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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture

Organizational Behavior
&
Organizational Culture

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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture

Q.1 Why should every Manager study the discipline of OB? Elaborate
the importance of OB

Ans. Organizational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge


about how people act within organizations. It is a human tool for the human
benefit. It applies broadly to the behaviour of people in all types of
organizations such as business, government, schools etc. it helps people,
structure, technology, and the external environment blend together into an
effective operative system.

According to Fred Luthans im organizational behavior as “understanding,


predicting and controlling human behaviour at work”.

Every discipline of study has certain set of fundamental concepts. The


discipline of organizational behaviour has fundamental concepts revolving
round the nature of people and the nature of the organization, which is
essential for the manager to study to understand and control the behaviour
of the subordinates at work.

The concepts dealing with the nature of individual are four there are:

i) Individual differences;
ii) Whole person;
iii) Motivation i.e., caused behaviour,
iv) Human dignity.

Individual Differences

In spite of all the human being similar every one is different. Every one has
a different gift of the nature; different quality of intelligence, different
perception and the different ways of behaviour. The concept tells that every
person is an entity in him. When it comes to human behaviour there cannot
be a prescriptive solution. Every individual is to be treated differently, even
though two persons may have the same behavioural problems. The concept
also tells the manager that he had better be aware of his own stereotypes. A
stereotype is a tendency to attribute the traits of a group to an individual
because he belongs to the said group. This concept, therefore, not only tells
that a manager should treat every person as an entity in himself but he
should also examine his own stereotype.

Whole Person

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In the olden days employees were referred to as “hands”, implying that the
organization hires only the hands of man. Nothing can be farther from the
truth. An organization hires not only the hands of an employee but hires a
complete men with all his pluses and minuses. At the same since a person
performs many roles at the same time the happenings in one role are bound
to affect the behaviour in other roles of the person. The concept tells the
manager than when it comes to behavioural problems, he must also take into
account the other roles of the person. If the whole person is to be developed
then only the benefits will extend beyond the organization to the entire
society, in which the employee lives.

Motivation

The concept reminds the manager of Newton’s Third Law i.e., for every
action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means the way the
manager deals with his employees, the employees also deals in a particular
way. For e.g. if a manager is respectful to his employees they are bound to
be respectful to him not otherwise. This is rather applicable not only in the
organization but also applies everywhere hence, manager or any other
person should deal with the other persons in a good manner so that they will
also receive same time of behaviour from others.

Human Dignity

This concept is of a different order from the other three because it is more an
ethical philosophy than a scientific conclusion. It confirms that people are to
be treated differently from other factors of production. Because they are of a
higher order, they want to be treated with respect and dignity. When every
one, the employee, the manager as the CEO of an organization are engaged
in the same pursuit. The pursuit of enabling their organization to achieve the
objections for it has come in existence. Thus they are on the equal footing.
The concept tells that very person should be respected simply because he
happens to be an employee just as the manager is.

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Q. 5 What are intrapersonal conflicts? Define and discuss some


various styles adopted to manage these conflicts.

Ans. Conflict occurs when parties disagree over substantive issues or when
emotional antagonisms create friction between them. Conflict in the work
place has two basic forms, substantive conflict and emotional conflict.
Substantive conflict involves fundamental disagreement over ends or goals
to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. Emotional conflict
involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust,
dislike, fear, resentment, and the like.

There are four levels of conflict which arise in the workplace, intrapersonal
conflicts, interpersonal conflicts, intergroup conflicts, and interorganizational
conflicts. Intrapersonal conflicts occur within the individual because of actual
or perceived pressures from incompatible goals or expectations. There are
three types of conflict within the intrapersonal conflict.

Approach-approach conflict -- occurs when a person must choose between


two positive and equally attractive alternatives. For example A person
receiving two good job offers and he has to make a choice of the two.

Avoidance-avoidance conflict -- occurs when a person must choose between


two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. For example A prisoner
continuing in the jail is negative but at the same time if he jail breaks there is
a likelihood of his getting caught and increase in the punishment. He detests
both but he has to choose either.

Approach-avoidance conflict -- occurs when a person must decide to do


something that has both positive and negative consequences. For example
A person wanting a promotion but not the transfer that comes in its wake
faces this kind of conflict.

Frustration occurs when need fulfillment is continually blocked or when one’s


self image is in jeopardy. Defense mechanisms are the behaviours occurring
to deal with frustration. Before we go to discuss various defense
mechanisms the following points be noted:

a) We are discussing only some of the defense mechanisms we come across


commonly at the work life.
b) Defense mechanisms are unconscious behaviours. These behaviours are
not deliberate behaviours. They just occur.

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c) It is only for the sake of simplicity that they discussed separately. In life
there could be a mixture of different defense mechanisms in one
behaviour.
d) In life there is no prioritizing when it comes to defense mechanisms for
dealing with frustration.
e) These defense mechanisms serve an important function of keeping the
human personality integrated.

Styles adopted to manage the Conflicts

Individuals manage their conflicts depending on how the perceive it. What
they do in a conflict situation is a function of various aspects.

- Personality of the individuals; passive, aggressive or assertive.


- Situation – Favorable or Unfavorable
- The strength of the other party.
- Stakes involved – Concern for self interests or interests of others.
- Attitude – Positive or Negative

Although an individual may have a natural tendency towards one or two


styles, he may use all of them as the above factors change.

There are five basic styles of managing the conflicts used by individuals –
a. Competing style – It refers to assertive and uncooperative
behaviors and represents a WIN –LOSE approach to interpersonal
conflict. Those ho use this style try to achieve their own goals
without concern for others. It includes coercion and dominance.
These individuals assume that conflict resolution means one
person wins and the other person looses. This style by manager
may lead to demotivation of subordinates. Thrusting decisions
will also mean lower commitment by others in its execution.
However competing style becomes necessary some times, for
situations like
 When emergencies require quick action.
 Unpopular courses of action must be taken for long-term
organizational effectiveness.
 When professional stakes are very high and you cannot get
a group to agree on one thing.

b. Accomdating style – It refers to cooperative and unassertive


behaviours. It is a LOSE – WIN approach. Accomodation may
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represent an unselfish act, a long term atrategy to encourage
cooperation by others, or a submission to the wishes of others.
Others typically evaluate individuals

1.
2. Rationalization is giving pseudo justification to explain one’s failures. The
common examples are sour grapes or a bad workman quarreling with his
tools.

3. Regression is sliding back in terms of one’s chronological age. Certain


patterns of behaviours are learnt during the childhood that are
subsequently, in the adult age, replaced by the behaviours acceptable by
the society. At an unguarded moment, in the adulthood, in the flush of
emotions, however, these childhood behaviours take charge of the
personality of the person. A superior getting angry with his subordinate
and throwing files at him or a person throwing a pen because of the ink
not flowing, are the examples of this defense mechanism.

4. Aggression is also known as emotional transference. This is giving vent to


the pent up feelings by an offensive behaviour towards a third object or a
person unconnected with the source of frustration. The offensive
behaviour is, almost always, against the third object or the person that
cannot retaliate. A superior scolding his subordinate because of
something happening at home is the example of this defense mechanism.

5. Fantasy is building castles in the air with a view to escaping form the
problem situation. Fantasy is temporarily removing one self, mentally,
from the problem situation and losing oneself in the imaginary world
where things happen at his behest. As long as a person is in his
imaginary castle he is happy but some time or the other he has to come
down to the mother earth. When he comes out of the imaginary world the
problem starts pinching him again. The increased frequency of
fantasizing is a signal that one had better seek some help from a
psychiatrist.

6. Resignation, flight or withdrawal is a complete surrender to the problem


situation. This is accepting a situation and ceasing any effort to deal with
the problem.

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Q. 7 Short Note on Job Content and Job Context?

Ans. Motivation-Hygiene Theory ( Two Factor Theory)

The motivation of employees is important to organizations since it is one of


several factors that significantly affect the productivity of employees. Raising
the level of motivation increases profitability through greater creativity and
commitment in employees. Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, also known as the
Motivation-Hygiene Theory, was derived from a study designed to test the
concept that people have two sets of needs:
.
1. Their needs as animals to avoid pain
2. Their needs as humans to grow psychologically

Herzberg's Study

Herzberg's study consisted of a series of interviews that sought to elicit


responses to the questions:
(1) Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good about your job. Why
did you feel that way about the job? Did this feeling affect your job
performance in any way? Did this feeling have an impact on your
personal relationships or your well- being?

(2) Recall a time on the job that resulted in negative feelings? Describe
the sequence of events that resulted in these negative feelings.

Research Results
It appeared, from the research, that the things making people happy on the
job and those making them unhappy had two separate themes.

Satisfaction (Motivation)
Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job satisfaction:
• achievement

• recognition

• work itself

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• responsibility

• advancement
The last three factors were found to be most important for bringing about
lasting changes of attitude. It should be noted, that recognition refers to
recognition for achievement as opposed to recognition in the human
relations sense.

DISSATISFACTION (HYGIENE)

The determinants of job dissatisfaction were found to be:


• company policy

• administrative policies

• supervision

• salary

• interpersonal relations

• working conditions

It appears that the central theme of the satisfiers (also called motivators) is
one having to do with the relationship the employee has with his or her job;
job content. The theme of the dissatisfiers appears to be related to the
environment or context of the job. These dissatisfiers seem to have little
effect on positive job attitudes (in some of the literature, these dissatisfiers
were called hygiene or maintenance factors).

Two Dimensions

At the psychological level, the two dimensions of job attitudes appear to


reflect a two-dimensional need structure:
one need structure for the avoidance of unpleasantness, and

a parallel need system for personal growth


For Herzberg, motivation results from personal growth and is based on an
innate need to grow. In other words, people find satisfaction in work that is
interesting and challenging. A desire to fulfill our potential drives us to seek
growth and provides the incentive to achieve.

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According to Herzberg, the idea that the work one does is significant leads,
ultimately, to satisfaction with the work itself. Employees will be motivated to
do work that they perceive to be significant.

From a philosophical perspective, it is Herzberg's position that it is the


responsibility of society's dominant institutions to provide for the growth and
well being of people. In our society, one such dominant organization is the
business institution. Therefore it is the responsibility of business and industry
to provide the means for growth and self actualization (see Maslow).

Herzberg's theory thus posits that there are two classes of factors that
influence employee motivation; intrinsic factors and the extrinsic factors.

The intrinsic factors were also called the motivator factors and were related
to job satisfaction. The extrinsic factors were called hygiene factors and were
related to job dissatisfaction.

Motivators (intrinsic factors) led to job satisfaction because of a need for


growth and self actualization, and hygiene (extrinsic) factors led to job
dissatisfaction because of a need to avoid unpleasantness.

The negative or positive KITA or "kick in the a**" approach to employee


motivation yields short-range results, but rarely generates any actual
motivation. In fact, to call it an "approach to motivation" is to clearly
misunderstand motivation as Herzberg understood it. KITA yields movement
-- the avoidance of pain -- not motivation.
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Positive KITA, in the form of raises and incentives reduces time spent at
work, inflates wages and benefits, and overemphasizes human relations.

K-I-T-A techniques fail to instill self-generating motivation in workers. Job


content factors, such as achievement and responsibility, are motivators,
while job environment factors are hygiene or KITA factors. Motivators are the
key to satisfaction.

HERZBERG APPLIED

In an era of increasing competition, it is important for organizations to


effectively utilize all available resources; including human resources.

In the workplace, the motivation of employees is important to the


organization as it is one of the variables that affects the employee
productivity.

Fundamental to Herzberg's position is the notion that motivation is a result of


personal growth and is based on an innate need to grow. What this means is
that people find satisfaction in work that is interesting and challenging.

JOB ENRICHMENT: The idea of job enrichment is probably the most significant
contribution of Herzberg's theory. Meaningful tasks allow for growth, and job
enrichment is a relatively simple method for facilitating this growth:
• adding different tasks to a job to provide greater involvement
and interaction with the task.
Adding tasks can raise the level of challenge in any particular job to a level
commensurate with the abilities of an employee. It might be argued that, if a
job can not be enriched and it is not challenging to the person in that
position, then that person ought to be replaced by someone who will find the
job challenging.

JOB LOADING: There are two forms of job loading.


• Horizontal job loading: adding tasks to a job but not adding any
responsibility or challenge -- the meaningless of the job is simply
increased. Horizontal loading ought to be avoided!

• Vertical job loading: adding meaningful tasks that will lead to


growth -- additional tasks that permit growth and provide
motivating factors.

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It is the responsibility of management to create an environment that
encourages employee growth and self actualization...

By providing motivators and removing hygienes, management can facilitate


the growth of employees. This is essential to both the individual and the
organization. Growth makes the employee more valuable to the organization
because of his/her ability to perform higher order duties.

Q. 8 What do you understand by Personality? What are the factors


affecting Personality.

Ans. The word “personality” has been traced back by etymologists to the
Latin word “per” and “sonare”. The term “Per Sonare” means, “to sound
through.” The word persona derives from these two words and originally
meant an actor’s mask, through which the sound of his voice was projected.
Later persona was used, to mean not the mask itself but the false
appearance, which the mask created. Still later it came to mean the
characters in the play (dramatics personae).

Behavior involves a complex set of interactions of the person and the


situation. Events in the surrounding environment strongly influence the way
people behave at any particular time; yet always bring something of their
own to the situation. This “something”, which is unique is what is personality.

The different factors affecting personality can be classified under the


following heads –
1. Biological
2. Cultural
3. Familial
4. Situation

Biological factors can be further braked up in to


a. The heredity
b. The Brain
c. Physical Features

Cultural factors - Culture is considered as the major determination of an


individual’s personality. The culture largely determines what a person is and
what a person will learn. The culture within which a person is brought up is a
very important determinant of behavior of a person.
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The personality of an individual, to a marked extent is determined by the


culture in which he is brought up. According to Mussen – “each expects and
trains its members to behave in the ways that they are acceptable to the
group”. In spite of the importance of the culture on personality, researchers
are unable to establish correlation between these two concepts of
personality ad culture.

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Q. 9 What is perception? Discuss factors affecting Perception.

Ans. Perception is the process of receiving, selecting, organizing,


interpreting, checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data. The brain
transforms sensory messages into conscious perceptions almost instantly
Chaotic, collective activity involving millions of neurons seems essential for
such rapid recognition. When a person glimpses the face of a famous actor,
sniffs a favorite food or hears the voice of a friend, recognition is instant.
Within a fraction of a second after the eyes, nose, ears, tongue or skin is
stimulated, one knows the object is familiar and whether it is desirable or
dangerous. How does such recognition, which psychologists call pre attentive
perception, happen so accurately and quickly, even when the stimuli are
complex and the context in which they arise varies?

Kolasa defines perception as the “selection and organization of material


which stems from the outside environment at one time or the other to
provide the meaningful entity we experience.”

Perception involves five sub-processes. They are stimulus, registration,


interpretation, feedback and consequence.

Perception initiates with the presence of a stimulus situation. In


organizational settings the superior forms the stimulus situation for the
subordinate’s perceptual process.

Registration involves the physiological mechanism including both sensory


and neural. Obviously, an individual’s physiological ability to hear and see
influence his perception.

Interpretation is a highly crucial sub-process. Other psychological processes


assist in perceptual interpretation. For instance, in work settings, his
motivation, personality and learning process determines an individual’s
interpretation of a stimulus situation.

Feedback is important for interpreting the perceptual event data. In work


settings, the psychological feedback that is likely to affect a subordinate’s
perception may be in the form of a variation in the behaviour of superior.

Perception ends in reaction or response, which may be in the overt or covert


form. As a consequence of perception, an individual responds to work
demands. These sub-processes indicate the complexity of perception.

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Some of the factors that attract attention lie in the situations and some are
within the individual. The factors that are in the situations are called
‘external attentions factors’ and those factors that are within an individual
are called ‘internal set factors’.

External Attention Factors

i) Intensity
ii) Size
iii) Contrast
iv) Repetition
v) Motion
vi) Novelty and familiarity

Intensity

The intensity of stimulus implies that the more intense the stimulus audio or
visual, the more is the likelihood it will be perceived. A loud noise, strong
odour or bright light or bright colours will be more readily perceived than soft
sound, weak odour or dim light. It is because of this advantage that
advertisers employ intensity to draw the consumers’ attention.

Size

As regards the size of the stimulus, any odd size attracts attention. A great
den dog which is tall attracts the attention. At the same time a pocket dog
also attracts attention because of its size. However, generally the larger the
object the more likely it will be perceived. The amount of attention enhances
with the size of the newspaper advertisement exposed to the individuals,
although the increase in attention may not be directly proportional to the
increase in size.

Contrast

The contrast principle states that external stimuli, which stand out against
the background or which, are not what the people expect will receive
attention. Plant safety signs, which have black lettering on a yellow
background or white lettering on a red background, are attentions getting.

Any change in the accustomed atmosphere attracts attraction. Thus if one


or more of the machines should come suddenly to a halt, the supervisor
would immediately notice the difference in noise level. Also a person who
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has fallen asleep in a bus because of the drone of the engine wakes up
immediately the engine stops.

Repetition

The factor of repetition implies that a repeated external stimulus attracts


more attention than the one that occurs at one time alone. Perhaps, it is
because of this that supervisors tend to repeat directions regarding job
instructions several times for even simple tasks to hold the attention of their
workers. Advertisers while putting T.V. or radio advertisements repeat the
brand name they are advertising.

Motion

The factor of motion implies that the individual attend to changing objects in
their field of vision than to static objects. It is because of this advantage that
advertisers involve signs, which include moving objects in their campaigns.
At an unconscious level the animals in the jungles make use of this principle.
A tiger lying in wait is motionless until his prey is nearer him and then jumps
at an appropriate moment.

Novelty and familiarity

A novel object in the familiar situation or a familiar object in a novel situation


tends to attract attention. Thus a white person or a black person in India
catches attention faster.

Job rotation is an example of this principle. Recent research indicates that


job rotation not only increased attention but also employees’ acquisition of
new skills.

Internal Set Factors

i) Habit
ii) Motivation and interest
iii) Learning
iv) Organizational role and specialization

Habit

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A Hindu will bow and do Namaskar when he sees a temple while walking on
road, because of his well-established habit. The motor set may cause the
likelihood of inappropriate responses. These are several instances in life
settings where individuals tend to react with the right response to the wrong
signals. Thus a retired soldier may throw himself on the ground when he
hears a sudden burst of car tyre.

Motivation and interest

Two examples of motivational factors are hunger and thirst. Motivational


factors increase the individual’s sensitivity to those stimuli which he
considers as relevant to the satisfaction of his needs in view of his past
experience with them.

A thirsty individual has a perceptual set to seek a water fountain or a hotel to


quench his thirst, which increases for him the likelihood of perceiving
restaurant signs and decreases the likelihood of visualizing other objects at
that moment in time.

A worker who has a strong need for affiliation, when walks into the
lunchroom, the table where several coworkers are sitting tends to be
perceived and the empty table or the table where only one person is sitting
will attract no attention.

Learning and Perception

The process of learning plays a crucial role even in primitive organization.


However, it should be recognized that the role of learning is more
pronounced in respect of complex forms of perception where the symbolic
content creeps into the process. Although interrelated with motivation and
personality, learning may play the single biggest role in developing
perceptual set.

Organizational role or the specialization

The modern organizations value specialization. Consequently the speciality


of a person that casts him in a particular organizational role predisposes him
to select certain stimuli and to disregard others. Thus in a lengthy report a
departmental head will first notice the text relating to his department.

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Q. 10 Elaborate on any three theories of Leadership.

Ans. Since leadership makes the difference between the success and th
efailure, for a long time, thinkers were trying if leadership success could be
predicted. They were also trying to find out as to whst makes a leader.

Interaction and Social Learning Theories


Another set of leadership theories concern both the nature of the leader’s
interaction with followers and with the needs and characteristics of the
followers. The leader-follower relationship is the key. Below are some
examples.
Leader-role theory: The nature of the individual and the demands of the
situation permit only a few individuals to be successful as leaders or even to
be selected as leaders. For example, the leader is expected to play a role
that is different from that of the other members of the group. Some have
defined this as the role expectations of the leader. Another set of beliefs
holds that what is defined in the role is not the leadership manifested. That is
only what the leader is supposed to do. Leadership can be seen not in the
role but in the discretionary activities the leader does beyond the simple role
expectations.
As a sidelight that I view as important, Homans (1950) argued that
leadership was a part of an organization and not confined to one individual.
His focus was on the status accorded individuals. The more status we have in
a group, the more that our individuals norms will conform to the group
norms; the higher the status we have in a group, the wider would be our
range of interactions within the group and the more often we will initiate
interactions. This work has implications for the last unit we will discuss—self-
organizing systems.
Attainment theories: What influences which leaders emerge in a
group? The theories that seek to answer this question are mainly structural
theories, e.g. they depend upon the structure of the group to explain why
certain leaders emerge. You can this of this as a sort of “structural
determinism.” Bass and Stogdill write:” The probability of the success of an
attempted act of leadership is a function of the member’s perceptions of
their freedom to accept or reject the suggested structure. Another was to
explain this is that the leader emerges who is best able to help the group
achieve its goals and accomplish its tasks.
House’s famous “path-goal” theory is such an approach. House
argued that the leader clarifies the goals of followers and helps them see the
path to attainment. The leader shows the followers where the rewards lie as
part of this goal clarification.
Fiedler also had a theory about leadership that was popular. Fielder
said that the effectiveness of the task or relation oriented leader was
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contingent upon the demands of the situation. Hence, leadership is
contingent upon the situation. Thus, a military leader facing a military crisis
will be a different leader than a college department chair faced with business
as usual.
Vertical-Dyadic Linkage: Most leadership theories examining
interactions hold that all leaders treat all followers more or less equally. This
theory (Graen, 1976) holds that the leader behaves differently with each
follower. Graen said that leaders categorize individuals as belonging to an in-
group or an out groupIn-group members are allowed to be more independent
of leaders scrutiny but they also receive more attention and recognition. As a
consequence they perform better than out-group members. While this
research has been received critically, it is a concept that may have great utility
in educational organizational settings.
Exchange Theory: These theories hold that individuals make
contributions at some cost to themselves and receive benefits at a cost to
the group. Interactions continue because individuals find some benefit to a
mutually rewarding social exchange. Lau (1964) was a leading proponent of
this theory (a theory based in economic reasoning). For example, most
people consider being awarded a leadership position a reward; most people
think it is also rewarding to be associated with high status leaders. Leaders
retain and replenish power by providing valuable services to the group. The
group provides the leader with status and esteem in return for help in
attaining the group’s goals.

Humanistic Theories

When the leader understands her role as that of providing freedom for
individuals to actualize their individual potentials and to be fulfilled as
working human beings, she is fitting her thinking under a humanistic
leadership label. Humanistic theories arise from a social-psychological
foundation of democratic and individualistic values. McGregor, Argyris, Likert,
Blake and Mouton, Maslow, Hersey and Blanchard are all scholars who wrote
from a humanistic perspective that saw the development of the individual as
one of the key functions of a leader. McGregor, for example, was the inventor
of Theory X and Theory Y.Theory X holds that people are not motivated and
must be whipped and forced to work. Theory Y holds that people are
intrinsically motivated and the leader needs to harness this pre-existing
motivation to accept responsibility.

Great Man Theories

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We tend to subscribe to great man theories. Moses led the Jews from
bondage. Churchill led us through WWII. Lenin was responsible for the
Russian Revolution. William James held that changes in society were due to
great men. Lincoln is one example. The great man theories are still popular.
We have testimonial literature about companies turned around by great
leaders like Lee Iacocca. MacArthur is seen as a leader who led us to victory
in WWII.JFK is revered as a great leader. MLKing is another. What is it about
these figures that makes them great leaders? Woods (1913) argued that
inheritance was key, a genetic argument. Wiggam (1931) said that the
survival of the fittest and marriage with the right connections led to an
aristocracy of leadership.

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Q. 11 Describe the stress management strategies adopted by the


individuals and the organizations

Ans. Stress is a term used to describe the body and mind's reaction to
everyday tensions and pressures. Too much stress can increase pain, and can
make a person more prone to illnesses such as heart disease or mental
problems.

Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our
continually changing environment; it has physical and emotional effects on
us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress
can help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an
exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of
distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health
problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high
blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. With the death of a loved one, the
birth of a child, a job promotion, or a new relationship, we experience stress
as we readjust our lives. In so adjusting to different circumstances, stress will
help or hinder us depending on how we react to it.
`
How Can I Eliminate Stress from My Life?

As we have seen, positive stress adds anticipation and excitement to life,


and we all thrive under a certain amount of stress. Deadlines, competitions,
confrontations, and even our frustrations and sorrows add depth and
enrichment to our lives. Our goal is not to eliminate stress but to learn how
to manage it and how to use it to help us. Insufficient stress acts as a
depressant and may leave us feeling bored or dejected; on the other hand,
excessive stress may leave us feeling "tied up in knots." What we need to do
is find the optimal level of stress, which will individually motivate but not
overwhelm each of us.

How Can I Tell What is Optimal Stress for Me?

There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. We are all
individual creatures with unique requirements. As such, what is distressing to
one may be a joy to another. And even when we agree that a particular
event is distressing, we are likely to differ in our physiological and
psychological responses to it.

The person who loves to arbitrate disputes and moves from job site to job
site would be stressed in a job which was stable and routine, whereas the
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person who thrives under stable conditions would very likely be stressed on a
job wher duties were highly varied. Also, our personal stress requirements
and the amount which we can tolerate before we become distressed changes
with our ages.

It has been found that most illness is related to unrelieved stress. If you are
experiencing stress symptoms, you have gone beyond your optimal stress
level; you need to reduce the stress in your life and/or improve your ability to
manage it.

How Can I Manage Stress Better?

Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on our lives is not
sufficient for reducing its harmful effects. Just as there are many sources of
stress, there are many possibilities for its management. However, all require
work toward change: changing the source of stress and/or changing your
reaction to it. How do you proceed?
1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical
reactions.

Notice your distress. Don't ignore it. Don't gloss over your problems.

Determine what events distress you. What are you telling yourself about
meaning of these events?

Determine how your body responds to the stress. Do you become nervous
or physically upset? If so, in what specific ways?

2. Recognize what you can change.

Can you change your stressors by avoiding or eliminating them


completely?

Can you reduce their intensity (manage them over a period of time
instead of on a daily or weekly basis)?

Can you shorten your exposure to stress (take a break, leave the physical
premises)?
Can you devote the time and energy necessary to making a change (goal
setting, time management techniques, and delayed gratification
strategies may be helpful here)?

3. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress.

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The stress reaction is triggered by your perception of danger...physical
danger and/or emotional danger. Are you viewing your stressors in
exaggerated terms and/or taking a difficult situation and making it a
disaster? Are you expecting to please everyone?

Are you overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent?
Do you feel you must always prevail in every situation?

Work at adopting more moderate views; try to see the stress as


something you can cope with rather than something that overpowers you.

Try to temper your excess emotions. Put the situation in perspective. Do


not labor on the negative aspects and the " what if's."

4. Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress.


Slow, deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to
normal.

Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension. Electronic biofeedback


can help you gain voluntary control over such things as muscle tension,
heart reate, and blood pressure.
Medications, when prescribed by a physician, can help in the short term in
moderating your physical reactions. However, they alone are not the
answer. Learning to moderate these reactions on your own is a preferable
long-term solution.

5. Build your physical reserves.

Exercise for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate,


prolonger rythmic exercise is best, such as walking, swimming, cycling, or
jogging). Eat well-balanced, nutritious meals.

Maintain your ideal weight.

Avoid nicotine, excessive caffeine, and other stimulants.

Mix leisure with work. Take breaks and get away when you can.

Get enough sleep. Be as consistent with your sleep schedule as possible.

6. Maintain your emotional reserves.

Develop some mutaully supportive friendships/relationships.


Pursue realistic goals which are meaningful to you, rather than goals
others have for you that you do not share. Expect some frustrations,

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failures, and sorrows. Always be kind and gentle with yourself -- be a
friend to yourself.

Manage stress

Signs and symptoms of stress


Managing stress begins with learning the signs and symptoms of stress.
• Tiredness/exhaustion
• Muscle tension
• Anxiety
• Indigestion
• Nervousness/trembling
• Sleeplessness
• Cold, sweaty hands
• Loss of or increased appetite

• Grinding teeth/clenching jaws


• General body complaints, such as weakness, dizziness, headache,
stomachache, or pain in the back or muscles.

It's possible that some of these symptoms may be caused by problems other
than stress, such as the flu. Ask your doctor about symptoms that last for
more than a week. If your doctor decides that stress is the problem, you can
work together to understand and relieve it.

Make stress work for you


The key to managing stress is to get stress to work for you instead of against
you. A complete program for managing stress has three parts:

1. Learn how to reduce stress.


2. Learn how to accept what you can't change.
3. Learn how to overcome the harmful effects of stress.

Suggestions for following these guidelines are described in the following


pages.

Usually feeling depressed depends on how you deal with events in your life,
whether they are real or imagined. If you believe you're a helpless victim of
depression, you probably won't do anything to overcome it. Here are some
tips to help you manage depression:
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• Realize that you are responsible for how you feel. If you are aware that
your state of mind is up to you, then you are more likely to take an
active approach to improving your mood.
• Take care of yourself. You're special--so pamper yourself. Try something
good to eat, take a leisurely bath, or buy something nice for yourself.
• Be a "doer." When you're sad or lonely, go to an event. Get involved in
neighborhood or volunteer organizations. Don't forget the joy of giving.
• Find new activities to replace old ones so you can continue to grow and
develop. Discover new creative outlets, such as hobbies, skills or
interests.
• Remember that it's all right to cry. A good cry can be a healthy way to
relieve tension.
• Keep in touch with family and friends, by phone if you can't get out.
Don't let your arthritis set you apart from others.
• Try to discover what set off your depression and learn to avoid those
events in the future.
• Be alert for signs of depression that last for more than two weeks. If
you continue to have signs such as eating or sleeping too much or too
little, or feeling hopeless, forgetful, restless, or more tired than usual,
tell your doctor. Sometimes this type of depression is caused by a
change or an imbalance in the body's chemistry. Often certain drugs
can correct such an imbalance.

Simplify your life


Look at your activities. Decide which ones are most valuable and omit those
that aren't. Many tasks or chores may seem necessary. But are they? They
may be important only in your mind. Your family and friends enjoy you more
when you're rested and healthy. Therefore, don't get worn out trying to do
too much. Instead, do a few things well.
In addition, ask for help when you need it, and accept it gratefully. You may
also use aids and devices to make your everyday tasks easier.

Manage time and conserve energy


When you usually have pain and limited energy, it's natural to work harder
on days you feel well. Instead of getting worn out trying to do everything,
organize each day the night before or in the morning. Plan to do the most
stressful or hardest task early in the day. Schedule rest periods, and
remember to take them before you get worn out. Pace your activities by
doing a heavy task and then light ones. Don't try to do too many heavy
chores in one day.

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Set goals
Goals give you something to work for, and they give you satisfaction once
you achieve them. Set short-term, achievable goals, taking one day at a
time. Remember to include hobbies and friends. Because of the uncertainty
of your arthritis, be flexible about the time needed to complete a goal. Take
some time to think about your long-term goals. How has your life changed
since you last thought about your goals? Has your arthritis affected them?
What is most important to you now? What do you want to achieve?

Avoid drugs and alcohol


Realize that drugs and alcohol don't solve life's problems. When people who
smoke are under stress, they tend to smoke more. Some people use alcohol,
marijuana, or other drugs in an attempt to solve or to escape from life's
problems. These substances can only add to your health problems. They
don't help you manage stress. In fact, in the long run they can increase your
stress. Instead, see a mental health counselor or ask your community health
service or hospital about programs offered in stress management.

Seek support and education


Most Arthritis Foundation chapters have clubs and support groups. Many
chapters offer educational programs such as the Arthritis Self Help Course,
which meets for two hours each week for six weeks. The course emphasizes
many topics, including stress and pain management. These groups can allow
you to discuss problems or concerns with people who have similar ones.
Sharing will help you realize that you are not alone.

Try to stay healthy


Remember that having arthritis is only one part of your total health picture.
Sometimes people feel so overwhelmed trying to manage their arthritis that
they forget about the rest of their health.
You control your diet, weight, exercise, and attitude, for example. By
becoming as physically and mentally fit as possible, you can improve your
energy, state of mind, and your level of stress.
Make time for humor and fun

Schedule time for play and become involved in activities that make you
laugh. There is almost a magical quality about laughter. No matter how sad
your mood, laughing can make the world look brighter. Laughter dissolves
tension--you can't be "uptight" and laugh at the same time! Joke with friends
or see a funny movie. You know yourself--do what is fun for you.

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Seek help if you need it
Get help to cope with constant, hard-to-solve problems. For instance, a
mental health counselor or therapist may be able to help you work through a
serious marital problem or severe depression. He or she might be able to
help you find positive ways to express anger, if that has become a major
concern.

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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture

Q. 12 “Organizational Change is a complex phenomenon involving


considerable diligence on the part of Management – to deal with
Resistance to change as well as to introduce the change” – Discuss.

Ans. We recognise that organisational change is essential and, like


continuous improvement and learning, change management must be part of
the organisation's culture. Without continuous organisational change
organisational success cannot be maintained.

Organisational Change Principles

1. Honesty is critical during organisational change


2. Without knowledge of organisational change aims people cannot
participate
3. Organisational change is unsettling for most people
4. When people participate in defining organisational change objectives
the more they will be committed to getting results
5. People value recognition for their change management endeavours
more than material rewards
6. Traditional cultures do not recognise or respect mature individuality yet
change management expects people to behave like adults
7. Organisational change cannot be effective without the full commitment
of every person involved or affected by the change
8. It is people's behaviour during organisational change linked to clearly
defined values that promotes trust during the change management
process
9. Team working and inter-personal relationship are fundamental if the
change management process is to be successful
10.For unity to be maintained throughout the change management
process people need a clearly defined role and a shared vision of the
change aim
11.Organisational change is more effective when people are empowered
and given the time needed to implement quality into the change
process
12.Organisational change needs individual behaviour and attitude change
13.To achieve individual behaviour and attitude change first the
organisational change of culture and systems
14.The change management process must inspire and motivate people if
it does then organisational change will enhance productivity

How to manage organizational change

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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture
The key to effective organisational change flows from the sound
management of the processes for cultural change, strategic and business
planning, role and process design, management development and
performance management.

Therefore before embarking upon organisational change first review the


quality and effectiveness of what you currently have in place, and then
design a change management programme that is tailored specifically for
you. Ideally an organisational change programme contains only those new
processes or improvements to existing processes that are shown to be
necessary. The change management process should ensure that not only has
effective organisational change been achieved but that a change
management culture has been created.

The following represents a brief insight into processes impacting upon


organisational change.

Culture and organisational change

Many organisations undertake reorganisation changes on the assumption


that this is all that is needed to keep the organisation energised and
focussed on organisational change initiatives. Whilst this can help maintain
cultural vitality it is implementation of the vision and values in the Strategic
Plan that will drive the culture and organisational change initiatives.

Establishing a culture of constant organisational change is essential for long


term organisational success. Once a culture is successfully changed
management will be relieved of the daily operational struggle to focus on
value adding organisational change initiatives. This represents more effective
utilisation of valuable resources.

Organisational change and strategic planning

Strategic planning for organisational change ensures that an organisation is


doing the right things. In the context of a change management programme,
a strategic plan explains what organisational change is needed. Once it has
determined what are the right things to do, organisational change evolves
accountability to change management for doing them right.

In large organisations, strategic organisational change plans may be


prepared at different levels in the organisation and/or define the role of
particular functions across the whole organisation. Corporate organisational
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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture
change planning is the highest form of strategic planning. Smaller
organisations do not need this many plans, and often have only have one
organisational change plan, which is covers the Strategic and Business Plan.

The strategic organisational change planning process first identifies ‘critical


stakeholder needs’ and environmental threats to success. It examines
current competencies, values and resources to determine what
organisational change and development is needed to respond to these
needs, threats and opportunities. Strategic organisational change plans
usually contain a vision and/or mission, corporate values, SMART objectives
and broad aims. The strategies define the products, and/or services to be
delivered, markets to be served, key result areas, processes and
technologies that will be used to deliver them.

business planning for successful organisational change If strategic


organisational change plans explain what the organisation must achieve,
business plans explain how they will achieve it and change management is
the process for delivering the strategic requirement. The strategic
organisational change plan and consequent change management process
will ensure that the business will be viable.

Business Plans may be used inside the organisation to provide direction to


staff and outside the organisation when seeking investment funds. They
should contain organisational change and development strategies for
marketing, operations, human resource management and financial
management.

Is job and process re-design the heart of organisational change

The purpose of job and process redesign is to ensure that the people are
employed within the process chain that enables them to optimise their
contribution, to realise their potential and to maximise their contribution in
implementing organisational change strategies. All organisations or
organisational units, both large and small, can benefit from redesign Good
redesign aligns resources with the organisational change strategies being
pursued. Redesign is driven by effective resource use not downsizing.

Management development for change management skills

The skills needed by managers in organisations ready for change


management is quite different from those associated with traditional
operations management. Skills in change management enable managers to
build constructive relationships with their team members, fellow managers,
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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture
strategic partners, etc, as it is all agents working in unison that will enable
the organisation to achieve its strategic organisational change goals.
Communication, motivation and leadership skills are essential for effective
change management. They lead change management missions by example,
modelling the new behaviours that they expect of their staff. Because they
need to make strategic organisational change decisions they have developed
an ability to step back and see the big picture. Therefore managers equipped
with the skills needed for organisational change are not afraid to delegate.

Performance management driving organisational change

Managers ready to take on organisational change missions will be


experienced in integrating performance management into business planning.
This integration is achieved by first establishing the common organisational
change goals that will drive business plans and then linking the
organisational change goals to the roles, competences and performance
improvement measures needed to achieve them.

Individual performance development plans therefore should include


assessment of role requirements and competencies needed to achieve
organisational change goals, mapping career and linking to developmental
plans, establishing performance improvement actions and agreement on
organisational resources and support requirements.

A performance management system will only be effective in supporting


organisational change if it is objective, valued by both employees and
managers, judged to be fair and realistic and proven to make a positive
contribution to personal and organisational development.

Organisational change tips

1. Use a team approach that involves many stakeholders in the change


management process
2. Recognise that organisational change can only be achieved through
people, and therefore change management must address their
emotional needs
3. Recognise that organisational change takes time and resources and
results should not be expected too soon
4. Organisational change needs skills and business awareness training,
under investment is a false economy
5. Organisational change plans are critical but they need to serve and not
enslave, realise therefore that they will have to be adapted as needs
and circumstances change
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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture
6. Be systematic when establishing and implementing organisational
change
7. Educate organisational change sponsors and help them develop an
"intellectual understanding" of new work practices
8. Remember that during change management performance often gets
worse before improvement begins to appear, always reassure
stakeholders that this is natural but that through their dedication
improvement will be achieved
9. Share power and empower others to implement organisational change
10.Seek out people who are interested in making substantial changes in
working practice to champion organisational change
11.Realise that in getting people ready for organisational change there is
a risk that taking to long could appear to be indecisive and
consequently people will lose interest and motivation.

The funny thing about organizational change is that it can never end.

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Q6 Critically evaluate the Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Ans. > Abraham Maslow is considered to be the father of Humanistic


Psychology, also known as the "Third Force". Humanistic Psychology
incorporates aspects of both Behavioral Psychology and Psychoanalytic
Psychology. Behaviorists believe that human behavior is controlled by
external environmental factors. Psychoanalytic Psychology is based on the
idea that internal unconscious forces control human behavior. Though he
studied both Behavioral and Psychoanalytic Psychologies, Maslow rejected
the idea that human behavior is controlled by only internal or external forces.
Instead, Maslow's motivation theory states that man's behavior is controlled
by both internal and external factors. In addition he emphasizes that humans
have the unique ability to make choices and exercise free will.
Maslow showed little interest in animal or laboratory studies of human
behavior. He chose instead to collect data for his theories by studying
outstanding individuals. His studies led him to believe that people have
certain needs, which are unchanging and genetic in origin. These needs are
the same in all cultures and are both physiological and psychological. Maslow
described these needs as being hierarchal in nature, meaning that some
needs are more basic or more powerful than others and as these needs are
satisfied, other higher needs emerge.

Self
Actualization

Esteem

Social

Safety

Physiological

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Maslow presents a hierarchy of needs which can be divided into Basic


needs and Growth Needs One must satisfy lower level basic needs before
progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have
been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest-level called
self-actualization.

Every individual is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy
toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted
by failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences including divorce and
loss of job may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the
hierarchy. Maslow noted only one in ten individuals become fully self-
actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based
onesteem, love and other social needs.

Basic Needs
• Physiological: need for sleep and rest, food, drink, shelter, sex, and
oxygen

• Safety: need to be safe from harm, for a predictable world with


consistency, fairness, routine, for sense of stability and security

Growth Needs
• Love and Belonging: need for love and affectionate relationships,
belonging to a group, and caring

• Esteem: two components self-respect: desire for confidence,


competence, adequacy, achievement, mastery. Respect of others:
desire for acceptance, recognition, reputation, appreciation, status,
prestige

• Understanding and Knowledge: need to satisfy curiosity, explore,


discover, find solutions, look for relationships and meaning, and seek
intellectual challenges

• Aesthetics: need for beauty in surroundings

• Self-actualization: need for growth, development and utilization of


potential, becoming all that one can be, self-fulfillment

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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture

Q3 Explain the importance of groups. Elaborate on the significance


and the influence of the informal groups in and organization.

Ans. > Generally, a group could mean any association of 2 or more people
who come together (or are drawn together) for a purpose, even if that
"purpose" be not consciously known. This covers everything from
friendships, to personal/sexual relationships, to family groups, to

Geographical groups (towns, cities, nations), to political groups, to ethnic


groups, to religious groups, to esoteric spiritual groups.
A group therefore seems to be a "mental construct" which simultaneously
allows us to both feel connected AND hold an US verses THEM attitude at the
same time.

Formation of Informal Work Groups

Individuals are employed by an organization to perform specific functions.


Although the whole person joins an organization, attention is usually focused
on the partial person, the part of the individual doing the job. Because
people have needs that extend beyond the work itself, informal groups
develop to fill certain emotional, social, and psychological needs.

The degree to which a group satisfies its members needs determines the
limits within which individual members of the group will allow their behavior
to be controlled by the group.

I. Sense of belonging

Several major functions are served by informal groups. For example, the
group serves as a means of satisfying the affiliation needs of its members for
friendship and support. People need to belong, to be liked, to feel a part of
something. Because the informal group can withhold this attractive reward, it
has a tool of its own to coerce compliance with its norms.

II. Identity and self esteem

Groups also provide a means of developing, enhancing, and confirming a


person's sense of identity and self-esteem. Although many organizations
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Organizational Behavior & Organizational Culture
attempt to recognize these higher needs, the nature of some jobs-their
technology and environment-precludes this from happening. The long
assembly line or endless rows of desks reinforce a feeling of
depersonalization.

III. Stress reduction

Another function of groups is to serve as an agent for establishing and


testing social reality. For instance, several individuals may share the feeling
that their supervisor is a slave driver or that their working conditions are
inadequate. By developing a consensus about these feelings, group
members are able to reduce the anxiety associated with their jobs.

IV. All for one, one for all

Finally, the informal group serves as a defense mechanism against forces


that group members could not resist on their own. Joining forces in a small
group makes the members feel stronger, less anxious, and less insecure in
the face of a perceived threat.

As long as needs exist that are not served by the formal organization,
informal groups will form to fill the gap. Since the group fills many important
needs for its members, it influences member behavior.

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