Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 16(4) 547 551 (2008)
The Collapse Intensity of Cavities and the Concentration of Free Hydroxyl Radical Released in Cavitation Flow ^{*}
ZHANG Xiaodong ( ) ** , FU Yong ( ), LI Zhiyi ( ) and ZHAO Zongchang( )
R&D Institute of Fluid and Powder Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012, China
Abstract Enhancing the chemical reaction processes by means of the energy released in the collapse of micro bubbles or cavities in the cavitation flow is a new research area. In the previous work, a new approach of measuring concentration of free hydroxyl radicals induced in cavitation flow by using methylene blue as the indicator was de veloped and used to study concentration of free radical induced in Venturi cavitation flow under various experi mental conditions. In the present research, the radial evolution of a cavity bubble and the corresponding collapse pressure in sonic cavitation field are obtained by solving three different bubble dynamics equations: Rayleigh equa tion, RayleighPlesset equation and Gilmore equation. By comparing with the experimental data on the radial evo lution of a cavity bubble in the literature, it is found that the predicted results by the Gilmore equation, which takes account of the compressibility of fluid in addition to the viscosity and interfacial tension, agree with the experimen tal ones better than those by other two equations. Moreover, the theoretically predicted collapse pressures are con sistent with the concentration of the free hydroxyl radical induced in the experimental venture. Thus, the concentra tion of the liberated free hydroxyl radical not only influences the reaction rate but also is used as an available pa rameter for measuring collapse intensity of cavities. Keywords hydrodynamic cavitation, collapse pressure, numerical simulation, free hydroxyl radical
1
INTRODUCTION
Cavitation flow can cause vibration, noise and erosion in many hydraulic structures or machineries and results in severe damage of these installations. These harmful effects of cavitation flow have been intensively researched in the past decades _{[}_{1} _{} 4]. However, the local high temperature and high pressure due to the collapse of cavitation bubbles can induce the cleavage of water molecules and yield free hy droxyl radicals, OH, which is an oxidizing agent in many chemical reactions, so hydrodynamic cavitation can be used for enhancing many industrial processes such as chemical reactions, sterilization, treatment of organic waste water and so on. These useful phenom ena of cavitation flow have attracted great interest and been studied by some researchers in recent years _{[}_{5} _{} 7]. As the concentration of ·OH induced by the col lapse of cavitation bubbles depends on energy re leased or collapse intensity of cavitation bubbles, the concentration of ·OH induced not only influences the chemical reaction rate but also can be used for meas uring collapse intensity of cavitation bubbles which can not be measured directly by now. Kumar et al. [8], Gogate et al. [9] and Zhang et al. [10] researched the effects of cavitation flow on the chemical reaction by use of iodine as the indicator for free radicals induced in the cavitation flow, the iodine coming from aqueous solution of KI is deoxidized by ·OH. The aqueous solution of KI is sensible to the light and easily to decompose, so it causes the uncer tainty in measurement, moreover, the high price also limits its large scale use. In our previous work, a new approach for meas uring the concentration of ·OH in cavitation flow was proposed [11]. Authors adopted methylene blue as an
indicating agents for free radicals and used the UVVis spectrophotometry to measure the change in concen tration of methylene blue in the reaction with ·OH, so the amount of ·OH consumed, namely the concentra tion of ·OH induced in cavitation flow can be known. The detailed description about this approach can be found in Ref. [11]. The collapse pressure of a cavitation bubble can be obtained by solving the bubble dynamic equations. There are three different bubble dynamic equations:
Rayleigh equation, RayleighPlesset equation and Gilmore equation. Most researches adopted RayleighPlesset equation, which is suitable for in compressible liquid, to simulate the bubble dynamics in cavitation flow. Moholkar and Pandit _{[}_{1}_{2}_{]} numeri cally investigated the nonlinear dynamics of the bub
bles in cavitation flow through a Venturi and an orifice plate based on RayleighPlesset equation. Gogate and Pandit [13] simulated the bubble dynamics in an ori fice plate cavitation reactor by adopting two different bubble dynamic equations for two different stages respectively, the RayleighPlesset equation was used for one stage when bubble wall velocities was less than 1500 m s ^{} ^{1} , the equation given by Tomita and
Shima
[14] was used for another stage when bubble
velocity exceeded 1500 m s ^{} ^{1} . Up to now, Gilomre equation which takes ac count of the fluid compressibility in addition to vis cosity and interfacial tension of fluid has not been found to be adopted for simulating the cavitation flow in Venturi or in orifice plate. In this article, three bubble dynamic equations are adopted to simulate the radial evolution of a cavity bubble in acoustic cavitation field under the same conditions as given in Ref. [15]. Compared with ex perimental data in the literature, Gilomre equation is finally adopted to calculate collapse pressure of the
Received 20070627, accepted 20071228. * Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10472024). ** To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: zhangxd56@163.com
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cavity bubble in Venturi cavitation flow under the varying pressure field. The predicted collapse pres sures are compared with the measured concentrations of free radical under different conditions in order to reveal the relationship between them.
2 
MATHEMATICAL MODEL 
2.1 
Governing equations 
Rayleigh [16] firstly established the bubble dy namics equation for a bubble with radius R as follows:
(1)
RR
3
p
R
2
R
p
2
in which liquid viscosity and liquid compressibility was neglected. Here is the liquid density, p _{} is the liquid pressure in the infinite domain far from the bubble, and p _{R} is fluid pressure which acts on the out side surface of the bubble, which follows from the balance of the forces acting on the bubble:
p
R
p
i
2
R
(2a)
Having considered the surface tension and liquid viscosity, the RayleighPlesset equation of bubble dy namics was established by Plesset in the following forms [17]:
(2b)
2 
R 

3 
p R 2 
R
p i 1

R 4
R 24



2 
p 
i 
p



R 
R 
R
RR
(3)
where p _{i} is the pressure inside the bubble. When p _{i} and p _{} are known, these equations can be solved to get R (t). In order to take account of the liquid compressi bility, the KirwoodBethe approximation was intro duced, which considers the transmission velocity of pressure pulses equals to the liquid velocity plus the sound velocity. So the Gilmore equations of bubble dynamics turn into the following form [18]:
(4)
where c is the sound velocity in liquid, H is the en
thalpy difference between pressure p _{R} and p _{} under isentropic conditions, c _{} is the sound velocity in un disrupted liquid. B and n are liquid constants, B
3×10
8
Pa, n 7 [19]. Eq. (2b) remains valid in this case.
2.2 Numerical method and initial conditions
The bubble dynamic equations are secondorder
nonlinear differential equations, which are difficult to find the analytic solution. So the fourthorder RungeKutta is adopted for solving Eqs. (1), (3) or (4) and the time step t is taken as 0.1 s in the present work. The initial conditions of Eqs. (1), (3) or (4) are R R _{0} and dR/dt 0 at t 0. A schematic diagram of the Venturi used in pre sent research is shown in Fig. 1. In order to solve Eqs. (1), (3) or (4) and get the bubble growth, collapse process and collapse pressure of a bubble, the inner pressure in a bubble, p _{i} ,and the far field pressure, p _{} , should be identified. The inner pressure, p _{i} , equals the
saturated vapor pressure at the operation temperature, which is 2340 Pa (20ºC) in the present study. The far field pressure, p _{} , is taken as the fluid pressure on the cross section having the same horizontal position with the bubble, so it is a function of time and location of the bubble. Based on the assumption that the pressure drop in the expansion section of Venturi is linear, we can obtain p _{} when p _{0} and p _{2} are known,
p
_{} p
0
x(t)
L
pp
20
(5)
where x(t) is the axial position of the bubble center from the Venturi throat.
Figure 1
Schematic diagram of Venturi
The collapse pressure P _{c} is defined as fluid pres sure acting on a bubble at the instant of the bubble collapse. In this study, the collapse of a bubble is as sumed to be completed when its radius reaches 0.1 times of the initial radius [13]. So it can be obtained from Eq. (2b) in the following form:
P
c
2
R
_{} p
i
R
R
4
_{}
R
0.1
R
0
(6)
The other parameters are as follows: inlet pres
sure, p _{1} 0.2 0.8 MPa, outlet pressure, p _{2} 0.1 MPa, initial bubble radius, R _{0} 10 200 m, the ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter, d _{0} /d _{1} 0.12 0.3, the expansion angle, 5° 16°, the length of expansion section, L 0.08 0.2 m. The other constants are 0.0727 N m ^{} ^{1} , 1.005×10 ^{} ^{3} Pa·s, 998 kg m ^{} ^{3} , d _{1} d _{2} 0.025 m.
3 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
3.1 
Comparison between different models 
As hydrodynamic cavity bubbles move fast together with the turbulent bulk liquid when passing through a Venturi or an orifice plate, it takes a bubble about tens to hundreds microseconds from its expansion
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to collapse, so it is difficult to measure the variation of
a cavity bubble radius with time in hydrodynamic
cavitation flow. However, it’s available in acoustic cavitation fields, because the cavity bubbles move within a very small space. Three different bubble dy namic equations mentioned above are used to simulate the radial evolution of a cavity bubble in sonic cavita tion fields with time under the same conditions as in
Ref. [15], namely the far field pressure is
(7)
p
p
p
_{}
o
a
sin
2
ft
were p _{o} 0.101325 MPa is the atmospheric pressure, p _{a} 0.129 MPa is the amplitude of driving sonic pressure, f 25 kHz is its frequency. The initial radius of a cavity bubble is taken as R _{0} 6.18 m. The far field pressure given by Eq. (7) is plotted in Fig. 2(a).
(a) Variation of far field pressure with time
(b) Predicted and experimental radial variations of a bubble
Figure 2
[15] with the theoretical ones for the bubble evolution experiment; Rayleigh; RP; Gilmore
Comparison of the experimental results from Ref.
The present prediction and experimental data [15] on radial variation of a bubble subjected to far field pressure as shown in Fig. 2 (a) with time are shown in Fig. 2 (b). The theoretically predicted collapse pres sures are shown in Table 1. As shown in Fig. 2 (a), the liquid pressure of far
field is the sine function of time. During first quarter
of the time period, namely 10 s, the pressure of the
far field begin to decrease and leads to the bubble ex pansion and radial outward motion of surrounding liquid. After that, the pressure of the far field turns to increase, the bubble expansion will be resisted. Be cause of moving inertia the bubble will continue ex
pansion until its surface velocity R(t)
which is the
slope of tangential line of the evolvement curve R(t) is zero, at this moment the bubble reaches its maximum size and the expansion will stop. The bubble expan sion takes about 18 s, after this moment the bubble undergoes the rapid compress and collapse due to the increase of the pressure of the far field. As the third term on the right hand side of Eq. (2b) gets very large
at the moment of bubble collapse, the collapse pres
sure will become very large. It should be noticed that the predicted results by Gilomre equation agree well with experimental ones. Although RayleighPlesset equation could also give better results compared with experimental ones, but the corresponding collapse pressures shown in Table 1 appear quite large differences, the collapse pressures predicted by Rayleigh equation and RayleighPlesset are much lager than that by Gilmore equation. From Eq. (2) the collapse pressure depends on the bubble wall velocity at the instant of collapse, which equals to the slop of the radial evolution curve of a cavity bubble at the instance of collapse. As shown in Fig. 2, the predicted curves by Rayleigh equation and RayleighPlesset equation get steeper than that by Gilmore equation at the end of collapse. This is why the predicted collapsed pressures by Rayleigh equation and RayleighPlesset equation are higher than that by Gilmore equation. The Gilmore equation is finally adopted to calculate the collapse pressure in Venturi in the present research.
Table 1
Predicted collapse pressure
Governing equation
Collapse pressure P _{c} /MPa
Rayleigh 
1353 
RP 
1051 
Gilmore 
160 
3.2 Bubble dynamic behavior and the concentra
tion of OH induced
The effects of geometric and operation parame ters on the collapse pressure are numerically studied based on the Gilmore equation. The concentrations of ·OH induced in cavitation flow under the corre sponding geometric and operation parameters are also measured by the same approach and experimental ap paratus as in our previous paper [11].
3.2.1 Effect of initial bubble radius (R _{0} )
The effects of initial bubble radius on the growth, collapse processes and corresponding collapse pres sure of the cavity bubble are shown in Figs. 3 and 4
under the conditions of p _{1} 0.6 MPa, d _{0} 0.004 m, d _{1} 0.025 m, L 0.15 m, p _{2} 0.1 MPa.
Figure 3 Variation of a bubble radius with time for dif ferent initial bubble radius
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Chin. J. Chem. Eng., Vol. 16, No. 4, August 2008
Figure 4 
Effect of initial bubble radius on the collapse 
pressure 
From these figures, it can be seen that the col lapse pressure decreases with the increase of initial radius. The smaller initial radius is, the higher bubble surface velocity at the instant of bubble collapse will be, which results in the increase of collapse pressure.
3.2.2 Effect of inlet pressure (p _{1} ):
The effects of inlet pressure on the collapse pressure and concentration of free radical are shown in Fig. 5 under the conditions of p _{2} 0.1 MPa, R _{0} 60 m, d _{0} 0.004 m, L 0.15 m, d _{1} d _{2} 0.025 m. It can be seen that the collapse pressure increases with inlet pressure at first, and then decreases with it when the inlet pressure reaches 0.5 MPa. The phenomena
can be explained as follows: when the inlet pressure is lower than 0.5 MPa, the throat pressure will decrease with the increase of inlet pressure and results in the increase of pressure gradient at expansion section of the Venturi and the increase of collapse pressure. However, when the inlet pressure exceeds 0.5 MPa, the throat pressure will increase with the increase of inlet pressure and this gives opposite results [11]. As shown in Fig. 5, the variation of concentration of free radical induced with the inlet pressure is consistent with that of the collapse pressure. And this indicates that there is a definite relations between them by which the intensity of bubble collapse can be ex pressed by the concentration of free radical ·OH.
Figure 5 Effects of inlet pressure on the collapse pressure and concentration of ·OH induced c _{·}_{O}_{H} ; collapse pressure
3.2.3 Effect of the throat diameter (d _{0} )
The effects of the throat diameter of the Venturi, d _{0} , on the collapse pressure and the concentration of free radical induced, are studied by changing the
throat diameter and keeping other parameters constant:
R _{0} 60 m, p _{1} 0.6 MPa, p _{2} 0.1 MPa, L 0.15 m, d _{1} d _{2} 25 mm. The variations of collapse pressure and the concentration of free radical with d _{0} are plot ted in Fig. 6.
Figure 6 Effects of d _{0} on the collapse pressure and con centration of ·OH induced c _{·}_{O}_{H} ; collapse pressure
As shown in Fig. 6 the collapse pressure de creases with the increase of d _{0} . Because of increase of d _{0} , the throat pressure will increases, which results in the decrease of pressure gradient at the expanding sec tion of the Venturi and the decrease of the collapse pressure. It is also seen that the variation of concentra tion of free radical induced is consistent with that of the collapse pressure.
3.2.4 Effect of the expansion angle
The effects of the expansion angle ( ) on the col lapse pressure and concentration of free radical in duced are studied by changing expending angle and keeping other parameters constant: p _{1} 0.6 MPa, p _{2} 0.1 MPa, R _{0} 60 m, d _{0} 0.004 m, d _{1} d _{2} 25 mm. The results of simulation are shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen that with the increase of the collapse pressure increase. This effect can be attributed to the increase in pressure gradient at the expanding section for a fixed pressure difference between the throat and outlet of Venturi. It is also seen that the variation of concen tration of free radical induced is consistent with that of the collapse pressure.
Figure 7 Effects of the expansion angle on the collapse pressure and concentration of ·OH induced c _{·}_{O}_{H} ; collapse pressure
3.2.5 Correlation of the collapse pressure with ·OH
induced Based on the collapse pressures predicted theo retically and the concentration of ·OH measured ex perimentally under the conditions mentioned above,
Chin. J. Chem. Eng., Vol. 16, No. 4, August 2008
551
the scatter plot of lnP _{c} versus lnc _{·}_{O}_{H} and correspond ing fitting line are shown in Fig. 8.
c _{}
d _{0}
d _{1}
velocity of sound in undisrupted liquid, m s ^{} ^{1} throat diameter of the Venturi, m inlet diameter of the pipe, m outlet diameter of the pipe, m
enthalpy difference at pressure p _{R} and p _{} , kJ kg ^{} ^{1}
length of expansion section, m
liquid constant collapse pressure, MPa pressure inside the bubble, MPa liquid pressure on the outside surface of the bubble, MPa pressure far from the bubble, MPa inlet pressure, MPa outlet pressure, MPa
Figure 8 The correlation between the collapse pressure and the concentration of ·OH induced
The linear correlation from data fitting is
ln P
c
0.3829ln c
OH
4.9631
(8a)
So the collapse pressure is the exponential function of the concentration of ·OH in the range of the present study:

first order derivative of R(t), m s ^{} ^{1} 
R 



R 
second order derivative of R(t), m s ^{} ^{2} 
R(t) 
bubble radius at time t, m 
R _{0} 
initial radius of the bubble, m 

expansion angle, (°) 

viscosity of liquid, Pa s 

surface tension of liquid, N m ^{} ^{1} 
REFERENCES
P
c
143.04c
0.3829
OH
(MPa)
(8b)
where c is in unit of mol·L ^{} ^{1} . Based on the regres sion analysis, factor F of fitting correlation (8a) is F 31.40, while F _{0}_{.}_{0}_{1} (1,16) is 8.53 [20], where signifi cance level is take as 0.01 and the number of sample data is N 18. Because of F F _{0}_{.}_{0}_{1} (1,16), the correla tion Eq. (8a) is significant and valid over the range of parameters considered. The concentration of induced OH not only influences the chemical rate but also can be used as an available parameter for measuring col lapse intensity of cavity bubbles.
4
CONCLUSIONS
The Gilmore equation is more suitable to simu late the bubble behaviors in cavitation flow and give more reasonable collapse pressure, so the compressi bility of fluid has more important influence on the collapse pressure than that of the viscosity and inter facial tension. The variation of collapse pressure predicted theoretically is in good consistency with that of the concentration of free hydroxyl radical obtained ex perimentally, and the collapse pressure is an exponen tial function of the concentration of ·OH in the range of present study. Collapse pressure depends upon the operation and geometric parameters, it decreases with the in crease of initial cavity bubble radius, and the throat diameter, it also increases with the increase of expan sion angle. Moreover, collapse pressure will increase with the increase of inlet pressure at first and then de crease after reaching a maximum.
NOMENCLATURE
B 
liquid constant, Pa 
c 
velocity of sound in the liquid, m s ^{} ^{1} 
c _{·}_{O}_{H} concentration of free hydroxyl radical, oml L ^{} ^{1}
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