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Forensic Machines

What it does Description Pro/Con Separation Examples Chromatography : Paper / Gas / HPLC Separates a mixture of compounds into its various components Solubility principle: solubility differences between mobile / stationary phase Mixture is dissolved in either mobile or stationary phase Mixture is passed over the remaining phase The mixtures attraction to each phase (polarity) determines the retention factor: Chromatography is destructive Paper: Separates compound and identifies compounds within a mixture (comparison with standards) Description Stationary Phase: Filter paper (even and absorbent) Mobile Phase: Solvent (moves by callpilary action as its attraction to itself is greater than the strength of gravity) Adsorption of mixture onto cellulose fibres of filter paper vs solubility in the solvent Uses: inks, pigments in plants, Thin Layer: Separates compounds and identify compounds (by standards) Pro Cheap Can test lots of substances at once Con If solubility is similar, then it is not very accurate

Can be used for organic and inorganic substances

Description Stationary Phase: Glass with a thin layer of adsorbent crystalline material like silica (liquid attaches to the outside of the silica rather than being absorbed) Mobile Phase: Solvent (moves by callpilary action as its attraction to itself is greater than the strength of gravity) Adsorption of mixture on silica vs solubility in the solvent

Pro Relatively sensitive (100 micrograms)

Con If solubility is similar, then it is not very accurate

Can test lots of substances at once

Fast

Examples: Identification of drugs, analysis of dyes in colour fibres, pesticide reside in food GLC: Separates compounds, identifies compounds and determines concentration within a mixture (comparison with standards) Description Stationary Phase: Solid or liquid (column) Mobile Phase: Inert gas (helium) Movement by mobile phase vs solubility in solvent (liquid) / adsorption (solid) Pro Requires very small amounts of material Quick and easy Accurate: x10^-6g Con Compounds must vaporise below 250C (must be highly volatile) Cannot be used on explosive compounds due to oven High temperatures can damage substance being analysed

Examples: blood alcohol level of drivers, identify chemicals in drugs, which fuel started a fire HPLC: Separates compounds, identifies compounds and determines concentration within a mixture (comparison with standards)

Description Stationary Phase: Liquid resides on silica spheres that line the inside of the column Mobile Phase: Liquid High pressure pushes the solution of the sample through the column

Pro Higher degree of separation between components Can be used for non volatile substances such as carbohydrates Used for substances were high temperatures cannot be used (explosives)

Con Expensive

Examples: Drug analysis, explosive analysis, food analysis Electrophoresis Separates compound and identifies compounds within a mixture usually a protein (comparison with standards) Solubility principle: Charge and mass of molecule The paper/gel is soaked in electrolyte to provide the pH and buffered to maintain it Voltage is placed across the paper Pro Easy / Cheap Accurate: can separate DNA up to 2 base pairs Low cost Con Cant give concentration Destructive Uses ethidium bromide a known mutagen

Examples: DNA, genetic diagnosis, Hemoglobin, Viruses DNA Identifies DNA sequences to match two samples Solubility principle: Individuality of introns (eg child has 50/50 from mother and father) DNA is isolated o Sample is collected / Cell membrane is broken with enzymes / Centrifuged to separate it

Polymerase chain reaction copies specific sections of introns o Looking at short tandem repeats within the introns (4 base pairs) / Heat is used to separate chains / Primers mark certain section of the chain / Restriction enzymes cut the chain / Enzymes reproduce the chain Electrophoresis o Separation / Finished o Transferred to a nylon sheet to soak / Radioactive added to the DNA / This is then transferred Con Time Consuming Expensive Invasion of privacy / insurance companies / genetic discrimination (Huntingtons disease)

Pro Accuracy one in 10^9 DNA can be compared from two different body parts (bloody with saliva) Independent of age

Examples; can help clear people accused of crimes (Guy Paul Morrin), confirmed relationship between Nichloas II and Prince Philip, paternity tests, identification of people after disasters, can help with endangered species, can match organ donars, can trave evolutionary history Mass Spectrometry Identifies compounds OR elements by the mass/charge ratio of its constituent parts Does not separate compounds Solubility principle: Charge/mass ratio Vaporised sample is ionised Sample acclerated in electric field Deflected by external magnetic field The voltage is increase over time to change the force on each of the molecules Therefore different atoms reach the receiver at different voltages These are recorded along a time axis (the masses of each part of the compound) Also the charge is assumed 1 The mass spectra has many peaks corresponding to the parts of a compound Mass spectrometer A machine used to determine the relative atomic mass of an element or a molecule. A mass spectrometer separates the components in a mixture on the basis of their mass tocharge ratio (m/z).

Pro Small sample size Differentiates isotopes Fast

Con Difficult with non volatile compounds Can only test one sample at a time Needs pure samples

Examples: Looking for pesticides, measure plasma in space, carbon dating AES Identifies elements only Unique emission spectrum Pro Accurate can use detect lead in soil samples Cheap Small sample needed arsenic analysis Con Destructive Can only test one sample at a time

DIAGRAMS FOR AES / MASS / GLC / HPLC