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# Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Departement Meganiese en Lugvaartkundige Ingenieurswese

THERMAL AND FLUID MACHINES MTV 420 ASSIGNMENT 1 DUE DATE: 8 SEPTEMBER 2011 8AM

Thermal Machines Cp = 1.004 kJ/kg-K kp = 1.4 cpg = 1.148 kJ/kg-K kpg = 1.333 Question 1 (8) A gas turbine power plant which produces 10MW of power operates on a simple Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid entering the cycle. Air enters the compressor at sea level atmospheric conditions with a compressor ratio of 10. The turbine inlet temperature is 1225C and there is a pressure drop of 50kPa over the combustion chamber. Assuming a Turbine and Compressor Efficiency of 85% and 80% respectively, determine: (a) The thermal efficiency of the cycle (b) The mass flow rate Question 2 (10) Air enters the compressor of an open ideal air/gas Brayton cycle at 100kPa, 290K with a mass flow rate of 6kg/s. The compressor ratio is 10. The maximum temperature in the cycle is 1500K. (a) Determine the thermal efficiency (b) If the regenerator with a total effect efficiency of 70% is incorporated into the cycle determine the revised thermal efficiency. Question 3 (6) Air is compressed from 100kPa, 310K to 1000kPa in a two stage compressor with intercooling between stages. The intercooler pressure is 350kPa. The air is cooled back to 310K in the intercooler before entering the second compressor stage. Each compressor is considered to be isentropic. Determine the temperature at the exit of the second compressor stage.

Question 4 (10) A fighter jet aircraft is flying with a velocity of 350m/s at an altitude of 9150m where ambient conditions are 30kPa, -30C. The pressure ratio across the compressor is 10 and the temperature at the turbine inlet is 1200K. Air enters the compressor at a rate of 30kg/s and the jet fuel has a heating value of 42000kJ/kg. Determine: (a) The velocity of the exhaust gases (b) The propulsive power developed (c) The rate of fuel consumption Question 5 (14) Service water is used for cooling water at a power station. A pressurised manifold is used to supply service water to various points at the power station. This is an expensive operation as the price of river water (used as the normal service water supply) is slowly rising. Power stations have other sources of water that is also suitable for service water supply such as rain water or recovered run off water. This water is captured at a power station in a recovery reservoir. You are asked to install a pump station that is able to recover water from the recovery reservoir into the pressurized service water manifold. Your pump station must be able to perform two duties, namely: Transfer at least 75l/s of recovered water from the reservoir into the service water manifold under normal conditions Transfer at least 140l/s of recovered water from the reservoir into the service water manifold during rainy conditions. Your client already has commercial steel pipe available (250mm NB, with 6mm wall thickness, SANS 719). This pipe must be used in your installation. The pipe must be installed such that it takes suction from the bottom of the reservoir and discharges into the service water manifold at a pressure of 200kPa. The gauge pressure in the manifold is 190kPa so you can assume that the exit velocity head at the discharge point is negligible. You can also assume that 100m of pipe will be installed with 4 90 bends. The following additional information is available to you: Your client has four identical pumps in his stores. Each pump requires a 45kW supply. Your client has two available points of supply in the nearest switchgear room. If possible, the client would prefer that the maximum power drawn from supply point is 30kW during running conditions. Assume a constant pump efficiency of 85%. The NPSH available is sufficient for the installation. The maximum static head between the reservoir water level and the service water manifold is 10m.

The pump characteristic curve can be plotted using the following table:
Flow (l/s) (1 Pump) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Head (m) 72 68 65 62 59 53 50 42 35 30 22 18 10

## K-Factors for the pipe components is as follows:

K (250 NB Pipe) 0.5 2.5 0.15 0.1 0.31 0.16 1

Sharp Entrances Non-Return Valves Gate Valves T-Pieces 90deg Elbows 45deg Elbows Sharp Exits

Pump configuration and valve installation is at your discretion. Remember that you will need to protect your pumps/service water manifold using NRVs and Isolation Valves. Minor losses due to the pipeline installation around the pumps can be ignored. The following properties should be used in your calculations.
Density Dynamic Viscosity Gravity Pipe roughness factor 998 1.00E-03 9.81 0.046 kg/m3 kg/(ms) m/s mm

a) b) c) d)

Draw the system diagram. Generate the system resistance curve and plot this against the pump characteristic curve. Determine the best pump configuration to meet your client needs. Tabulate your results, with respect to total head and total power requirements for each duty point. e) Discuss whether you will meet all of your clients requests.

Fluid Machines Question 1 (12) Steam is supplied to the first stage of a five stage pressure-compounded steam turbine at a stagnation pressure of 1.5 MPa and a stagnation temperature of 350C. The steam leaves the last stage at a stagnation pressure of 7.0 kPa with a corresponding dryness fraction of 0.95. By using a Mollier chart for steam and assuming that the stagnation state point locus is a straight line joining the initial and final states, determine (a) the stagnation conditions between each stage assuming that each stage does the same amount of work (b) the total-to-total efficiency of each stage (c) the overall total-to-total efficiency and total-to-static efficiency assuming the steam enters the condenser with a velocity of 200 m/s (d) the reheat factor based upon stagnation conditions

Question 2 (8) The axial component of air velocity at the exit of the nozzle of an axial flow reaction state is 180 m/s. At the nozzle outlet absolute flow angle 63o. Find the rotor blade angles at the inlet and outlet if the degrees should be 50% and the blade speed is 80 m/sec. Also for the same blade speed axial velocity and nozzle angle, find the degree of reaction if the relative velocity at the rotor outlet 327 m/s Question 3 (12) A single-stage axial flow turbine is to be designed for zero reaction without any absolute swirl at rotor exit. At nozzle inlet the stagnation pressure and temperature of the gas are 424kPa and 1100K. The static pressure at the mean radius between the nozzle row and rotor entry is 217 kPa and the nozzle exit flow angle is 70. (a) Sketch an appropriate Mollier diagram (or a T - s diagram) for this stage allowing for the effects of losses and sketch the corresponding velocity diagram. Using Soderbergs correlation to calculate blade row losses, determine for the mean radius (i) the nozzle exit velocity (ii) the blade speed (iii) the total-to-static efficiency (b) Verify for this turbine stage that the total-to-total efficiency is given 1/tt= 1/ts-(/2)2 where = cx /U. Determine the value of the total-to-total efficiency. Assume for the gas that Cp = 1.15 kJ/(kg K) and g = 1.333. Question 4 (8) A stage of an axial flow gas turbine corresponds to the velocity diagrams as shown in figure. The blade speed is 150 m/s and the axial velocity is constant 100 m/s throughout the stage. It was noted that C2 = W3 =200. Determine,

## (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

the flow coefficient the specific work done the stage loading factor the stage reaction sketch the stage showing stator and rotor blades with appropriate angles

2
2

c2

w3

w2 U

c3 3

Question 5 (10) The preliminary design of an axial flow compressor is to be based upon a simplified consideration of the mean diameter conditions. Suppose that the stage characteristics of a repeating stage of such a design are as follows: Stagnation temperature rise 25C; Reaction ratio 0.6; Flow coefficient 0.5; Blade speed 275 m/s. The gas compressed is air with a specific heat at constant pressure of 1.005 kJ/(kgC). Assuming constant axial velocity across the stage and equal absolute velocities at inlet and outlet: (a) draw the velocity diagram of the stag (b) determine the stage loading factor (c) determine the relative flow angles for the rotor (d) determine static enthalpy rise in the rotor