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Algebra II Survival Guide

Algebra II Survival Guide was created and edited by students in Ms. Dott Johnsons Honors Algebra II classes during the first semester of the 20062007 school year. Students attend Winters Mill High School, which is located in Westminster, Maryland. The purpose of this class project was to give students the opportunity to create their own resource for future math classes. Algebra II Survival Guide aligns with the class textbook Algebra 2, which was published by McDougal Littell in 2001. However, the chapter numbers in this guide may not match the chapter numbers in the text. Additionally, there are some topics that appear in the guide that are not in the textbook. Many of the featured problems, explanations, and definitions are taken from this textbook. Additionally, the featured graphics are not original. They are public domain.

Algebra 2 McDougal Littell, 2001

Acknowledgements
There were 8 students who agreed to be technical editors of our book. They learned how to use Equation Editor and Winplot and then helped their classmates create pages in the book. These students are: Gus Foley, Chris Frock, Chip Hawkins, Drew Hubble, Katherine Jones, Evan Myers, Kelly Purcell, and Nathan Rapp. The cover was designed by Kristin Corman and Daniela Rivadeneira. We would like to thank Ms. Kirstie Troutman for helping with the Sammy Sandwich fundraiser and for allowing us to use her digital camera. We would like to thank Ms. Marty Gilbert and Ms. Bonnie Kreamer in the media center for allowing us to use the computer lab to create our book. We would like to thank Mr. Kenneth Goncz, Principal, for giving his support to us. We would like to thank Mr. Thomas Walker for helping us add the digital pictures to our book. We would like to thank everyone who supported this project by purchasing a Sammy Sandwich. Ms. Johnson would like to thank Ms. Sherri-Le Bream, Director of Secondary Schools, for sending her to the Model Schools Conference in Orlando, Florida. This was where she first learned about publishing in the classroom. Ms. Johnson would like to thank Mr. Christopher Kloss from Technology Services for helping her with her computer crisis. Ms. Johnson would like to thank Mr. Christopher Howard for teaching her about Winplot . Ms. Johnson would like to thank her husband Joel for helping with file conversions.

Chapter 1: Literal Equations and Compound Inequalities


Page 1 2 4 6 8 Section Chapter 1 Title Page 1-1 Rewriting Literal Equations 1-2 Solving & Graphing Compound Inequalities 1-3 Solving Absolute Value Equations & Inequalities Answers to Chapter 1 Practice Problems Author Kelly Purcell, Captain Daniela Rivadeneira Zauhn Lewis Amanda Hartman Kelly Purcell, Captain

Chapter 2: Functions and their Graphs


Page 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Section Chapter 2 Title Page 2-1 Domain and Range 2-2 Writing Equations of Lines 2-3 Slope-Intercept Form vs. Standard Form 2-4 Graphing Absolute Value Functions 2-5 Graphing Piecewise Functions 2-6 Functional Notation Answers to Chapter 2 Practice Problems Author Christian Gomes, Captain Dustin Blankenship Kelly Davis Evan Huggins Jeremy Salkin Eli Seligman Drew Hubble Christian Gomes, Captain

Chapter 3: Systems of Equations


Page 23 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 Section Chapter 3 Title Page 3-1 Solving by Graphing By Hand 3-2 Solving with Graphing Calculator 3-3 Solving by Substitution 3-4 Solving by Linear Combinations 3-5 Solving a System of 3 Unknowns Algebraically 3-6 Solving a System of Linear Inequalities 3-7 Linear Programming Answers to Chapter 3 Practice Problems Author Dan Zawacki, Captain Ted Zaleski James Ways Brian Desel Andrew Bowie Will Sharkey Elizabeth Beall Katherine Jones Dan Zawacki, Captain

Chapter 4: Matrices
Page 39 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 Section Chapter 4 Title Page 4-1 Adding, Subtracting, & Scalar Multiplication 4-2 Multiplying Matrices 4-3 Calculating Determinants 4-4 Using Determinants 4-5 Inverse Matrices 4-6 Using Inverse Matrices Answers to Chapter 4 Practice Problems Author Chip Hawkins, Captain Mark Kennedy Benjamin Love Kara Johansson Joey Steinberg Marilyn Retzler Mason Shaw Chip Hawkins, Captain

Chapter 5: Skills for Solving and Graphing Quadratic Equations


Page 53 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 Section Chapter 5 Title Page 5-1 Calculating the Discriminant 5-2 Finding the Vertex of a Parabola 5-3 Factoring Binomials 5-4 Factoring Trinomials 5-5 Simplifying Radicals 5-6 Simplifying Complex Numbers Answers to Chapter 5 Practice Problems Author Christine Della Donna, Captain Jennie Gibbs Staci Jasilaitis Erin Kersell Mansi Doshi Lindsay Inge Nicole Nichols Christine Della Donna, Captain

Chapter 6: Quadratic Equations


Page 67 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 Section Chapter 6 Title Page 6-1 Solving by Factoring 6-2 Solving by Square Roots 6-3 Solving by Completing the Square 6-4 Solving by Quadratic Formula 6-5 Solving by Graphing Calculator 6-6 Graphing Parabolas Answers to Chapter 6 Practice Problems Author Emma Malone, Captain Christopher Capasso Chelsea Rumbaugh Evan Myers Emily Middleton Catherine Fitzgerald Amy Warner Emma Malone, Captain

Chapter 7: Polynomials
Page 81 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 Section Chapter 7 Title Page 7-1 Properties of Exponents 7-2 Zero and Negative Exponents 7-3 Adding, Subtracting, and Multiplying Polynomials 7-4 Polynomial Division 7-5 Binomial Expansion with Pascals Triangle 7-6 Synthetic Division and Substitution Answers to Chapter 7 Practice Problems Author Amanda Simensky, Captain Zach Streiff Jason Stahl Sarah Middleton Jessica Robinson Dane Foxwell Katherine Salafia Amanda Simensky, Captain

Chapter 8: Solving Polynomial Equations


Page 95 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 Section Chapter 8 Title Page 8-1 Factoring Sums and Differences of Cubes 8-2 Factoring by Grouping 8-3 Factoring that Never Ends 8-4 Solving Polynomial Equations by Factoring 8-5 Solving Polynomial Equations by the Rational Zero Theorem 8-6 Trigonometry Extension: Factoring Lead Coefficients Answers to Chapter 8 Practice Problems Author Nora Hood, Captain Jeff Braun Alden Chang Chris Frock Kristin Corman Gus Foley Jenny Diamond Nora Hood, Captain

Chapter 9: Powers, Roots, and Radicals


Page 109 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 Section Chapter 9 Title Page 9-1 Radical and Rational Notation 9-2 Simplifying Radicals with Index > 2 9-3 Solving Equations with n th roots 9-4 Solving Radical Equations 9-5 Composition of Functions 9-6 Inverse Functions Answers to Chapter 9 Practice Problems Author Juliana Peterson, Captain Jimmy Nunnally Hannah Achilles Alexis Murray McKensie Robinson Nathan Rapp Ceili Wonilowicz Juliana Peterson, Captain

Chapter 10: Rational Expressions, Functions, and Equations


Page 123 124 126 128 130 132 Section Chapter 10 Title Page 10-1 Graphing General Rational Functions 10-2 Simplifying, Multiplying, and Dividing Rational Expressions 10-3 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions 10-4 Solving Rational Equations Answers to Chapter 10 Practice Problems Author Tyler Grimes, Captain Robert Kapp Tiffany Spicer Calvin Haugh Jen Buckley Tyler Grimes, Captain

Amanda Hartman, Daniela Rivadeneira, Kelly Purcell (Captain), and Zauhn Lewis
1

Literal Equations- Equations that have more than one variable.


Formulas are literal equations Literal equations can be rewritten for any of its variables

Steps (hints) for solving literal equations:


1. Get rid of fractions by multiplying by the least common denominator (LCD). (If it is a proportion then you can crossmultiply). 2. Division is usually the LAST step! 3. ISOLATE the variable 4. If the variable shows up in more than one term, then factor out that variable.

*Remember, when rewriting literal equations


The variable you are solving for has to be all alone on one side of the equation. So you need to isolate the variable (preferably on the left side).

Examples
Solve for x: 1) 3 x + 5 y = 2 2) 3 x = 2 5 y Transpose the 5 y 2 5y x= Divide by 3 3
3) 2 4 x y =2 3 3 2 4 3( x y = 2) Multiply by the LCD 3 3 2 x 4 y = 6 Transpose the 4 y 2x = 4 y + 6 x = 2 y + 3 Divide by 2

3 x = 5 xy 7

3 x 5 xy = 7 Transpose the 5 xy x (3 5 y ) = 7 Factor out the x 7 x= Divide by 3 5 y 3 5y

Practice Problems
1) Solve for x
4x + 7 y = 8

2) Solve for x 5 y = x+2 3

3) Solve for x 3 1 ( x + y ) = xy z 2 4

Conjunctions Definition: Two or more inequalities considered together; connected by and or the symbol ( ) Solutions must satisfy both inequalities When Graphing Look for the intersection overlap If the graphs go in the same direction bring down the smaller graph to the number line in order to show where the overlap occurs

Disjunctions Definition: Two or more inequalities considered together; connected by or or the symbol ( ) Solutions must satisfy at least one of the inequalities, but can satisfy both When Graphing If the graphs of each linear inequality goes in different directions bring both down to the number line. If the graphs of each linear inequality goes in the same direction just bring down the larger graph.

Reminder when dividing by a negative number in an inequality the sign ( or , < or > ) changes to its opposite.

Examples of Conjunctions
#1 x + 2 10 5 x < 10 x + 2 10 x 8 5 x < 10 x > 2 Solve each side separately Subtract 2 Divide each side by -5

{x 2 <

x 8}

Place the answers in the bracket format and graph

#2
x > 3 and x < 7

Place points on the graph and thicken the area where the graphs

overlap

{x 3 < x < 7}
#3

Place in the bracket format

Examples of Disjunctions

3x +5< 8 or x <4
3 x 2< +3 5 x 3
xx x <2112 4 x x 169 4 7

separately

Solve each part

Subtract five from both sides Divide each side by 3

x < 4 Divide each side by -1 x 4 x > {x x < 1 x > 4}Place points on the graph 4 thicken the area influenced by the and
inequality

#4
x > 2 x > 8 {x x > 2} *in this case of a disjunction because x > 2 overlaps x > 8 the graph of x > 2 is

necessary.

Practice Problems

1. Solve
x 5 x 9

3. Solve
3x 1 < 5 x > 2 x + 1

2. Solve

x < 2 x 6

Things to remember when solving Isolate the absolute value (preferably on the left hand side) Think about the solution- does it make sense? Watch for no solution or all real numbers DO NOT DISTRIBUTE in cases like 3 x When you multiply or divide an inequality by a negative number, reverse the inequality sign

Solving an Absolute value equation x =a Rewrite as x = a or x = a Solve each equation Example 1: 2x+3 = 6 Divide each side by 2

x+3 =3 x+3=3 x + 3 = 3 x=0 x = 6 {0,6} Example 2: x2 4=8 x 2 = 12 x 2 = 12 x 2 = 12 x = 14 x = 10 {14,10}

Rewrite the equation as follows: Solve each new equation by subtracting 3 from both sides

Add 4 to each side Rewrite as follows: Solve each new equation by adding 2 to both sides

Solving an absolute value greater than (>) or greater than or equal to ( ) inequality x >a Rewrite as x > a or x < a (disjunction) Solve each inequality Example: 3 x 1 < 30 Divide both sides by -3

x 1 > 10

x 1 > 10 x 1 < 10 x > 11 x < 9 {x x > 11 x < 9}

note: because the signs were switched, it is now in the format of a Greater than inequality. Continue to solve as a greater than inequality by rewriting as follows: Solve each equation by adding 1 to each side

Solving an absolute value less than (< ) or less than or equal to ( ) inequality x <a Rewrite as a < x < a (conjunction) Solve the inequality Example 1: 2 x + 1 < 15 Subtract 1 from each side

2 x < 14 14 < 2 x < 14 {x 7 > x > 7 }


Example 2: 2 3 + 2 x < 10

{x 7 < x < 7 }

Rewrite as follows: Divide the entire conjunction by -2 (remember to switch the signs) Rewrite as follows:

Divide each side by 2 Rewrite as follows: Subtract 3 from the entire conjunction (but not the 2x) Divide the entire conjunction by 2

3 + 2x < 5 5 < 3 + 2x < 5 8 < 2x < 2 {x 4 < x < 1 }


Practice problems: 1.) 3 + 3x = 30

2.) 4 x 1 < 2

3.) 4 x 8

>6

Answers to Chapter 1 Practice Problems


Section 1-1 1. x =
8 7y 4

Answers 2. x =
3y 6 5

3. x =

6y z 6 4y

1-2

1. {x 5 x 9} 2. {x x < 2 x 6} 3. {x x < 2 }

1-3

1. { 9, 9}

1 3 2. x | < x < 2 2

3. {x x >

7 1 or x < 2 2

Standing (Left to Right): Eli Seligman, Kelly Davis, Dustin Blankenship, Drew Hubble, Evan Huggins, and Jeremy Salkin Kneeling: Christian Gomes (Captain)

2-1: Domain and Range


A relation is a set of ordered pairs, such as (3,4). . All relations consist of a Domain and Range. The domain is the set of all possible X values in a relation. The range is the set of all possible Y values in a relation.

When given a graph, how can the domain and range of a relation be found?

as {x / a < x < b} This means that a is less than x , which is less than b . That means a is the lowest value and b is the highest. Since the lowest x value in the above graph is -1, it would fill in the place of a . Since the highest x value in the graph is 1, it would fill in for b . Therefore, it would be expressed as {x / 1 x 1} .

Domain- Because the above figure is connected by points, the domain will be expressed

Range- The range is expressed similarly to the domain, except y takes the place of x . Since the
highest y value is1 , it would take the place of b . And since the lowest y value is 0 , it would fill in for a . The equation would then be expressed as { y / 0 y 1} .

When given an equation, how can the domain and range of a relation be found? Ex: y = 5x
2

Domain- Since any number would work to substitute for x , it would be expressed as {x / x R} .
This means that x is an element of all real numbers.

should be expressed as { y / y 0} . This means that y can be equal to 0 , and any number above satisfies the equation.

Range- Since the lowest possible outcome of the equation is 0 , and any number above is possible, it

10

When given a list of ordered pairs, how can the domain and range of a relation be found? Ex: P : {(1,2), (3,4), (5,6)}
Domain- The first numbers in the ordered pairs are the x values, so every first number would mark the domain. For this mathematical problem, only a list should be made. For this example, the domain would be expressed as {1,3,5} . Notice that x is not needed. Range- The second numbers in each ordered pair are the y values, marking the range. In the above
example, the range would be expressed as {2,4,6} . Similar to the domain, y is not required.

Practice problems1) What is the Domain of this function? The range?

2) y = x 2 4 Domain? Range?

3) P : {(6,4), (4,3), (5,3)} Domain?

Range?

11

2-2: Writing Equations of Lines


In order to write an equation of a line, you need a slope and yintercept, two points, or one point and the slope. Remember: m represents slope and b represents y-intercept. When doing these problems, you need to remember 3 formulas: Slope-intercept Point-slope Slope

y = mx + b
y y1 = m( x x1 )

( y2 y1 ) ( x2 x1 )

You also need to be aware of special cases such as vertical and horizontal lines:

y=k
Horizontal line Zero Slope Parallel to x-axis Crosses only y-axis

x=k
Vertical line Undefined Slope Parallel to y-axis Crosses only x-axis

Slope-intercept: Use slope-intercept formula

Example: Given

m=

3 2

and

b =1
3 x +1 2

y = mx + b
y=

Plug the m and b into the equation

Given slope and point: Use point-slope formula Plug the m,

Example: Given (4, 1) and

m=2
y y1 = m( x x1 )
y 1 = 2( x 4)

x1

and

y1

Distribute and transpose

y = 2x 7

12

Given a point and equation of a line: Example: Write the equation of a line that passes through (1, 2) and is parallel to y = **Since the line is parallel to y =

1 x +1. 2

If it was perpendicular, then youd find the opposite reciprocal (which would be -2). **

1 x + 1 , then the slope of the equation you are finding is the same. 2

Use point-slope formula Substitute for m,

y y1 = m( x x1 )
y1
y2 = 1 ( x 1) 2

x1

and

Distribute and transpose Given 2 Points:

y=

1 3 x+ 2 2

Example: Write the equation of a line that passes through (5, 9) and (4, 7). Find the slope Use point-slope formula Substitute for m,

(7 9) ( 4 5) = 2

y y1 = m( x x1 )
y1

x1

and

y 9 = 2( x 5)

Distribute and transpose Practice Problems 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.)

y = 2x 1

Write an equation of a line given m = 3 and b = 4 Write an equation of a line that passes through (0, 4) and has a slope of m Write and equation of a line that passes through (0, 5) and (-4, 1).

=2

Write an equation of a line that passes through (2, 0) and is perpendicular to y =

1 x+2 4

13

2-3: Slope-Intercept Form Vs. Standard Form


Slope-Intercept Form Formula:
x = var iable

y = mx
m = slope

+ b

b = y Intercept

Use slope intercept form of a linear equation to graph linear equations

Standard Form Formula: Ax

+ By

= C

Rules:
A must be positive. A B and C can not be a fractions or decimals.

Examples
Slope-Intercept to Standard:
y = 2 x 5 3
2 x 5) 3
1. Write the equation. 2. Multiply the entire equation by 3 to take out the fraction. 3. Subtract 2x from both sides. 4. Divide by negative 1 to make the lead coefficient positive. 5. Final answer.

3( y =

3 y = 2 x 15
2 x + 3 y = 15 2 x 3 y = 15
Standard to Slope-Intercept:

3 x + 15 y = 10

1. Subtract x to bring it to the other side. 2. Divide by 15 to isolate y. 3. Simplify fractions. 4. Final answer.

15 y = 3x + 10
y= y= 3 10 x+ 15 15 1 2 x+ 5 3

14

Practice
Change to standard form: 1.

y = .13 x + 2.6

2. y = 3 x + 5

3. y =

1 x+2 2

Change to slope intercept form: 4. 3 x + 4 y = 20 5. 6 x + 10 y = 20 6. 7 x + 15 y = 10

15

2-4: Graphing Absolute Value Functions


Formula:

y = a x h + k , Where a is the slope, and


the vertex is located at the point (h,k).

Steps: 1. Determine the slope and vertex. 2. Plot the vertex and graph the line that the slope creates. 3. Take the line that was formed, and reflect it over the line

x=h

Hints: An absolute value function looks like the letter v If a is positive, then the v will open upwards ( ) If a is negative, then the v will open downwards ( )

Example:

y = 3x 2 1
4 3 2 1

1 x 1 1 2 3 4 5

m=3 Vertex=( 2,-1) Once you have plotted the first line, reflect it over the line x = h . In this problem, it will be the line x = 2 ( ).

16

Practice Problems: Graph each absolute value function


1 x +3 2

1. y =

2. y = 3 x 2 1

17

2-5: Graphing Piecewise Functions


Piecewise Functions are functions represented by a combination of equations, each corresponding to a part of the domain. Functions are relations with exactly 1 output for each input. Steps: 1. Graph the first equation in the problem 2. Draw lines determined by the domain 3. Erase graphed parts of the function that arent relevant 4. Repeat the process for each equation Examples: 1) 3 1 2 x if x < 1 x + if x = 1 f ( x) = 2 f ( x) = 1 2 5 + 3 + x 1 x 1 x x if if 2 2 a) To the left of x = 1 y = 2x is graphed. , 1 5 b) To the right of and including x =1, y =y x + x + is graphed. x = 1, = 3 2 2 c) Answer:
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

2)

1 if 0 x < 2 f ( x) = 3 if 2 x < 4

a) The graph, when finished will be composed of 2 line segments. The first step in the problem will be shown by y = 1 when x is greater than or equal to 0 and less than 2. b) The other equation can be graphed through the same process as the first equation. c) Answer:
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

18

Try these practice problems: 1)


2 x + 13 if x 5 f (x) = 1 x + 2 if x < 5

2)

3 if 1 x < 2 f ( x) = 5 if 2 x < 4

19

2-6: Functional Notation


The Definition Functional Notation is the use of the Symbol f (x ) for the dependant variable of a function.

For example- The linear function y = mx + b can be written as f ( x ) = mx + b .

How does it Work? The symbol f (x ) is another form of the y-variable. For example:
f (2) if f ( x) = 2 x + 2

Just substitute 2 in for x


2( 2) + 2
2

f (2) = 2
This means that (2,-2) lies on the line y=-2x+2

20

Practice- Evaluate f(x) 1.) f (3)


if f ( x) = 4 x + 2

2.) f (5) if f ( x) = 3x3 5 x 2 + x 5

3.) f (11)

if f ( x) = x

21

Answers to Chapter 2 Practice Problems


Section 2-1 Range: { y | y 2} 3. Domain: {4,5, 6} Range: {3, 4} 2-2 1. y = 3x 4 2. y = 2 x + 4 3. y = 4 x + 8 4. y = x + 5 Answers 1. Domain: {x | x R} 2. Domain: {x | x R} Range: { y | y 4}

2-3

1. 13x 100 y = 260 4. y = x + 5


3 4

2. 3x y = 5
3 5

3. x 2 y = 4
7 2 x+ 15 3

5. y = x + 2

6. y =

2-4

1.

4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

2.
x 1 2 3 4 5

4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

x 1 2 3 4 5

2-5

1.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2.
x 1 2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2

x 1 2 3 4 5

2-6

1. 14

2. 510 3. 11

22

Back row (left to right): Willy Sharkey, Katie Jones, Andrew Bowie, Elizabeth Beall, Brian Desel, James Ways, and Teddy Zaleski Kneeling: Dan Zawacki (Captain)

23

3-1: Solving by Graphing by Hand


How to solve:
Write each equation in slope-intercept form Graph each equation Identify the point of intersection

Remember: If the lines are parallel, then that means no solution. If the lines are the same, that means many points of intersection. Example #1
2x y = 3 2x + 3y = 7
2x y = 3 y = 2 x + 3 y 2x 3 = + 1 1 1 y = 2x 3

4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5

2x + 3y = 7 3 y = 2x + 7 3y 2 7 = x+ 3 3 3 y= 2 7 x+ 3 3

1 2 3 4 5

Final Answer: (2,1)

24

Practice Problems:
x + 2y = 9 x + 6 y = 1

1)

2)

2 x + y = 2 x 2 y = 19

3)

x + 4 y = 10 4 x y = 10

25

3-2: Solving with Graphing Calculator


Steps:
Write equation in slope intercept form Press ( y =) and type each equation into the y
1

and

y2

Press zoom, 6 ( if you dont see the point of intersection press zoom , 3 until you do) Press 2nd, trace, Enter, Enter, Enter

Special things you need to remember:


Only works for equations with two variables Any fractions you must put them into parenthesis when entering the equation into the calculator Wont work for special cases

Solve:

5 x + 3 y = 15 4 x 2 y = 45

Examples:

Step #1: put both equations into slope intercept - form

5 x + 3 y = 15 5x 5x

4 x 2 y = 45 4x 4x

3 y 5 x 15 = 3 3 5 y= x5 3

2y 4 x + 45 = 2 2 45 y = 2x 2

26

Step #2: type into y1 and y2

Step #3: Zoom out till you see the point

Step 4: Press 2nd , Trace, 5

Step #5: press Enter

Step #6: press Enter

Step #7: press Enter

You get your answer of

(4.8,13)

Practice:
1.

y = x+4
y = 2x + 5

3 x + 4 y = 26

2 x + 8 y = 53

2.

x 3 y = 5
5x + 2 y = 6

27

3-3: Solving by Substitution


Solve one equation for one of its variables Substitute the expression (bubble) into the other equation and solve for the other variable Substitute your value into any equation to find the other value (put answer back in the bubble)

Steps:

BUBBLE 2 x y = 11 Step 1: Substitute y value into second equation and solve for x 2 x ( x 7) = 11
2 x x + 7 = 11 x + 7 = 11 7 7 x=4 Step 2: Substitute x value into the bubble and solve for y y = 47 y = 3 Answer: (4, -3)

y = x7

Example 1

28

Example 2:
3 x + 4 y = 4 x + 2y = 2 Step 1: Solve second equation for x x + 2y = 2

2y 2y x = 2 y + 2 Step 2: Substitute bubble into first equation and solve for y 3 (2 y + 2) + 4 y = 4

6 y + 6 + 4 y = 4 6 6 6 y + 4 y = 10 2 y 10 = 2 2 y=5 Step 3: Substitute y into any equation x + 2 (5) = 2


x + 10 = 2 10 10 x=8 Answer: (8, 5)

1.

2x + 3 y = 5

Practice Problems
2.

x 5y = 9
4 x + 6 y = 15 x + 2y = 5

x + 2y = 3 4 x 5 x = 3 5 x + 7 y = 11 5 x + 3 y = 19

3.

4.

29

3-4: Solving by Linear Combinations


When can I use this?
This method can be used for any system as long as the equations vertically align

Steps for Solving Using Linear Combinations:

1.) Align equations vertically (ax + by = c) * If you have opposites go to step 3 (ax + by = c) + (ax by = c) 2.) If not, multiply one or both equations by a constant to create opposites 3.) Combine equations and solve for a variable 4.) Substitute the solution into the equations and repeat steps until all variables are solved for

Example:

5 y + 3 x = 11 4 x + 5 y = 13 3 x 5 y = 11 4 x + 5 y = 13

1.) Vertically align equations

* (opposites so go to step 3) 3 x 5 y = 11 + 4 x + 5 y = 13 3.) Combine and solve x = 2


x=2 3(2) 5 y = 11 6 5 y = 11 5y = 5 y = 1

4.) Substitute (x=2)

answer (2,-1)

30

Practice:
1.)

3 y = 2 x 15 6 y = 3 x 22

2.)

x + 3 y = 1500 5 x + 2 y = 2300

3.)

y = x7 y = 2 x 11

31

3-5: Solving a System of Three Unknowns Algebraically


When can I use this? - This method is beneficial in finding unknown numbers in problems, like finding lost measurements or calculations.
1.-Choose a pair of equations and eliminate one of the variables. A.) 2 x 4 y + 6 z = 6 < Multiply A by (2) Eliminate one A.) x + 2 y 3 z = 3 B.) 2 x 5 y + 4 z = 13 B.)2 x 5 y + 4 z = 13 variable by canceling them out. 9 y + 10 z = 19 C.)5 x + 4 y z = 5

Steps:

2.-Choose a different pair of equations and eliminate the same variable. A.) 5 x 10 y + 15 z = 15 < Multiply A by (5) A.) x + 2 y 3 z = 3 Eliminate the C.) 5 x + 4 y z = 5 B.)2 x 5 y + 4 z = 13 same variable. 6 y + 14 z = 20 C.)5 x + 4 y z = 5

3.-Take the resultant equation from steps 1 and 2 and solve the system. Eliminate ( 9y +10z = 19)( 2) = 18y 20z = 38 9 y + 10 z = 19 18 y + 42 z = 60 variable and 6 y + 14 z = 20 ( 6y +14z = 20)(3) = 22 z = 22 z = 1 solve equation 4.-Subtitiute your answers into an original equation to find the last variable. 2x 4 y = 0 A.) x + 2 y 3(1) = 3 Insert first 2x 5 y = 9 B.)2 x 5 y + 4(1) = 13 unknown into equations, then 9 y = 9 y = 1 C.)5 x + 4 y (1) = 5 eliminate another unknown variable 5.-Substitute the last variable into the original equation and solve. x=2 5 x = 10 C .)5 x + 4( 1) (1) = 5

ANSWER: (2, -1, 1)

32

Practice:

1.)

x 6 y 2 z = 8 x + 5 y + 3z = 2 3 x 2 y 4 z = 18

2.) x 3 y + 6 z = 21
3 x + 2 y 5 y = 30 2 x 5 y + 2 y = 6

3.) 2 x 3 y + z = 10
y + 2 z = 13 z =5

33

3-6: Solving Systems of Linear Inequalities


A solution of a system of linear inequalities is an ordered pair that is a solution of each inequality in the system Graph of a system of linear inequalities is the graph of all the solutions of the system Slope-intercept form = y = mx + b

Definitions:

Formulas: Steps:

1. Solve the system of inequalities for y or put it into slope intercept form 2. Graph the line that corresponds to the inequality. Use a dashed line for an inequality with < or > and a solid line for or . 3. Shade to the opposite direction. (ex: if y x + 2, shade y x + 2 ) 4. Repeat for all inequalities 5. The area left over should be outlined and colored so that you can see all of the solutions. The unshaded area is your answers!

Shade to the opposite side of the inequality so that your unshaded area is your answer
y0

Things to Remember:

Examples:
Answer (unshaded area)

1.

6 x + 2 y 24 6 x + 2 y 24 +6 x + 6x

2 y 6 x 24 2

y 3 x 12

34

Practice:
1. Graph the system of inequalities

x+ y 3 y >1

2. Tell whether the ordered pair is a solution to the system: a.) (0,0) b.) ( 2,7)

x 1 y > 2x + 2

35

3-7: Linear Programming


Definitions: Linear Programming is the process of optimizing a linear objective function subject to a system of linear inequalities call constraints. The graph of the system of constraints is called the feasible region. Vertex Theorem:

If the feasible region is bounded, then the objective functions maximum and minimum values will occur at a vertex.

Steps: 1. Graph the constraints and shade the feasible region.


-If the numbers are big, graph by plotting intercepts

2. Determine the vertices.


-May have to find a point of intersection.

3. Evaluate the objective function at EACH vertex to determine the minimum and maximum value. Example 1:
Optimize the following function: C = 3 x + 4 y Subject to the following constraint s

x 0 y 0 x + 2 y 8 First set all of the equations equal to y.


x + x 2 2 y y y 8 x x 1 2 + x 8 + 4

36

Now graph the 3 constraints Shade

x 0 y 0 y 1 2 x + 4

x 0 Below

x 0 Above Color in the feasible region Determine the vertices

(0,0) (0,4) (8,0) Using the objective function evaluate each vertex Vertices (0,0) (0,4) (8,0) Evaluate (3)(0) + (4)(0) = 0 (3)(0) + (4)(4) = 16 (3)(8) + (4)(0) = 24

Determine the maximum and minimum values The Maximum value is 24 at (8,0) The minimum is 0 at (0,0)

Practice Problem:
1) Optimize the following function:

C = 4x + 6 y
x + y 11 x + y 27 2 x + 5 y 90

Subject to the following constraints:

37

Answers to Chapter 3 Practice Problems


Section 3-1 1. (7,1) 1. (1,3) 2. (3,8) Answers 3. ( 2,2)

3-2

2. (.47, 1.8) 3. (26.25, 13.19)

3-3

1. (4,1)
1 2

2. (3,3)

3. (0, )

5 2

4. (5,2)

3-4

1. (8, ) 2. (300, 400) 3. (6, -1) 1. ( 4, 3, 3 ) 2. ( 3, 2, 5 ) 1. 3. ( 7, 3, 5 ) 2. a.) no b.) yes

3-5

3-6

* answer is the unshaded region 1. Min = 0 at (0,0) and Max = 740 at (60,20) 3-7

38

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39

4-1: Adding, Subtracting, & Scalar Multiplication


Definitions--Matrix- A matrix is a rectangular arrangement of numbers in rows and columns Entry- The entry in a matrix Dimensions- The dimensions of a matrix are rows and columns For example, if the dimensions of a matrix are 5X2, then there are 5 rows and 2 columns. Name Row Matrix Column Matrix Description A matrix with only one row. A matrix with only one column. A matrix with the same number of rows as columns. Example

[1

3 4 8]

Square Matrix

2 0 10 1 0 5 3 9 0 2 1
0 0 0 0

Zero Matrix

A matrix whose entries are all zeros.

40

Adding and Subtracting Matrices (In order to add or subtract matrices, you add or subtract the corresponding entries.)

Examplles Examp es

2 1) 4 2 2) 5

3 2 + 5 1 1 1 6 3

4 2+2 = 3 4 + ( 1) 2 2 ( 1) = 5 5 ( 3)

3 + 4 4 = 5 + ( 3) 3 1 2 3 = 6 5 8 1 1

7 2

3 3 3) + 2 2 2 *1

3 = Cant do because the two matrixes 4 don' t have the same dimensions . 2*2

c a a Mu p ca on Scallarr Mullttiiplliicattiion (To multiply a matrix by a scalar, you multiply each entry in the matrix by the scalar. You multiply the number outside the matrix to every number inside the matrix.) 3 2 4 2 * 3 2 * 2 2 * 4 6 4 8 2 = = 1 3 5 2 *1 2 * 3 2 * 5 2 6 10

1. 2

2 3 + 3 =

2. [2

Practice Problems

3 1] [2

3 1] =

3.

5 2 = 4

41

4-2: Multiplying Matrices


[ ]Most Difficult [ ]Challenging [X]Easy
NOTE: Matrix Multiplication is NOT commutative! Steps for Matrix Multiplication: 1. Find matrix dimensions (Rows x Columns) 2. Determine if it is possible to multiply a) Align the dimensions (2 X 2)(2 X 3) b) Are the inner terms alike?

If YES
Continue with step 3.

If NO
Not possible to multiply this matrix.

Inner Terms

3. Take outer terms to find the solutions dimensions. Answer will be a (2x3) matrix!

(2 X 2)(2 X 3)
Outer

4. Multiply (Rows x Columns)

4 Example: 2

1 4

2 3 4 9 1 1

(2 X 2)(3 X 2)
Different = NOT POSSIBLE

42

Example:

4 3 1 2 4 1

3 0 8 3 1 1

Answer = (2x2)

(2 X 3)(3 X 2)
Alike = Possible

(43) + (38) + (11)= 12 + 24 + 1 = 37 (40) + (33) + (11)= 0 + 9 + 1 = 10 (23) + (48) + (11) = 6 + 32 + 1 = 39 (20) + (43) + (11) = 0 + 12 + 1 = 13 Practice Problems:

37 10 39 13
D.

3 5 3 A. 2 2 B. 4 C.

1 2 3 3 2 1 1 3 1

5 4 2 7 3 1

1) AB 2) BD 3) AD Good luck with the rest of Algebra II!

43

4-3: Calculating Determinants


Steps: 1. Multiply opposite diagonal values. 2. Subtract the products.

2 2
HINT:

a b c d (a)(d) (c)(b)
Remember to subtract the sums of the products!!

Steps: 1. Move the first two columns to the outside of the matrix. 2. Multiply diagonally from top left to bottom right, then multiply bottom left to top right. 3. Subtract the sums of the products

3 3

a b d e g h

c a f d i g

b e h

(aei + bfg + cdh) (ceg + afh + bdi)

44

Examples:

2 2

5 4 7 1
3 3
2 3 2 1 1 1 01 0 6 2 3

5(1) 7(4) = -23

0 43 3 21 1 6 4 2 1 3

(-36+0+12) (24+18+0) -24 - 42= -66


Practice Problems: Find the determinant of each matrix

1. 4
5

2 2

2.

8 0 1 3
2 1 4 1 0 1

3.

1 8 5 9
12 3 1 4 7 9 9 7

4. 7 4

1 12 3 2 5 8 1

5. 9 5 4

4. 8

45

4-4 Using Determinants


Determinants can be used to find the area of a triangle with vertices:

( X1

Y1 )

( X2

Y2 )
1 2 3

( X3

Y3 )
1 1 1

This is written as:

Area=

1 2

X X X

Y1 Y2 Y3

Use the plus or minus so your answer will end up positive


y 4 3 2 1 x 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6

A rea =

1 (0 + 1 2 + 2 ) 2

0 3 1 1 Area = 2 0 1 2 4 1 1

(0

+ 0 + 6 )

1 Area = (14 6) = 4 2
46

Determinants can also be used to solve systems of linear equations. Linear System coefficient Matrix

Ax Cx

By Dy

E F

A B A= C D

This is called Cramers Rule

F D X = DetA
Example

C F Y = D e tA
2 1
2

2 x 3 y = 1 4 x + 5 y = 4 5
14 3 5 13 = 65 = 5 13

3 = 10 ( 3) = 13 5
14 45 104 = =8 13 13

x =

45

y=

Practice Problems

( 5,8 )

~Find the area of a triangle 6 )B (3 0 )C ( 1 3) 1. A (3 2. A (1 3 )B ( 2 6 )C ( 1 1 ) ~Use Cramers rule 3. x + 7 y = 3

3 x 5 y = 17

47

4-5: Inverse Matrices


Inverse matrices are associated with square matrices.
Tip: the notation for inverse matrices is A 1 .

The formula for finding the inverse is:


If A=
Example

a b c d ,

1 then A = A
1

d b c a

5 8 A= 1 2

10-8=2

1.) calculate the determinant Remember: if the determinant = 0, then the inverse doesnt exist.

1 2 8 multiply 2.) 2 1 5

1 1 2

4 1 2 = the inverse 2

48

To check your answer:


Multiply the original matrix with its inverse. If you get the identity matrix, then it is correct.
1 1 2 4 1 2 2
1 0 Identity Matrix = 0 1

5 8 1 2 =

1 0 0 1

and

5 8 1 2

1 1 2

4 1 2 2

1 0 0 1

Practice
Find the Inverse

4 5 1.) 3 4 6 7 4.) 2 2

1 8 2.) 1 7 11 3 5.) 9 3

7 2 3.) 3 1 2.2 2.5 6.) 8 10

49

4-6 Using Inverse Matrices


Inverse matrices can be used to solve systems quickly in the calculator by: o Entering coefficients into the A Matrix o Enter constants into the B matrix o Then calculate the inverse of matrix A and multiply it by B Example: x+ y + z =1
x y+z =3 x y z = 2

Push the second key and the x 1 to access the matrices and enter the coefficients into matrix A; and enter the constants into matrix B A B

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 3 2

Then multiply the inverse of matrix A and matrix B ( A 1 * B ) and you will get: .5 1 Therefore x=-.5, y=-1, z=2.5 2.5

Also inverse matrices can be used to decode and encode messages

o o o o

To Encode: Assign numbers to message Create 2 * 2 matrix( determinant 0 ) in matrix A Arrange numbers in a 2*n matrix in matrix B Then multiply A and B

50

Example:
Encode MATH A B A*B 2 3 13 1 25 37 1 2 20 8 = 32 44 Encoded message is: 25, 37, 32, 44 To Decode: o Arrange numbers in a 2*n matrix in the B matrix o Use the original 2*2 matrix for matrix A o Multiply the inverse of A and B ( A 1 * B ) o Determine what letters match the numbers (make sure you put the entries in the same way as the first time).

Example:
A B A 1 * B 3 2 25 37 13 1 1 2 32 44 = 20 8 The decoded message is 13, 1, 20, 8 or MATH

Practice problems:
2 x + 3 y + z + 1
1. 3 x + 3 y + z = 1 2 x + 4 y + z = 2

3 2 2. Encode: Algebra using 1 2

3 2 3. Decode 85,-53, 102,-62, 84,-53, 38,-25, 21,-14, 69,-39, 23,-14 using 1 2 5x 2 y + z = 4 3 2 4. Encode: stuff using 5. x + y 2 z = 2 1 2 3x y + z = 2

51

Answers to Chapter 4 Practice Problems


Section 4-1 1. 2. [0 0 0] 3. 6 8 1. 2.Not Possible 3. 4 24 14
11 20 4 10

Answers

4-2

1 6

4-3

1. -2 2. 24 3. -31 4. 126 5. -57 6. 311

4-4

1.Area=6 2.Area= 6 3.(4,-1)

4-5 1. 6. 4-6
4 5 3 4

2. 1

8 1

3.

1 2 3 7

7 1 2 4. 1 3

1 1 5. 2 2 3 11 2 6

5 1.25 4 1.1

1. ( 2, 1, 2 ) 2. 38, -25, 19, -17, 58, -38, 2, -1 3. Survival Guide 4. 48, 60, 12, -59, -33, -6 5. ( 0, 2, 0 )

52

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5-1 Calculating the Discriminant


Before you can use the discriminant, you must first take a look at the quadratic equation, which is expressed as: ax 2 + bx + c = 0
The quadratic equation can be set to solve for x , in what is called the quadratic formula, expressed as: b b2 4ac
x = 2a

Note that in the numerator of the quadratic formula, there is an expression under the square root symbol, expressed as: b 2 4ac This is the discriminant. There are three purposes of the discriminant: 1) It determines how many solutions a quadratic equation can have. 2) It determines the type of solutions a quadratic equation has (whether they are real solutions or imaginary solutions) 3) It determines if a quadratic expression can factor If b 2 4ac > 0 , then the equation has TWO REAL SOLUTIONS If b 2 4ac = 0 , then the equation has ONE REAL SOLUTION If b 2 4ac < 0, then the equation has TWO IMAGINARY SOLUTIONS If b 2 4ac is a PERFECT SQUARE then it will FACTOR ________________________________________________________________________ How Does one go about using the Discriminant? 1) Set up the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 2) Plug in the values of a, b, and c from the quadratic equation into the discriminant ________________________________________________________________________

Hints:

Examples: Use the quadratic equation to determine the discriminant. Then say how
many and what type of solutions the discriminant yields. Example A: x 2 6 x + 9 = 0 1) The first step has already been completed because the problem is already in the quadratic equation : ) 2) In this equation, a = 1, b= -6, and c=9. Now plug those values into the formula for the discriminant. It should look like (6) 2 4(1)(9) 3) When you calculate it out, it should look like 36-36, which equals zero. So, the discriminant = 0. Since the discriminant is equal to zero, you now know that there is one real solution to your equation, and you know you could factor x 2 6 x + 9 since 0 is a perfect square.

54

Example B: 2 x 2 + x = 5 1) This example is not yet equal to 0. Move the 5 over to the other side. Your problem should look like 2 x 2 + x 5 = 0 2) In this equation, a=2, b=1, and c= -5. Now plug those values into the formula for the discriminant. It should look like 12 4(2)(5) 3) When you calculate it out, it should look like 1-(-40), which equals positive 41. So, the discriminant = 41. Since the solution is greater then zero, this problem has 2 real solutions and 2 x 2 + x 5 cannot be factored since 41 is not a perfect square. ________________________________________________________________________________

Now do it yourselfIm done

Practice: Find the discriminant of the equations. How many and what kind of solutions does each problem have? Also, determine if it can be solved by factoring.
1) x 2 + 4 x = 20 2) x 2 + 6 x + 5 =0 3) 4 x 2 + 8 x + 4 = 0 And thats about it!

55

5-2 Finding the Vertex of a Parabola


1. Vertex- the point on the parabola that lies on the axis of symmetry. This point is the lowest or highest point on the parabola with a vertical axis of symmetry and the leftmost or rightmost point on a parabola with a horizontal axis of symmetry. 2. Parabola- the set of all points equidistant from a point called the focus and a line called the directrix. The focus lies on the axis of symmetry and the directrix is perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. 3. Axis of Symmetry- the line perpendicular to the parabolas directrix and passing through its focus
.

Definitions for This Topic:

x = b 2a

Formula:

the vertex will be b , f b


2a 2a
.

1. 2. 3. 4.
.

Plug values from equation into the formula for x. Solve for x. Plug the x value back into the original equation. Solve for y.

Steps:

Examples:
y = x2 4
a b c
1. 2. 3.

y = x2 4x + 8
a b c

1. In this equation the b value is 0.


2. 3. 4.

0 0 = 2(1) 2
2

( 4) 4 = =2 2(1) 2
x = 2.
2

x = 0.

y = (0 ) 4 y = 04

y = (2 ) 4(2) + 8 y = 48+8

5.
.

y= -4

4. y=4

56

Practice problems:
Find the vertex for each 1. 2. 3. 4.

y = x 2 + x + 10

y = x 2 9x y = x2 + 4

y = x 2 10 x + 6 2 5. y = x

To find the maximum heights if bridges during construction Roads are on a slight curve, so water drains off to each side. Projectile equations

Real Life Applications:

57

5-3 Factoring Binomials


Binomials are Expressions with two terms. Like

x2 9

Steps to Factoring Binomials:

2. Then see if the Binomial fits into one of the special formulas a. Difference of Squares: a 2 b 2 = (a + b )(a b ) b. Difference of Cubes: a b = (a b ) a 2 + ab + b 2
3 3

1. Look at your binomial and take out the GCF if there is one.

c.

( ) Sum of Cubes: (a + b ) = (a + b )(a


3 3

ab + b 2

3. Plug into the Formula and factor completely


Example Problems: 1. Factor:

18 x 2 32
18 x 2 32 = 9 x 2 16 2 (3x + 4)(3x 4) (Difference of squares)

The GCF is 2 so,

Put the 2 you took out back in for your final answer:

2(3x + 4)(3x 4)
2

2. GCF is 2.

4x
2

18

4 x 18 = 2x 2 9 2
Does not fit into the Formulas, so final answer is:

2 2x 2 9

3.

27 x 3 + 64
3

Take cube root of problem,

27 x 3 3 64 a = 3 x, b = 4

Plug into formula (sum of cubes)

(3x + 4)(9 x 2 12 x + 16)

58

Practice!!
Factor completely, if possible: 2 1. 50 x 72
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Remember Your Formulas!

18 x 27

9 x 16

81x 3 x
8 x 6 + 125

10x 3 + 270

59

____________________________________________________________
Factoring Trinomials is very significant skill in the field of math because it lets an individual solve higher degree equations.

Factoring Trinomials

5-4

Steps:
1. Factor out the GCF 2. Determine the signs + +=+ + - + = - + - = + - or - + - - = + - or - + 3. Make a table of choices for the first and last terms 4. Then pair the terms from the table of choices until the outers and the inners combine to make the middle term ______________________________________________________________ Always remember to check if the equation factors or not before starting to factor. To check use the discriminate formula:

b 2 4ac
And if the square root of this solution is an integer, it can be factored.
a b c

Example :

9 x 2 12 x + 4
b 2 4ac (12) 2 4(9)(4)
144 144 = 0 0 =0 9 x 2 12 x + 4 + =
.

*Then multiply a term by four. and multiply the solution to the c term. *Then subtract the solutions. *Square root your solution. *Since the root is an integer, it can be factored There is no GCF to take out so determine your signs.

9 x 2 = 3 x 3 x;9 x x
60

4 = 4 1;2 2 (3 x 2) 2

*Make table of choices. *Finally find the pair which combines to make the middle term.

Example: 36 x 2 + 48 x 20 b 2 4ac (48) 2 4(36)(20)

*Square the b term. *Then multiply a term by four and multiply the solution to the c term. 2304 2880 = 5184 *Then subtract the solutions. square root your solution *Since the root is an integer, it can be factored *Take out the GCF *Determine your signs.

5184 = 72 36 x 2 + 48 x 20
4 9 x + 12 x 5 += 9 x 2 = 3 x 3 x;9 x x 5 = 5 1; 4(3 x + 5)(3 x 1)
2

*Make table of choices *Finally find the pair which combines to make the middle term. ________________________________________________________________________________ Practice Problem: 1. x 2 5 x 6 2. 30 x 2 29 x 4 3. x 2 + 48 x 20

61

5-5 Simplifying radicals has many applications in algebra. This skill is needed for the quadratic formula, completing the square, and the square root methods of solving quadratic equations. nth root (3, 4, 5, etc.) of 10 is 10.

Simplifying Radicals

Radicals: A radical is the symbol

, which denotes a square root. The symbol

denotes an

Radicand: A radicand is the number or expression inside the radical. For example, the radicand

Rules to keep in mind when simplifying radicals:


1. All radicands must be simplified completely 2. No fractions as radicands 3. No radicals on the denominator

In order to simplify radicals, it is valuable to create a list of perfect squares, or radicands that when simplified, contain no radicals. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169

Examples:
#1. 49 77 7 #2. 52 4 13 2 13 Since 49 is a perfect square, it simplifies completely 52 is not a perfect square, so we need to find the greatest perfect square that is a factor of 52 The greatest perfect square root that goes into 52 is 4 Simplify by taking the square root of 4 and leaving 13 in the radical

Radicals as fractions:
#3.

4 5 4 5 2 5

Start by creating two separate radicals on the numerator and denominator Since 4 is a perfect square, it can be simplified. However, 5 is not a perfect square, and has no perfect squares as factors.

2 5 Eliminate radicals on the denominator by rationalizing the denominatormultiply 5 5 the numerator and the denominator by 5

62

2 5 55 2 5 25
2 5 5

Simplify

Final answer

Negative Radicals:

In the real number system, square roots of negative numbers do not exist.. #4. 43 doesnt exist

Complex Number System Real Rational Integer Imaginary

Whole

Natural

Practice Problems:
1. 9

2. 121

3.

50

12 36 16 5. 37 49 6. 10
4. 63

5-6 Simplifying Complex Numbers Before this chapter you have been unable to take the square root of a negative number because it does not exist in the real number system, however, complex numbers allow for the square rooting of negative numbers. The solution to a negative square root is an imaginary number represented by i .

What is a Complex Number?

i = 1

Real Numbers

Imaginary Numbers

Complex Number System

Steps 1. Rewrite your equation from x to xi 2. If x is a perfect square, such as 16, take its root and place i behind it ex : 4i 3. If x is not a perfect square, such as 84 , then find the largest perfect square that can go into it, which would be 4 21 4. Take the perfect square, in this case 4, and take its square root leaving the imperfect square on the inside 2 21 5. Remember to put the i that was taken out in step 1 back into the solution at this point, 2 21 i

Simplifying Complex Numbers

Example 1. 25 Example 2. 2 27 Example 3. 1 9

Examples
25 i 2 27 i
1 i 9 1 i 9
5i

2 93 i
1 i 3

23 3 i

6 3i

64

Practice Problems
1. 16 2. 3 45 3.

15 81

i1 = i i i i
2 3 4

= 1 = i = 1

65

Section 5-1

Answers 1) -64, two imaginary solutions, cant factor 2)16, two real solutions , can factor 3) 0, 1 real solution, can factor

5-2 5-3

1) 1 , 39 2) 9 , 81 3)
2 4
2 4

(0,4 ) 4) (5,19) 5) (0,0)

1.2(5 x + 6)(5 x 6) 2. 9(2 x 3) 3. Cant Factor 4. x(9 x + 1)(9 x 1) 5. (2 x 3 + 5)(4 x 6 10 x 3 + 25)

6. 10 (x + 3)(x 2 3x + 9)

5-4 5-5 5-6


1. (x-6)(x+1) 2. (-1)(5x+4)(6x+1) 3. cannot factor 3 4 37 7 10 1.)3 2.)11 3.) 5 2 4.) 5.) 6.) 3 37 10 15 1. 4i 2. 9 5 i 3. i 9

66

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67

6-1 Solving by Factoring


Definitions: Factoring A process used to write a polynomial as a product of other polynomials having equal or lesser degree. Binomials An expression with two terms. Trinomials An expression with three terms. Formulas: Difference of squares (a 2 b 2 ) = (a + b)(a b) Perfect square trinomial - (a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ) = (a + b) 2 or
Discriminant formula (b 2 4ac)

(a 2 2ab + b 2 ) = (a b) 2

Steps and Rules: - In order to solve by factoring the discriminant has to be a perfect square. Factoring Trinomials
1) 2) 3) 4) Set equation = 0 Factor out the GCF Determine your signs Make a table of choices for firsts

Factoring Binomials
1) Set equation = 0 2) Factor out the GCF 3) Apply the formulas to the equation 4) Set each factor = 0 and solve Ex. 1) x 9 = 0
2

and lasts 5) Try pairs from tables until outers And inners combine to make the middle term. 6) Set each factor = 0 and solve Ex. x 12 x 28 = 0
2

( x 3)( x + 3) = 0

{3, -3} Ex. 2) x 16 = 0


4

( x 2 4)( x 2 + 4) = 0 ( x 2)( x + 2)( x 2 + 4) = 0


{2 , -2}

( x 14)( x + 2) = 0 {14, 2} Anything Special to Remember:

- Make sure the equation is factored and simplified completely. - Dont forget to factor the GCFs. - In order to be a square the exponent must be even.
68

Practice problems:
1) x 2 4 x 21 = 0 2) x 2 2 x 8 = 0 3) v 2 14v = 49 4) 3x 2 + 10 x + 3 = 0

69

6-2 Solving by Square Roots


Used for problems with no bx terms

Definitions:
Radical SymbolRadicand- x if x i = 1 i = an imaginary number in the real number system

Formulas:
ab = a b

a = b

a b

Steps:
Determine what term is being squared and isolate it Take the square root of both sides Simplify the radical(s) Isolate x if not done already

Example:
4x 2 -7 =65 x 2 =18 x = 18 x = { 3 2 } Isolate the term that is being squared Take the square root of both sides Simplify the Radical Add the

2 3

Dont Forget!
There should never be a radical in the denominator The for the solutions Simplified radicals dont have perfect square under the radical unless its 1

70

Practice Problems: 1) 2) 3)
1 (x+5) 2 3

=7

3x 2 + 10 = -26 2x 2 + 1 = 17

71

6-3 Solving By Completing the Square


Definition: Completing the Square is a process that allows you to write an
2 expression of the form x + bx as the square of a binomial.

Steps:

1. Rewrite the equation to ax 2 + bx = c and leave a space. 2. Divide the equation by a . 3. Find the number that completes the square and add it to both sides of the equation. To find the number that completes the square, divide b by 2 and then square 4. Rewrite the trinomial as a binomial square. 5. Solve by taking square roots. Hint- Dont forget to add when you take the square roots.

Examples:

x2 6x + 5 = 0

5 5

x 2 6 x __ = 5 x2 6x + 32 = 5 + 32 x2 6x + 9 = 4
( x 3)2 = 4

Dont forget to leave a space write as binomial square Take the square root of both sides

x 3 = 2
+3 +3

x = 5, x = 1

{5 ,1}

72

2x 2 6x 8 = 0

2.)

+8
2 2

+8
2

2 x 2 6 x ___ = 8

Divide by a 2 and Leave a space

3 3 x 2 3x + ( ) 2 = 4 + ( ) 2 2 2
x2 3x +
(x

9 25 = 4 4

3 5 x = 2 2

3 2 ) = 2

25 4

Square root both sides

x = 4, x = 1

{4, 1}

Practice Problems:
1. x 2 10 x + 26 = 0 2. x 2 x 5 = 0 3. x 2 10 x + 139 = 0 4. 5 x 2 + 6 x = 8

73

6-4 Solving With Quadratic Formula


Before you start, here is a definition you will need: *Discriminant-( b 2 4ac ) Expression under the radical sign, determines the number and type of solutions
b 2 4ac > 0 b 2 4ac = 0 b 2 4ac < 0

there are 2 real solutions there is 1 real solution there are 2 imaginary solutions

The Formula:

x =

b 2 4 ac 2 a
b ) 2a

*Composed of the discriminant (b 2 4ac) and the vertex formula (

The Steps:
1. Set the Equation equal to zero (=0) 2. Plug a, b, and c into the quadratic formula 3. If you can, simplify the equation

To help you remember the formula, sing it to the song Pop Goes the Weasel
Simplify your answer completely and pay attention to radicals. For example: 48 3 = 24 3 2

Examples:
1. x 2 6 x 7 = 0 (2 real solutions) a= 1 b=-6 c=-7

b b 2 4ac 2a
6 36 + 28 2

=
=

(6) (6) 2 4(1)(7) 2(1) =


68 2

6 64 2 x = 7 x = -1

74

2. x 2 6 x + 9 = 0 (1 real solutions) a= 1 b= -6 c= 9

b b 2 4ac 2a

(6) (6) 2 4(1)(9) = 2(1) = 3

6 6 0 = 2 2 2 3. x + 2 x 2 (2 imaginary solutions)

a=-1 b=2 c=-2 b b 2 4ac 2a


2 4 2

(2) (2) 2 4(1)(2) = 2(1) =


2 2i 2

1 i

Practice Problems:
1. x 2 5 x 14 = 0 (2 real solutions)

2. 2 x 2 12 x + 18 = 0 (1 real solution)

3. 9 x 2 + 4 x + 5 = 0 (2 imaginary solutions)

75

6-5
Steps:

Solving By Graphing Calculator

The easiest way to find the roots of a parabola is to graph it in a graphing calculator and find where the parabola intersects the x-axis.

1 Set equation equal to zero 2 Type the equation into y= in the graphing calculator 3 If you need to, zoom in or out so you can see where the parabola crosses the x-axis 4 Press second, TRACE, 2 5 Use the arrow keys and position the blinking dot on the left root. Then press the left arrow key twice and press ENTER. 6 Then use the arrow keys and position the blinking dot on the left root again. Press the right arrow key twice and press ENTER. 7 Press ENTER again to get your answer. 8 That is one root of the parabola. Repeat 4 -7 again for the other root.

Example:
1. x 2 - 12= 0 - type into calculator

- 2nd, TRACE, 2

- blinking dot to left of root - press Enter

- blinking dot to right of root - press Enter

76

- ENTER

- The x value is a solution. - Repeat process for the other root. Answers: {-3.46,3.46)

Practice Problems:
1. x 2 +13= 14 2. x 2 -25= -45 3. x 2 +15= 29 4. x 2 -13x= -7

77

6-6 Graphing Parabolas


Definitions: Quadratic Function: equation in the form Parabola: the graph of a quadratic function, u-shaped Vertex: lowest or highest point on the graph of a quadratic function Axis of Symmetry: vertical line through the vertex Root: a point at which the line crosses the x-axis Steps: 1. Graph in the calculator to get an idea of what it should look like 2. Make a T-chart 3. Find the vertex 4. Find the roots by setting the equation =0 and solving. (Convert to decimals to graph) 5. Pick additional x values, find y, and use symmetry to graph Use the TABLE button on a graphing calculator to find points easily If the discriminant is: - negative: there are 2 imaginary roots - zero: there is one real roots - positive: there are two real roots

y = ax 2 + bx + c

x = b / 2 a
- this is the equation for the x value of the vertex, next plug this in for the y value of the vertex If If

a0 , the parabola opens down

a0 , the parabola opens up

78

Example:

y = x2 + 4x + 3
-now do step #1 Step #3

4 4 = = 2 2(1) 2
Step #4

y = x2 + 4x + 3
(x + 3)(x + 1) x+3=0 x+1=0 x= -3 x= -1 Now pick additional x values, find y, and use symmetry to graph
y 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 4 x 5

Practice Problems: 1.

3 4 5

y = x + 4x + 7
2

79

Answers to Chapter 6 Practice Problems


Section Answers

6-1

6-2

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3.

{7,3} {4,2} {7} {1 / 3,3}

{-5 21 } { 2 3 i} { 2 2 }

6-3

1. {5+i, 5-i} 1 19 2. { i} 2 2

114 3. { 4 4. { ,2 } 5

i + 5 }

6-4

1. {7, -2} 2. {3} 3. {


2 41 i} 9

6-5

1.(-1, 0) (1, 0) 2. No real solution 3.(-3.74, 0) (3.74, 0) 4.(.56, 0) ( 12.44, 0) 1.


y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 x 5

6-6

80

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81

Operation Add/Subtract Multiply Power to Power Division

What do you to the coefficients? Add/subtract Multiply Raise to the power Reduce

What do you do to the bases? Nothing Nothing Nothing Nothing

What do you do to the exponents? Nothing Add Multiply Subtract

ax c a- The coefficient x- The variable (assume it is a positive real number) c- The exponent Example: 5x 3
Examples 1. Evaluate 4 2 * 4 4 add exponents, but leave base the same. = 46 2. Evaluate 82 3 multiply exponents = 8 6

3. Simplify (2 x 5 y 3 ) raise coefficient, leave bases, and multiply exponents 2 6 x 30 y 18


6

( )

evaluate = 64 x 30 y 18

10 x10 y 4 z 3 4. Simplify reduce coefficients, leave bases, and 24 x14 y 4 z


5z subtract exponents = 12 x 4
2

*When subtracting the exponents, the side that has the larger exponent is the side the new subtracted exponent goes on.*

82

Practice Problems 1. 2 x 10 + 4 x 10 2.

4. x 5 5. 6 x 11 3 x10

(a b )(a b )c
2 5 3
2

1 3. xy 3 3

83

Zero Exponents

Any number to the zero power is 1 (except 0 0 ).


0 0 is indeterminant

Examples: 1. 2 0 =1
0 2. (5) =1

Negative Exponents
1. Move the term being raised to the negative exponent. If it is on the numerator move it to the denominator ,and if it is on the denominator move it to the numerator. 2. Make the exponent positive 3. Evaluate the exponent Examples: 1. (5) 2

1 (5) 2
1 25 x 2. ( 2) 5

Move the term being raised to the negative exponent to the denominator. Evaluate the exponent.

(2)5 x 1
32x

Move the term being raised to the negative exponent from the denominator to the numerator Evaluate the exponent ( x 0 )

84

Practice Problems
Assume ( x 1. (32) 0 4. (3) 3

0, y 0 )
2. 0 0 5. 3 x 4 y 0 3. (6) 2 6. ( xy ) 2

85

Adding Polynomials
Line up the corresponding terms and then combine the like-terms. Do not forget place holders.

x 3 5 x 2 + 4 x 11 Place Holder 3 2 + 4 x + 0 x + 8x 14 5 x 3 5 x 2 + 12 x 25
Subtracting Polynomials
Line up the corresponding terms. Distribute the negative/subtraction sign and then combine the like-terms. Dont forget place holders.

4x2 + 3x 5
(3x2 + 2 x + 6)

Distribute

4x2 + 3x 5 3x2 2x 6
7 x 2 + x 11

86

Multiplying Polynomials
To multiply polynomials, each term of the first polynomial must be multiplied by each term of the second. Create a table to solve the problem, and then simplify by combining the like-terms. ( x 2 3 x 4)( x + 3)

3x
3x
2

x
3

x3
3 x
2

4x
12

9x

Resulting Expression: Simplified Expression:

x3 + 3x 2 3x 2 9 x 4 x 12
x
3

13 x 12

Practice Problems:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
2 2 2

(8 x + 1) + (3x 2) (4 x 11x + 10) + (5 x 31) (x 6 x + 5) (x + x 2) (7 x 1) (15 x + 4 x x + 3) (x + 3)(x 4 x + 9) (x + x + 4)(2 x x + 1)


2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2

87

Steps: Make sure the dividend and divisor are in descending order and insert place
holders if needed. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Divisor Divide the first terms. Multiply the quotient by the divisor. Change the signs and subtract. Bring down the next term. Dividend Repeat these steps until no more terms can be brought down.

b c

Quotient

* Remainders: If there is a remainder, add it to the


end of the quotient as the numerator. The denominator is your divisor.

Examples: Step 1:
needed in

x + 7 x2 + 6 x 7

x + 7 x2 + 6x 7

1.) There are no place holders


the first step because the terms are already in descending order.

Step 2:

x 2 x + 7 x + 6x 7

2.) the quotient in the same number of


spaces over as there are terms in the divisor. This problem has 2 terms in the divisor so the quotient would start above the second term in the dividend. Multiply the quotient by the divisor and subtract (change the signs).

Divide the first terms and place

x Step 3 & 4: x + 7 x + 6 x 7
2

x 7x
2

3&

0 x Step 5: x 2 x + 7 x + 6x 7 x2 7x x7

5.)
Final quotient

Bring down the next term.

x 1 2 Step 6: x + 7 x + 6 x 7 x2 7x x7 x+7 0
88

6.)

Repeat until no more terms can be brought down.

Final quotient

3 x 2 + 9 x + 20 + x 3 Example 2: Example 3: 3 2 38 x 3 3x 3 + 0 x 2 7 x 5 3x + 9 x 3x 8 + x + 5 2 x + 5 3x + 7 x 2 9 x2 2 7 x 2 9 x + 27 x 3 x 15 x 8x 2 20 x 5 Final quotient + 8 x + 40 20 x + 60 55 38

55

Sample Problems: 1.) x 10 2 x + 5x 3 2.) x 3 + x 2 5 2 x 4 + 2 x 3 10 x 9

3.) x 2 5 5 x 3 7 x + 4

89

(a + b) = __ a n b 0 + __ a n 1b1 + __ a n 2b 2 + ... + __ a 0b n
Steps 1~ Find the row in Pascals Triangle that corresponds with the exponent n 1 1 1 n=2 1 2 1 n=3 1 3 3 1 n=4 1 4 6 4 n=5 1 5 10 10 5 1 Pascals Triangle 2~ Substitute variables *Hint* Fill in the open spaces with numbers from Pascals Triangle 3~ Evaluate 4~ Simplify

Formula n

Example - Use Pascals Triangle to expand (2 x + 3)


n

*Formula (a + b ) = __a nb 0 + __a n 1b1 + __a n 2b 2... + __a 0b n *Substitute Variables 3 3 0 2 1 1 2 0 3 (2 x + 3 ) = 1(2 x ) (3 ) + 3(2 x ) (3 ) + 3(2 x ) (3 ) + 1(2 x ) (3 ) *Evaluate 3 (2 x + 3 ) = (8 x 3 )(1 ) + ( x 2 )(3 ) + (6 x )(9 ) + (27 ) 12 *Simplify (2 x + 3) = 8 x 3 + 36 x 2 + 54 x + 27
3

90

Practice -

1~ 2~ 3~

(5 x + 7 )4

(3x + 2)5

(x 4)3

91

What is it? ~A shortcut to polynomial long division When can it be used? ~Only when the divisor is in the form x-k

Steps
~Set up problem (insert all the place holders)

Hints
~ If there isnt a place holder then insert a zero. ~If the last digit isnt a zero then write x-k under the last number for the remainder . ~Use the opposite of k. If k is -2, then use 2 in the synthetic division.

k --- --- --- --~Bring down the first coefficient ~Multiply by k ~Add ~Repeat this cycle ~#s in the answer are coefficients of the quotient

Examples
1)
x 2 3 x
3

+ x

+ 2 x 4

3 2 3

1 6 7

2 14 16

-4 32 28

3x 2 + 7 x + 16 +
2)
x + 5 2x3 + x + 6

28 x2

If the last number is not a zero then it becomes a remainder over the divisor.

2 -5

0 1 6 -10 50 -255 2 -10 51 -249


249 x+5

2 x 2 10 x + 51

92

What is it? ~ A shortcut for evaluating f(x)

Steps:
~ Set up the problem (in place holder)

Hint:
~ Place holders need to be

inserted all the way down to the constant x coefficients of dividend


~ The remainder is your answer

Example
Old way 1)
f ( x) = 5 x 2 + 6 x 7; when x = 1 f (1) = 5(1) + 6(1) 7
2

New way
5 1 5 6 5 11 -7 11 4

5 + 6 -7 4

2)
3

f ( x ) = x 4 2 x 2 x + 1 when x = 3
1 1 0 3 3 -2 9 7 -1 21 20 1 60 61

f(3)= 61

Practice Problems:
1. ( x 7 x 6) ( x 2)
3

5. f ( x) = 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 + 4 x + 8 when x = -2
1 3 x when x = 4 2 7. f ( x) = 5 x 4 8 x 3 + 7 x 2 when x = 1

2. (4 x 2 + 5 x 4) ( x + 1) 3. ( x 2 + 10) ( x + 4) 4. (2 x 4 6 x 3 + x 2 3x 3) ( x 3)

6. f ( x) = x +

8. f ( x) = 7 x 3 + 9 x 2 + 3x when x = 10

93

Answers to Chapter 7 Practice Problems


Section 7-1 Answers 1. 1 2. indeterminant 3. 6.
1 x y2
2

1 36

4.

3 1 5. 4 27 x

7-2 1. 6x10 2. a 7b 4c 3. 7-3


1 2 6 x y 9

4. x 25

5. 2x

1. 11x 2 1 2. 4 x 2 6 x 21 3. 7 x + 7 3 2 4. 8 x 4 x + x 4 5. x 3 x 2 3x + 27 6. 2 x 4 + x 3 + 8 x 2 3x + 4 1. x + 15 +
147 x 10

7-4

2. 2 x

9 3. x + x2 + 5
3

5x +

18 x + 4 x2 5

7-5

1. 243 x 5 + 810 x 4 + 1080 x 3 + 720 x 2 + 240 x + 32 2. 625 x 4 + 3500 x 3 + 7350 x 2 + 6860 x + 2401 3. x 3. 12 x 2 + 48 x 64 1. x 2 + 2 x 3 4. 2 x 3 + x
12 x2

7-6

2. 4 x + 1

5 x +1

3. x 4 +

26 x+4

3 x3

5. 4 6. 36 7. 4 8. 7930

94

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95

Section 8-1

Formulas to remember!!!
Sum of Cubes:

a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2 )
a 3 b 3 = (a b ) a 2 + ab + b 2

Difference of Cubes:

Steps for Factoring Cubes:


1. Factor out the Greatest Common Factor or GCF. 2. If it is a sum of cubes plug a and b into the equation. Note: a and b are the cube roots

Examples:
x 3 + 27
3

x 3 125

x3

27 b=3

x3
2

125 b=5

(x + 3)(x 2 3 x + 9 )

a=x

(x 5)(x

a=x

+ 5 x + 25

96

Problems to Try!!
1. 2. 3. 4.

x 3 + 512
x 3 1728
27 x 9 + 216

3 x 3 + 10

97

Section 8-2
Introduction: When factoring polynomials with four terms,
an easy method to solving is factoring by grouping, where you actually group the first set and the last set of terms together

Steps:
1.) Like most other factoring methods, you should first factor out the Greatest Common Factor (GCF). 2.) Next, you actually group the first two and the last two terms together. 3.) Once again, you must factor out the GCF from each pair of grouped binomials. 4.) Finally, if the remaining factors are identical, group the GCFs and leave the identical factors and put the single binomial into the expression.

Example:
Step1:
There is no GCF

10x3 9x2 + 20x 18 10 x 3 9 x 2 + 20 x 18

Step2:
Group terms

(10 x 3 9 x 2 ) + (+20 x 18) (10 x 3 9 x 2 ) + ( +20 x 18) x2 2 x 2 (10 x 9) +2(10 x 9)

Step3:
Factor out the GCF from each group

Step4:
Put the GCFs into a group using parenthesis, and put them back into the equation.
Note: since the remaining factors from step 3 were both (10x-9), then just keep them grouped in the final equation.

( x 2 + 2)(10 x 9)

98

Practice Problems:
1.) x 3 + 7 x 2 + 2 x + 14 2.) 6 x3 9 x 2 + 2 x 3 3.) x3 + 3 x 2 + 4 x + 12

99

Section 8-3

To factor these equations perform the following steps in order; 1. Factor out the GCF. 2. Factor problem. 3. Continue step 2 until the equation can no longer be factored.

ALWAYS remember to factor out a GCF!!


5x 33 5x
GCF

5x( x 32 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x16 1)


16

Example: 5x(x

+ 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 8 1)

5x( x16 + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 4 + 1)( x 4 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 4 + 1)( x 2 + 1)(x 2 1) 5x( x16 + 1)(x 8 + 1)(x 4 + 1)( x 2 + 1)(x + 1)(x 1)

100

Practice Problems
1. 12 x 12 15 x 6 27 2. x 6 9 x 3 + 8 3. x 4 13 x 2 + 36

101

Section 8-4

Preview - In this subject you will learn how to solve for x in a


higher degree equation For Example:

2 x 3 20 x 2 = 50 x

The highest exponent tells you the maximum number of solutions possible

STEPS:
1. Set the Equation equal to zero 2 .Factor out the equation completely 3. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for the real solutions **SUGGESTION : Graph each factor to see if it crosses the **SUGGESTION x-axis because some factors can be ignored if their lines do not cross the x-axis.

Example Problem:
2 x (2 x x
3 3 3

20 x 20 x
2

2 2

+ 50 x = 0

1) Set equation = 0 2

+ 5 0 x ) / 2 = 0 / 2 2) Simplify the equation by dividing by


3) Factor the equation 4) Set each factor = 0 5) Final answers are 0 and 5

10 x

+ 25x = 0 x = 5

x ( x 5 )( x 5 ) x = 0 x = 5

102

*Note: If the equation is set to zero you cannot divide by x if x is a common factor because x could be equal to zero.

Example:

3x 2 + 2 x + x = 0 (3x 2 + 2 x + x) / x = 0 / x

Practice Problems:
1) x 4 16 x 2 + 48 = 0 2) x 4 11x 2 + 19 = 1 3) 2 x 4 + 10 x 3 + 54 x 2 + 270 x = 0

103

Section 8-5

The Rational Zero theorem is used to solve polynomial equations. Rational Zero Theorem- If f(x), a function, has integer coefficients, then every rational zero of f has the following form.
Factor of constant p = q Factor of leading coefficient

Steps:
1) Set the polynomial equation equal to 0 and factor out a GCF. 2) *Recommended* Graph the function to get an idea of the number of the solutions. 3) List possible zeroes using the theorem. Dont forget each number is positive and negative. 4) Test each possible zero using synthetic substitution with the possible solution being on the outside and the coefficient on the inside. Insert place holders for exponents that are skipped.
x3 + x x3 + 0x 2 + x + 0

5) The remaining numbers are coefficients of another factor. 6) Set this factor equal to zero and solve with any of the processes i.e. Factoring, Quadratic Formula, Rational Zero Theorem, Square Roots, and Complete the Square.
104

Example:
x 4 9 x 2 + 20 = 0

Set equation equal to 0


1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20
20

p 1 2 4 5 10 20 = q 11 1 1 1 1
2 1 0 -9
0

List possible zeroes

2 4 - 10 - 20 1 2 - 5 - 10 0

x 3 + 2 x 2 5 x 10 = 0

(x

(x

+ 2x 2 ( 5 x 10 ) = 0 + 2 5 x

Test each possible zero using Synthetic Substitution Coefficients become another factor Solve the new equation

5 (x + 2) = 0
x = 2

x2 = 5

x= 5

5, 2

Answer

Practice these problems:


1. 2. 3.
x 3 + 2 x 2 11x 12 = 0

10 x 4 3 x 3 29 x 2 + 5 x + 12 2 x 4 21x 3 97 x 2 15 x + 14

105

Section 8-6

What is a

lead coefficient?
a is the lead coefficient

A number that precedes the first variable (when in descending order) For example, when given an expression in the following form:
ax 2 + bx + c

How

do you factor out the lead coefficient?

Look at the expression

2 x 2 + 3x 4
a=2

Divide each term (including the constant) by a. (If a is a fraction, then each term by the reciprocal)

2 x 2 + 3x 4 2 3 x2 + x 2 2
Dont forget to put the new expression in parenthesis with a on the outside.

3 2( x 2 + x 2) 2

106

Try

some on your own now:

1.) 3x 2 6 x + 9 2.) 2 x 2 + 9 x 6 3.) x 2 + 18 x + 10


1 8

107

Answers to Chapter 8 Practice Problems


Section 8-1 1. (x + 8)(x 2 8 x + 64) Answers 2. (x 12)(x 2 + 12 x + 144)

3. 27(x 3 + 2)(x 6 2 x 3 + 4) 4. cant factor

8-2

1. ( x 2 + 2 ) ( x + 7 ) 2. ( 3x 2 + 1) ( 2 x 3) 3. ( x 2 + 4 ) ( x + 3)

1. 3 ( 2 x3 + 3)( 2 x3 3)( x 2 + 1)( x 4 x 2 + 1) 8-3 2. ( x 2 ) ( x 2 + 2 x + 4 ) ( x 1) ( x 2 + x + 1) 3. ( x + 3)( x 3)( x + 2 )( x 2 )

8-4

1. {2 3, 2} 2. {3, 2 } 3. {0, -5}

8-5

1. {- 1, - 4, 3} 2. ,

4 - 3 1 5 1 -3 13 , 3. , 14, 2 2 5 2 2
9
1

8-6

1. 3 ( x 2 2 x + 3) 2. 2 x 2 + x 3 3. ( x 2 + 144 x + 80 ) 8 2

108

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109

Steps:
1 To convert from one form to the other, remember,

m/ n

2 Solve for the integer

Things to remember:
Assume that N is an integer greater than 1 and a is a real number

Examples:

Radical
4

Rational
16 5 / 4

Solution 4

16

27
16
3

27
16

3
64

3/ 2

110

Practice Problems:
Radical
3 1. 8 2.

Rational

Solution

32 3 / 5

3.

16 2 / 4

111

Index

i
Structure:

Real #

Steps to simplify radicals with index greater than two:


1. Examine the problem, assume R is a positive real number and all variables are positive. 2. Then find the largest cube, fourth power, or fifth power that is a factor of (R) using the index 3. Then take out the cube root, fourth root, or fifth root. Leave everything else inside. 4. If there is an x within the square root sign, divide its exponent by the index. 5. If the exponent of the x is not divisible by the index, break it down so that at least one of the exponents is divisible by the index.

Examples:
Ex: 1. Ex: 2.
5
3
3

64 =
125

4 =5

Ex: 3. Ex: 4.
112

32x15
4

= 2x =
4

32x15

16 2 x12 x 3 = 2x

3 4

2x 3

Things to Remember:
-If the problem has a negative in front of it, then the negative will go in front of the answer as well. -You can only solve a negative radical if the index is odd! -You do not divide the real number by the index, the index is the cube, fourth, or fifth root! Ex: 5.
5

32
3

= (-2)
2

4 =16
2

Ex: 6. 4

216
2

= - (6)

= -36

16 = not possible in the real number system, Ex: 7. index is even.

Practice Problems:

1)
4

2)
3

81x12
1000
2

3) 4) 5)

5 32 2
4

64x10

113

To solve equations with nth roots you have to: 1) Isolate the term that is being raised to a power 2) Take both sides to the reciprocal power

Things to Remember: If the radicand is positive and the index number is even, then add a +,- to the solution!

Example: Solve:

4x

= 324
( x 4 )1 / 4 = (81)1 / 4

4 x 4 = 324 4

x 4 = 81

x = 3

114

Practice Problems:
1) 2) 3)

5 x

= 125

( x + 2 ) 5 + 1024 = 0
5 ( 2 x + 1) 3 = 325

115

Things to Remember:
Radical Equations: equations that contain radicals or rational exponents that are not integers Extraneous solution- a solution of a resultant equation that is not a valid solution of the original equation

To solve radical equations you must:


1. Isolate radical 2. Raise each side to the reciprocal power 3. Solve for variable 4. Check for extraneous solutions

116

Helpful Hints: Difference between polynomial equations and radical


equations
Polynomial Equations Radical Equations

3x5 x 2 + 7 = 0
Check for

3x = 10 or (3 x )1 / 2 = 10
Check for extraneous solutions

Example:

x 4 = 0

64 4 = 0

( x 1 / 4 ) 4 = ( 4) 4
x = 256
Practice Problems:
1.

44 = 0
not extraneous

x +4=0

2.

4x 7 + 2 = 5
2x

3. x 4 =

117

The composition of a function f with function g is defined as h( x) = f ( g ( x)) The domain of h is the set of all x values such that x is the domain of g and g ( x ) is the domain of x .

Things to Remember:
f ( g ( x)) is not equal to g ( f ( x))

Examples:
f ( x) = (3x) 1
1. g ( h( f ( x ))) 1. First, f ( x) = (3 x) 1 , and now substitute that as the x value in the h equation. Assume x does not equal 0. 2. You now have h( x) =

g ( x ) = 2 x 1 h( x ) =

x
1

3 1 (3x) 1 , simply that to equal = 1 3x x 3 1 x

3. Now substitute that as the x value for the g function, 2( ) 1 , and then simplify that to get

2 1. x

118

Practice Problems:
f ( x) = x + 3
1.

g ( x) = 3x 2 7
2. f ( h( f ( g ( x))))

h( x) = 14
3. g ( f ( f ( h( x))))

f ( g (h( x)))

119

An inverse relation maps the output values (range) back to their original input values (domain). It switches the x and y values. The notation of an inverse function is

f 1 ( x)

To Find the Inverse of a Function:


1. Switch

y in the equation 2. Solve the equation for y . The resultant

x and

equation is

f 1 ( x ) .

Things to Remember:
~ The graph of an inverse relation is the reflection of the graph of the original relation over the line

y=x

~ The horizontal line test determines if a relations inverse is a function

To algebraically determine if two relations are inverses: 1. Find f ( g ( x))


2. Find g ( f ( x)) 3. If both equal x , then the relations are inverses of each other.

120

Example 1:

Find the inverse:


y = x2 + 2 x = y2 + 2

Switch x and y Isolate y Take the square root of both


f 1 ( x ) = x 2

x 2 = y2
x2 = y2

sides
x2 = y
Original graph

Inverse
y=x

Example 2: Verify that the two relations are inverses


f ( x) = 2 x 4 f ( g ( x)) =
Put g (x) in for x , distribute and simplify

g ( x) = 1 / 2 x + 2

g ( f ( x )) =

f (1 / 2 x + 2) = 2(1 / 2 x + 2) 4 = x+44 = x

g ( 2 x 4) = 1 / 2 ( 2 x 4) + 2 = x2+2 = x

Put f (x) in for x , distribute and simplify

Yes, they are inverses

Practice Problems:
Find the inverse: 1. y = 3x 3 2. y = 12 x + 7 Algebraically determine if the relations are inverses: 3.
f ( x) = 1 / 2 x + 1 g ( x) = 2 x 2

121

Answers to Chapter 9 Practice Problems

Section 9-1 1.
3

Answers
8 ,

1 3

,2

2. 5 32 ,

32

3 5

,8

3. 4 16 , 16 4 , 4

9-2

1. 64

2.

3x

3. 100

4. -4

5.

2x

24

4x2

9-3

1.

2. {6}

3. {

43 5 1 } 2

9-4

1.

2. x = 4

3. x = 8

9-5 1. 584 9-6 1.


1

2. 17

3. 1193 2.
x+7 f (x ) = 12
1

x+3 f (x ) = 3

3. yes

122

Chapter 10:
Rational Functions, Expressions, and Equations

Left to Right: Tiffany Spicer, Jen Buckley, Robert Kapp, and Calvin Haugh Kneeling: Tyler Grimes (Captain)

123

10-1:Graphing General Rational Functions:


Definitions
Zeros: The answer you get when you set the numerator equal to zero and solve. Vertical Asymptote: The answer you get when you set the denominator equal to zero and solve. *Interesting fact * The function always gets closer, but will never touch the vertical asymptote. Point Discontinuities: Any matching answers you get after you have set both the numerator and denominator equal to zero and solved. Hyperbola: graph of a rational function

Example:
y 6 5 4 3

Vertical Asymptote

Zeros
2 1

Point Discontinuities 5 4

x 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6

Steps: 1. Set the numerator equal to zero, and solve. (Answer = zeros)

2. Set the denominator equal to zero, and solve. (Answer = vertical asymptotes) 3. Check the answer from step 1 & 2, if any from 1 match any from 2, then they =point discontinuity. * Remember once you have found the point discontinuity, cross out that number from your answers for your zeros and vertical asymptote. *
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Example 1:
x 3 + 2 x 2 3x y= x2 + x 6
y 6 5 4 3 2

Zeros: (0, 0) and (1, 0) Vertical Asymptote: x=2


5 4 3 2 1

1 x 1 1 2 3 2 3 4 5 6

Point Discontinuity: at x = 3

Remember write answer for: Zeros as: a point Vertical Asymptote as: x = ? Point Discontinuity as: at x = ?
Example 2:
y 5 4

y=

x +3 2x 4
2
6 5 4 3 2 1

3 2 1 x

Zeros: None Vertical Asymtote: x=2 Point dicontinuity: None discontinuities


y= 3x 2 12 5 x 3 + 10 x 2

1 1 2 3 4 5

Practice Problems: Find the zeros, vertical asymptotes, and point

1)

2)

y=

3 x2

3) y = 3x

11x 4 x3 1

4) y =

x3 + 6 x 2 5 x + 30

125

10-2: Simplifying, Multiplying, and Dividing Rational Expressions!


Things to remember
-Remember how to factor

Simplifying
1. Factor the numerator and denominator completely 2. Cancel Common Factors

Example:
6x2 30x 36 2x2 72
Factor each

6( x 6)( x + 1) 2( x + 6)( x 6)

cancel them out =

3( x + 1) ( x + 6)

Multiplying
1. Factor all numerators and denominators 2. Cancel common factors

Example:

8 8x2 x2 + x + 1 24 x x3 1
( x + 1) 3x

Factor all

8( x + 1)( x 1) x 2 + x + 1 ( x 1)( x 2 + x + 1) 24 x

Cancel

126

Dividing
1. Change the problem to multiplying by the reciprocal 2. Follow the multiplying steps

Example:

x+9 x2 + 9 x 5 x 15 x 3 5 x 2 + 6 x

Change to the reciprocal

x + 9 x3 5x2 + 6 x 5 x 15 x2 + 9 x
x2 5

Factor

x+9 x ( x 3)( x 2) 5( x 3) x( x + 9)

Cancel

Practice:
1.)

2 2x 3 4x 2 + 4x + 4 x+3 (4 x 2 + 2 x + 1) 1 8x 3 + 1

2.)

16 x 2 + 4 x + 1 64 x 3 1 3.) 8 x 2 10 x 16 x 2

127

10-3: Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions


Things to Remember:
o LCD- the least common denominator is the lowest denominator shared by 2 or more fractions o Many problems will have unlike denominators, and must be converted to an LCD before adding or subtracting

Steps for Solving: Like Denominators


1) Add/subtract numerators by combining like terms (Write your answer over the denominator) 2) Simplify if possible

Steps for Solving: Unlike Denominators


1) Determine the LCD by factoring the denominators 2) Rewrite fractions over the LCD 3) Follow steps for Like Denominators

Examples:

2 16 + Add numerators 9x 9x 18 Simplify 9x 2 x 2 3x 2. + 2 Find LCD 10 x 2 ( x 2) Rewrite fractions over the LCD 2 5x 2x 4x 3x 5 x 2 2( x 2) + Simplify the numerators 10 x 2 ( x 2) 10 x 2 ( x 2)
1.

4x 8 15 x 2 + 10 x 2 20 x 10 x 2 ( x 2) 15 x 2 + 4 x 8 10 x 2 ( x 2)

Add the numerators by combining like terms

Factor the numerator if possible

15 x 2 + 4 x 8 10 x 2 ( x 2)

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Practice: Add or subtract the rational expressions. Be careful of unlike denominators! 1.


x 5 2 x 5x x 5x
2

2.

2x + 1 3 2 x + 8 x + 16 x 16
2

3.

10 x 4 5 + + 2 3x 3 x 1 6 x

129

10-4: Solving Rational Equations


Steps
1.) Find the domain by setting each denominator equal to 0. *Doing that will tell you all of the values that x cannot be* 2.) If you have a proportion, cross multiply. If not, multiply each fraction by the LCD in order to eliminate the fractions. 3.) Solve the resultant equation. 4.) Make sure to always check for extraneous solutions!!

Remember
You can only cancel terms when you are multiplying.

Example
1.)
3 1 12 = x 2 x

1. First! Find the domain. What will x not equal? Domain: {x | x 0} 2. Multiply every term by the LCD which is 2x. Your resultant equation will be

66 x 22 x 24 x x 3. Now you have to cancel common factors. In the 6 x , you x x 24 == x xx 2x xx 2 2 2


cancel out the xs and you are left with 6. In the out the 2s and you are left with x. In the 6 x = 24
130

2x , you cancel 2

24 x , you cancel out x

the xs and are left with 24. Your equation is now:

6 x = 24

4. Next, you solve this equation.

-6

-6

x = 18

5. Remember to make sure it is not an extraneous solution by plugging it back into your original equation!!
3 1 12 = 18 2 18 1 1 2 = 6 2 3

2 2 = 3 3

Not extraneous.

Practice problems
1.)
3x x = x + 4 x x(x + 4)
2

2.)

3x 2 6 = 2 +1 x2 x 4

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Answers to Chapter 10 Practice Problems:


Section 10-1 Answers 1.Zero: (2,0) Vertical Asymptote: x=0 Point Discontinuity: x=-2 2.Vertical Asymptote: x=0 3.Zeroes: ( , 0), (4,0) Vertical Asymptote: x=1 4. Zero: (0,0) Point Discontinuity: x=-6 10-2 1. 2. 3. 1.
(1 x) 2 x+3 1 2x 1 3

8x (4 x 5)(4 x 1) 1 x

10-3

2 x 2 10 x 16 2. ( x + 4) 2 ( x 4)

3. 10-4

49 x 2 + 24 x 5 6 x3 6 x

1. x = 3

2. { 3, 1}

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