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Mathematics

Spring 2010

This test will be reused and is therefore protected by Chapter 17 paragraph 4 of the Official Secrets Act. The intention is for this test to be reused until 2016-06-30 This should be considered when determining the applicability of the Official Secret Act.

Note: The National Agency for Education decided 2010-12-07 not to reuse the national test in mathematics course A spring 2010. Skolverket har den 2010-12-07 beslutat att provet i matematik A fr vt 2010 inte ska teranvndas

Part II

Time: 120 minutes

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

Instructions- Part II

Time Aids Part II 120 minutes Part II. Calculator, approved formula page and ruler. Part II consists of 11 questions. Most of the questions in addition to an answer require that you must also Write your solutions Explain your line of thought and reasoning so that it is easy to follow Draw clear figures when needed.

Some questions require only answer. These are indicated by the text Only answer is required. After each question the maximum number of points available for your solution is shown. For example [2/3] indicates that the question may give at maximum 2-Gpoints and 3-VG-points. In questions marked with you have an opportunity to demonstrate MVGquality. This means that you use Grading You use general methods, models and reasoning You analyze your results You present a clear line of thought with correct mathematical language.

The test (part I+Part II) gives a total maximum of 61 points, of which 28 are vg-points. Lower limits for examination grade Pass: 20 points Pass with distinction: 36 points of which at least 10 vg-points. Pass with special distinction: At least 20 vg-points. In addition you must demonstrate several of the MVG-qualities that are possible to show in the questions marked . Write your name, date of birth, and adult education/secondary school program on the papers you hand in. Name: ___________________________________________________________ Date of birth: _____________________________________________________ Adult education/secondary school program:_____________________________

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This test will be reused and is therefore protected by Chapter 17 paragraph 4 of the Official Secrets Act. The intention is for this test to be reused until 2016-06-30 This should be considered when determining the applicability of the Official Secret Act. NPMaA spring 2010

Please note that you have to try to solve the problems yourself before checking your solutions against mine. To solve a problem you may follow the following steps: Read the problem. Think! Read the problem again! Have you understood what the problem is looking for? Make a plan. Perform the plan. Evaluate your results. Are your results logical and acceptable?

Obviously, if you are stock and do not know how to solve the problem you may read my solutions. But, after reading the solutions, even if you are sure that you understood my solutions, you should try to solve the problem by yourself without checking your steps against mine. Only, after you solve the problem yourself, you may have understood how to solve similar problems (but not necessarily another type.) My solutions are just suggested ones. Usually there are more than one methods of solving a given problem. Warning: Just reading the solutions can never replace your own struggle in solving a given problem. By just reading the solutions you may not be able to understand the mathematics of the problem deep enough and therefore, it will not help you to solve a new problem by yourself. Your comments and possible corrections are deeply appreciated. Have Fun! Behzad Massoumzadeh, Ph.D. behzad.massoumzadeh@huddinge.se

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1. How much dark chocolate is needed according to the recipe if you want to make a cake for 15 people? [2/0] Chocolate Cake 6 persons 100 g dark chocolate 100 g butter 2 eggs 2 dl sugar Suggested solution Answer: x = 250 g dark chocolate [1/0] [1/0] 2 dl wheat flour 1 tsp baking powder 50 g finely chopped nuts

x = 15

100 = 250 g 6

2. In 2009 the population of Sweden was 9 million. In the year 81% of the population had internet at home. 93% of these had a fixed cable connection. How many people had internet via a fixed cable connection? [2/0] Suggested solution: Answer: In 2009 about 7 million people had internet via a fixed cable connection in Sweden. [1/0]

[1/0]

3. Emran is going to buy a new fence for his garden. The fence looks like the one shown in the picture that is, two posts have three boards between them, and three posts have 6 boards between them a. b. How many boards will be needed if you make such a fence with 10 posts? [1/0] Write a relationship between the number of posts and the number of boards using words or a formula. [1/1]

n posts x boards

Suggested solutions: Answer: x = (n 1) 3 ; x = 27 boards are needed if a fence with 10 posts are made.

x = (n 1) 3 x = (10 1) 3 = 27

[1/1] [1/0]

2 3 4

n posts

3 6 9

x = (n 1) 3

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4. When the time is 12:00 noon in Stockholm it is 05:00 AM early in the morning in Chicago. On airline tickets the departure and arrival times are given in the local times. How long does a flight take that leaves Chicago at 16:25 and arrives in Stockholm at 08:20 AM. Stockholm Chicago [1/1] Suggested solutions: Answer: The total travel time from Chicago to Stockholm is: 8 hours 55 minutes The time difference between Stockholm and Chicago is

12 : 00 05 : 00 = 7 : 00 hours [1/0]

16 : 25 + 07 : 00 = 23 : 25

The plane arrives in Stockholm 08 : 20 AM . Therefore the total travel time from Chicago to Stockholm is:

08 : 20 + (24 : 00 23 : 25) = 08 : 20 + 00 : 35 = 8 : 55 hours

[0/1]

5. M and N are the midpoints of the sides of the square as illustrated in the figure to the right. What proportion of the area of the square is coloured? Make your own drawing and explain your solutions. [1/1/] Suggested solution: Answer:

M

We may assume the length of each side is x . Lets name the three right-triangles formed in the square as AI , AII , and AIII as illustrated in the figure below:

AI

x2 x2 1 x 1 x x x2 1 x AI = x = ; AII = = ; AIII = x = 2 2 4 2 2 2 8 2 2 4

[1/0]

N

AIII

AII

x2 x2 x2 2x2 x2 2x2 5x 2 = x2 + = x2 + + AColoured = x 2 + 4 8 8 4 8 8 8 3x 2 A 8 x 2 5 x 2 3x 2 3 = AColoured = ; Coloured = 82 = = 0.375 = 37.5% [0/1/M1, M5] 8 8 A x 8 M1 Formulates and develops the problem, uses Uses generalised solution method.

general methods with problem solving.

mathematical language is correct.

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6. Linus has seen an advertisement for an SMS-loan and wants to compare it with a loan from a bank SMS-Loan Borrow 3 000 kr for 30 days. Cost 375 kr . Bank-Loan Annual interest rate:

5.6% and no set-up fee.

a. Calculate the annual interest in crowns if you borrow 3 000 kr from the bank. [1/0] b. The cost for the sms-loan is 375 kr for 30 days. What annual interest rate in percent does this corresponds to if the cost is the same every month? [1/1]

Suggested solution: Answer: Annual interest if 3 000 kr is borrowed from the bank is 168 kr . The annual interest of SMS-loan is 150 % . a. I = (3 000 kr ) 0.056 = 168 kr

annual interest = 12 (375 kr ) = 4 500 kr

[1/0]

b. If the cost is the same the annual interest in SMS-loan of 3 000 kr is: [1/0] [0/1]

. 7. When Peter and Lisa go to the caf, the milk for their coffee comes in a regular tetrahedron. Lisa knew that the volume for such a carton could be calculated using the formula:

V= k3 2 , where k is the edge length. 12

Peter measures the edge length of the tetrahedron and finds it to be 6 cm and then calculates the volume using the formula. On package it says that it contains 2 cl of milk. Is there room for this much in the cartoon? Explain your reasoning using calculations.

Suggested solution: Answer: V 2.5 cl

V= k 3 2 63 2 = cm 3 = 18 2 cm 3 = 25.4558 cm 3 25 12 12 cm 3

[2/1]

[1/0] [1/0]

V = 25.4558 cm 3 25 10 3 dm 3 = 25 ml = 2.5 cl

The volume of the tetrahedron package is V 2.5 cl . Therefore, there is a sufficient place for 2 cl milk. [0/1]

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8. Anton is going to compare costs of printing advertisement flyers. The Digital Printing House has a fixed basic charge of 20 kr and then 24 re per copy on top of that. The Printing Service AB has no basic fixed charge but instead charges 36 re per copy. a. Write this table on your paper and fill in the missing values. Only answer is required. Number of copies The Digital Printing House The Printing Service AB b. Use a formula to describe the cost for printing x advertising flyers at The Digital Printing House. [1/1] c. How many copies must you have printed, at least, in order for it to be cheaper to get it done at The Digital Printing House than at The Printing Service AB? [1/1/]

Suggested solution: a. Number of copies The Digital Printing House

y DPH = 20 + 0.24 x kr

x = 100 x = 500

[1/0]

y PSAB = 0.36 x kr

[1/0]

b. Answer: The cost of printing x copies at The Digital Printing House is: y = 20 + 0.24 x kr . [1/1] c. 20 + 0.24 x kr < 0.36 x kr 20 < 0.36 x 0.24 x

20 < 0.12 x 0.12 x > 20 12 x > 2 000

120

x>

y PSAB = 0.36 x kr

Answer: At least 167 copies must be printed made in order for it to be cheaper to get it done at The Digital Printing House than at The Printing Service AB. [1/1/M1M5]

y DPH = 20 + 0.24 x kr

200

250

300

x: Number of Copies

MVG-Quality: M1: Formulate and develops the problem, and uses general methods/models

The student demonstrate the highest quality by Uses a general algebraic method to solve the problem.

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9. The thighbone is the longest bone in the human body. You may approximate the length of a person by measuring the length of the thighbone. The Length of Approximate linear relationship between the length of the thighbone length of a and the mans length is tabulated in the table. thighbone man (cm) At an archaeological site a mans thighbone was found. [mm] The length of the thighbone was 425 mm . What should 435 165.2 the approximate length of the man have been?

Suggested solution: Answer: The length of the man should have been about y 163 cm .

y = kx+m

k= y 2 y1 168.9 165.2 = = 0.2467 cm / mm x2 x1 450 435 y = 0.2467 x + m cm [1/0]

m = 168.9 111 = 57.9 cm y = 0.2467 x + 57.9 cm y = 0.2467 425 + 57.9 163 cm

[0/1]

180 175 Length of the man [cm] 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 400

y = 0.2467 x + 57.9 cm

y 163 cm

410

420

430

440

450

460

470

480

490

500

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10. The diagram below illustrates the number of university graduates as a percent of those that are expected to be hired until the year 2020. a. Emma reads off the value 180 for journalists. What does the number mean? [1/1] b. The bar for psychologists and engineers are about the same length. Emma says that this means that about the same number of psychologists as engineers should be produced as university graduates. Johanna says that you cannot draw that conclusion from the diagram. Who is right and why? [0/1/]

Suggested solution: a. According to the diagram 80% of those who study to be a journalist will not be hired as a journalist by the year 2010. [0/1] b. Johanna is right! Even though in both cases there will be a need for both psychologist and engineers and there will be shortage of about 15% in both categories, the information from the diagram above is not sufficient to determine how many more engineers or psychologists should be educated in the university. The numbers in the diagram corresponds to the percentage and not the absolute number of students. Possibly, taking into account the fact that Sweden is an advanced industry land number of engineers needed by the year 2010 would be much more than that of the psychologists. [0/1/]

11. The five numbers 6 , 1, x , 9 , and 4 are all positive integers a. What will the median be for the various values of x ? Explain. [1/1/] b. For what values of x do the five values for the numbers give the same value for both the median and the mean? [0/2/]

Suggested solution: a. Answer: Depending on the value of the integer number x , the median of the five integer numbers could be any of the numbers 4 , 5 , and 6 . To determine the median of set of numbers we may arrange them in their rank order from the smallest to the largest as illustrated in the table below: [1/1/] The possible value(s) of integer number x

x=0

Smallest number

Largest number

Median

x

1 1 1 1

4 4

6 6 6

9 9 9 9

4 4

x=5 6 6

x = 1, 2 , 3 , 4

x=5

x

4 4 4

x

6 6

x

9

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b. x =

x + 1 + 4 + 6 + 9 x + 20 = x + 20 = 5 x x = 5 x 20 5 5

According to the reasoning in the part a of the problem, therere are only three values of the median, i.e. 4 , 5 , and 6 . Therefore, the mean of the five numbers 6 , 1, x , 9 , and 4 could be any of the numbers 4 , 5 , and 6 . The only restriction is the relationship above, namely x = 5 x 20

median = mean x = 4

median = mean x = 5 median = mean x = 6 x = 5 x 20 = 5 4 20 = 0 x = 5 x 20 = 5 5 20 = 5 x = 5 x 20 = 5 6 20 = 10

x=0 x=5 x = 10

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A rectangular sheet of paper can be rolled to make a tube (cylinder) as shown in the figure. Such a tube is made by rolling a square piece of paper with side length 10 cm . The diameter of the tube will be about 3.2 cm . Find the volume of this tube (cylinder). Show that the diameter of the tube will be about 3.2 cm if the side length of the sheet of paper used is 10 cm . If the length and width of the paper are different, you can make two different tubes (cylinders) depending on how you roll the paper. Starting with rectangular sheet of paper with dimensions

10 cm 20 cm , two different tubes are made. Find the

volumes of the two tubes (cylinders). Compare these two volumes and calculate the ratio between them. Investigate the ratio between the cylinder volumes using sheets of paper with other dimensions. What affects the volume ratio between the tall and the short cylinder? Show that your conclusion is true for all rectangular papers. [4/7/]

In the assessing your work the teacher will take into consideration:

What mathematical knowledge you have shown and how well you have carried out the task. How well you have explained your work and defended your conclusions How well you have presented your solution.

Suggested solutions:

d = 3.2 cm r =

d 3.2 cm = = 1.6 cm 2 2

[1/0] Answer: V 80 cm 3 [1/0] Answer: d 3.2 cm

Circumference of the base is C = d d =

10

3.2 cm

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C = d d =

20

= 6.366 cm 6.4 cm r =

Answer: Vshort 320 cm 3 Answer:

Vshort =2 Vtall

[0/1]

The volume of the short-fat cylinder is twice as much as that of the tallskinny cylinder. Generalization: Lets assume the size of the paper is x cm y cm where y cm x cm : Tall and skinny cylinder: C = x cm and h = y cm

C = d d =

VTall

2

cm rtall =

2

d x = cm 2 2

Answer: VTall =

x2 x2 y x 3 y cm = cm 3 = r h = y= 2 4 4 2

x2 y cm 3 4

C = x cm

h = y cm

C = d d =

cm rShort =

2

d y = cm 2 2

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h = x cm

C = y cm

[0/1]

The ratio between the short cylinders volume and that of the tall one

VShort VTall y2 x cm 3 / / y 2 x 4 y = 42 = 2 = / / 4 x y x x y cm 3 4

[0/2]

Answer:

VShort y = VTall x

Conclusion: The ratio between the volumes of the short cylinder and that of the tall cylinder is always equal to the ratio between the lengths of sides of the rectangle paper:

VShort y = yx VTall x

The presentation is easy to follow and cover most parts of the problem. The mathematical [2/1] language is correct.

Evaluation (Check):

y = 20 cm , x = 10 cm

VShort 20 = =2 VTall 10

as expected.

MVG- quality

M1 Formulates and develops the problem, uses Algebraically proving the ratio

general methods with problem solving.

VShort y = yx VTall x

concludes and evaluates if they are reasonable.

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M3 Carries out mathematical proof, or analyses Shows that the ratio of the volumes is

mathematical reasoning.

VShort y = yx VTall x

and mathematical models.

mathematical language is correct.

Name: _____________________ Class/Group: ______________________

Part I

1. What number is 0.1 greater than 3.96 ?

Suggested solutions: Answer: 4.06

x = 3.96 + 0.1 = 4.06

[1/0] [1/0]

[1/0]

a 0

Suggested solutions:

2

Answer: a = 0.2

[1/0] [1/0]

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10

y

0 -10 -5 -5 0 5 x 10

-10

Answer: ( 3, 4 )

[1/0]

4. Julia makes a copy of her drawing using the schools photocopier. A face which is 12 cm long on the copy. In what scale does Julia do her copying?

Suggested solutions: Answer: Scale 1 : 3

4 cm 4 1 = = Scale 1 : 3 12 cm 12 3

[1/0] [1/0]

3 30

60 300 440

[1/0]

880 30 880 30 .

[1/0]

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6. Sarah buys a used car for 100 000 Skr . The value of the car will decrease. The diagram below is an illustration of the change in the value of the car if it decreases by 10% , versus if it decreases by 15% per year. a. What will the value of the car be after three years if the annual percentage [1/0] decrease is 10% . How much longer does it take for the value to be halved if the percentage decrease is 10% rather than 15% per year? Explain your solution using the diagram and the answer box below. [1/1]

120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Number of years

b.

Value Skr

[1/0]

120000 100000 Value (Skr) 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Number of years

It takes 6.5 years for the value of the car to be halved if the percentage decrease is 10% . On the other hand, it takes 4.2 years for the value of the car to be halved if the percentage decrease is 15% . Therefore, it takes 6.5 4.2 = 2.3 years longer for the value of the car to be halved if the percentage decrease is 15% rather than 10% . [1/1] Answer in the interval 71000 Skr - 75 000 Skr is acceptable and gets full credit. Answer in the interval 2.1 years - 2.5 years is acceptable and gets full credit.

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7. Which of the following expressions gives the perimeter of the figure? Circle your answer.

a+b

2a + 2b 3a + 2b 3a + 3b 4a + 4b

Explain how you get your answer using the figure below.

[1/1]

b

Suggested solutions: Answer:

perimeter = 4a + 2b

As illustrated in the figure below, the smaller pieces that are vertical make contribute to the perimeter of the curve by a + a . Together the vertical lines contribution to the perimeter of the figure is a + a + a + a = 4a . Similarly, the smaller horizontal pieces contribute b + b = 2b to the perimeter of the figure. Therefore, the perimeter of the figure is perimeter = 4a + 2b . For more effective visualization the smaller sides are coloured. [1/1]

b

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8. Sanna is to take 15 ml of her medicine twice every day. How long will her bottle of medicine last if it contains 0.3 liters ? Circle your answer.

Suggested solutions: Answer: 0.30 300 n= = = 10 days 0.015 2 30

10 days

[0/1]

[0/1]

9.

[0/1]

[0/1]

[0/1]

x = 0.8

[0/1]

0.3 0.3 = 1 ( x 0.5) = ( x 0.5)1 0.3 = x 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.3 x = 0.3 + 0.5 = 0.8 x 0.5 x 0.5

11. Petter weighs p kg and Simon weights s kg . Write a formula which Petter weight 12% more than Simon. [0/1]

Suggested solutions: Answer:

p = 1.12 s

p = 1.12 s

[0/1]

12. In a rectangle the long side is 4 cm longer than the short side. What expression gives the length of the short side if the length of the long side is written as x + 2 ? [0/1]

Suggested solutions: Answer:

s = x 2 or s = x + 2 4

[0/1]

13. The number 5.83 10 3 is written in scientific form. What number must you subtract so that the digit eight will be changed to a six? Answer in decimal form. [0/1]

Suggested solutions: Answer:

x = 0.000 20 or x = 0.000 2

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[0/1]

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For test-material the Swedish National Agency of Education generically refers to the regulation of secrecy according to Chapter 4, Section 3 of the Secrecy Act. The intention is for this test to be used until 2015-06-30. This should be considered when determining the applicability of the Official Secrets Act.

Instructions Test period

120 minutes for Part II. Calculator, formula sheet and ruler. Part II includes 11 items. For most items a single answer is not enough. It is also expected that you write down what you do that you explain your line of reasoning so that is easy to follow that you draw clear figures when needed. For some items only an answer is required. They are marked with, Only answer is required. After every item is given the maximum mark your solution can receive. (2/3) means that the item can give 2 g-points (Pass level) and 3 vg-points (Pass with distinction level). Items marked with give you a possibility to show MVG-quality (Pass with special distinction quality). This means e g that you use M1: generalised methods, models and reasoning, that you M2: analyse your results and M5: present a clear line of thought in a correct mathematical language. Item number 8 is a larger item that demands a longer time to solve than other items. It is important that you make a try to solve this item. Above the item is written what the teacher has to consider at the assessment.

Tools Part II

Mark limits

The test (Part I + Part II) gives a total maximum of 61 points, out of which 26 are VG-points. Lower limits for examination grade: Pass (G): Pass with distinction : Pass with special distinction: 19 points. 35 points of which at least 12 VG points. At least 20 VG-points. In addition you must demonstrate several of the MVG-qualities that are possible to show in the questions marked .

Write your name, date of birth, and adult education/secondary school program on all sheets of paper you hand in. Name: _________________________ School: _________________________

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14. Dennis worked 2.5 hours and earned SEK 155 . How much would he earn if he worked [2/0] 4.5 hours at the same hourly wage?

Suggested solutions: Answer: x = SEK 279

x= SEK 155 (4.5 h ) = SEK 279 2. 5 h

[1/0] [1/0]

15. Throughout history mathematicians have tried to reach a good approximate value for the number . Here are some of the values that have been used. Indians Egyptians Romans Greeks

10

256 81

1 8

22 7

[3/0]

a. Which value is closest to and which one is furthest from ? b. A has a diameter of 125 cm . Its circumference is to be calculated. How many centimetres longer will the value for the circumference be if you use [1/1] the Egyptian value instead of ?

Suggested solutions: 256 d d 2.36 cm Answer: 81

Indians

Egyptians [1/0]

Romans

Greeks

10 = 3.162278

Furthest

1 3 = 3.125000 8 1 3 = 0.01659 8

22 = 3.142857 7

Closest

[1/0]

10 = 0.02069

22 = 0.00126 7

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284 on your calculator. Suppose you get the results 0.81 . 56.7 4.2 Your classmate Hanna has no calculator and says that your answer is unreasonable. How can Hanna see that? [1/1]

Possibly Hanna realizes that 56.7 4.2 50 and 284 300 = 6 . Hanna therefore estimates that 50 50 284 must be a number between 5 and 6 and 56.7 4.2 definitely not smaller that 1. [1/1] Hanna could also immediately recognize my error by 284 realizing the denominator of , is larger than 56.7 4.2 its numerator 284 > (56.7 4.2 ) and therefore it can not be less than 284 >1. one: [1/1] 56.7 4.2

Suggested solutions:

17. In a dance club with 40 members, 60% of the members are girls. 8 new members joined the club. All of the new members are boys. What percentage of the club members are girls now? [2/1]

Suggested solutions: Answer: 50% Number of the female members of 60 = 24 [1/0] the club: 40 100 Total number of the members of the club after the joining: 40 + 8 = 48 [1/0]

24 100 = 50% 48

Therefore 50% of the club members are girls now.

[0/1]

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18. The perimeter of the figure is 42 cm . All of the short sides in the figure are the same length and all angles are right angles. Find the area of the figure. [2/1]

Suggested solutions: Answer: A = 56.25 cm 2 First method:

The figure has n = 28 short sides The length of each short side is P 42 cm a= = = 1.5 cm n 28 [1/0]

a 2 = (1.5)

2

cm 2

[1/0] [0/1]

Perimeter of the figure is P = 42 cm

Second method:

The figure has n = 28 short sides The length of each short side is P 42 cm a= = = 1.5 cm n 28 [1/0]

The area of the figure may be calculated as the area of a large square of sides 7 a minus the area of 4 large pieces of area 6a 2 each

A = (7 a ) 4 6 a 2 = 49 a 2 24 a 2

2

[1/0]

A = 25 a 2 = 25 (1.5)

cm 2 = 56.25 cm 2 [0/1]

Third method:

The figure has n = 28 short sides The length of each short side is P 42 cm a= = = 1.5 cm n 28 [1/0]

The area of the figure may be calculated as the area of the rectangles illustrated in the figure: A = (3 a )(5 a ) + 2 a (3 a ) + 4 a 2

A = 15 a 2 + 6 a 2 + 4 a 2 = 25 a 2

A = 25 (1.5)

2

[1/0] [0/1]

cm 2 = 56.25 cm 2

page 23 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

19. A store makes a survey about the weight and piece of chocolate bars. The results are 30 illustrated in the following diagram. a. Which of the chocolate bars weigh the same? Only answer is required. [1/0] b. Which of bars has the highest price per kilogram? Explain how arrived to your conclusions. [1/1/M1]

25 20 Price (kr) 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Weight (gram)

C

D

Suggested solutions: Answer: The chocolate bar C has the highest price per kilogram. It costs 169 kr / kg a) The chocolate bars B and C weight the same. They weight 100 g each. [1/0] The chocolate bar C has the highest price per kilogram. The line connecting the point C to the origin is the steepest one and has the highest slope (or gradient) of all chocolate bars. The chocolate bar C costs: 27 2700 kr / kg = kr / kg = 168.75 169 kr / kg 16 0.160

b)

[1/1/M1]

MVG-Quality: M1: Formulate and develops the problem, and uses general methods/models

The student demonstrate the highest quality by Uses the concept of gradient (slope) of the line y = k x SEK

page 24 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

Suggested solutions: As illustrated in the following figure, we may draw a normal line form the vertices B to the base DA . [1/0 ] Due to the fact that BE CD , and

CB DA

[1/1/M3, M5]

5.0 cm

5.0 cm

A

BE = CD = 5.0 cm

10.0 cm

[0/1]

5.0 cm

EBA = BAE =

90 = 45 2

[M3, M5 ] 5.0 cm

A

Second Method:

tan A =

[M3, M5 ]

5.0 cm

5.0 cm

MVG-Quality: M3: Carries out a proof, analyses and mathematical reasoning M5: The solution is well structured, correct mathematically.

The student demonstrate the highest quality by Carries out a clear evidence that the triangle is an isosceles right-triangle and the angle A = B = 45 The solution is well structured, correct mathematically.

page 25 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

21. Robert investigates how much ice cream bars cost in different years. He wants to make a graph showing how the price changes and uses a spreadsheet program to do this. He makes two diagrams that look different. Diagram 1

Price of an ice cream chocolate bar (SEK) Price of an ice cream chocolate bar (SEK) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1960 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Diagram 2

1970

1980 Year

1990

2000

2010

1970

1973

1980

1987

2002

2006

[0/1]

b. Robert performs a calculation in his spreadsheet program in cell G4. What has he calculated and how much will it be? [0/2]

Suggested solutions: a. The diagram number 2 is unsuitable. The reason is its irregular and incorrect scaling of the time-axis. [0/1] b. Robert has calculated the average annual (yearly) increase in the price of ice cream chocolate bars between 2006 and 1970. The result of the calculation is:

[0/1]

page 26 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

22. In a park there are flowerbeds of different sizes. In each flowerbed there are two kinds of flowers. In the figure below the middle flowers are marked by and the edge flowers are marked by . Number 1 Number 2 Number 3

[1/0]

a. How many edge flowers are there in the flowerbed number 5? Explain your answer. b. Lovisa has 32 edge flowers. How many middle flowers are needed to make this flower bed? Explain your answer. [2/0] c. Lovisa figured out that the expression n 2 + 4n + 4 can be used to calculate the sum of the number of edge flowers and the number of middle flowers, where n is the number of the flower bed. Explain your reasoning to show why this expression is correct. [0/2/]

Suggested solutions: Flowerbed number n Edge flowers : 4n + 4 Middle flowers : n 2 Total number of flowers: N tot =+

N tot = n 2 + 4n + 4

n =1 4 1 + 4 = 8 n=2 n=3 n=4 4 4 + 4 = 20 n=5 4 5 + 4 = 24

4 2 + 4 = 12 4 3 + 4 = 16

22 = 4

12 + 4 = 16

12 = 1

8 +1 = 9

32 = 9

16 + 9 = 25

4 2 = 16

20 + 16 = 36

52 = 25

24 + 25 = 49

(4 + 2)2 = 36

(5 + 2)2 = 49

page 27 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

a. Answer: : 24 : There are : 4n + 4 = 4 5 + 4 = 20 + 4 = 24 edge flowers in the flowerbed number 5. The number of flowers in the flowerbed number n is, as illustrated in the table above is given by : 4 n + 4 . [1/0] b. Answer: : 49 middle flowers. Edge flowers : 4n + 4

4n + 4 = 32 4n = 32 4 = 28

[1/0]

n=

28 =7 4

[1/0]

Therefore 32 edge flowers belong to the flowerbed number n = 7 . Middle flowers : n 2 = 7 2 = 49 . c. As illustrated above in the table The total number of flowers may be represented either by the sum of the number of edge flowers : 4n + 4 and the number of middle flowers : n 2 , i.e.

N tot =+= 4n + 4 + n 2 .

2

QED

The total number of flowers may also be given by N tot = (n + 2 ) . This may be expanded and shown that it is equivalent to the method above and Lovisas discovery:

N tot = (n + 2 ) = n 2 + 4n + 4 = n 2 + (4n + 4 ) =+

2

MVG-Quality: M1: Formulate and develops the problem, and uses general methods/models

The student may generalize the problem and finds the total number of edge flowers : 4n + 4 and the number of middle flowers : n 2 . Therefore the total number of flowers may be given by N tot =+= 4n + 4 + n 2 Alternative: N tot = (n + 2) = n 2 + 4n + 4 = n 2 + (4n + 4) =+

2

The student analyses and interprets the given formula: N tot =+= 4n + 4 + n 2

Carries out a clear evidence that the triangle is an isosceles righttriangle and the angle A = B = 45

page 28 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

23. The size of a bicycle is determined by the length of the seat tube. In order to know what size of bicycle you should buy you may measure the inner leg length for the person who is to use the bicycle. Then you can calculate the best size of bicycle in two different ways: Formula A: y = x 23 cm where 30 cm x 90 cm Formula B: y =

2x cm , where 30 cm x 90 cm 3

In the formulas above x cm is the length of the inner-leg in centimetre and y cm is the length of the seat tube in centimetre. As indicated above the formulas A and B is valid for the inner-leg length between 30 cm and 90 cm . a. Marcus is going to buy a bicycle and his innerleg length is 63 cm . Use formulas A and B respectively to calculate what length Marcus should have for his seat tube. Only answer is required b. [2/0] What inner-leg length gives the same seat length no matter which one of the two formulas is used. [0/2/]

y = x 23 cm = 63 23 cm = 40 cm

y=

2x 2 cm = (63 cm) = 42 cm 3 3

b) First Method: Algebraic (analytical) method: We may equate the formulas A and B to find the length of the particular inner-leg that gives identical seat length:

y = x 23 cm 2x 2x x 23 = x 23 = 2x 3 3 y = 3 cm

To eliminate the denominator, we may multiply both sides of the equation by 3:

3 ( x 23) =

3 x 69 = 2 x

2x 3 3

3 x 2 x = 69

Answer: x = 69 cm

page 29 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

y = x 23 cm = 69 23 cm = 46 cm Check: Checks! 2x 2 69 y= cm = cm = 46 cm 3 3

Second Method: Graphical Solution We may solve the problem graphically by plotting the formulas A and B on the same coordinate system 30 cm x 90 cm and 20 cm x 70 cm . The intersection point of the two graphs is:

x = 69 cm and y = 46 cm identical to the results obtained above.

If the graphic calculator, TI-83/84 is used, you may use second/calc/intersect/graph1/graph2/guess sequence to find the exact location of the intersect. [0/2/M1, M5]

70 Length of the seat tube, y (cm) 60 50 40 30 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Inner-leg length x (cm) (69 cm; 46 cm)

MVG-Quality: M1: Formulate and develops the problem, and uses general methods/models

The student demonstrate the highest quality by Finds the general solution by equating the two formulas. Finds the graphical solution: x = 69 cm

Presents the solution, well structured, clear, using especially correct mathematical language.

page 30 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

24. Linda and Maria started a business together. They both put in the same amount of money. Lindas money was not enough for her share of the starting capital, she had to borrow an amount corresponding to 20% of the money she had from the beginning. Maria on the other hand, had 10% of her own money left. So Maria, of course, had more money than Linda from the beginning. What percentage more? [1/2/]

Suggested solutions: Lets assume that Lindas initial money was x Therefore, her share of the starting capital is 1.20 x So, Marias share of starting capital is also 1.20 x But, after starting the business, 10% of Marias initial money was left over. This means her share of starting capital was 90% of Marias initial money that could be assumed to be y [0/1] [1/0]

0.90 y = 1.20 x

y=

1.20 x 0.90

4 1 y = x =1 x 3 3

y = 1.33 x

Answer: Maria had 33% more than Linda initially. [0/1/M1, M5]

MVG-Quality: M1: Formulate and develops the problem, and uses general methods/models M5: The solution is well structured, correct mathematically.

The student demonstrate the highest quality by Uses a general algebraic method to solve the problem. Presents the solution, well structured, clear, using especially correct mathematical language.

page 31 of 32

NV-College - Sjdalsgymnasiet

MVG- quality

Part 1

Other Problems

general methods with problem solving.

concludes and evaluates if they are reasonable.

mathematical reasoning.

and mathematical models.

mathematical language is correct.

page 32 of 32

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