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# RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

MB 0050

Name: XXXXX Roll number: XXXX Learning centre: XXXX Subject: MB 0050- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Assignment No.: Set 1 Date of submission at learning centre:

MB0050-Research Methodology

ASSIGNMENTS Subject code: MB0050 (4 credits) Marks 60 SUBJECT NAME: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Note: Each Question carries 10 marks Q1)a. Differentiate between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales, with an example of each. b. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research? a. Types of scales: Ans) There are four types of data that may be gathered in social research, each one adding more to the next. Thus ordinal data is also nominal, and so on. Nominal The name 'Nominal' comes from the Latin nomen, meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system. The only thing a nominal scale does is to say that items being measured have something in common, although this may not be described. Nominal items may have numbers assigned to them. This may appear ordinal but is not -these are used to simplify capture and referencing. Nominal items are usually categorical, in that they belong to a definable category, such as 'employees'. Example The number pinned on a sports person. A set of countries.

Ordinal Items on an ordinal scale are set into some kind of order by their position on the scale. This may indicate such as temporal position, superiority, etc. The order of items is often defined by assigning numbers to them to show their relative position. Letters or other sequential symbols may also be used as appropriate.

MB0050-Research Methodology

Ordinal items are usually categorical, in that they belong to a definable category, such as '1956 marathon runners'. You cannot do arithmetic with ordinal numbers -- they show sequence only. Example The first, third and fifth person in a race. Pay bands in an organization, as denoted by A, B, C and D.

Interval Interval data (also sometimes called integer) is measured along a scale in which each position is equidistant from one another. This allows for the distance between two pairs to be equivalent in some way. This is often used in psychological experiments that measure attributes along an arbitrary scale between two extremes. Interval data cannot be multiplied or divided. Example My level of happiness, rated from 1 to 10. Temperature, in degrees Fahrenheit.

Ratio In a ratio scale, numbers can be compared as multiples of one another. Thus one person can be twice as tall as another person. Important also, the number zero has meaning. Thus the difference between a person of 35 and a person 38 is the same as the difference between people who are 12 and 15. A person can also have an age of zero. Ratio data can be multiplied and divided because not only is the difference between 1 and 2 the same as between 3 and 4, but also that 4 is twice as much as 2. Interval and ratio data measure quantities and hence are quantitative. Because they can be measured on a scale, they are also called scale data. Example A person's weight The number of pizzas I can eat before fainting

MB0050-Research Methodology

those that relate to states of nature those which relate to relationships between variables

MB0050-Research Methodology

In understanding the problem, it is helpful to discuss it with colleagues or experts in the field. It is also necessary to examine conceptual and empirical literature on the subject. After the literature review, the researcher is able to focus on the problem and phrase it in analytical or operational terms. The task of defining the research problem is of greatest importance in the entire research process. Being able to define the problem unambiguously helps the researcher in discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones. Extensive literature review Review of literature is a systematic process that requires careful and perceptive reading and attention to detail. In the review of the literature, the researcher attempts to determine what others have learned about similar research problems. It is important in the following ways:

specifically limiting and identifying the research problem and possible hypothesis or research questions i.e. sharpening the focus of the research. informing the researcher of what has already been done in the area. This helps to avoid exact duplication.

If one had the literature and exercised enough patience and industry in reviewing available literature, it may well be that his problem has already been solved by someone somewhere some time ago and he will save himself the trouble. Nwana (1982).

Providing insights into possible research designs and methods of conducting the research and interpreting the results. Providing suggestions for possible modifications in the research to avoid unanticipated difficulties.

MB0050-Research Methodology

A thorough literature survey should demonstrate that you've carefully read and evaluated each article or book. Because research reports can be tedious and difficult to understand for new researchers, many tend to read others' conclusions or summaries and take the author's word that the data actually support the conclusions. Careful reading of both tables and text for awhile will convince you they don't always agree. Sometimes data are grossly misinterpreted in the text, but on other occasions authors are more subtle. Consider, for example, the following statements: Fully 30 percent of the sample said they did not vote. Only 30 percent of the sample said they did not vote.

MB0050-Research Methodology

Q3) a. What are the characteristics of a good research design? b. What are the components of a research design?
Ans) Research Design Definition

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose witheconomy in procedureIs the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes theblueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data more explicitly: i.What is the study about? ii.Why is the study being conducted? iii.Where will the study be carried out? iv.What type of data is required? v.Where can the required data be found?
Components of research design

http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=components%20of%20research %20design&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDIQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F %2Fposta.marmara.edu.tr%2F~sozmen%2F2003-2004%2Fresearch_methodology %2Fweek_4.doc&ei=KgOgTo-aEofqrAeFkbWNAw&usg=AFQjCNG1ctNqNjUq_ilsO4muicz4Z2eBA&sig2=RFuXRcsnlsSIOe9zWHhr5A&cad=rja 4. a. Distinguish between Doubles sampling and multiphase sampling.

## b. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling?

[ 5 marks] [ 5 marks]

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_double_sampling http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multistage_sampling Assignment - PM0010 - Introduction to Project Management - Set 2_files\10-4e43f83afa.jpg https://onlinecourses.science.psu.edu/stat506/node/54 5.

## a. How is secondary data useful to researcher?

[ 5 marks]
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MB0050-Research Methodology

## b. What are the criteria used for evaluation of secondary data?

http://www.steppingstones.ca/artman/publish/article_60.shtml http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/resmeth/secondary.html 6.

[ 5 marks]

What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. [10 marks].

http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-observation-and-vs-interviewing-asmethods-of-data-collection/