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CONTENTS

TITLE

PAGE NUMBER

Small Powered Plant

2 - 15

Machineries For Earthwork

16 - 24

Machineries For Transporting Work

25 - 28

Other Types Of Machineries

29 - 30

References

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1.1

CONSTRUCTION PLANT AND MACHINERIES

Figure 1.1(a): Construction of Burj Khalifa

Man as the builder has sought to develop mechanical devices to facilitate his work in adapting the earth to serve the needs and desires of mankind. From the crude construction equipment utilized by ancient people has evolved the modern construction equipment used in buildings today, highways, airports, utility systems, factories, stores and housing. The movement of materials around and between building sites can be very timeconsuming and non-productive; therefore wherever economically possible most contractors will use some form of mechanical transportation.

Construction Machinery are heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently, ones involving earth moving. They are also known as construction equipment, earth movers, heavy equipment or just plain equipment. They usually comprise five equipment systems: implement, traction, structure, power train, control and information.

1.2

SMALL POWERED PLANT

Figure 1.2.3 (a): Cartridge Hammers

Generally, small plant can be considered to be hand-held or operated power tools with their attendant power sources such as compressor for pneumatic tools. Most hand-held power tools are operated by electricity or compressed air either to rotate the tool or drive it by percussion.

Types Of Small Powered Plant :

a) Electric Hand Tool b) Pneumatic Tools c) Cartridge Hammers d) Vibrators e) Power Floats f) Pumps g) Rollers

1.2.1

Electric Hand Tools

Figure 1.2.1 (a): Examples Of Electric Hand Tools

A electric hand tools is a tool powered by an electric motor, an internal combustion engine, a steam engine, compressed air, direct burning of fuels and propellants, or even natural power sources like wind or moving water. Power tools are classified as either stationary or portable, where portable means handheld. The most common hand-held tool is the electric drill for boring holes into timber, masonry and metals using twist drills.

They are used in industry, in construction, and around the house for driving, drilling, cutting, shaping, sanding, grinding, polishing, painting, and heating. Stationary power tools for metalworking are usually called machine tools. The term machine tool is not usually applied to stationary power tools for woodworking, although such usage is occasionally heard, and in some cases, such as drill presses and bench grinders, exactly the same tool is used for both woodworking and metalworking.

1.2.2

Pneumatic Tools

Figure 1.2.2 (a): Examples Of Pneumatic Tools

These tools need a supply of compressed air as their power source and powered by a diesel, petrol or electric motor. One of the most common pneumatic tools used is the breaker which is basically intended for breaking up hard surfaces such as roads.

Other equipments which can be operated by compressed air include vibrators for consolidating concrete, small trench sheeting or sheet pile-driving hammers, concrete spraying equipment, paint sprayers and hand-held rotary tools such as drills, grinders and saws.

Types Of Pneumatic Tools:

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Air impact wrench Air ratchet Airbrush Blow Gun Jackhammer Pneumatic angle grinder Pneumatic drill
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h) i) j) k) l)

Pneumatic jack (device) Pneumatic nail gun sandblaster Paint sprayer Tire Chuck or Inflator

1.2.3

Cartridge Hammers

Figure 1.2.3 (a): Cartridge Hammers

Cartridge Hammers normally used for the quick fixing together of components of for firing into a surface a pin with a threaded head to act as a bolt fixing.

1.2.4

Vibrators

After concrete has been placed it should be consolidated either by hand tamping or by using special vibrators. The power for vibrators can be supplied by a small petrol engine, an electric motor and in some cases by compressed air.

Figure 1.2.4 (a): Poker Vibrator

There were three basic forms of vibrator are used in building works: a) Poker vibrator b) Vibration tampers c) Clamp vibrator

Figure 1.2.4 (b): Poker Vibrator

The function poker vibrator : Immersed into the wet concrete Due to their high rate of vibration they induce the concrete to consolidate.

Figure 1.2.4 (b): Vibration Tampers

The function Vibration tampers : Small vibrating engines which are fixed to the top of a tamping board for consolidating concrete paving and slabs.

Figure 1.1.4 (c): Clamp vibrator

The function of clamp vibrator : Similar devices but are attached to the external sides of formwork to vibrate the whole of the form. Care must be taken when using this type of vibrator to ensure that the formwork has sufficient in-built-strength to resist the load of the concrete and to withstand the vibrations.

1.2.5

Power Floats Power floats is by far the best equipment to use for your concrete floor. This

gives a nice finish to your concrete floor which making the concrete floor surface very hard and very durable. A power floats work is only used for smoothening of the concrete floor but it does not level. This is a machine which is used to bring a shine and hard surface to your concrete floats. The concrete power trowel enables your floor to be finished in a smooth dust free and reasonably durable surface. When using a concrete power trowel you will be able to level off the spots and small holes which might be found on your concrete floor. Some are due to air bubbles and some are due to the hard substance which might be there. But it is necessary to level the floor and lay it before you start using the concrete power trowel. The concrete floor should also be compacted. You should also hand trowel the edges of the concrete floor and the beam creed, straight edges among all the nooks and crannies of your concrete floor. The main joint should also be done by a hand trowel before the use of concrete power trowel.

Figure 1.2.5 (a): Power Floats

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Power floats differ in the way they are controlled: 1. Ride-on power trowels are used by an operator sitting on a seat upon the machinery, controlling the power trowel with the necessary buttons. 2. Walk-behind power trowels are used by an operator walking behind the machine. 3. Hand-operated rotary machines powered by a petrol engine or an electric motor which drives the revolving blades or revolving disc.

1.2.6

Pumps

Figure 1.2.6 (a): vertical centrifugal pump

Among the most important items of small plant for the building contractor since they must be reliable in all conditions, easy to maintain, easily transported and efficient. The basic function of a pump is to move liquids vertically or horizontally or in a combination of the two directions.

Pumps in common use for general building works can be classified as followed: a) Centrifugal Pump b) Displacement Pump c) Submersible Pump
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Figure 1.2.6 (a): Centrifugal Pump

A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of equipment. Its purpose is to convert energy of an electric motor or engine into velocity or kinetic energy and then into pressure of a fluid that is being pumped. The energy changes occur into two main parts of the pump, the impeller and the volute. The impeller is the rotating part that converts driver energy into the kinetic energy. The volute is the stationary part that converts the kinetic energy into pressure.

The pump classed as normal or self-priming. It consist of a rotary impeller which revolves at high speed forcing the water to the sides of the impeller chamber thus creating a vortex which sucks air out of the suction hose. Normal centrifugal pumps are easy to maintain but require priming with water at the commencement of each pumping operation. Normally the pump have a reserved supply of water in the impeller chamber.

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Figure 1.2.6 (b): Displacement Pump

A variable displacement pump is a device that converts mechanical energy to hydraulic (fluid) energy. The displacement, or amount of fluid pumped per revolution of the pump's input shaft can be varied while the pump is running. Many variable displacement pumps are "reversible", meaning that they can act as a hydraulic motor and convert fluid energy into mechanical energy. It is either reciprocating or diaphragm pumps. Normally reciprocating pumps work by the action of a piston or ram moving within a cylinder. The displacement pump can have more than one cylinder, forming what is called a duplex (twocylinder) or triplex (three-cylinder) pump. The advantages of using this type of pump are high efficient and capable of increased capacity with increased engine speed. The disadvantage of using this pump is the pump unable to handle water containing solids. A common variable displacement pump used in vehicle technology is the axial piston pump. This pump has several pistons in cylinders arranged parallel to each other and rotating around a central shaft. A swashplate at one end is connected to the pistons. As the pistons rotate, the angle of the plate causes them to move in and out of their cylinders. A rotary valve at the opposite end from the swashplate alternately
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connects each cylinder to the fluid supply and delivery lines. By changing the angle of the swashplate, the stroke of the pistons can be varied continuously. If the swashplate is perpendicular to the axis of rotation, no fluid will flow. If it is at a sharp angle, a large volume of fluid will be pumped. Some pumps allow the swashplate to be moved in both directions from the zero position, pumping fluid in either direction without reversing the rotation of the pump.

Figure 1.2.6 (b): Submersible Pump

A submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation, a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push fluid to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull fluids. Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps.

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1.2.7

Rollers

Rollers normally designed to consolidate filling materials and to compact the surface finished such as tar macadam for paths and paving. Basically used is a smaller version of the large rollers used by contractors for road works.It was rely upon deadweight to carry out the consolidating operation or by vibration as in the case of lightweight rollers.

Figure 1.1.7 (a): Road Roller

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2.0

MACHINERIES FOR EARTHWORK

Figure 2.0 (a): Earthwork in Cameron Highland

Earthworks are engineering works created through the moving and/or processing of quantities of soil or unformed rock. In order to establish a properly functional road, the terrain must often be adjusted. In many situations, geometric design will often involve minimizing the cost of earthwork movement. Earthwork is expressed in units of volumes (cubic meters in metric). Increases in such volumes require additional trucks (or more runs of the same truck), which cost money. Thus, it is important for designers to engineer roads that require very little earthwork. Normally the process of clearing and grubbing during earthwork are : a) b) c) d) e) removal of trees, shrubs, and other vegetation removing stumps and root mat at least 2 (600mm) below subgrade less removal required for embankment heights > 5 topsoil striping much excavation

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2.1 Types Of Machineries For Earthwork

a) Bulldozer b) Wheel Loader c) Excavator d) Scraper e) Motor Grader f) Roller / Road roller g) Dump Truck

2.1.1

Bulldozer

A bulldozer is a crawler equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble during construction work (earthwork). Bulldozers are large and powerful tracked heavy equipment. It can easily tow the tanks that weigh more than 70 tons. Because of these attributes, bulldozers are used to clear areas of obstacles, large trees, and remains of structures.

Figure 2.1.1 (a): Bulldozer

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2.1.2

Wheel Loader

It is a type of tractor, usually wheeled, sometimes on tracks, that has a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of two booms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the ground, such as dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another without pushing the material across the ground. The wheel loader commonly used to move a stockpiled material from ground level and deposit it into an awaiting dump truck or into an open trench excavation.

Figure 2.1.2 (a): Wheel loader

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2.1.3

Excavator

Hydraulic excavators are the major workhorses on many construction sites. The most common are the standard hydraulic excavators with gooseneck boom, a pivoting dipper stick and a bucket.It been used to excavate a trench for placing a storm water system.The excavator can move under its own power using the tracks mounted on the undercarriage.The operator can rotate the excavator through 360.

Figure 2.1.3 (a): Excavator

The function of an excavator for earthwork are : a) Digging of trenches, holes, foundations b) Material handling c) Forestry work d) General grading/landscaping e) Heavy lift, lifting and placing of pipes (sewer pipe) f) River dredging - relocation of underwater sediments and soils for the construction and maintenance of waterways and transportation infrastructures and for reclamation and soil improvements.

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2.1.4

Scrapers

Figure 2.1.4 (a): Scrapers

A wheel tractor-scraper is a piece of heavy equipment used for earthmoving. The rear part has a vertically moveable hopper (also known as the bowl) with a sharp horizontal front edge. The hopper can be hydraulically lowered and raised. When the hopper is lowered, the front edge cuts into the soil or clay like a plane and fills the hopper. When the hopper is full .It is raised, and closed with a vertical blade (known as the apron). The scraper can transport its load to the fill area where the blade is raised, the back panel of the hopper, or the ejector, is hydraulically pushed forward and the load tumbles out.

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2.1.5

Motor Grader

A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader or a motor grader, is a construction machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface. Typical models have three axles, with the engine and cab situated above the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and a third axle at the front end of the vehicle, with the blade in between. In certain countries, for example in Finland, almost every grader is equipped with a second blade that is placed in front of the front axle.

The function is to "finish grade" (refine, set precisely) the "rough grading" performed by heavy equipment or engineering vehicles such as scrapers and bulldozers.Graders are commonly used in the construction and maintenance of dirt roads and gravel roads. In the construction of paved roads they are used to prepare the base course to create a wide flat surface for the asphalt to be placed on. Graders are also used to set native soil foundation pads to finish grade prior to the construction of large buildings.

Figure 2.1.5 (a): Motor Grader at Gambang, Pahang

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2.1.6

Road Roller

A road roller also referred to as roller-compactor or just roller is a compactor type engineering vehicle employed to compact gravel, soil, concrete, or asphalt in the creation of roads and foundations. Road rollers are also known as steam rollers despite their method of propulsion.

Road Rollers are basically used to compress the surface on which the roller is being rolled. The elasticity of the tyres with a certain amount of vertical movement helps the roller to operate effectively even on an uneven ground. The finish is done via metal-drum rollers to make sure of a smooth, even result. Rollers are employed in landfill compaction. Such compactors are equipped with knobbed wheels and do not have a smooth surface. The knobs help in compression due to the smaller area touching the ground.

Types Of Road Roller :

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Manual walk-behind Powered walk-behind (electric or diesel/gas powered) Vibratory Pneumatic rubber-tired roller Tandem roller Trench roller (manual units or radio-frequency remote control) Ride-on Ride-on with knock-down bar Ride-on articulating-swivel Tractor-mounted and powered

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Figure 2.1.6 (a): Pneumatic rubber-tired roller

Figure 2.1.6 (b): Pneumatic rubber-tired roller

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2.1.7

Dump Truck

A dump truck is a truck used for transporting loose material such as sand, gravel, or dirt for construction. It is used instead of scrapers when the soil is being excavated by loaders. Most of the dump truck can travel over public highways, and move faster than scrapers. A typical dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted up to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK and Australia the term applies to off-road construction plant only, and the road vehicle is known as a tipper, tipper lorry (UK) or tip truck (AU).

Figure 2.1.7 (a): Dump Truck

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3.0`

Machineries Used for Transporting Work

Types Of Road Roller : a) Backhoe b) Tipper Truck c) Forklift truck d) Hoist

3.1

Backhoe

Figure 3.1 (a): Backhoe

A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader

Normally the backhoe is use for the variety of task such as construction, small demolitions and paving roads.The backhoe bucket can also replaced with power attachment breaker, grapple, auger or stump grinder.The design of the backhoe is

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unstable so the backhoe has to be design with hydraulic outriggers only at the back when digging and lower the loader bucket for extra stability.

3.2

Tipper Truck

Figure 3.2 (a): Tipper truck

The tipper truck also known as dump truck is the usually machineries we can see at construction site.It is a truck that used for transporting construction material and loose material such as sand, gravel, or dirt. A typical truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted up to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. The largest of the standard dump trucks is commonly called a "centipede" and has seven axles.

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3.3

Forklift

Figure 3.3 (a): Forklift

Sometimes called a forklift truck, the forklift is a powerful industrial truck that is used to lift and transport material by steel forks that are inserted under the load. Forklifts are commonly used to move loads and equipment that is stored on pallets. The forklift was developed in 1920, and has since become a valuable piece of equipment in many manufacturing and warehousing operations.

The most common type of design with forklifts is the counter balance. Other types of designs include the reach truck and side loader, both of which are used in environments where the space is at a minimum.

Forklifts are available in many types and different load capacities. In the average warehouse setting, most forklifts have load capacities of around five tons. Along with the control to raise and lower the forks, you can also tilt the mast to compensate for the tendency of the load to angle the blades towards the ground and risk slipping it off the forks. The tilt will also provide a limited ability to operate on ground that isn't level.

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3.4

Hoist

Figure 3.4 (a): Hoist

Hoist is a means of transporting material or passengers vertically by means of a moving level platform. Recent designs have been orientated towards the combined materials/passenger hoist.

Materials hoists come in basically two forms, namely the static and mobile models. The static version consists of a mast or tower with the lift platform, either cantilevered from the small section mast or centrally suspended with guides on either side, within an enclosing tower. Mobile hoists should be positioned on a firm level base and jacked to ensure stability. The operation of a materials hoist should be entrusted to a trained driver who has a clear view from the operating position. Figure 1.8 shows a type of crane namely wheel mounted crane.

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4.0

Other Types Of Machineries

Types of Machineries : a) Welding Set b) Compresser

4.1

Welding Set

Figure 4.1 (a): Welding Set

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. Welding is always use in mechanical work such as weld the steel windows frame. A welding power supply is a device that provides an electric current and gas to perform welding. Welding usually requires high current (over 80 amperes) and it can need above 12,000 amperes in spot welding. Low current can also be used. Welding two razor blades together at 5 amps with gas tungsten arc welding is a good example. A welding power supply can be as simple as a car battery and as sophisticated as a modern machine based on silicon controlled rectifier technology with additional logic to assist in the welding process.
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4.2

Compressor

Figure 4.1 (a): Welding Set

A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressors are similar to pumps which are both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids. It always use in time of use the air compress tool such as nail gun that want the high pressure of air to be use. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids.

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5.0

REFERENCES

Books 1. Teknologi Binaan Bangunan, Tan Boon Tong, B.Sc. (University of Wisconsin) 2. Hunker, Henry L. (2000). Columbus, Ohio: A Personal Geography. Ohio State University

Websites 1. enlist.eil.co.in/pdd/cons/Annexure-III.pdf 2. www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/ConstructionMgt/.../EarthworkI.pdf 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_compressor 4. http://www.gnpgeo.com.my/download/spec/UnderDev/DSP%20019.pdf

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