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MICROBIOLOGY LECTURE – Picornavirus & Cornavirus

Notes from Lecture


USTNotesGroup2009 A. Abad
New enteroviruses and human disease
Classification of Picornaviruses Serotype No Disease
Genus Group Serotypes Major Diseases 68 Pneumonia and bronchitis
Enterovirus Polioviruses 1-3 Paralytic poliomyelitis 69 -
Aseptic meningitis 70 Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis
Coxsackievirus 1-22,24 Aseptic meningitis Meningitis
A Herpangina 71 Encephalitis
Conjuctivitis 72 Hepatitis A virus (HAV)
Coxsackievirus 1-6 Aseptic meningitis
B Fatal neonatal disease
Pleurodynia Human cornoavirus OC43
Myocarditis/pericarditis
Echovirus 1-9,11-27 Aseptic meningitis
29-34 Rashes
Febrile illness
Enterovirus 68-72 Conjunctivitis (Type 70)
Polio-like illness
Hepatitis A (Type 72)
Rhinovirus 1-100 Enephalomyocarditis (71)
Respiratory intections
Apthovirus Nonpathogenic to man
and
Cardiovirus

Properties of Polioviruses
• 18-30 nm diameter, ss RNA (Positive sense)
Important properties of cornaviruses
Virion – spherical, 120-160 nm in diameter, helical nucleocapsid
• RNA constitute 31% of virion Genome – single stranded RNA, linear, nonsegmented positive-
• Mot wt of genome 2.2 million Daltons sense, 27-32 kb, capped and polyadenylated infectious
• Four virion proteins: VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 Proteins - two glycoproteins and one phosphoprotein. Some viruses
• Resistant to low pH (pH3) contain a third glycoprotein (hemagglutinin esterase)
• Resistant to 70% alcohol, 5% Lysol or 1% Quatemary Envelope – contains large, widely spaced, club-or petal-shaped
ammonium compound, ether, bile spikes
Replication - cytoplasm; particles mature by budding into
• Sensitive to 0.3% formaldehyde, 50oC/60 ml 0.3-0.5 ppm endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
free residual chlorine in the absence of organic material
Outstanding characteristics:
Factors increasing CNS involvement by Poliovirus • Causes colds and severe acute respiratory syndrome
• Elder age (SARS)
• Pregnancy • Display high frequency or recombination
• Trauma • Difficult to grow in cell culture
• Tonsillectomy
• Fatigue
• Inoculations
• Absence of antibody against poliovirus -fin-

USTNotesgroup2009@yahoogroups.com
Presentation of poliopvirus infections
Presentation Incidence Clinical features
Inapparent infection 90-95% No clinical features
Virus present in stool, or throat
or both
Abortive or minor 4-8% Symptoms of respiratory or
intestinal infection
Virus present in stool or antibody
present
Non-paralytic poliomyelitis 1-2% Illness similar to aseptic
meningitis, last 2-10 days, rapid
recovery,
Paralytic poliomyelitis 0.1-8% Flaccid paralysis; spinal bulbar
and bulbospinal, postrecovery
residual paralysis may persist

Difference between IPV and OPV


IPV OPV
Nature of vaccine Killed Live attenuated
Route of admisistration Intramuscular Oral
Induction of Ab-Humoral IgG + +
Induction of Ab- Local IGa - +
Prevention of Paralysis + +
-Reinfection with wild virus - +
Useful in control of epidemics - +
Commercial Production Difficult Easy
Commercial Cost Expensive Economical
Shelf life Longer Shorter
Sensitivity to heat Less Extreme
Vaccine associated paralysis - +

Clincial associated with enteroviruses


Syndrome Coxsackie A Coxsackie B Echoviruses
Asymptomatic infections + + +
Aseptic meningitis + + +
Herpangina + - -
Plurodynia - + -
Respiratory disease + + +
Myocarditis - + -
Pericarditis - + +
Congenital anomalies + + -
Rash disease + + +
Hepatitis - - +