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JOINTS AND JOINT SEALS

Building Construction and design

Jahangir MIRZA Mcanique, mtallurgie et civil Institut de recherche dHydro-Qubec Montreal, Quebec Canada

2007 UET Peshawar, Pakistan


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Presentation OUTLINES
Expansion joints Contraction or control joints Construction joints Joint seals - purpose Types of sealants Associated materials primers, adhesives, backer rod Effect of various parameters on the installation of joint seals Results Conclusions Recommendations

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EXPANSION JOINT

A structural separation between building elements that allow independent movement without damage to the assembly

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EXPANSION JOINT

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EXPANSION JOINT

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EXPANSION JOINT

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CONTRACTION OR CONTROL JOINT


A formed, sawed, tooled, or assembled joint acting to regulate the location and degree of cracking and separation resulting from the dimensional change of different elements of structure. The joint is usually installed in concrete and induce controlled cracking at pre-selected locations or where a concentration of stresses is expected.
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CONTRACTION OR CONTROL JOINT

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CONSTRUCTION JOINT

Joints placed at points of ending and beginning of construction for provision of a smooth transition between pours.

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CONSTRUCTION JOINT

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JOINT SEALS - PURPOSE Accommodate joint movement Prevent infiltration of solids (dust, sand, etc) Prevent ingress of water and salt solution

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TYPES OF SEALANTS
Field- molded Sealants (FMS) Preformed Sealants

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Field- molded Sealant


A liquid or semi-solid material molded into the desired shape in the joint into which it is installed.

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Field- molded Sealant

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Field- molded Sealant

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Field- molded Sealants


Oil-based Sealants Mastics and Thermoplastics Polyurethane Sealants Polysulphide Sealants Silicone Sealants Epoxy Sealants
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Polyurethane sealants
1-component cured by air moisture 2-components cured by internal chemical reaction Non-sag, pouring, high Shore hardness (foot traffic), fast curing for bridge decks, highways, runways Tough, non-staining, durable and flexible Properties differ from manufacturer to manufacturer
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Polysulphides
1- and 2-components Non-sag and pouring types Good resistance to weather and ageing Not deform at low temperatures

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Silicones
1-component Low shrinkage Good strength and excellent resistance to the effects of sunlight, ozone, UV Tough, non-staining, durable and flexible Properties differ from manufacturer to manufacturer
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Characteristics of fieldmoulded Sealnats


Characteristics

Polyurethane
25%

Polysulphides
12% to 25%

Silicones
12% to 25%

Movement Capability

Types

1- component, moisture-cured 2- component, chemically-cured

1- component, moisture-cured 2- component, chemically-cured

1- component, moisture-cured 2- component, chemically-cured

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Characteristics Advantages

Polyurethane
High elasticity

Polysulphides
High elasticity

Silicones
High elasticity

Very tough, good Excellent flexibility Good flexibility for traffic surfaces Applicable to large moving joints Excellent adhesion Applicable to large moving joints Applicable to large moving joints Excellent adhesion Excellent adhesion

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Characteristics Disadvantages and limitations

Polyurethane
Application temperature over 4 C Primer required

Polysulphides

Silicones

Application Applied as low temperature over 4 as -18 C C Primer required Some require Primer Ventilation required during application and curing Relatively Expensive

Ventilation required Bad odor during during application application and and curing curing

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Comparison of 2-Component and 1-Component Sealants


2-Component Sealants Chemically cured Cure fast within joint 1-Component Sealants Usually moisture-cured Cure slowly,especially in deep joints Take a long time to develop elastic properties May not maintain tension,especially when placed at low temperatures

Develop Elastic Properties quickly Maintain tension within a short period of time

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Comparison of 2-Component and 1-Component Sealants


2-Component Sealants Could be used in joints more than 12 mm deep Normal width-depth ratio is 1:1 for the joint widths up to 12 mm; if greater 2:1 1-Component Sealants Used in joints to a minimum of 6mm and maximum of 12 mm Width-depth ratio is 1:1for the joint widths up to 12 mm; if greater 2:1, maximum remains 12mm Easy to use Little possibility of wastage

Require mixing apparatus Possibility of sealant wastage Problem of clean apparatus

No cleaning required

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PREFORMED SEAL

Seal functionally pre-shaped by the manufacturer so that a minimum of field fabrication is required prior to installation

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PREFORMED SEALS

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PREFORMED SEALS

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PREFORMED SEALS

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PREFORMED SEAL

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PREFORMED SEALS* Neoprene Seals Silicone Rubber Seals Closed-cell, Low Density Seals Permanently Elastic Seals

* All require organic adhesives Bonding agent for installation


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ASSOCIATED MATERIALS Primers Adhesives Backup or Backer Rod

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Primers
Prime concrete and other surfaces to obtain proper adhesion and maximum performance of FMS. Applied on surfaces exposed to immersion because of viscous sealant inability to flow into small pores Install sealant while primer tacky For the same seal, primer differ for different substrates Use manufacturers recommendations
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Adhesives
Facilitate installation and improve adhesion of seal to substrate All preformed seals require adhesives (acts as bonding agent) 1- and 2-components (1-component moisture curing PUR, 2-components 100% modified epoxy) Applied on pre-sandblasted or pre-cleaned joint surfaces before installation of preformed seals Special lubricant adhesives, which prime and bond, to improve seal-to-joint face contact
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BACKUP MATERIALS (BACKER ROD) A compressible material used in the bottom of the seals reservoirs to reduce the depth of the seal thus improving its shape factor. This also serves to support the seal against sag or indentation.
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BACKUP MATERIALS (BACKER ROD)


Good joint design and optimum performance of seals require proper selection and use of backup rod. Soft and flexible and not absorb water Compressible material not be forced out as joint closes and recover as joint opens Not break or twist in the joint
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BACKUP MATERIALS (BACKER ROD)


In all case, backer rod should be at least 25% greater than joint width Functions:
Control seal depth in the joint Assists seal tooling in the joint Serves as joint breaker to prevent seal bonding to the back of joint Acts as temporary joint filler Supports seals in horizontal joints May function as secondary protective barrier after applying sealant
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BACKUP MATERIALS (BACKER ROD)

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SUMMARY JOINT SEALS

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EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON THE INSTALLATION OF JOINT SEALS Joint and Joint Seal Configurations Installation Temperature Effect of Stresses Effect of Moisture Surface Preparation General Comments
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Joint and Joint Seal Configuration


Joint width gap and its %age movement affects seal installation Installing seals difficult in narrow joints wide enough to allow easy installation and accommodate movement Joint edges elevated and FMS concave or semicircular shape (Fig.)
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Joint and Joint Seal Configuration

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Joint and Joint Seal Configuration


FMS poor resistance to abrasion easily damaged (road & foot traffic), recess sealants away from abrasion Highway and hydraulic structures keep sealant upper surface 8 to 20 mm below concrete surface Joints in spillways with high water flow, keep surface smooth and Q Flush
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Joint and Joint Seal Configuration


Install proper amount of FMS to the recommended depth 1-component FMS, minimum depth 6 mm and maximum 12 mm, for 2component FMS, depth could be increased (Tab.) 1-component FMS longer set time (> 3 days, depends on temperature) than 2-components (1 day or less) www.aboutcivil.com

Width/Depth relationship for FMS


Joint width mm Depth of sealant in joints mm Concrete Steel 6 Same as width 12 Width/2 Width/2 6 6 Width/2 Width/2 Width/2

Min. 6 6 to 12 12 to 24 Over 24 * Max. 50 *

* For moisture-cured field-moulded sealants, the maximum depth should be 12mm.


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Installation Temperature
Temperature of structural elements at the time of seal installation determines the type of stress on the seal In hot summer day, joint gap between two structural elements - at or near minimum. Seal undergoes extension next winter In cold winter, reverse compression Between 2 extremes, seal under tensile and compressive stresses Install sealants in spring or in fall
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Effect of Stresses
Temperature and field conditions simultaneously place more than 1 type of stresses Winter seal is coldest, hard and least able to accommodate movement May also experience shear stresses upward and downward deflections of concrete slabs under heavy load Stresses increase with time Use low modulus FMS or very flexible preformed seals have good movement capabilities 1-component FMS applied in winter or not???
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Installation Temperature

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EFFECT OF MOISTURE
Moisture major problem to most adhesives Adhesives (epoxy) polar, water diffuses in and swells them
Decrease in bond strength and cohesive failure Design structure or adhesive more hydrophobic
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Surface Preparation
Adequate surface preparation remove dirt and other foreign matter Surface cleaning techniques depend on application- structure vs. highway or new construction vs reseal application
No single technique for all applications

New concrete construction wire brush followed by high-pressure airblast


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Surface preparation
Steel joints fine sandblasting then high pressure air blast Highway joints sawed High-pressure water; wire brushing then high-pressure air blasting Reseal applications difficult to remove old seals. Knife cutting, sand blasting then highpressure air blasting
Best to widen the joint by sawing

Never use solvent, dissolving liquids or heat not good adhesion with concrete
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General comments
Seals must maintain rubber properties Joint seals - capacity to changes in joint dimensions
Seal shape changes but volume remains constant

Must keep proper width-to-depth ratio

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FIELD TESTS Concrete-Concrete Joints(Parking Structure at IREO) Four FMS


Sikaflex 2C (2-comp. PUR) Duoflex (2-comp.PS) NP1 (1-comp.PUR) Dow Corning 888 (1-comp.Silicone)

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FIELD TESTS
Six Preformed Seals
3 Neoprene 2 Foam Type 1 Silicone

Steel-Steel Joints (Bridge with Heavy Traffic)

Same Four FMS Same Six Preformed Seals but with different Dimensions
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Concrete driveway

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Lifting bridge steel joints

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FMS A after one winter

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FMS J after one winter

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Preformed seals M & P after one winter

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Preformed seal Q after one winter

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RESULTS ON FIELD PERFORMANCE Field-molded Sealants


Joint Sealants Concrete Joints Steel Joint
Excellent Bond Excellent Bond Poor Adhesion

Sikaflex 2C (2-comp.) Poor Adhesion Duoflex (2-comp.) NP1 (1-comp.) Very Poor Adhesion Excellent Bond,Extension >300% Excellent Bond,Extension >300%
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Silicone(1-comp.)

Poor Adhesion

RESULTS ON FIELD PERFORMANCE

PREFORMED SEALS
Generally performed well in the field BUT:
Costly Installation techniques difficult; Seal maintenance difficult; and Difficult to replace after a portion of the seal is damaged
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Guidelines - JOINTS
Position of joints (crest, up- and downstreams, road, etc.) Current temperature Cause of joint degradation Objectives of repair Environment (traffic, humid, wetting-drying, freezing-thawing, etc.) Width and depth of joint New joints versus repair/replacement
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Guidelines - GENERAL
Experienced persons Joint conditions (good conditions, dry, remove dust and all other dirt) Primers (compatible with steel and concrete) Installation temperatures (best in spring or fall minimum seasonal movement)
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Guidelines SEALANT APPLICATIONS


Pouring type horizontal joints Non-sag vertical and inclined joints Concave surface (traffic, abrasion) Flush surface (cavitation) Curing
1-component (7 to 72 hrs, final 3 to 21 days) 2-component (6 to 8 hrs. final 3 to 21 days) Temperature Humidity
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Guidelines SPECIFIC
Concrete joints severely deteriorated Concrete joints and sealants deteriorated Concrete joints on top of delicate equipment Asphalt-asphalt or asphalt-concrete joints Steel-steel joints or steel-concrete joints
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Joint and Joint Seal Configurations

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Concrete joint over sensitive equipment

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THANKS ANY QUESTIONS???

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