingdoms. And be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That in all cases whatsoever wherein any difference of opinion shall arise upon any question proposed in any consultation, the said governor-general and council shall be bound and concluded by the opinion and decision of the major part of those present: and if it shall happen that, by the death or removal, or by the absence, of any of the members of the said council, such governor-general and council shall happen to be equally divided; then, and in every such case, the said governor-general, or in his absence, the eldest counsellor present, shall have a casting voice, and his opinion shall be decisive and conclusive.

Source: India: Regulating Act, 1773; Paul Halsall, ed., 1998; www.fordham.edu

Lesson Question: According to the passages, how did the English East India Company cause political power to shift from the Mughal Empire to the British during the late 18th century?
CAAMPS: Document 3 Despite the act if 1773, there were still concerns about the administration of India. ... Our conquest there, after twenty years, is as crude as it was the first day. The natives scarcely know what it Is to see the grey head of an Englishman. Young men (boys almost) govern there, without society, and without sympathy with the natives. They have no more social habits with the people, than if they still resided in England; nor, indeed, any species of intercourse but that which is necessary to making a sudden fortune, with a view to a remote settlement. Animated with all the avarice of age, and all the impetuosity of youth, they roll in one after another; wave after wave; and there is nothing before the eyes of the natives but an endless, hopeless prospect of new flights of birds of prey and passage, with appetites continually renewing for a food that is continually wasting. Every rupee of profit made by an Englishman is lost for ever to India. With us are no retributory superstitions, by which a foundation of charity compensates, through ages, to the poor, for the rapine and injustice of a day. With us no pride erects stately monuments which repair the mischiefs which pride had produced, and which adorn a country out of its own spoils. England has erected no churches, no hospitals, no palaces, no schools; England has built no bridges, made no high roads, cut no navigations, dug out no reservoirs. Every other conqueror of every other description has left some monument, either of state or beneficence, behind him. Were we to be driven out of India this day, nothing would remain, to tell that It had been possessed, during the inglorious period of our dominion, by any thing better than the ourang-ourang or the tiger Our Indian government is in its best state a grievance. It is necessary that the corrective should be uncommonly vigorous; and the work of men, sanguine, warm, and even impassioned in the cause. But it is an arduous thing to plead against abuses of a power which originates from your own country, and affects those whom we are used to consider as strangers....
SOURCE: Edmund Burkes Speech in Commons on India, 1783; Paul Halsall, ed., 1998; www.fordham.edu

(Use mainly words and phrases, not sentences)

Five Paragraph Essay Outline

Introductory Paragraph:
Topic Sentence: Background: (Explain the time period) Explanation of the basics:
(Introduce your topic and the events leading to them)

____________

Thesis Statement Write this sentence out:

Body Paragraph #1
Topic sentence:
(Write this sentence out)

Evidence: Specific Evidence: Analysis:

Body Paragraph #2
Topic sentence:
(Write this sentence out)

Evidence: Specific Evidence: Analysis:

Body Paragraph #3
Topic sentence:
(Write this sentence out)

Evidence: Specific Evidence: Analysis:

Concluding Paragraph:

Restate your thesis:

Explain your analysis and the importance of your main points:

Relate your topic to a larger historical concept:

INTERMEDIATE PARAGRAPH FRAME/OUTLINE Thesis statement:_______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Evidence:_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Spec. Evidence:________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Evidence:_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Spec. Evidence:________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Analysis: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Concluding statement: ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Note: Could include several more pieces of evidence with specific evidence.