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Systematic Display Purpose To convey background information through exhibits. Basic requirement of display design

Effective composition of the information to be conveyed .The works resembles editing a book with ample of graphics and the other visual elements. A story is created discriptions ,photos and samples are arranged accordingly .Therefore,the story is essential.

o Museum display has been expanded by visitors desire to be able to touch and handle the exihibits display or to have a feeling of being present in a situation .As a result, telecommunication systems came to be introduced .

EXIHIBIT SPACE CREATION Pakage Display System Search Nigata science museum (children science museum of mozioka city) Three exihibit rooms are there o Space for departure o Space for discoveries o Space for observation

Metaphor of a scientific journey to get children interested in science , in particular, the nature and peopleEach space is designed differently using different flooring , material display installation and colours to create a feeling crawl. The installation were arranged accordingly to the grid of the flooring tiles .

SENPAI SCIENCE MUSEUM Basic concept science shower Participatory museums Beyond simpy pushing the button to see a fixed reaction ,interactive exihibits play greater scientific and museum functions by , allowing the visitors to search ,get answers , respond to get feedback from stored information inventory. Museum will develop further to invite the visitors ,to observe/ to participate in demonstrated experiments . Scientific interest is invoked when there is someone who explains /experiments in front of ones eyes.
Planetariums in India Among the major attractions at the Birla Planetarium in Calcutta are the busts of natural philosophers from Patanjali to Newton. There are also exhibits on space explorations. The Baroda Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Planetarium is situated in beautiful botanical and zoological gardens. The architecture is tetrahedron with window niches projecting from slanting faces which provoke the curiosity of even a casual observer. This is the first planetarium in India to be provided with automatic control for projection. Sky shows such as A trip around the world, Landing on the Moon and Milestones of the heaven have attracted a large number of people. The New Delhi Nehru Planetarium (Carl Zeiss Jena) at Teen Murti House started in 1984. Equipped with Indias largest fiberglass dome (dotted with more than six million hand-drilled holes for better acoustics), the

programmes at the planetarium are filled with special effects visual and acoustic and blended with appropriate musical effects. A life size model of the SLV-3 rocket and a huge model of the space shuttle at the entrance enthrall visitors. The major attraction in the exhibition area is the actual Soyuz 1-10 spcaecraft in which Rakesh Sharma made hid space trip with Soviet cosmonauts. A working model of the Kalavur telescope (Asias largest telescope set up at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics at Kavalur near Banglore), which can be operated by visitors, is equally popular. The Puttaparti Satya Sai Space Theatre (Spitz-512) is the first planetarium in the country to have a tilted dome and unidirectional seating. The planetarium, inaugurated in November 1985, is entirely computercontrolled with over 30 special effects projectors to show events like colliding galaxies, explosion of stars, meteorfalls, etc. The major aim of the planetarium is to teach astronomy to students. Even so, the total number of planetariums in the country is still very small. In fact, every science museum why, every museum should have a planetarium as one of its major centres of attraction. The Nehru Planetarium itself is a part of a bigger complex - the Nehru Centre with its Discovery of India Museum. The presence of a planetarium anywhere can be exposed to any subject, be it science or arts. Infact, one can make planetarium programmes to suit any subject which the museum is supposed to popularise.

Why did not somebody teach me the constellations and make me at home in the starry heavens which are always overhead, and which I dont half know to this day? -Thomas Carlyle Planetaria today play an important role in popularizing Astronomy to a wide audience. The Planetarium projector can bring the sky with stars and planets of any place from North Pole to the South Pole of the past, present or future.

The very first Planetarium to be set up in India is the one at Pune the Kusumbai Moyichand Planetarium, installed at the New English School in 1954. It is housed in a concrete dome, approximately nine metres in diameter, with a seating capacity of 100. The Birla Planetarium at Calcutta inaugurated in 1962 was the first major one in India. Bombay, in spite of its educational activities, did not have one until 1977, in which year the Nehru Planetarium was completed, hiwle Delhis Nehru Planetarium started in early 1984. Making a Planetarium programme is more an art than science. It involves the interaction of artists, scientists, musicians, communicators, technicians like sound recordists, photographers and a host of others. After the theme is finalized, ateam of researchers collect basic information nad visuals. These are checked and re-checked, and preliminary script is produced and is tested in the Planetarium dome for feasibility and operational convenience. Simultaneously, visuals in the form of slides and film strips are made. Artists are commissioned to re-create celestial phenomena and other themes relevant to the programme. After a few trials, a fresh draft of the script is prepared and sent to various experts and communicators for their comments. Philosophical aphorism included in the programmes make it thought provoking such as : A mans reach should exceed his grasp or what is a Heaven for? (Robert Browning)

All things arise from space and they return to space Space is the beginning and end of all things (Upanishad) The most incomprehensible thing about the Universe is that it is comprehensible. (Einstein) Every star we see is passing light and past time.

A careful observation will show that the Heaven is there on Earth not in the sky above. (Mahatma Gandhi)

The Planetarium aims at teaching all about the Universe and everything in the Universe ought to come under its purviem. The presence of Planetarium in any place attracts a large audience and one can teach everything under the sky in the background of a Planetarium, be it science or arts. In fact one can make Planetarium programmes to suit any subject the museum is supposed to popularize. Plato said, compels the Soul to look upwards. I feel that an understanding of the vastness of the Universe makes us humble and proud at the same time. Humble because we are a speck among speck in the cosmic architecture; Proud because, inspite of our insignificance we can comprehend this vast Universe in all its magnificence. Emanuel Kant : Two things fill the mind with ever increasing awe and wonder The starry heavens above me and the moral laws within me.

What is Multi-Image System?

Integration of multiple visual sources The Multi-Image system reproduces various scenes on the dome by combining multiple auxiliary projectors. Such a system includes: wide angle projectors, multiple direction projectors with changeable axis, multiple image projectors with cross-fading ability, video projectors, etc. Integrating these components produces a drama of magnificent scale. The Multi-Image system may be controlled via signals from the console or, in the case of complex presentations, entirely by a computer program. A Multi-Image presentation

The Multi-Image system could be used to reproduce a scene of a group of spaceships travelling through space.

Working of a Planetarium
Sound here, there and everywhere The sound system completes the theatre. Good sound is the most important effect of any show. The Multi-Sound system is composed of a matrix which selects the channels of the multi-track tape deck and regulates the amplifiers of each speaker located behind the dome screen. A computer directs the timing, position and volume of the sound, giving lifelike sound effects. Using the Multi-Sound system, objects seem to fly overhead and disappear in the distance. Sound mixing takes place at each individual theatre so as to best match the specific acoustics of the planetarium, giving the most impressive effects. The logically organized audio-mixer offers simple operation, even during manual operation of the planetarium. Sound Control Equipment Performance Auto Control System (PACS) for optimal control of volume balance and sound shifting and PACS interface computer. Sound movement controller for sound movement patterns.

Tape Deck Accessories

Automatic tape start sensor dects beginning of tape and stands by. Astrovision and sound track synchronizer.

History of Astronomy
Those were the days, when man was content to believe that he was the creation of the Almighty and whatever phenomenon occurred in the universe was a miracle caused by Him. Absolute faith in God and complete dependence on religion curbed his desire to probe the mysteries of nature. However, the last millennium stirred the curiosity of the people and made them aware of the marvels of science. It was in the beginning the last century, in 1054 AD, that the Chinese observed a star shining in the sky and called it nova. A century later, our own astronomer, Bhaskaracharya, pursued the study of the heavens and made observations about the bodies

falling on the earth. As years rolled by, great Indian rulers built monumental structures based on the laws of the cosmos. The Sun Temple with its wheel at Konarkbuilt by Narasimha Deva I, in the middle of the 13th century, shows the awareness of the rulers about the influence of the Sun in the formation of days and nights on earth. The rulers of Samarkhand, Amber and Jaipur built astronomical observatories in their lands to make people aware of the larger celestial universe. With the advent of the 15th century, great explorers from Europe, like Magellen, Columbus and Vasco da Gama, set out to discover new lands on earth and revealed it vastness. Scientific geniuses like Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Darwin and Einstein, propounded new theories and confirmed the power of the cosmos.Galileos theory that the Sun, and not the earth, is the centre of the universe and that the earth merely revolved round the sun, shocked the ministers of the church but surprised the intellectuals. Darwins theory of evolution further outraged the religious, community of Europe and perplexed poets, like Tennyson, to ask: Are God and Nature then at strife, that nature lends such evil dreams? Newtons laws of gravity explained the movement of the planets around the sun and the revolution of the moon around the earth. Einsteins theory of relativity brought into focus the relation between mass and energy and the origin of nuclear energy. The working of the universe was, thus, slowly unravelled by the people and made them wander about the magical cosmos! 20th century ushered in many more scientific events and astronomical discoveries. As scientists made revelations, men acquired knowledge about important scientific facts, like atom, continental drifts, Andromeda and other galaxies, meteors, comets, life on satellites, planets and asteroids. INTERVIEW WITH DR. J. J. RAWAL Do you agree that the last millennium brought about a cosmic revolution? Science and astronomy superseded religion and made people understand the mystery of the universe. Scientific discoveries were made, laws were explained to the common man. The Sun, that was looked at with awe in the past, was accepted as an average star in the millennium. Galileo proved

wrong Ptolemys theory that the earth was the centre of the universe. The Milky Way, the Solar system, the Andromeda galaxy, the planets beyond Saturn were all discovered in the last millennium. Moon has been explored. The universe has been revealed further to the inhabitants of the earth during the course of the last millennium. What astronomical developments do we expect in the next millennium? There are many interesting things to expect in the new millennium. Man will explore the space further and use it to better his life. Due to over population, depletion of energy resources on earth, piling up of nuclear weapons and occurrence of natural calamities, men might be forced to leave earth and seek refuge in space. Do you agree with the prophets of doom who predict chaos before the beginning of a new order at the start of the next millennium? Astronomy has recently detected 2000 bodies hovering around the earth. These bodies vary in size from 1 km to 10 km in diameter and are highly potent. They may hit the earth any time and bring disaster to more than half of its population. In the past, the comet Shoemaker-Levy had luckily plunged into Jupiter instead of the earth and saved extinction of half of earths inhabitants. Catastrophe has struck in the past and may strike in the future too but there is no time specified for such an occurrence. How can we hope to improve our life on earth? What is your advice to the man of the next millennium? We should realize the importance of astronomy and become aware of our position in the universe. In order to live well, we should preserve natural resources like water, trees, etc.

Science of Rationality
Mention stars and my mind goes back to a popular English song of the 1960s. Catch a falling star and put it in your pocket, save it for a rainy day For love may come and tap you on the shoulder some starless night. Just in case, you wanna hold her,

You have a pocketful of starlight. This may not happen to everyone, but stars do have a special appeal. Our guest this week, Dr. V. S. Venkatavardan, knows a thing or two about stars. Can you tell me about other problems faced by scientific researchers in India? Many scientists reach a saturation point after a certain level and the work suffers. There is also a feeling of inadequacy when scientific work is compared. Like in other professions, it is difficult to appreciate and digest another mans success. What is the remedy? Scientists should take to liberal . Perhaps science courses should also include a dose of liberal arts and philosophy, new avenues of interest. Are you happy with the way science is taught in our schools and collages? Science education to the mass may not be satisfactory. Considering our gigantic population.


How is the night sky film made and projected on to the planetarium dome? What is the secret life of planetarium stars? These are questions that visitors to the planetarium keep asking. Actually, there is neither a film nor a single projector like the one used in cinema. The large dumb-bell shaped instrument, sitting under the dome like a giant robot, is a composite of nearly a hundred different projectors. The sphere at either end of this instrument carries 32 projectors which have a common lamp (1500 W tungsten with a specially designed filament). But each projector has a separate lens fixed on the sphere. Each projector projects a template, showing a part of the sky; the 32 images from one sphere enmesh perfectly to produce a full picture. The templates are specially made copper plates with multiple holes which correspond to a required star configuration. But the holes are very precisely

made according to the apparent brightness of the stars. Thus brighter stars would require larger holes. Besides these star projectors, there are other projectors for the Sun, the Moon and the planets, for the constellations, for very bright stars, comets, and the Milky Way, and for an assortment of astronomical coordinates like the equator, the ecliptic (the path traversed by the Sun through the sky), etc and other markers and pointers. The projectors for the Sun, the Moon and the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) are in the cage-like truss across the spheres. Unlike the star projectors, these are not fixed; they have a complex gearing system that makes these planets move at different relative speeds exactly as they do in the sky. Saturn, for instance, moves very slowly compared to Venus or Mercury. The Moon projector even shows the phases of the Moon as it passes through the constellations once a month. The constellation projectors outline the constellation figures (the hunter for Orion, the bull for Taurus, etc) over the stars of that particular constellation. What is remarkable here is that often one constellation figure is projected in parts by more than one projector. But they are so perfectly matched that it is impossible to make out where one ends and another starts. Riding piggy-back on the main projector are 10 to 20 other projectors. These project very bright stars, variable stars, comets, the Milky Way, astronomical coordinates, and markers. The projector has three basic motions: the diurnal motion, simulating the motion of stars through one day; the annual motion, simulating the motion of the Sun, the Moon and the planets over a year or longer periods (with this one can go into the future or revert to the past); and the popular motion which helps change the perspective and observe the sky as seen from any place or latitude on the Earth. Motors, with gears, manipulate these motions on command from the operators console. all three motions have servo-indicators on the operators console and the operator knows exactly what the sky looks like without looking up. The operator takes the cue from the audio record of the script and operates the projector.

For instance, the polar motion motor, when activated, alters the altitude of the Pole Star above the horizon, thus giving the illusion of an increase or decrease in latitude. Besides the main projector system, movie and slide projectors are separately used to show astronomical objects and events. Like, for example, rotating galaxies, surface features of planets, the launching of a spacecraft or the sequence of processes involved in the birth of a star or in the death of a star.