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Homework 1 Solutions

CSEE W4119 - Computer Networks Fall 2010 1. Statistical Multiplexing In class, we saw that packet switching can make more ecient use of resources by taking advantage of the fact that only a fraction of potential senders are active at any time. In this problem, you will be asked to demonstrate this fact mathematically. Suppose we have a single link with capacity L bits per second and a population of users that generate data at r bits per second when busy. The probability that a user is busy generating data is p (a) What is the maximum number of users that can be supported using circuit switching? Call this value M C Answer: L MC = R Vishal Misra

(b) Now suppose we use packet switching to support a population of M P users. Derive a formula (in terms of p, M P, N, L,andr ) for the probability that more than N users are busy? (Hint: Start by deriving a formula for the probability that exactly N users are busy.) Answer: The probability that exactly N users are busy is: MP N p (1 p)(M P N ) N

Then, the probability that more than N users are busy is: 1 or
N M P i=0

pi (1 p)(M P i)

i=N +1

MP

MP i p (1 p)(M P i) i

(c) Plug in some numbers. Let L = 1M bps, r = 64Kbps andp = 0.1 . Give the value for M C. What is the probability that more than M C users are busy for M P = 2 M C? What about M P = 4 M C? [Note: Feel free to use a tool such as Mathematica or Excel, or even write a small program to compute these numerical values.] Answer: M C should be an integer, so we compute it to be
1M bps M C = 64Kbps = 15

For M P = 2 M C = 30, N = M C = 15 and p = 0.1 : 1 15 30

i=0 i

pi (1 p)(30i) = 0.0000000037 1