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Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College
 Mixed Problems 4A [Blandade Övningar 4A] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 M 15 M 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 M 23 M 24 M 25 M 26 M 27 28 29 30 Mixed Problems 4B [Blandade Övningar 4B] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M 8 M 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 M 16 M 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 M 26 M 27 M 28 M 28Md 29 M Interesting Problems 4 [Problem För Alla 4] 1 V 2 3 4 V 5 V 6 V 7 V 8 V 9 V 10 V 11 M NPMaCVT2009 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ¤M 16 17 18 19 20

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College
 MaCMP4A14 MVG Find f ′(x) if f x + h = ( ) x 2 + 2 ⋅ h ⋅ x + h 2 . [1/1/¤] Suggested Solutions: Answer: f (x) = x 2 ⇔ f ′(x) = 2 ⋅ x & f ( ) x + h = 2 x + 2⋅h⋅ x + h 2 We may realize that 2 x + 2⋅h⋅ x + h 2 ( = x + h ) 2 Therefore: f ( x + h ) 2 = x + 2⋅h⋅ x + h 2 ( = x + h ) 2 f ( )( x + h = x + h ) 2 [0/1/¤] Hence f ( x ) = x 2 f ()x = x 2 ⇔ f ′()x = 2⋅ x & [1/0/¤] MaCMP4A15 MVG Find quotient x if log x − log y = 3 . [0/1/¤] y Suggested Solutions: Answer: x = 10 3 y log x − log y = 3 log x − log y = 3 ⇔ log x = 3 ⇔ x = 10 3 [0/1/¤] y y

MaCMP4A22 MVG Calculate the difference quotient

f

(

)

1.01 f

(

0.99

)

0.02

of the function

f

()

x = x e . The quotient gives an approximation for the derivative of the function at x = a

x

a.

b.

 What is the numerical value of a , and what value has the difference quotient? [1/2] Find a better approximation value for f ′(x). [0/2/¤]

Suggested Solutions:

i

a = 1.00 [0/2]

 f ()( ) ( ) 1.01 − f 0.99 1.01 = ⋅ e ( 1.01 ) − ( 0.99 ) ⋅ e ( 0.99 ) = e ( 0.99 ) [( 1.01 ) ⋅ e 0.02 − 0.99 ] 0.02 0.02 0.02 ( f ′ 1.00 ) ≈ f ()( ) 1.01 − f 0.99 = 5.436745 0.02 f ( x + h ) − f ( x − h )

The better approximation is done if h in

= 5.436745

[0/2]

ii

is smaller. We may use

 2 h h = 0.0001 ( f ′ 1.00 ) ≈ f ( 1.0001 )( − f 0.9999 ) = ( 1.0001 ) ⋅ e ( 1.0001 ) − ( 0.9999 ) ⋅ e ( 0.9999 ) 0.0002 0.0002 ( f ′ 1.00 ) ≈ e ( 0.9999 ) ⋅ [( 1.0001 ) ⋅ e 0.0002 − 0.9999 ] = 5.436564 0.0002

[0/1/¤]

Note that in math D we will study the derivative of the product of two functions:

y = f g y = f ′⋅ g y = f g

Therefore:

f

()

x

=

x

e

x

⇔ ′

f

()

x

=1

e

x

+

x

e

x

f

()

1

= 1

e

()

1

+

()

1

1

e

= 2

e

Hence, the exact value of the derivative is f (1)= 2 e which is f (1) = 2 e 5.436 564

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College

MaCMP4A23 (Modified) MVG Equation of the Tangent to a graph at a given point Find the real numbers a , b , and c such that the graph of the function

f (x)= ax

2

+ bx + c

passes through the point (0, 1) and the line y = x 1 is tangent to the curve at the point

(1, 0). Plot a rough graph of the function and its tangent together in a proper coordinate

system. The plot must include the points (1,

Suggested Solutions:

Plan:

i The coordinates of the point (0, 1) must satisfy the equation of the

0), and (0, 1).

[2/5/¤] c =1

function, i.e.:

 f ()0 1 = ⇔ a ⋅ ()0 2 f () x = a⋅ x 2 + b⋅ x + 1

()0

+ b ⋅ + c = ⇔ c =

1

1

[1/0] c =1

ii The coordinates of the point (1, 0) must satisfy the equation of the function, i.e.:

f

()1

0

= ⇔ a

()1

2

()1

+ b ⋅ + = ⇔ a + b + =

1

0

1

0

[1/0]

a + b =−1

iii The slope of the tangent y = x 1 is k = 1 . Due to the fact that y = x 1

is tangent to the function

function and its tangent have identical slope at the point, i.e.:

f

(

x

)

= a x

2

+ b x + 1

at (1,

0), both the

f ()1 = k f ()1 = 1.

[0/1] f
() x
2
=
a ⋅ x + b ⋅ x + ⇔ f ′ x = ⋅ a ⋅ x + b ⇔ f ′ = ⋅ a ⋅ + b = ⋅ a + b =
1
()
2
(1)
2
(1)
2
1
[0/1]
2 ⋅ a + b = 1
⎧ 2
a
+
b
=
1
⎧ 2
a
+
b
=
1
iv Solve the simultaneous equations:
⇔ a = 2
[0/1]
a + b =− 1
− a
− = 1
b
⎧ a + b =−
1 ⇔ + =− ⇔ =−− ⇔ =−
2
b
1
b
1
2
b
3
a = 2
2
Answer: a = 2 , b = −3 , c = 1 ,
f
() x
=
2
⋅ x − ⋅ x +
3
1
[0/1]
2
() x
2
f
= 2
x
3 ⋅
x
+ 1
1
0
-1
y = x −1
-2
-1,0
-0,5
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
x
[0/1/¤]
f(x),
y

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College

When evaluating your work, in the following problems I will take into consideration:

how well you perform your investigation.

how relevant, clear and complete your solutions are.

how well you analyze and evaluate your results.

MaCMP4A24 (G-VG-MVG) Function and its Derivative.

The function f (x) = a x

i. Find f (x)

ii. When a = 4 and b = 3 , show that the equation f (x) = f (x) has two different solutions.

iii. Investigate if there are any relationship between a and b when the

equation f ()x = f ()x Suggested Solutions:

2 + b , where a and b are constants real numbers is given.

if a = 4 and b = 3 .

has two different solutions.

f (x)= a x

2

+ b

[2/3/¤]

i

ii

iii

f (x)= a x

2

+ b

f (x)= 2 a x if a = 4

f (x)= 2 4 x

[1/0]

Answer: f (x) = 8 x

if

f

a = 4 and b = 3 ,

(

() ()

x

= f x

2 x

1

)(

2

x

3

)

4

2

f

x = ⋅ x + , f (x)= 8x

4

2

3

3

8

4

x − ⋅ x +

2

8

2

x

= 1

x

3

=

1 =

0

1

2

x

= 3

x

(

)

x + = ⋅ x

2

2

x

x

− = 0

1

− = 0

3

(2

x

1)(2

3)

x − =

0

[1/0] x

1

=

1

2

,

x

2

=

3

2

2 [0/1]
3

2

= 0

2 =

f

()

x

=

()

f x

=

a

2

2

x

a

+

x

b

f

() ()

x

=

f

x

a

2

x

+

b

=

2

a

x

a

2

x

2

a

x

+

b

=

0

2

ax

2ax + b = 0 x

2

2x +

b

a b
a

= 0 ⇔ =1± 1

x [0/1]

If f ()x = f ()x has two different solutions,

1

b

b > 0 1 >

a a

⇔ >

a

b

[0/1/¤]

Answer: If a > b the equation f (x) = f (x) has two different solutions.

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College

When evaluating your work, in the following problems I will take into consideration:

how well you perform your investigation.

how relevant, clear and complete your solutions are.

how well you analyze and evaluate your results.

MaCMP4A25 MVG Triangle, rectangle, Maximization of area. The height of the blue colored rectangle in the figure

below is x

i If b = 18.0

[2/6/¤]

B

A h
cm
D
E
x
cm
C
b
cm

cm and its area is

y

2

cm

.

cm and h = 24.0 cm may the area of

where 0 < x < 24.0 cm

cm the

where 0 < x < 24.0 cm

the rectangle be written as:

y = 18x 0.75x

2 2

cm

Find the maximum area of the rectangle.

cm , and h = 24.0

area of the rectangle may be expressed as:

ii Show that if b = 18.0

y = 18x 0.75x

2 2

cm

iii The triangle’s shape, its height as well as its base may vary. Martina claims that rectangle’s maximum area is always half of that of the triangle. Investigate if Martina’s claim is correct.

Suggested Solutions:

i cm The maximum area of the rectangle is associated with y′ = 0 . Therefore

y

= 18x 0.75x

cm

where

0 < x < 24.0

2

2

we may first find the derivative of the function yand solve y′ = 0 for x :

y = 18 x 0.75 x

y

2

2

cm

y′ = 18 2 0.75 x

2

x

2

= 18

y

max

x

=

18

1.5

[1/0]

y′ = 18 1.5x

x = 12.0 cm

′ = 0 18 1.5

y

max

()

= 1812

x

= 0 1.5

()

cm

cm

⇔ =

x

[0/1]

12.0 cm

[1/0]

0.7512

= 108. cm

2

 y max = 108. cm 2 [0/1] b 2 [0/1] ⋅ x h cm . [0/1/¤]

ii The triangles ΔABC and ΔADE are similar, therefore

 DE h − x w h − x = ⇔ = ⇔ w = b ⋅ BC h b h

(

h

x

)

h

where,

DE w

The area of the rectangle is, therefore:

 b ( h − x ) b ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ 1 x ⎟⋅ ⎞ x h ⎠ y = w ⋅ x = ⋅ h ⋅ x = ⋅ − y b = b ⋅ x − ⋅ x 2 where 0 < x < h cm h

y

=

w

x

=

b

(

h

x

)

h

x

=

b

x

If b = 18.0 cm and h = 24.0 cm may the area of the rectangle is:

y

18

= 18 x − ⋅ x

24

2

y = 18x 0.75x

2

2

cm

where 0 < x < 24.0

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College

iii According to the calculations above the area of the rectangle is: b
2
y
= b⋅ x − ⋅ x
h

where 0 < x < h

cm

The maximum area of the rectangle is associated with y′ = 0 . Therefore we may first find the derivative of the function yand solve y′ = 0 for x :

y

b

= b x − ⋅

x

h

2

y′ =

0

b

2

b

h

y

b

= ⋅

x

b

h

2

x

2 b

y

x

=

0

′=

b

2

b

h

x

x

=

b

x =

h

h 2

y

max

=

b

h b h

⎜ ⎝ 2

2

⎟−

h

2

= 2 b
y′= b −
⋅ x
h
h
[0/1]
x =
2
2
bh
b
h
1
bh
A
triangle
=
=
[0/1/¤]
2
h
4
2
2
2

Therefore, Martina is correct: The rectangle’s maximum area is always

half of that of the triangle:

y

max

A triangle

=

2

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College

When evaluating your work, in the following problems I will take into consideration:

how well you perform your investigation.

how relevant, clear and complete your solutions are.

how well you analyze and evaluate your results.

MaCMP4A26 Rectangles, Geometric Progression

[2/6/¤]

Investigate the pattern of the red colored rectangles in the figure below. The area of the largest

colored square, (i.e. the first

colored square) is

i Calculate the exact area of the second, third, and the nth red colored squares.

ii Investigate how the total area of n colored squares is dependent on the number of the colored squares n .

iii Investigate how the total perimeter of n colored squares is dependent on the number of the colored squares n .

Suggested Solutions:

Data: The pattern of the red colored rectangle areas is a geometric

progression with

i The area of the second red colored rectangle is:

1.00

dm

2

.   2

,

1

k = 0.50 = .

2

A 1 = 1.00

dm

A

2

=

A

1

k

=

1.00

⎛ ⎜ 1

2

⎝ ⎠

dm

2

=

0.50

dm

2

=

1

2

dm

2

The area of the third red colored rectangle is:

A 3

=

A

1

k

2

=

1.00

1

2

⎝ ⎠

2

dm

2

=

0.25 dm

2

=

1

4

dm

2

The area of the nth red colored rectangle is:

A

n

=

A

1

k

n 1

=

1.00

1 ⎞ ⎟

2

⎝ ⎠

n 1

dm

2 1
2
A
dm
2 =
2
1
2
A
dm
3 =
4
n − 1
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟
2
A
= ⎜
dm
n
⎝ ⎠
2

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College
 S n = 2.00 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ − ⎜ n ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ ⎟ dm 2 2.00 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ n ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ dm 2 n S n = 2.00 ⋅ ( 1 − ( 0.50 )) n dm 2 1 1,000000 2 1,500000 3 1,750000 4 1,875000 5 1,937500 6 1,968750 7 1,984375 8 1,992188 9 1,996094 10 1,998047 20 1,999998 30 2,000000 100 2,000000

ii The total area of n red colored rectangle is:

= n )
( 1
)) n
A
⋅ ( 1
k
1.00
(
0.50
1
2
S
=
⇔ =
S
dm
⇔ S
n
n
n
1 − k
1
− 0.50
2
The total area approaches to
S n =
2.00
dm
2,5
(
))
n
2
S
= 2.00
1
(
0.50
dm
n
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
1
3
5
7
911
SAn

for large n .

n

iii The perimeter geometric progression P 1 =

P

2

P

3

P

n

= P

1

= P

1

= P

1

k

=

4.00 2

2

dm 2
2
2
k
=
4.00
2
n
2
n
k
=
4.00
2

1

=

2.00 2

dm

=

2.00

dm

dm

dm

4.00

dm

,

k = 2

2

=

0.7071

The total perimeter of n red colored rectangle is: n
n
2
2
4.00
1
8.00
1
(
)
2
2
n
P
1
k
⎝ ⎜
⎠ ⎟
⎝ ⎜
⎠ ⎟
1
S
=
S
=
dm
=
n
Pn
1
− k
2
2
2
1 −
2
8.00
S
=
dm
≈ 13.7
dm
P
n
→∞
2
2

dm

The total perimeter of the colored squares approaches to

S

P

n

→∞

13.7

dm

for large n .

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College 14
n
2
12
8.00
1
2
S
=
dm
Pn
2
2
10
8
6
4
2
0
1
5
9
13
17
21
25
29
SPn
 n 8.00 ⋅ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 − ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 2 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ n ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ S = dm n Pn 2 − 2 1 4,000000 2 6,828427 3 8,828427 4 10,242641 5 11,242641 6 11,949747 7 12,449747 8 12,803301 9 13,053301 10 13,230078 20 13,643517 100 13,656854 1000 13,656854

Suggested Solutions MaCMBÖ4B08 P9MaCFinalNVCO08 NV-College

MaCMP4B8 Modified

Derivative of Six Different Functions

[2/6/¤]

The derivatives of six different functions, f (x), are illustrated in the following figures. In the domain illustrated below

 a. which function or which functions f (x) does/do not have any stationary point(s). b. which function or which functions f (x) has/have minimum point(s)? c. which function or which functions f (x) has/have maximum point(s)? d. Which function or which functions f (x) has/have inflexion point(s)? e. Find a function y = f (x) for each derivative whose curve is plotted in each figure. (a) (d)
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-1
0
1
2
-3
x
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
(b)
x
(e)
1
3
2
0
1
0
-1
-1
-2
-2
-3
-2
-1
0
1
-3
x
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
(c)
x
(f)
6
4
4
2
2
0
0
-2
-4
-2
-6
-4
-8
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
-6
x
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
x
f'(x)
f'(x)
f'(x)
f'(x)
f'(x)
f'(x)

MaC Collection of Solved Problems MaC4000 NV-College

Suggested Solutions:

We may choose to analyze each and every one of the graphs illustrated in the given figures, and then answer the questions raised in the problem (a) The equation of the curve illustrated in the figure may be written as

f x =−x + 1

()

3 The function which
(
)
3
f ′ x = −x +
1 is the derivative of (i.e. antiderivative of
3
f ′ x = −x +
()
1 ) is the function:
1
1
f (
)
4
4
x = − x +
x + C
∀C = a real constant number
if C = 0 :
f (x)=− x + x
4
4
(
)
3
In the figure below,
f ′ x = −x +
1 along with its antiderivative,
1
4
f (x)=− x + x
are plotted:
4
3
3
f ′ x =−x + 1
()
2
1
f
() x
= −
x
4 +
x
4
1
0
-1
-2
-2
-10
1
2
x
f(x),
f'(x)

Answer: The function f (x) has a local maximum at x = 1.

Second method: Conceptual and Qualitative method We may analyze the graph of the f (x) and through that answer the questions raised.

 ¤ f ′(1) = 0 is an indication that f (x) has a stationary point at x = 1. ¤ f ′(0.9) > 0 and f ′(1.1)< 0 along with f ′(1) = 0 points to the fact that the function f (x) has a global maximum at x = 1. ¤ Note that f ′′(1) < 0 which is, along with f ′(1) = 0 , another indication that the function has a global maximum at x = 1. x x = 0.9 x = 1 x =1.1 f ′(x) f ′(−1)> 0 Positive f ′(1)= 0 f ′(1.1)< 0 Negative f (x) Global Maximum f ′′(x): Slope of f ′′(1)< 0 f ′(x) Maximum

MaC Collection of Solved Problems MaC4000 NV-College

(b) The equation of the curve illustrated in the figure may be written as

f

x =− x +1

()

(

) 2

f

()

x

(

2

=− x + x +

2

1)

The function which

f x = − x + 1

()

(

) 2

is the derivative of (i.e. antiderivative of

f x = − x + 1

()

(

) 2

) is the function:

f

(

)

x = −

1

3

3

x

+ x

2

+ x

⎟+

C

C

= a real constant number

if C = 0 :

f

x =− x + x + x

1

()

3

2

3

In the figure below,

f x = − x + 1

()

(

) 2 along with its antiderivative ⎛ 1
()
3
2
f
x =− x +
x
+ x ⎟
are plotted:
3
3
⎛ 1
f x =− ⎜
()
3
2
x
+
x
+
x ⎟
3
2
1
0
-1
f ′ x =−
()
(
x +1
) 2
-2
-3
-2
-1
0
1
x
f'(x),
f(x)

Answer: The function f (x) has an inflexion (terrace) point at x = −1.

Second method: Conceptual and Qualitative method We may analyze the graph of the f (x) and through that answer the questions raised.

 ¤ f ′(− 1) = 0 is an indication that f (x) has a stationary point at x = −1. ¤ Both f ′(− 2) < 0 and f ′(0)< 0 along with f ′(− 1