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BOILER TUBE FACTS

Useful information and


technical data
on boilers

Mission

TABLE OF CONTENTS

To be the undisputed first choice for boiler pressure


parts in America. The Boiler Tube Company of
America. To establish a worldwide reputation as a
world-class manufacturer in the unique specialty of
boiler tube supply. The foundation for our vision is a
strong commitment to Quality, Customer Service,
Employees, Suppliers and the principles of
Continuous Improvement.

Section I
INTRODUCTION
A. Boiler Tube Company of America ............................................. 3
Section II
CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF BOILER TUBE FAILURES
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

This Boiler Tube Factsbook was prepared for you


the Boiler Engineer/Operator and Plant Engineer
as a current reference book to consult regarding
the care and preservation of your boiler. For
additional copies or more information on our boiler
tube and pressure parts replacement services,
please call Boiler Tube Company of America.

Damage Modes ........................................................................ 5


Precursors to DamageIdentification and Control .................. 6
Condition Assessment .............................................................. 7
Root Cause Failure Analysis .................................................... 7
Corrective ActionsEngineering and Implementation ............. 7
Regular Inspection Prevents Tube Failure ................................ 8
How to Buy Replacement Boiler Tubes ..................................... 8
Section III
FABRICATION

Boiler Tube Company of America


P.O. Box 517
506 Charlotte Highway
Lyman, South Carolina 29365
(864) 439-0220, 1-800-845-3052
Fax: (864) 439-8292

A. Tube Fabrication ....................................................................... 9


B. Complete Tube Inventory and Engineering Library ................. 10
C. Code Assembly ...................................................................... 10
Section IV
ECONOMIZERS
A. Economizers ........................................................................... 11

650 Green Lane


P.O. Box 2065
Union, NJ 07083
1-800-345-0632

Section V
BOILER TUBE SPECIFICATION AND STOCK ITEM GUIDE
A. Boiler Tube Specifications ....................................................... 12
Section VI
REFERENCE
A. Useful Boiler Calculations and Data ....................................... 14

SECTION I

We can deliver your tubes, bends, elements and


assemblies to meet your outage requirements. But
just because were fast, dont assume we short-cut
precision. At BTA, youll always get a quality job.

INTRODUCTION

Youll never find an assembly line mentality at BTA.


Because with each cold and hot bend, bifurcate,
swage, panel and butt weld, our craftsmen demonstrate their pride and expertise. Regardless of your
requirements or application, we can quickly fabricate,
fit-up, finish and assemble any replacement tubular
component.

Boiler Tube Company of America


Boiler Tube Company of America (BTA) is a designer,
manufacturer of replacement boiler tubes and
assemblies.

From our file copy of your boilers specifications, we


prepare life-size, full-scale templates to ensure
proper tube configuration and fit-up.
Since the mechanical and metallurgical properties of
boiler tubing can change dramatically during fabrication, BTA uses technical procedures that restore
original material properties. So youre assured long
tube life and serviceability even at high temperatures
and elevated pressures.

When you call BTA with a boiler problem, expect


some unique services. First of all, your situation is
given same day attention by experienced Sales
Engineers. People who can answer your questions,
discuss your options and quickly get your boiler back
in operation.
At BTA, youll find the worlds largest tubing inventory with over two million feet of stock tubing in 1,350
different sizes and material specifications. So you
never lose time waiting for tubes to be shipped from
the mill to your OEM. And you never have to worry
about minimum order restrictions. Because whether
you need three feet or 1,500 feet, BTA is ready to
start your job, today.
We also have the largest boiler reference files in the
industryover 20,000 boiler tube drawings, prints
and life-size templates. Call us the next time you
need tubing or bending specifications on existing or
even discontinued boilers.
Our computerized inventory system tells us precisely
what is in stock and the expected arrival date of
items on order.

Every element of BTA work must pass these quality


assurance tests, as well as the final inspection by our
Q.C. inspectors, our customers and our Independent
Authorized Inspection Agency.
Bottom line, Boiler Tube Company of America is the
only company that offers the quality capabilities of
an OEM with the service and quick response of an
alternate supplier. And thats not just an empty
promise. We prove it every day by hustling to meet
your deadlines. By producing only top quality boiler
tube components at competitive prices. And by
offering the best OEM alternative in the boiler
maintenance business.

Before your tube or assembly gets out in the field, we


make sure it passes BTA's quality assurance tests.
Our standard for excellence, known as Quality While
in Process, requires every job to pass multiple quality
control points that are built into the shop fabrication
plan. No one in the industryincluding your OEM
pays more attention to quality than BTA.
First, we visually inspect each weld and ultrasonically
test bends for thickness. Then we can apply magnetic
particle tests, radiography and hydrostatic tests to
each panel, element and assembly.

Underdeposit corrosion occurs when contaminants,


such as chlorides, or water treatment chemicals,
such as sodium hydroxide or monosodium phosphate, are introduced and/or allowed to concentrate
to harmful levels. These species can concentrate to
harmful levels by becoming trapped within thick,
porous deposits or by precipitating in regions where
local steam blanketing occurs.

SECTION II
CAUSES AND PREVENTION
OF BOILER TUBE FAILURES
By S. Paterson and T. Kuntz,
Aptech Engineering Services, Inc.
To ensure that a boiler tube achieves its desired
lifetime, a comprehensive damage management
program is required. Key elements of such a program include: (1) knowledge of damage modes, (2)
identification and control of precursors to damage,
(3) periodic condition assessments, (4) root cause
evaluations of failures or unanticipated damage and
(5) engineering and implementation of corrective
actions to prevent repeat failures or to prevent leadthe-fleet failures. An overview of each of these follows.

Pitting corrosion is most often a result of exposure of


the tubing to oxygen-saturated water during out-ofservice periods. Chlorides and other anions can
increase the tendency for pitting.
Chemical cleaning is performed periodically to
remove deposits that build up on the fluidside
surface of tubing, the purpose being to minimize the
opportunity for tube overheating or the concentration
of corrosive chemical species. Chemical cleaning is
commonly performed using inhibited acids or
chelants. Inadequate control of the cleaning process
can result in rapid attack of the tubing.

Damage Modes
Boiler tubes degrade for one of four reasons: (1) they
have been chemically attacked or have developed
thick deposits/oxide scales on their fluidside, (2) they
have experienced fireside wastage, (3) they have
experienced short- or long-term overheating or (4)
they have been stressed above their ultimate
strength or repeatedly stressed above their fatigue
limits. Numerous subsets and combinations of these
damage modes are known. Fortunately, diagnostic
tools and knowledge exist which are capable of
identifying the precursors to the damage and
correcting or controlling them.

2. FIRESIDE WASTAGE
The fireside of boiler tubing is exposed to hot
furnace or flue gases which may be extremely
corrosive or erosive. When exposed to this environment, even the best available tube alloys may
experience fireside wastage. Common fireside
wastage mechanisms include oxidation, ash
corrosion, ash erosion and steam erosion from
sootblowers.
Oxidation and oxide spalling will occur on steamcooled tubing even when the fuel is not erosive or
corrosive (for example, natural gas). If the metal
temperature of the tubing is within design limits,
fireside oxidation will be minor and will not result in a
significant loss of life. If there is a maldistribution in
flow or heat absorption rates across or through a
tube bank, some of the tubes may operate with
metal temperatures well above design expectations.
Under these circumstances, oxidation rates can be
significant and can result in significant wastage
rates. Reheater tubes, which are relatively thinwalled, are especially sensitive to oxidation-induced
fireside wastage. Oxidation rates can be controlled
by locating and reducing the temperature of the
tubing operating at excessive temperatures. The
specific approaches used are discussed under the
Corrective Actions section.

1. WATERSIDE CORROSION OR DEPOSIT


BUILDUP
Underdeposit, pitting and chemical cleaning corrosion are the three most common causes of severe
waterside corrosion in fossil-fueled utility boiler
tubing. Under normal circumstances, water is the
principal reactant for the corrosion of boiler steel. If
the feed and boiler water chemistries are maintained
within accepted industry standards and circulation is
properly balanced with the heat absorption rates,
fluidside corrosion and deposition should not limit
the life of boiler tubing. This can be assured by
continuous, on-line monitoring and control of key
water chemistry parameters, such as cation
conductivity, dissolved oxygen, sodium, pH and
phosphate (for drum boilers using sodium phosphates for boiler water control). Periodic wall
thickness, tube sampling and deposit loading
surveys are used to confirm that nothing has been
overlooked by the on-line monitoring program.

Ash corrosion occurs when the temperature of the


tube crown exceeds a critical temperature, often
associated with the melting temperature of the ash.
Successful operation in the early life of the tubing
does not assure that ash corrosion will not occur in
5

Figure 1

the future. During service exposure, insulating


steamside oxide and/or fluidside deposits will build
up on the tube and increase its temperature,
possibly resulting in ash corrosion. All fossil fuels,
except for natural gas, can produce corrosive ash
compounds capable of fluxing away or accelerating
the growth of fireside oxide scales. In addition to
proper alloy selection, fireside ash corrosion can be
controlled by changing the composition of the fuels
and combustion gases (for example, changing the
amount of excess air, using fuel additives, fuel
blending) or decreasing the peak tube temperatures.

3. OVERHEATING
Long-term overheating is a tube damage mechanism
responsible for large availability losses. Over time,
the tubes will slowly deform due to creep, even
though the stress levels are well below the material
yield strength. Creep failures will eventually occur,
even in the absence of corrosion, oxidation or other
active damage mechanisms.

Corrosion fatigue cracks in a waterwall tube from a


supercritical boiler.

Precursors to Damage
Identification and Control

4. FATIGUE

Precursors to damage are specific characteristics of


tubing which can be identified or quantified and then
used to identify and predict potential boiler tube
failures. These characteristics provide evidence that
certain conditions and active damage mechanisms
exist which may be degrading the tubing. The
damage precursors are usually identified and
quantified during the course of boiler outage
inspections or normal operations and maintenance.

Fatigue refers to the initiation and propagation of


cracks under the influence of repeated, fluctuating
stresses that can be of a magnitude that is significantly lower than the materials strength. In boiler
tubes, fatigue is often associated with localized
conditions of high stresses, such as at attachment
welds and header connections. Fatigue damage is
often exacerbated by a corrosive internal or external
environment, as well as by frequent startups,
shutdowns and load changes which can produce
large thermal gradients.

For example, a precursor of underdeposit corrosion


is excessive waterside deposits. Periodic measurement of the waterside deposit loading (mass of the
deposit per tube surface area) on waterwall tube
samples removed during maintenance outages is a
common practice. As another example, thick
steamside oxide scales, which are commonly
measured by nondestructive ultrasonic techniques,
can be a precursor of long-term creep overheat
failures. Significant changes in the way a unit is
operated, particularly changes which increase the
likelihood of increased thermal cycles, can be a
precursor to fatigue-related types of damage. Once a
precursor is identified, steps can be taken to reduce
or eliminate the conditions which are giving rise to
the precursor, as described beginning on page 7.

Waterside corrosion fatigue failures initiate at the


tube ID, often at locations of pitting, and are generally associated with restraint at tube attachments,
supports and membrane welds. The combination of
high stresses and a corrosive environment leads to
degradation of the tubes protective oxide scale
which, with repeated stress applications, initiates
and propagates cracking. An example of corrosion
fatigue cracking in a supercritical boiler waterwall
tube is shown in Figure 1. Other fatigue failures can
be attributed to flow-induced vibration, thermal
shocking from malfunctioning sootblowers and
poorly designed tube bends and welds.

Condition Assessment

improvements, design changes, operational


modifications, material upgrades or recommendations for additional inspection. For example, excessive waterside deposit buildup indicates a need for
chemical cleaning, as well as a review of water
chemistry practices to determine the source(s) of
deposits and contaminants. Figure 2 shows the
current Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
guidelines for recommended chemical cleaning
limits. Fatigue cracking may indicate a need for
attachment or support redesign to relieve restraint
and possible operational modifications to reduce
large or rapid thermal gradients.

The long-term health of boiler tubing is best assured


by periodic inspections and condition assessments.
These are typically done as part of scheduled
maintenance outages.
Common condition assessment inspection items for
tubing include visual examination for excessive
external oxidation, sootblower and ash erosion,
misaligned tubes, slagging and external corrosion,
and magnetic particle inspection of tube-to-header
welds and other attachment welds for cracking.
Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements in areas
where excessive thinning is expected are also
commonly performed (for example, near sootblowers
and burners, as well as slope and arch tubes).

Figure 2
50
SPECIFIC DEPOSIT
WEIGHT (GM/SQ. FT.)

One of the primary assessment tools for steamcooled tubing is the nondestructive measurement of
the internal oxide scale, which can be used to infer a
tubes remaining life. In the absence of external
erosion, oxidation or corrosion, the life of steamcooled tubing is primarily limited by its high-temperature creep strength, which is a function of the metal
temperature. Tube metal temperature is directly
related to the thickness of the insulating oxide scale
which forms on the internal tube surface over time.
Techniques, such as Aptechs TubeAlert system,
combine measurement of the scale and wall thickness with the tubes operating history and material
properties to calculate an expected remaining
service life.

40
Cleaning Required
30
20
Consider Cleaning
10
No Cleaning Required
0
1500
2000
2500

3000

3500

PRESSURE (PSIG)
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recommended
guidelines for waterwall chemical cleaning as a
function of boiler pressure.

Root Cause Failure Analysis


When tube failures occur, a complete root cause
analysis should be performed in order to determine
the active damage mechanism and the steps that
need to be taken to prevent additional failures.
Specific aspects of a root cause failure investigation
include a review of failure location and operating
history, visual examination, measurement of tube
dimensions, characterization of deposits and
corrosion products, hardness testing, sectioning and
metallography, alloy verification, photodocumentation
and reporting.

For steam-cooled tubing, the results of a nondestructive oxide thickness survey can be used to help
engineer a more reliable tube bank with improved
remaining life. Depending on the design, boilers
typically exhibit a distinct temperature profile across
the width of the furnace, and tubes operating in the
hottest regions will have a reduced remaining creep
life compared to the tubes in the cooler regions. As
the hottest tubes fail due to overheating, expensive
partial or complete replacement becomes necessary.
If the steam flow can be redistributed from cooler
tubes with long lives to the hottest tubes, their
temperatures can be reduced and their life increased.
BTA, with its partner, Aptech, can assist you in
accomplishing this through Aptechs patented
technology. The result is a more even temperature
profile across the tube bank and a three- to five-time
increase in tube bank life, as shown in Figure 3.

Corrective Actions Engineering


and Implementation
Once a damage precursor has been identified or a
root cause failure investigation has been performed,
preventative or corrective actions need to be devised
and implemented. These may involve maintenance

Figure 3

vital boiler equipment. Many reputable firms specialize in industrial water consulting. So, dont take
chances. Consult an expert.
BEFORE TUBEMOD
THESE TUBES MAY HAVE
VERY SHORT
REMAINING LIVES

BULK STEAM
TEMPERATURE
TUBE
TEMP.

How to Buy Replacement


Boiler Tubes
With so many factors involved in the replacement of
boiler tubesspecification, grade, length, special
fabricationit may not be easy to get exactly what
you want, when you want it. By following these
simple steps, however, you can significantly increase your chances for quick, quality, economical
replacement.

VERY WIDE
TEMPERATURE
VARIATION

THESE TUBES HAVE VERY


LONG REMAINING LIVES
ELEMENTS ACROSS TUBE BANK

Find out exactly what is needed. If maintenance


needs 100 feet of an item, find out if thats the
least amount they can get by with. Are they
cutting it up into little pieces or welding in long
lengths? Do they need it tomorrow or can they
wait a few days?

Before TubeMod: Tube metal temperatures can greatly


exceed the bulk steam temperature.

AFTER TUBEMOD
REMAINING LIVES OF
SHORT-LIVED TUBES
ARE IMPROVED

Be flexible. Advise your supplier if you can use


an alternate or upgraded ASME specification,
thickness or grade. Later, you can upgrade
without altering the performance or welding
procedures at little extra cost.

REDUCED
TEMPERATURE
VARIATION

TUBE
TEMP.

Focus on the expensive parts of the boiler


tube replacement process. Not having your
boiler available is expensive. Contractors standing around waiting for materials are expensive.
However, tubing is usually a minor cost in the
replacement process, and the transportation
costs even less. So, dont try to save money on
unreliable suppliers when you need immediate
service. Choose a supplier with tubes on hand
rather than pay for exclusive trucking or air
freight.

ELEMENTS ACROSS TUBE BANK

After TubeMod: The redistributed steam flow optimizes


the life of the whole section by systematically reducing
the temperature of the tubes with the shortest lives.

Regular Inspection Prevents


Tube Failure

Get mill test certificates on all pressure tubes.


Specify that they accompany the shipment. Your
insurance inspector may not allow your contractor
or maintenance personnel to install tubes until he
sees the test certificates.

With regular, detailed inspection of boiler equipment,


many tube failures can be prevented. Written records
should note changes in corrosion or deposits. Pay
attention to unexpected layers of deposit which flake
off tube and drum internal surfaces and accumulate
in tube bends or headers. Usually, this indicates
reduced boiler water circulation and potential
overheating.
But be advised, water treatment is a highly technical
science requiring careful water analysis and consideration of boiler design and operating conditions.
Cure all chemicals can do more harm than good to
8

SECTION III
FABRICATION
Tube Fabrication
Boiler Tube Company of America can take the right
tube and turn it into the fabricated pressure part you
need: generating tubes, superheaters, reheaters,
waterwall panels or economizers. If you need to
eliminate a tight radius bend, make a change in wall
thickness or try a higher chrome alloy in hot sections, we can fabricate to your specifications
quickly.
We are equipped and staffed to offer bending, cutting, swaging, finning, spinning, welding and many
other fabrication services to get you the replacement
parts you need.

Notify supplier of the design temperature and


pressure of your boiler. If youre buying fabricated tubesbent, swaged, weldedadvise your
supplier as to the design temperature and
pressure of your boiler or vessel and ensure that
all parts meet the applicable section of the ASME
Boiler Code.
Boiler Tube Company of America offers replacement
service on superheater, economizer and reheater
sections at a reasonable price with shorter delivery
time than the original boiler manufacturer. Our flexible approach lets you duplicate originals and make
design or material changes in existing elements. Our
Service Engineers will work with you on these
special problems. Let us show you what we can do.

Complete Tube Inventory and


Engineering Library

Our resources are at your disposal and may help get


your boiler back on line even if you cannot furnish a
drawing.

Boiler Tube Company of America eliminates the


need for costly, spare tube stocking. We carry
complete tubing in regular and heavy gauges. In an
emer- gency, we can start bending immediately and
ship replacements the same or the following day.

Babcock & Wilcox (B & W)


Badenhausen
Bigelow
Casey Hedges
Cleaver-Brooks
Collins
Combustion Engineering (CE)
Connelly
Edgemoor
Erie City
Foster Wheeler
General Electric Waste Heat
Heine

Keeler
Kidwell
Ladd
Maxim
Riley
Ross
Rust
Springfield
Stirling
Titusville
Union Iron Works
Vogt
Wickes

ASME Code Assembly


During ASME Code fabrication, the tubing often
loses the metallurgical and mechanical properties
essential for long life at elevated temperatures and
pressures.
Bending can work-harden the tubes and set up
stresses. Tight radius bending may reduce wall
thickness at the back of the bend below design
requirements. Attachments to tube surfaces may set
up stress forces and reduce the materials resistance
to corrosive attack.
Unless these lost properties are restored to the
tubing, the units will give fewer service years and
may cause premature tube failures.
Were aware of these factors at Boiler Tube Company
of America. Thats why all bent tubes are fitted to full
size, shrink-free templates and carefully inspected
before shipment. Bends are held smooth and free of
dinges, folds or crimps. Roundness in the bend is
held to tolerances prescribed by the trade. Wall
thinning, in the back of the bend, is minimized by
sophisticated tooling. Then, our inspectors make
ultrasonic readings of tight radius bends to assure
top quality.
Weve built our reputation on careful review during
code assembly. So you can count on us for dependable, top quality, assembled tubing elements.

When you call BTA, you also tap into a library of over
20,000 drawings collected from almost a century in
the replacement tube business. Drawings of boiler
arrangements and tube details are cataloged and
cross-filed in our Engineering department. For many
boilers now out of manufacture, this information can
only be found at BTA. Inquiries should specify letter
of number class or number class of boiler and tube
row number.
10

United States, Europe, Japan, Korea and the


Indiansub-continent.

SECTION IV

Call us for a consultation on your application, today.

ECONOMIZERS

Economizer Comparisons
Spiral
Fin

Welded
Bare
Steel-H Tube

Price
Space
Gas Pressure
Drop

Low
Small

Medium
Medium

High
Large

High

Medium

High

Weight
Number
of Welds
Availability
Life

Low

Medium

Medium

Low
Poor
Low

Low
Good
Good

High
Good
Good

Economizers
Boiler Tube Company of America, through its
association with Greens (one of the family of Balcke
Durr Thermal Engineering companies) is a leader in
the field of heat recovery. Edward Green started the
Waste Heat Recovery Industry in 1845 with his
invention and patent of the fuel economizer.

ECONOMIZER FUEL SAVINGS

APPROXIMATE FUEL SAVINGS %

The success of the Greens Economizer is primarily


due to extended surface tubingboth steel and cast
iron sleeved. As operating conditions vary from plant
to plant, choice of surface is important.
We select the optimum surface for your application
after consulting with you and determining the
following factors: type of fuel and/or source of heat,
operating hours, load variation, available draft, dust
burden, gas velocity and temperature.
Greens Economizers sustain high efficiency. Straight
gas passages minimize fouling of heat transfer
surfaces. Our welded, Steel-H, parallel fin has been
proven in several thousand applications with gas, oil
and coal firing, even with high particulate content.
And the low resistance to gas flow with in-line fins
reduces draft loss and cost of fan power.

Co
al

10
9

as
l
O i al G
r

Na

tu

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
25
50

50
100

75
150

100

150

125
200

250

FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE DROP

Used worldwide in electric utility generating stations


(including almost 300 coal-fired plants), waste heat
units and several thousand industrial boilers, Greens
Economizers hold the worlds best performance
record for extended surface applications. Greens
units are used extensively in the

Approximate Comparison of Fuel Savings


and Flue Gas Temperature Drop
(Alternatively an increase in evaporation
may be obtained.)

11

C
300F

Electricweld tubes are favored because of lower


costs, more uniform wall and uniform heat transfer.
Welded tubes, because they are more uniform, are
easier to roll and install.

SECTION V
BOILER TUBE
SPECIFICATION AND STOCK
ITEM GUIDE

The following specifications are in general use for


boiler tubes and condenser tubes.
GRADE

SPECS

Low Carbon Seamless

A-192, A-179

Low Carbon Electricweld

A-178, A-214, A-226

Boiler tubes are made in both seamless and electric


resistance weld. Tubing made by either process is
rigidly controlled and tested both during and after
rolling to meet the exacting specification requirements of a pressure tube. The boiler code approves
either method of manufacture and expresses no
preference.

Med. Carbon Seamless

A-210

When temperature ranges are near the critical points


for low carbon, the higher yield strength of medium
carbon or carbon moly is sometimes used to give
added protection. Elevated temperatures in highoutput, large power boilers frequently require the use
of alloy or stainless tubes.

Boiler Tube Specifications

Boiler tubes, to comply to specifications and meet


allowable working pressure ratings, are always
expressed and sold as minimum wall.
Whether to use seamless or electricweld boiler tubes
is largely a matter of personal preference. Electricweld boiler tubes are fully comparable to seamless
by standards of ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel
Code requirements and general acceptance.
Advocates of seamless tubing prefer no weld seam
in the tube wall. There is thought to be further
protection in the heavier nominal walls of seamless
due to the method of manufacture. Further, the
piercing process in making seamless tubes imparts
a tough mill scale to the tube surface which appears
to make it more resistant to corrosion.
In recent years, significant advancements have been
made in the manufacture of hot finish boiler tubing.
The appearance of the surface finish is distinct
(aesthetically less appealing) from cold-drawn
produced tubing. However, there are now several
mills that produce boiler tubes by the hot finish
process of very high quality to tight tolerances.
These tolerances typically meet cold-drawn tolerances. In certain sizes, they may be produced to
slightly exceed or to be slightly less than cold-drawn
tolerances.

12

Med. Carbon Electricweld

A-178 Grade C

Low Alloy (Corten or


Republic 50)

A-423 (Seamless
or Welded)

Carbon Moly Seamless

A-209

Carbon Moly Electricweld

A-250

Alloy Seamless

A-213 (T Series)

Stainless Seamless

A-213 (TP Series)

Stainless Electricweld

A-249 (TP Series)

BOILER TUBE STOCK ITEM GUIDE


SA-213Seamless Chrome Alloy and Stainless
Steel Boiler, Superheater and Heat
Exchanger Tubes
T21/2 CR, 1/2 Moly
T55 Cr, 1/2 Moly
T99 Cr, 1 Moly
T1111/4 Cr, 1/2 Moly
T121 Cr, 1/ 2 Moly
T2221/4 Cr, 1 Moly
Tp304H18 Cr, 8 Ni
Tp321H18 Cr, 8 Ni
T1 Stabilized
Tp347H18 Cr, 8 Ni
Co. Stabilized

A-214Electric Resistance Welded (ERW)


Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger and
Condenser Tube
A-178ERW Carbon Steel Boiler Tubing
Grade ALow Carbon
Grade CMedium Carbon
A-179Seamless Cold Drawn Low Carbon Steel
H.E. and Condenser Tube
A-192Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tube
for High-Pressure Service
A-210Seamless Medium Carbon Steel Boiler
and Superheater Tube
Grade A1
Grade C
A-209Seamless Carbon Moly Alloy Steel
Boiler and Superheater Tube
T1
T1A
T1B

TUBING
O.D.
INCHES
1

/2
5
/8
3
/4
1
11/4
11/2
15/8
13/4
17/8
2
21/8
21/4
21/2
23/4
3
31/4
31/2
4

WALL
THICKNESS
RANGE
INCHES
.049
.049 to .083
.049 to .105
.083 to .134
.095 to .260
.095 to .438
.120 to .300
.095 to .480
.135 to .438
.095 to .500
.165 to .500
.105 to .500
.105 to .500
.120 to .360
.105 to .400
.120 to .300
.120 to .300
.134 to .220

SA-423 CortenERW and Seamless


Pressure Tubes

(
) CHECK MARK INDICATES TUBE SPECIFICATIONS REGULARLY CARRIED

SA-178 SA-179 SA-192 SA-209 SA-210 SA-213 SA-214 SA-423

13

GENERAL FORMULA FOR CALCULATING FLUE GAS LOSS

SECTION VI
REFERENCE

CO2
CO
C
H
M
t4
t5
W

Useful Boiler Calculations and Data


AMOUNT OF AIR REQUIRED FOR
COMBUSTION
W
C
H
O2
S

=
=
=
=
=

Weight of air in lbs. per lb. of fuel


Percentage of carbon in fuel by weight
Percentage of hydrogen in fuel by weight
Percentage of oxygen in fuel by weight
Percentage of sulphur in fuel by weight

Percentage of carbon dioxide by volume


Percentage of carbon monoxide by volume
Percentage of carbon by volume
Weight of hydrogen in 1 lb. fuel as received
Weight of moisture in 1 lb. fuel as received
Temperature of exit flue gases, F
Temperature of ambient air, F
Weight in lb. of dry products of combustion
per lb. of fuel

Loss 1 = Percent Btus loss in chimney gases per lb.


of fuel burned
(t4 - t5)
= K x _____
CO2
K = Constant for Bituminous Coal = .35
Anthracite
= .37
Coke
= .39
Oil
= .31

Air contains 23 percent of oxygen by weight, and 1 lb.


of carbon requires 2.67 lb. of oxygen for its complete
combustion to carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, 1 lb. of
hydrogen requires for its combustion 8 lb. of oxygen,
or about 35 lb. of air, and 1 lb. of sulphur requires 1
lb. of oxygen, or 4.35 lb. of air.

Loss 2 = Btus loss in water vapor produced by


combustion of hydrogen per lb. of fuel
= 9H [212 - t5 + 970 + 0.48 (t4 - 212)]
= 9H (0.48 t4 - t5 + 1080.2)

Therefore, for fuel containing C percent of carbon,

Loss 3 = Btus loss in water vapor produced by


evaporation of moisture per lb. of fuel
= M [212 - t5 + 970 + 0.48 (t4 - 212)]
= M (0.48 t4 - t5 + 1080.2)

W = C x 2.67 x 100 = C x 2.67 = C x 0.116


100
23
23
For fuel containing H percent of hydrogen,
W = H x 8 x 100 = H x 8 = H x 0.348
100
23
23

Loss 4 = Btus loss by incomplete combustion of


carbon monoxide (CO) in flue gases per lb. of fuel
(CO)
= C (10150)
CO2 + CO
Loss 5 = Btus loss as combustible matter in ashes

For fuel containing C percent of carbon and H


percent of hydrogen,
W = 0.116 C + 0.348 H

Percent ash in fuel


x Btus in ashes x 100
Percent loss =
Percent ash in fuel
x cal. value of fuel as fired

If oxygen is present,
W = 0.116 C + 0.348

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(H - O
2 )
8

If the sulphur, which is usually present in very small


quantities, is taken into account,
O
W = 0.116 C + 0.348 (H - 2 ) + 0.435 S
8

The heat carried away by ashes is generally a very


low percentage of the total heat of the fuel. Therefore,
if the ash is not available for analysis, an allowance
of 1 to 2 percent is usually made.
Loss 6 = Btus loss by radiation
There is no precise method of measuring radiation
losses. Therefore, an allowance of 1 to 5 percent of
the heat value of the fuel is normally used. This
assumes the plant to be insulated and to be maintained in a clean condition.
Loss 7 = Unaccounted-for loss
Losses due to air ingress, boiler blowdown,
instrument and observation errors, etc.
14

Percentage of heat absorbed by boiler


E x (H - h1) x 100
= _____________
C
Percentage of heat absorbed by boiler, economizer
and superheater
E x (Hs - h) x 100
= _____________
C

Heat Balance
Btus
Percent
Equivalent
____________________________________________
Heat Absorbed by Boiler
61.30
7356
Heat Absorbed by Economizer
9.50
1140
Heat Absorbed by Superheater 5.55
660
Total Loss in Flue Gases
10.15
1218
Total Loss by Hydrogen
3.74
449
Total Loss by Moisture
1.14
137
Total Loss by
Incomplete Combustion
...
...
Total Loss by Ashes (assume)
1.50
180
Total Loss by Radiation (assume) 5.00
600
Total
Unaccounted Loss
2.12
254
____________________________________________
100.00
12,000

Percentage of heat absorbed by superheater


100 x E (Hs - H)
= _____________
C
USEFUL FORMULAE
Approximate furnace temperature, F
C
= _____________________
19
x 11.6
0.24 ( _________ + 1)
Percent CO2

GENERAL FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING


THE EFFICIENCIES OF BOILERS,
ECONOMIZERS AND SUPERHEATERS
C =
d =
E =
T1 =
T2 =
g =
H =
Hs =
h =
h1 =
S =
S1 =
t =
t1 =
t2 =
t3 =

Calorific value of fuel in Btus per lb. as received


Density of air in lb. per cubic foot
Actual evaporation, lb. of water per lb. of fuel
Temperature, F, gases economizer inlet
Temperature, F, gases economizer outlet
Temperature of discharged flue gases in F
Btus to convert 1 lb. water at 32F to dry
saturated steam at observed pressure
Btus to convert 1 lb. water at 32F to
superheated steam at observed pressure
= H + (S x S1)
Btus in 1 lb. water at economizer inlet
temperature T = (1.017T 35)
Btus in 1 lb. water at economizer outlet
temperature t = (1.017t 35)
Number of degrees of superheat in F = t 2 t3
Specific heat of superheated steam = 0.48
Economizer inlet water temperature, F
Economizer outlet water temperature, F
Outlet temperature of superheated steam, F
Temperature of saturated steam at observed
pressure

Approximate gas weight (or air weight) per lb.


of fuel burned
E (t1 - t )
_________
=
0.24 (T1 - T2)
TYPICAL EXAMPLE FOR HEAT BALANCE
Coal: Calorific value as received,
12,000 Btus per lb.
Total moisture, 11.5 percent;
hydrogen, 4.2 percent
Boiler pressure, 195 lb. per sq. in. (gauge)
Temperature of superheated steam, 570F
Temperature of economizer inlet water, 100F
Temperature of feedwater leaving economizer, 250F
Temperature of stack gases, 350F
Average CO2 = 10 percent
Total water evaporated (actual), 247,500 lb.
Total coal consumed, 33,000 lb.
Boiler pressure = 195 psi gauge + 15 = 210 psi
absolute

Percentage of heat absorbed by economizer


100 x E (h1 - h)
= _____________
C

1) H = Total Btus in saturated steam at 210 psia


from water at 32F = 1200 Btus
2) Hs = Total Btus in superheated steam at 210 psia
and 570F
= 1200 + [(570 - 385) x 0.48]
= 1200 + 88.8
= 1288.8 Btus
3) Btus in 1 lb. water at economizer
inlet temperature (h)
= (1.017 x 100) - 35
= 66.7 Btus
4) Btus in 1 lb. water at economizer outlet

Percentage saving due to economizer


(t1 - t ) x 100
= _____________
without superheater
H-h
(t1 - t ) x 100
with superheater
= _____________
Hs - h

15

POWER AND HEAT

temperature (h1)
= (1.017 x 250) - 35
= 219.25 Btus
5) Actual evaporation (E) = 247,500 33,000 = 7.5
6) Percentage of heat absorbed by boiler
7.5 x (1200 - 219) x 100
= ___________________
12,000
= 61.31 percent
7) Percentage of heat absorbed by boiler and
economizer
7.5 x (1200 - 66.7) x 100
= ____________________
12,000
= 70.83 percent

1 cal = 4.186 Joules


1 cal/g = 1 kcal/kg = 1.8 Btu/lb.
1 foot-pound (ft. lb.) ...... = 0.1383 meter kilogram
(mkg)
1 Btu .............................. = 107.6 mkg
= 0.2520 kilocalorie (kcal)
1 Btu/lb. ......................... = 0.556 kcal/kg
1 Btu/cu. ft. .................... = 8.90 kcal/cu. m.
1 Btu/sq. ft. .................... = 2.712 kcal/sq. m.
1 Btu/ft2 F ..................... = 4.88 kcal/m2 C
1 Btu/hr. ft2 (F/ft.) ......... = 1.488 kcal/hr. m2 (C/m)
1 Btu/hr. ft2 (F/in.) ........ = 0.1240 kcal/hr m2 (C/m)
1 Btu/sec. in2 (F/in.) ..... = 0.1786 kcal/sec. cm2
(C/cm)
1 meter kilogram ........... = 7.23 ft.-lb.
1 kilogram calorie (kcal) = 3088 ft.-lb.
= 427 mkg
= 3.968 Btu
1 kcal/kg ........................ = 1.8 Btu/lb.
1 kcal/cu. m. .................. = 0.1124 Btu/cu. ft.
1 kcal/sq. m. .................. = 0.3687 Btu/sq. ft.
1 kcal/m2 C .................. = 0.2048 Btu/ft2 F
1 kcal/hr. m2 (C/m) ....... = 0.672 Btu/hr. ft 2 (F/ft.)
= 8.06 Btu/hr. ft 2 (F/in.)
2
1 cal/sec. cm (C/cm) .. = 0.0560 Btu/sec. in2
= (F/in.)
1 boiler horsepower ...... = 10 sq. ft. of boiler
heating surface
1 megawatt (MW) ......... = 1000 kilowatt
1 kilowatt (kW) .............. = 738 ft. lb./sec.
= 102 mkg/sec.
= 1.341 hp
= 1.360 metric hp
1 horsepower (hp) ........ = 33,000 ft. lb./min.
= 550 ft. lb./sec.
= 76.0 mkg/sec.
= 0.746 kW
= 1.014 metric hp
1 metric horsepower ..... = 32,550 ft. lb./min.
= 542 ft. lb./sec.
= 75 mkg/sec.
= 0.735 kW
= 0.986 hp
1 kilowatt hour (kWh) .... = 3413 Btus
= 860 kcal
1 horsepower hour ........ = 2544 Btus
1 metric horsepower
hour ............................ = 632 kcal
1 lb./hp hour .................. = 0.447 kg/metric hp
hour
1 kg/metric hp hour ....... = 2.235 lb./hp hour
1 electron-volt (eV) ....... = 1.6 x 1012 ergs

8) Percentage of heat absorbed by economizer


= 70.83 - 61.31
= 9.5 percent
9) Percentage of heat absorbed by superheater
7.5 x (1288.8 - 1200) x 100
= _____________________
12,000
= 5.55 percent
10) Percentage of heat absorbed by boiler,
7.5 x (1288.8 - 66.7) x 100
= _____________________
12,000
= 76.4 percent
11) Percent Btus loss in stack gases
K x (t4 - t5)
= ________
CO2
0.35 x (350
60) = 10.15 percent
________
=
10
12) Btus loss per lb. of coal by water vapor produced
by combustion of hydrogen
(4.2)
= 9 x ___ [(0.48 x 350) - 60 + 1080.2]
100
= 0.378 x 1188
= 449 Btus
449
Percent Loss = ___ x 100 = 3.74
12,000
13) Btus loss per lb. of coal by evaporation
of moisture
11.5
= ___ [(0.48 x 350) - 60 + 1080.2]
100
= 0.115 x 1188
= 137 Btus
137
Percent Loss = ___ x 100 = 1.14
12,000

16

107 ergs
0.000948 Btu
0.7375 ft. lb.
1 watt sec.
Heat necessary to raise
1 lb. water through 1F
= 778 ft. lb.
= 0.252 kcal

1 joule ........................... =
=
=
=
1 Btu .............................. =

Btus carried away


as latent heat by
combustion of 1 lb.
hydrogen ................... =
=
Net gain from
combustion of 1 lb.
hydrogen ................... =
=
Weight of air required
for burning 1 lb.
hydrogen ................... =
Volume of air required
for burning 1 lb.
hydrogen ................... =
Weight of air required
for burning 1 lb.
carbon ....................... =
Volume of air required
for burning 1 lb.
carbon ....................... =
Btus released when
1 lb. carbon is
burned to CO2 ........... =
Btus released when
1 lb. carbon is
burned to CO ............ =
Btus lost by incomplete
combustion of 1 lb.
of carbon ................... =
Latent heat of steam ..... =

GENERAL EQUIVALENTS
1 gal. of water ............... =
1 gal. of water at 62F .. =
1 cu. ft. of water ............ =
=
1 in. of water ................. =
=
Column of water
1 ft. high ..................... =
2.31 ft. high ............... =
Lb. per sq. in. x 0.068 ... =
Lb. per sq. in. x 2.31 ..... =
Lb. per sq. in. x 2.04 ..... =
Lb. per sq. in. x 27.7 ..... =
Atmosphere x 14.7 ....... =
In. of mercury x 0.49 ..... =
In. of water x 0.036 ....... =
1 Atmosphere ............... =
=
=
Absolute temperature
in F ........................... =

2.31 cu. in. (approx.)


8.34 lb.
7.48 gal.
62.3 lb.
0.036 lb. per sq. in.
5.2 lb. per sq. ft.
0.434 lb. per sq. in.
1 lb. per sq. in.
Atmospheres
Ft. of water
In. of mercury
In. of water
Lb. per sq. in.
Lb. per sq. in.
Lb. per sq. in.
14.7 lb. per sq. in.
2116.8 lb. per sq. ft.
33.9 ft. of water
461 + ordinary
temperature F

970 x 9
8730 Btus
62,000 minus 8730
53,270 Btus
34.8 lb. of air
452 cu. ft. of air
11.6 lb. of air
152.4 cu. ft. of air
14,550 Btus
4400 Btus
10,150 Btus
970 Btus per lb.

ODD RULES

Absolute temperature
in C .......................... = 273 + ordinary
temperatureC
1 cu. ft. of air at 32F .... = 0.0807 lb.
1 cu. ft. of air at 62 ...... = 0.076 lb., or 13.14 cu.
ft. per lb.
Air (by weight) ............... = 23 percent oxygen and
77 percent nitrogen
Air (by volume) .............. = 21 percent oxygen and
79 percent nitrogen
1 lb. of carbon ............... = Requires 11.6 lb. of air
for combustion
Lb. of carbon dioxide
(CO 2) ......................... = Carbon in 1 lb. of coal
x 3.66
Lb. water ....................... = Hydrogen in 1 lb. of
coal x 9
1 lb. hydrogen ............... = 62,000 Btus calorific
value
1 lb. sulphur .................. = 4000 Btus calorific
value
1lb. sulphur ................... = Requires 1 lb. of oxygen
or 4.35 lb. of air

1 lb. molecule of any gas occupies 359 cu. ft. at N.T. P. and 378
cu. ft. at 60F/30 in. Hg. dry.
1 gm. molecule of any gas occupies 22.4 litres and
1 oz. molecule of any gas occupies 22.4 cu. ft.
Any gas with one carbon atom per molecule contains 0.54 oz.
C. per cu. ft. of gas at N.T.P.and pro rata.
The partial pressure of water vapor (e.g. in any gas) at 60F is
.58 in. Hg.
1 kg. per cu. meter ~
= 1 oz. per cu. ft.
For most fuels, the theoretical air requirement is 7.6 - 7.9 lb. air
for each 10,000 Btu available. For gaseous fuels it is C.V./115 cu.
ft. air/cu. ft. gas approximately.
Lb. air/lb. coal (actual) ~ 3 x (net C.V.)/200 x (%CO2).
For coal, 1220 lb. of flue gas per million Btu are produced at,
approximately, 12.2% CO 2 (50% excess air); and at a C.V. of
12,200 Btu/lb.
For oil, 1100 lb. of flue gas per million Btu are produced at,
approximately, 11% CO2 (40% excess air).
For shell boilers 1 c.f.m. and for watertube boilers 1/2 c.f.m. are
common actual flue gas flow rates, per 1 lb./hr. steam rating.

17

CHARACTERISTICS OF OTHER SOLID FUELS


FUEL

HEATING
VALUE
%
BTU MOIST

Ultimate Analysis

Proximate Analysis
%
ASH

%
VOL.

%
FC

%
H2

%
C

%
N2

82.0*

17.0*

6.2*

50.3*

0.04*

43.1*

0.4

62.9

0.9

0.5*

0.1

0.1

45.8

4.0
1.8

8.9
38.0

0.7

20.0
15.7

26.9
4.8

Wood waste

8900*

25-60

Peat
Coke
Coke breeze

3586
12,600*
9500

56.7
8.5
6.5

6.0
12.5
25.0

26.1
1.0*
3.4

11.2
86.5
65.1

8.3

21.0

1.1

Oil shale
Pulvd pitch

6300*
16,000

15.0
0.2

43.0
0.1

42.0
53.8

46.1

4.1

93.7*

1.0*

Tanbark
Bagasse

8000*
8300*

30-60

6.0
5.8

50.0
46.3

40.0
0.3

Rice hulls

6100

7.4

19.8

59.0

13.8

7500
56-6700

20

26.9

47.6

5.5

5.0
5.0

37.0
36.0

1.5
0.5

Sewage
Sludge
Straw

1.0*

%
O2

%
S

0.7*

%
MOIST

%
ASH

*Indicates analysis on dry basis all others as fired or as received. FC abbreviation for fixed carbon.

THEORETICAL COMBUSTION DATA


Substance

Substance
Required
Formula
(lb.)
O2

Carbon burned to
carbon monoxide
Carbon burned to
carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
burned to
carbon dioxide

Air

Theoretical Products
of Combustion
(lb.)
CO2

CO

N2

Substance

H2O SO2

O2

1.33

5.75

2.67 11.49 3.67

2.46 1.57

2.33

4.42

8.82

CO

0.57

Sulphur

1.00

Hydrogen

H2

8.00 34.48

Hydrogen sulphide

H2S

1.41

Methane

CH4

4.00 17.24 2.75

13.24 2.25

Acetylene

C2H2

3.08 13.26 3.38

10.18 0.69

Ethylene

C2H4

3.43 14.78 3.14

11.35 1.29

Ethane

C2H6

3.73 16.09 2.93

12.36 1.80

4.31

6.09

1.89
3.31

26.48 9.00

2.00

4.68 0.53 1.88

18

Air

Theoretical Products
of Combustion
(ft.3)
CO2

CO

N2

CO

0.5

2.38

1.0

1.88

Hydrogen

H2

0.5

2.38

1.88

1.0

Hydrogen sulphide

H2S

1.5

7.14

5.64

1.0

1.0

Methane

CH4

2.0

9.52

1.0

7.52

2.0

Acetylene

C2H2

2.5

11.91

2.0

9.41

1.0

Ethylene

C2H4

3.0

14.29

2.0

11.29

2.0

Ethane

C2H6

3.5

16.67

2.0

13.17

3.0

Carbon monoxide
C

Substance
Required
Formula
(ft.3)

H2O SO2

WASTE GASES AND AIR


REQUIREMENTS FOR SOLID FUELS
(ACC. TO W. BOIE)

WASTE GAS VOLUME


FOR COKE AND WOOD
EXAMPLE:

AVERAGE CO2 MAX 18.9%, AVERAGE ASH CONTENT 7.5%


THIS DIAGRAM IS NOT VALID FOR COKE, WOOD OR PEAT

FUEL N.C.V. = 10,800 BTU/LB.


CO2 MAX. = 19.55%
CO2 = 11%

va = 8.896 N.C.V. + 8800 CU. FT./LB. THEOR.

990
AIR QUANTITY
250

RESULT:

n = 1.79
194.5 = CU. FT. WASTE

vg = 8.N.C.V. + 26144 CU. FT./LB. THEOR.

990
GAS QUANTITY
va = n . va (ACT. AIR QUANTITY)

vg = vg + (n -1) va (ACT. GAS QUANTITY)

nn = ________
CO2 MAX

GASES/LB. FUEL
2.8
300

2.6

2.4

2.2

280

CO 2

260

WASTE GAS VOLUME CU. FT./LB. FUEL N.T.P.

n
1.8 1.9 = 2

1. 1.2
1

1.
3

1.

1.5 1.6

1.7

AIR

EX
CE
SS

AIR
1.4

1.2
160

140

00
90

vg (va ) CU. FT./LB.

SS

180

CE

200

1.6

B.
U/L
BT
0
000
,00
13,
11

70

00

120

vg
100

100

220

EX

150

240

E
LU
.VA
AL
TC
NE

1.8

200

50
00

va

60
EXAMPLE:

50

300

8
9
10
11
12

N. CAL VAL = 10,000 BTU/LB.

CO 2 MAX FOR:

EXCESS AIR n = 1.4

BROWN COAL = 17.9

va = 98 CU. FT./LB.

vg = 147 CU. FT/LB.

BROWN COAL = 19.05

13
14
15

BROWN COAL = 19.55

16

COKE AND WOOD = 20.7

3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000

(AIR DRIED)

N.C.V. BTU/LB.

19

CO2CONTENT

7
80

WASTE GASES AND AIR


REQUIREMENTS FOR GASEOUS
FUELS (ACC. TO K. RUMMEL)

WASTE GASES AND AIR


REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID FUELS
(ACC. TO W. BOIE)
vg = THEORETICAL GAS QUANTITY

vg = ACTUAL GAS QUANTITY

10
1) BLAST-FURNACE GAS
vg = .929 + .636 N.C.V. CU. FT.

100 CU. FT.


va = .771 N.C.V. .0614 CU. FT.

100
CU.FT.

n=

n = EXCESS AIR

1 .8

vg = 11.1 N.C.V. 48,900 CU. FT./LB.

808
va = 8.896 N.C.V. 17,850 CU. FT./LB.

808

8
400

1.7

3) COKE OVEN GAS


vg = .486 + .966 N.C.V. CU. FT.

100 CU. FT.


va = .968 N.C.V. .239 CU. FT.

100
CU.FT.

va = n. va

vg = vg + (n 1) . va

1 CO2 ( 1) . 0.21
nn == ___________
CO 2 .

1.6

1.5

4) NATURAL GAS (EUROPE)

vg (va ) CU. FT./LB.

1.1

vg (va ) CU. FT./LB.

1.3
1.2

n=

AI

9
1.
8

1.

6
1.
1.5

1.4

300

1 .3
1.2

250

va

1 .1

COKE OVEN GAS


1.5

vg

vg 1

3
200

vg = THEORETICAL GAS QUANTITY

va = THEORETICAL AIR QUANTITY

n = EXCESS AIR
vg = ACTUAL GAS QUANTITY

va

va

vg

va = ACTUAL AIR QUANTITY

EXAMPLE:

EXAMPLE: COKE OVEN GAS

N.C.V. = 19,000 BTU/LB.

150

N.C.V. = 500 BTU/CU.FT.

n = 1.6

va

n = 1.2
va = 4.58 CU. FT./CU. FT.

vg = 6.20 CU. FT./CU. FT.

350

vg

C
EX

S
ES

7
1.

n=

1.87 N.C.V. 3760


30930 .556N.C.V.

1.4

N.C.V. = 960 BTU/CU. FT.


vg = 10 CU. FT./CU.FT.

va = 9.07 CU. FT./CU. FT.

AIR REQUIRED va = n.va

W.GAS QUANT..vg = vg +(n -1) va

PRODUCER GAS

450

1.9

EXC
ESS
AIR

2) PRODUCER GAS
vg = .7575 + .825 N.C.V. CU. FT.

100 CU. FT.


va = .886 N.C.V. .173 CU. FT.

100
CU.FT.

BLAST FURNACE GAS

va = THEORETICAL AIR QUANTITY

va = ACTUAL AIR QUANTITY

vg = 313 CU. FT./LB.

va = 186 CU. FT./LB.

17,000

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
N.C.V. BTU/CU. FT.

18,000

19,000

N.C.V. BTU/LB.

20

20,000

21,000

EXCESS AIR, CO2 AND O2 CONTENT


OF THE WASTE GASES FOR
SOLID AND LIQUID FUELS

MEAN SPECIFIC HEAT OF


WASTE GASES AND AIR
(ACC. TO JUSTI)

FOR THE DETERMINATION OF UNBURNED FUEL


REFER TO EXAMPLE ON SCHEDULE B 8

2 MAX
_______
n = CO
CO 2

MEAN SPECIFIC HEAT


GAS FUEL OIL COAL
.0182

24

1.2
1

1.1

1.2

CARBON

1.4
1.6
1.8

WOOD
PEAT

18

BROWN COAL
16

1.5
1.6

1.6

1.4
1.6
1.8

CE

EXAMPLE: COAL

BENZOLE

.02

0
140

N.C.V. = 1200 BTUs

COAL TAR FUEL

R
AI

n = EXCESS AIR

tg 1

SS

BITUMINOUS
COAL

tg 1 = 900 F
n = 1.4
n = 1.4 tg 2 = 1450 F

PETROLEUM SPIRIT
AND PETROL

cpm/ tg1 = .02198 BTU/CU.FT./ F


cpm tg2
EXAMPLE: AIR

ta1 = 200 F

.022

0
220

ta2 = 900 F

10

12

14

16

18

20

800 0
100

cpm/ ta2 = .01875 BTU/CU.FT./ F


cpm /

% O2
6

100
200

400

600

.021

0
0 200
180

cpm/ tg1 = .01997 BTU/CU.FT./ F


cpm /

0
160

cpm/ tg2 = .02072 BTU/CU.FT./ F


cpm /

AIR

BTU/LB.

.019
FOR AIR tg MUST BE
REPLACED BY ta
(SEE EXAMPLE)

2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8

10

) F

1.8
2

1.2

N.C.V. BTU/CU. FT.

EX

% CO2

1.4

n=

1.8
1.9
2

12

5 4 3 2 1 20 16 12 8 6 4
18 14 10
X10 2
X10 3

1.7

14

1.4
1.6
1.8

1.2

BTU/CU. FT./F

n = 1.25

.022

COKE OVEN
PRODUCER
BLAST FURNACE

.021

200
400

600

800

100
0
120
0
140
0
160
180 0
200 0
0
220
0

22

1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8

tg (tg

.02

n= 1
1

20

.019

BTUs/CU. FT./F

cpm/ ta1 = .01822 BTU/CU.FT./ F


cpm /

EXAMPLE: FUEL BITUMINOUS COAL

cpm/ ta1 = .01881 BTU/CU.FT./ F


cpm ta2

CO2 CONTENT OF THE WASTE GASES 10%


(MEASURED)

.023

0
120

RESULT: n = 1.9
O2 = 10% OXYGEN IN THE WASTE GASES

.024

21

GAUGE

1 lb.

27.96"

101.7

2 lb.

25.91"

126.1

3 lb.

23.87"

141.5

4 lb.

21.83"

153.0

5 lb.

19.79"

162.3

6 lb.

17.75"

170.1

7 lb.

15.70"

176.9

8 lb.

13.66"

182.9

9 lb.

11.62"

188.3

10 lb.

9.58"

193.2

11 lb.

7.54"

197.8

12 lb.

5.49"

202.0

13 lb.

3.45"

205.9

14 lb.

1.41"

209.6

15 lb.

0.31 lb.

213.0

16 lb.

1.31 lb.

216.3

17 lb.

2.31 lb.

219.5

18 lb.

3.31 lb.

222.4

19 lb.

4.31 lb.

225.2

20 lb.

5.31 lb.

228.0

22 lb.

7.31 lb.

233.1

24 lb.

9.31 lb.

237.8

26 lb.

11.31 lb.

242.2

28 lb.

13.31 lb.

246.4

VOLUME IN CUBIC FEET PER LB. (v) AND


TOTAL HEAT IN BTU PER LB. (h) OF

WATER

SATURATED
STEAM

ABSOLUTE

PRESSURE
LB. PER SQ. IN.
OR
VACUUM
IN. OF MERCURY

SATURATION
TEMPERATURE
(DEGREES FAHR)

PROPERTIES OF STEAM

STEAM AT A TOTAL TEMPERATURE (FAHRENHEIT) OF


150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

v = 0.0161
h = 69.5
v = 0.0162
h = 93.9
v = 0.0163
h = 109.3
v = 0.0164
h = 120.8

333.0
1102.4
173.5
1113.6
118.6
1120.6
90.52
1125.7

362.0
1125.6
180.7
1125.2
120.3
1124.7
90.01
1124.2

391.9
1149.6
195.6
1149.2
130.3
1148.9
97.60
1148.5

421.7
1173.5
210.6
1173.3
140.4
1173.0
105.2
1172.7

451.4
1197.4
225.5
1197.2
150.3
1197.0
112.7
1196.8

481.3
1221.4
240.5
1221.2
160.3
1221.0
120.2
1220.8

511.1
1245.2
255.4
1245.1
170.3
1244.9
127.7
1244.8

540.9
1269.1
270.4
1268.9
180.2
1268.9
135.1
1263.8

570.6
1293.0
285.2
1292.8
190.2
1292.8
142.6
1292.7

v = 0.0164
h = 130.1
v = 0.0164
h = 137.8
v = 0.0165
h = 144.6
v = 0.0165
h = 150.7
v = 0.0166
h = 156.2

73.42
1129.8
61.89
1133.2
53.57
1136.1
47.26
1138.6
42.32
1140.9

78.00
1148.2
64.93
1147.8
55.58
1147.4
48.58
1147.1
43.12
1146.7

84.06
1172.4
69.99
1172.1
59.94
1171.9
52.40
1171.6
46.53
1171.3

90.07
1196.6
75.01
1196.3
64.26
1196.1
56.19
1195.9
49.91
1195.7

96.07
1220.6
80.02
1220.5
68.57
1220.3
59.97
1220.1
53.26
1219.9

102.0
1244.7
85.01
1244.5
72.86
1244.4
63.72
1244.2
56.61
1244.1

108.1
1268.6
90.00
1268.5
77.13
1268.4
67.47
1268.3
59.94
1268.2

114.0
1292.6
94.99
1292.5
81.40
1292.4
71.21
1292.3
63.27
1292.2

v = 0.0166
h = 161.1
v = 0.0166
h = 165.7
v = 0.0166
h = 169.9
v = 0.0167
h = 173.9
v = 0.0167
h = 177.6

38.37
1143.0
35.09
1144.9
32.35
1146.6
30.01
1148.2
28.00
1149.8

38.77
1146.4
35.22
1146.0
32.25
1145.7
29.72
1145.3
27.57
1145.0

41.84
1171.0
38.01
1170.7
34.82
1170.5
32.11
1170.2
29.79
1169.9

44.89
1195.5
40.79
1195.2
37.37
1195.0
34.47
1194.8
31.99
1194.6

47.92
1219.7
43.55
1219.6
39.91
1219.4
36.81
1219.2
34.17
1219.0

50.93
1243.9
46.30
1243.8
42.42
1243.6
39.14
1243.5
36.33
1243.4

53.93
1268.0
49.04
1267.9
44.93
1267.8
41.46
1267.7
38.48
1267.6

56.93
1292.1
51.77
1292.0
47.43
1291.9
43.77
1291.8
40.63
1291.7

v = 0.0167
h = 181.0
v = 0.0167
h = 184.3
v = 0.0168
h = 187.5
v = 0.0168
h = 190.5
v = 0.0168
h = 193.3

26.25
1151.2
24.71
1152.5
23.35
1153.7
22.14
1154.9
21.04
1156.0

27.78
1169.6
26.03
1169.4
24.47
1169.1
23.10
1168.8
21.86
1168.5

29.83
1194.3
27.95
1194.1
26.29
1193.9
24.82
1193.7
23.50
1193.4

31.87
1218.9
29.87
1218.7
28.09
1218.5
26.52
1218.3
25.11
1218.1

33.89
1243.2
31.77
1243.1
29.88
1242.9
28.22
1242.8
26.72
1242.6

35.91
1267.4
33.66
1267.3
31.67
1267.2
29.91
1267.0
28.32
1266.9

37.92
1291.6
35.54
1291.5
33.44
1291.4
31.59
1291.3
29.90
1291.1

v = 0.0168
h = 196.1
v = 0.0169
h = 201.3
v = 0.0169
h = 206.1
v = 0.0169
h = 210.6
v = 0.0170
h = 214.8

20.06
1157.1
18.35
1159.1
16.91
1160.9
15.69
1162.5
14.01
1164.0

20.75
1168.2
18.83
1167.6
17.23
1167.0
15.58
1166.5
14.72
1165.9

22.31
1193.2
20.26
1192.7
18.54
1192.3
17.09
1191.8
15.86
1191.4

23.85
1217.9
21.66
1217.5
19.83
1217.2
18.29
1216.8
16.97
1216.4

25.38
1242.4
23.06
1242.1
21.12
1241.8
19.48
1241.5
18.07
1241.2

26.89
1266.8
24.44
1266.5
22.39
1266.3
20.65
1266.0
19.17
1265.8

28.40
1291.0
25.81
1290.8
23.65
1290.6
21.82
1290.4
20.25
1290.2

22

GAUGE

30

15.31

250.3

32

17.31

254.0

34

19.31

257.6

36

21.31

260.9

38

23.31

264.1

40

25.31

267.2

42

27.31

270.2

44

29.31

273.0

46

31.31

275.7

48

33.31

278.4

50

35.31

287.9

60

45.31

292.6

70

55.31`

302.8

80

65.31

311.9

90

75.31

320.2

100

85.31

327.9

110

95.31

334.8

120

105.3

341.3

130

115.3

347.3

140

125.3

353.0

150

135.3

358.4

160

145.3

363.6

170

155.3

368.4

180

165.3

373.1

190

175.3

377.5

VOLUME IN CUBIC FEET PER LB. (v) AND


TOTAL HEAT IN BTU PER LB. (h) OF

WATER

SATURATED
STEAM

ABSOLUTE

PRESSURE
LB. PER SQ. IN.

SATURATION
TEMPERATURE
(DEGREES FAHR)

PROPERTIES OF STEAM

STEAM AT A TOTAL TEMPERATURE (FAHRENHEIT) OF


350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

v = 0.0170
h = 218.8
v = 0.0170
h = 222.5
v = 0.0171
h = 226.1

13.72
1165.5
12.92
1166.9
12.20
1168.2

15.82
1216.1
14.81
1215.7
13.93
1215.3

16.86
1240.9
15.79
1240.6
14.85
1240.3

17.88
1265.5
16.75
1265.3
15.75
1265.0

18.89
1290.0
17.70
1289.8
16.65
1289.6

19.90
1314.4
18.65
1314.2
17.54
1314.0

20.91
1338.6
19.59
1338.4
18.44
1338.3

21.92
1362.8
20.54
1362.6
19.33
1362.5

22.92
1386.9
21.48
1386.8
20.21
1386.7

v = 0.0171
h = 229.5
v = 0.0171
h = 232.8
v = 0.0171
h = 236.0
v = 0.0172
h = 239.0
v = 0.0172
h = 241.9

11.37
1169.4
11.00
1170.5
10.48
1171.6
10.01
1172.6
9.582
1173.6

13.15
1215.0
12.44
1214.6
11.81
1214.2
11.23
1213.9
10.71
1213.5

14.02
1240.0
13.27
1239.7
12.59
1239.4
11.98
1239.1
11.43
1238.8

14.87
1264.8
14.08
1264.6
13.36
1266.3
12.72
1264.1
12.14
1263.8

13.72
1289.4
14.89
1289.2
14.13
1289.0
13.46
1288.5
12.84
1288.6

16.57
1313.8
15.69
1313.6
14.90
1313.5
14.18
1313.3
13.53
1313.1

17.41
1338.1
16.49
1338.0
15.66
1337.8
14.91
1337.7
14.22
1337.6

18.25
1362.4
17.29
1362.3
16.42
1362.1
15.63
1362.0
14.92
1361.9

19.09
1386.6
18.08
1386.5
17.17
1386.3
16.35
1386.2
15.60
1386.1

v = 0.0172
h = 244.7
v = 0.0172
h = 247.4
v = 0.0173
h = 250.0
v = 0.0174
h = 262.0

9.191
1174.5
8.832
1175.4
8.500
1176.3
7.162
1180.1

10.24
1213.1
9.803
1212.8
94.00
1212.4
77.95
1210.6

10.92
1238.5
10.46
1238.2
10.03
1237.9
8.333
1236.4

11.60
1263.6
11.11
1263.3
10.66
1263.1
8.660
1261.8

12.27
1288.4
11.76
1288.1
11.28
1287.9
9.380
1286.9

12.94
1312.9
12.40
1312.8
11.90
1312.6
9.896
1311.7

13.60
1337.4
13.03
1337.3
12.51
1337.1
10.41
1336.4

14.26
1361.8
13.67
1361.6
13.12
1361.5
10.92
1360.9

14.92
1386.0
14.30
1385.9
13.72
1385.8
11.42
1385.2

v = 0.0175
h = 272.4
v = 0.0176
h = 281.9
v = 0.0176
h = 290.5
v = 0.0177
h = 298.5
v = 0.0178
h = 305.7

6.196
1183.3
5.466
1186.1
4.891
1188.5
4.429
1190.7
4.043
1192.6

66.49
1208.7
5.788
1206.9
5.119
1205.0
4.584
1203.1
4.145
1201.2

7.115
1234.9
6.202
1233.4
5.492
1231.9
4.923
1230.4
4.458
1228.9

7.572
1260.6
6.606
1289.4
5.854
1258.1
5.253
1256.8
4.761
1255.6

8.022
1285.9
7.004
1284.8
6.210
1283.8
5.576
1282.7
5.057
1281.7

8.467
1310.8
7.394
1310.0
6.561
1309.1
5.894
1308.2
5.348
1307.3

8.908
1335.6
7.784
1334.9
6.907
1334.1
6.207
1333.4
5.634
1332.6

9.346
1360.2
8.168
1359.6
7.281
1358.9
6.518
1358.3
5.917
1357.6

9.783
1384.7
8.550
1384.1
7.592
1383.6
6.826
1383.0
6.198
1382.5

v = 0.0179
h = 312.5
v = 0.0180
h = 318.8
v = 0.0180
h = 324.9
v = 0.0181
h = 330.6
v = 0.0182
h = 336.0

3.727
1194.3
3.435
1195.8
3.221
1197.2
3.016
1198.5
2.836
1199.7

3.780
1199.3
3.470
1197.4
3.204
2295.4
2.975
1193.4

4.071
1227.3
3.743
1225.8
3.461
1224.2
3.217
1222.7
3.004
1221.1

4.351
1254.3
4.004
1253.1
3.707
1251.8
3.449
1250.5
3.223
1249.2

4.625
1280.6
4.259
1279.6
3.945
1278.5
3.673
1277.5
3.435
1276.5

4.893
1306.5
4.508
1305.6
4.178
1304.7
3.892
1303.8
3.641
1302.9

5.157
1331.9
4.753
1331.1
4.406
1330.4
4.106
1329.6
3.844
1328.9

5.418
1357.0
4.994
1356.4
4.632
1355.7
4.318
1355.1
4.043
1354.4

5.677
1381.9
5.234
1381.4
4.856
1380.8
4.527
1380.2
4.240
1379.7

v = 0.0182
h = 341.2
v = 0.0183
h = 346.1
v = 0.0184
h = 350.9

2.678
1200.7
2.536
1201.7
2.409
1202.7

2.816
1219.5
2.648
1217.9
2.498
1216.3

3.024
1248.0
2.847
1246.7
2.689
1245.4

3.225
1275.4
3.039
1274.3
2.871
1273.3

3.421
1302.0
3.224
1301.1
3.049
1300.3

3.612
1328.1
3.406
1327.4
3.222
1326.6

3.800
1353.8
3.584
1353.1
3.391
1352.5

3.986
1379.1
3.760
1378.6
3.559
1378.0

23

GAUGE

200

185.3

381.8

210

195.3

385.9

220

205.3

389.9

230

215.3

393.7

240

225.3

397.4

250

235.3

401.0

260

245.3

404.5

270

255.3

407.9

280

265.3

411.1

290

275.3

414.3

300

285.3

417.4

310

295.3

420.4

320

305.3

423.4

330

315.3

426.3

340

325.3

429.1

350

335.3

431.8

360

345.5

434.5

370

355.3

437.1

380

365.3

439.7

390

375.3

442.2

400

385.3

444.7

VOLUME IN CUBIC FEET PER LB. (v) AND


TOTAL HEAT IN BTU PER LB. (h) OF

WATER

SATURATED
STEAM

ABSOLUTE

PRESSURE
LB. PER SQ. IN.

SATURATION
TEMPERATURE
(DEGREES FAHR)

PROPERTIES OF STEAM

STEAM AT A TOTAL TEMPERATURE (FAHRENHEIT) OF


400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

v = 0.0184
h = 355.5
v = 0.0185
h = 360.0
v = 0.0185
h = 364.2

2.293
1203.5
2.189
1204.4
2.093
1205.1

2.363
1214.7
2.241
1213.0
2.129
1211.4

2.546
1244.1
2.417
1242.8
2.300
1241.5

2.721
1272.2
2.585
1271.1
2.461
1270.0

2.891
1299.4
2.747
1298.5
2.617
1297.6

3.056
1325.9
2.906
1325.1
2.769
1324.3

3.218
1351.9
3.061
1351.2
2.918
1350.6

3.377
1377.5
3.213
1376.9
3.064
1376.4

3.535
1402.8
3.364
1402.3
3.208
1401.8

v = 0.0186
h = 368.4
v = 0.0187
h = 372.4
v = 0.0187
h = 376.3
v = 0.0188
h = 380.1
v = 0.0188
h = 383.7

2.006
1205.8
1.926
1206.4
1.852
1207.0
1.783
1207.5
1.719
1208.0

2.027
1209.7
1.934
1208.0
1.848
1206.3
1.769
1204.6
1.695
1202.8

2.192
1240.1
2.094
1238.8
2.003
1237.5
1.920
1236.1
1.842
1234.8

2.349
1269.0
2.245
1267.9
2.150
1266.8
2.062
1265.7
1.980
1264.6

2.499
1296.7
2.390
1295.8
2.290
1294.9
2.197
1294.0
2.111
1293.1

2.645
1323.6
2.530
1322.8
2.425
1322.1
2.328
1321.3
2.238
1320.5

2.787
1349.9
2.668
1349.3
2.558
1348.6
2.456
1348.0
2.362
1347.3

2.928
1375.8
2.803
1375.2
2.688
1374.7
2.581
1374.1
2.483
1373.6

3.066
1401.3
2.935
1400.8
2.816
1400.4
2.705
1399.9
2.602
1399.4

v = 0.0189
h = 387.3
v = 0.0189
h = 390.8
v = 0.0190
h = 394.2
v = 0.0190
h = 397.5
v = 0.0191
h = 400.8

1.660
1208.5
1.604
1209.0
1.552
1209.4
1.504
1209.8
1.458
1210.2

1.771
1233.4
1.703
1232.0
1.641
1230.6
1.582
1229.2
1.527
1227.8

1.904
1263.5
1.834
1262.4
1.768
1261.3
1.706
1260.1
1.649
1259.0

2.032
1292.1
1.958
1291.2
1.889
1290.3
1.824
1289.4
1.763
1288.5

2.155
1319.8
2.077
1319.0
2.005
1318.2
1.937
1317.5
1.873
1316.7

2.275
1346.7
2.193
1346.0
2.117
1345.4
2.047
1344.7
1.980
1344.1

2.392
1373.0
2.307
1372.4
2.228
1371.9
2.154
1371.3
2.084
1370.8

2.507
1398.9
2.419
1398.4
2.336
1397.9
2.259
1397.5
2.186
1397.0

v = 0.0191
h = 404.0
v = 0.0192
h = 407.1
v = 0.0192
h = 410.1
v = 0.0193
h = 413.1
v= 0.0193
h = 416.1

1.415
1210.5
1.374
1210.8
1.336
1211.1
1.300
1211.4
1.266
1211.6

1.475
1226.4
1.427
1224.9
1.380
1223.5
1.337
1222.0
1.296
1220.5

1.594
1257.9
1.543
1256.8
1.495
1255.6
1.450
1254.5
1.406
1253.3

1.706
1287.5
1.653
1286.6
1.602
1285.7
1.554
1284.7
1.509
1283.8

1.814
1315.9
1.757
1315.2
1.704
1314.4
1.654
1313.6
1.607
1312.8

1.917
1343.4
1.858
1342.8
1.803
1342.1
1.750
1341.4
1.701
1340.8

2.019
1370.2
1.957
1369.6
1.899
1369.1
1.844
1368.5
1.793
1368.0

2.118
1396.5
2.054
1396.0
1.993
1395.5
1.936
1395.0
1.882
1394.5

v = 0.0193
h = 419.0
v = 0.0194
h = 421.8
v = 0.0194
h = 424.6

1.233
1211.8
1.202
1212.0
1.172
1212.1

1.257
1219.0
1.220
1217.5
1.184
1216.0

1.365
1252.1
1.327
1251.0
1.289
1249.8

1.466
1282.9
1.426
1281.9
1.387
1281.0

1.562
1312.0
1.519
1311.2
1.479
1310.5

1.654
1340.1
1.609
1339.5
1.567
1338.8

1.743
1367.4
1.697
1366.8
1.653
1366.2

1.831
1394.0
1.782
1393.5
1.736
1393.1

24

GAUGE

420

405.3

449.5

440

425.3

454.1

460

445.3

458.6

480

465.3

462.9

500

485.3

467.1

520

505.3

471.2

540

525.3

475.1

560

545.3

479.0

580

565.3

482.7

600

585.3

486.3

650

635.3

495.0

700

685.3

503.2

750

735.3

511.0

800

785.3

518.3

850

835.3

525.3

900

885.3

532.1

950

935/3

538.5

1000

985.3

544.7

1100

1085.3

556.5

1200

1185.3

567.4

1300

1285.3

577.6

1400

1385.3

587.2

VOLUME IN CUBIC FEET PER LB. (v) AND


TOTAL HEAT IN BTU PER LB. (h) OF
STEAM AT A TOTAL TEMPERATURE (FAHRENHEIT) OF

WATER

SATURATED
STEAM

ABSOLUTE

PRESSURE
LB. PER SQ. IN.

SATURATION
TEMPERATURE
(DEGREES FAHR)

PROPERTIES OF STEAM

v = 0.0195
h = 430.0
v = 0.0196
h = 435.2

1.118
1212.4
1.068
1212.7

1.315
1279.0
1.250
1277.1

1.404
1308.9
1.335
1307.3

v = 0.0197
h = 440.3
v = 0.0198
h = 445.3
v = 0.0199
h = 450.1
v = 0.0200
h = 454.8
v = 0.0200
h = 459.4

1.022
1212.9
0.979
1213.1
0.940
1213.2
0.904
1213.2
0.871
1213.2

1.190
1275.1
1.135
1273.2
1.085
1271.2
1.038
1269.1
0.995
1267.1

v = 0.0201
h = 463.9
v = 0.0202
h = 468.3
v = 0.0203
h = 472.5
v = 0.0205
h = 482.8

0.839
1213.1
0.810
1213.0
0.783
1212.9
0.721
1212.5

v = 0.0207
h = 492.6
v = 0.0209
h = 502.0
v = 0.0211
h = 511.0
v = 0.0213
h = 519.7
v = 0.0215
h = 528.1

550

600

700

750

800

850

1.488
1337.4
1.417
1336.1

1.570
1365.1
1.496
1363.9

1.651
1392.1
1.573
1391.1

1.729
1418.5
1.648
1417.7

1.806
1444.5
1.722
1443.8

1.882
1470.2
1.795
1469.6

1.273
1305.7
1.215
1304.1
1.163
1302.4
1.114
1300.8
1.069
1299.1

1.352
1334.7
1.292
1333.4
1.236
1332.0
1.186
1330.7
1.138
1329.3

1.427
1362.8
1.365
1361.7
1.307
1360.5
1.254
1359.4
1.205
1358.2

1.501
1390.1
1.436
1389.1
1.376
1388.1
1.321
1387.2
1.270
1386.1

1.574
1416.8
1.506
1416.0
1.443
1415.1
1.386
1414.2
1.332
1413.4

1.645
1443.0
1.574
1442.3
1.509
1441.5
1.449
1440.8
1.394
1440.0

1.715
1468.9
1.642
1468.2
1.574
1467.6
1.512
1466.9
1.454
1466.2

0.955
1265.0
0.917
1262.9
0.882
1260.8
0.804
1255.4

1.027
1297.5
0.998
1295.8
0.951
1294.1
0.870
1289.8

1.095
1327.9
1.054
1326.6
1.016
1325.2
0.931
1321.7

1.159
1357.0
1.117
1355.9
1.077
1354.7
0.988
1351.7

1.222
1385.2
1.177
1384.2
1.136
1383.2
1.044
1380.6

1.283
1412.5
1.237
1411.7
1.194
1410.8
1.097
1408.6

1.342
1439.3
1.294
1438.5
1.250
1437.8
1.149
1435.9

1.401
1465.6
1.351
1464.9
1.305
1464.3
1.201
1462.6

0.668
1211.8
0.622
1210.9
0.581
1209.8
0.545
1208.6
0.513
1207.3

0.736
1249.7
0.677
1243.9
0.625
1237.7
0.579
1231.3
0.537
1224.5

0.799
1285.4
0.739
1280.9
0.685
1276.2
0.637
1271.5
0.595
1266.5

0.858
1318.1
0.794
1314.4
0.739
1310.7
0.690
1307.0
0.646
1303.1

0.912
1348.8
0.846
1345.8
0.789
1342.7
0.737
1339.6
0.692
1336.5

0.965
1378.1
0.896
1375.6
0.836
1373.0
0.783
1370.4
0.735
1367.7

1.015
1406.4
0.944
1404.2
0.881
1402.0
0.826
1399.8
0.777
1397.6

1.064
1434.0
0.900
1432.1
0.925
1430.2
0.867
1428.2
0.816
1426.3

1.112
1460.9
1.035
1459.2
0.968
1457.6
0.908
1455.9
0.855
1454.2

v = 0.0217
h = 536.2
v = 0.0219
h = 544.1
v = 0.0223
h = 559.4
v = 0.0227
h = 574.0
v = 0.0232
h = 587.9

0.484
1205.9
0.458
1204.3
0.412
1200.8
0.373
1196.8
0.340
1192.3

0.499
1217.4
0.465
1209.9
0.404
1193.3

0.557
1261.4
0.523
1256.1
0.462
1244.9
0.411
1232.7
0.366
1219.2

0.607
1299.2
0.571
1295.1
0.509
1286.7
0.458
1277.9
0.413
1268.4

0.651
1333.3
0.615
1330.0
0.551
1323.4
0.498
1316.5
0.452
1309.3

0.693
1365.1
0.655
1362.4
0.589
1357.0
0.534
1351.3
0.487
1345.6

0.733
1395.3
0.693
1393.0
0.625
1388.5
0.568
1383.7
0.519
1379.0

0.771
1424.4
0.730
1422.4
0.659
1418.4
0.600
1414.5
0.549
1410.4

0.808
1452.5
0.765
1450.8
0.691
1447.4
0.630
1443.9
0.578
1440.4

v = 0.0236
h = 601.3

0.311
1187.4

0.326
1204.2

0.375
1258.3

0.413
1301.8

0.447
1339.7

0.478
1374.1

0.506
1406.3

0.534
1436.9

25

650

900

MAXIMUM WORKING PRESSURES FOR WATERTUBE BOILERS


Maximum allowable working pressures for seamless steel and electric resistance welded steel tubes or nipples for watertube
boilers, where expanded into drums or headers, for different diameters and gages of tubes conforming to the requirements of
specifications SA-178 Grade A, SA-192 and SA-226.
Wall
Thickness,
in.

Nearest
Bwg.
No.

0.055
0.065
0.075
0.085
0.095
0.105
0.120
0.135
0.150
0.165
0.180
0.200
0.220
0.240
0.260
0.280
0.300
0.320
0.340
0.360
0.380
0.400
0.420

17
16
15 +
14 +
13
12
11
10 +
9+
8
7
6
5
4+
3+
2

Tube Outside Diameter, in.


1

/2

590

/4

350

1090
670
1600 1000
1340

21/4

21/2

23/4

1 /16

1 /4

1 /2

1 /4

470 410
350

720 620
550 430

960 840
740 590
490
1990 1760 760
630

1980 1600 1340

1870 1570

1790

2020

410
530
1150
1340
1540
1740
1940

460
570
1170
1340
1520
1690
1870

400
500
1040
1190
1340
1500
1660
1870

350
440
930
1060
1200
1340
1480
1670
1870

31/4

31/2

33/4

390
840
960
1090
1210
1340
1520
1690
1870

460
880
990
1100
1220
1380
1540
1700
1870
2040

420
800
910
1020
1120
1270
1420
1570
1720
1870
2020

390
740
840
940
1040
1170
1310
1450
1590
1730
1870
2010

680
780
870
960
1090
1210
1340
1470
1600
1740
1870
2000

670
760
840
950
1060
1170
1290
1400
1520
1630
1750
1870
1990

590
670
740
840
940
1040
1140
1240
1340
1450
1550
1660
1760
1870
1980

41/2

DECIMAL AND MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS OF B.W.G.


AND FRACTIONS FOR ROUND SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING
B.W.G.
OR
FRACTION

DECIMAL

36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
1/64
27
26
25
24
23
22
1/32
21

.004
.005
.007
.008
.009
.010
.012
.013
.014
.016
.016
.018
.020
.022
.025
.028
.031
.032

MM

.101
.127
.177
.203
.228
.254
.304
.330
.355
.406
.406
.457
.508
.558
.635
.711
.787
.812

B.W.G.
OR
FRACTION

20
19
3/64
18
17
1/16
16
15
5/64
14
3/32
13
7/64
12
11
1/8
10
9/64

DECIMAL

.035
.042
.047
.049
.058
.063
.065
.072
.078
.083
.094
.095
.109
.109
.120
.125
.134
.141

MM

B.W.G.
OR
FRACTION

DECIMAL

MM

.889
1.06
1.19
1.24
1.47
1.6
1.65
1.82
1.98
2.10
2.38
2.41
2.76
2.76
3.04
3.17
3.4
3.58

9
5/32
8
11/64
7
3/16
13/64
6
7/32
5
4
1/4
3
9/32
2
1
5/16
0

.148
.156
.165
.172
.180
.188
.203
.203
.219
.220
.238
.250
.259
.281
.284
.300
.313
.340

3.75
3.96
4.19
4.36
4.57
4.77
5.15
5.15
5.56
5.58
6.04
6.35
6.57
7.13
7.21
7.62
7.95
8.63

26

B.W.G.
OR
FRACTION

11/32
3/8
00
000
7/16
0000
1/2
17/32
9/16
19/32
5/8
11/16
3/4
13/16
7/8
15/16
1

DECIMAL

.344
.375
.380
.425
.438
.454
.500
.531
.563
.594
.625
.688
.750
.813
.875
.938
1.000

MM

8.73
9.52
9.65
10.80
11.12
11.53
12.70
13.48
14.30
15.10
15.87
17.47
19.00
20.65
22.22
23.82
25.40

CALCULATION OF HEATING VALUES


FOR LIQUID AND GAS FUELS

MEAN SPECIFIC HEAT OF GASES


AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

I. LIQUID FUELS(UNCRACKED DISTILLATE OR RESIDUE)


A. HF = Gross heating value = 17,600 + 69 (A.P.I. Deg.), (Btu/lb.)
(CRACKED DISTILLATE)
B. HF = Gross heating value = 17,780 + 54 (A.P.I. Deg.), (Btu/lb.)
NOTE: Avg., difference between gross and net heating values of
fuel oils is 6%.
II. GASEOUS FUELS
A. Paraffin hydrocarbons (CN H2N + 2)
BTU
_________
= 745N + 258 = Gross heating value
Cu. Ft. Gas

FROM 32F TO 1F IN B. TH. U./LB/F


Temp. Temp.
(tC)
(tF)

Air

N2 and
CO

O2

CO2

Steam

H2

100

212

0.2406

0.2490 0.2179 0.2034 0.5048 3.409

200

392

0.2410

0.2494 0.2182 0.2080 0.4964 3.426

300

572

0.2414

0.2498 0.2186 0.2126 0.4909 3.443

400

752

0.2419

0.2504 0.2191 0.2171 0.4881 3.461

932

500

0.2425

0.2510 0.2196 0.2219 0.4871 3.478

600

1112 0.2432

0.2517 0.2202 0.2256 0.4873 3.496

700

1292 0.2439

0.2524 0.2209 0.2297 0.4888 3.513

800

1472 0.2447

0.2533 0.2217 0.2336 0.4913 3.530

900

1652 0.2457

0.2543 0.2225 0.2374 0.4949 3.548

B. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (CA HB )


BTU
_________
= 459A + 132B +135 = Gross heating value
Cu. Ft. Gas
III. TABLE OF HEATING VALUES FOR TYPICAL FUELS

1000

1832

0.2466

0.2552 0.2233 0.2410 0.5000 3.565

1100

2012

0.2477

0.2563 0.2243 0.2445 0.5050 3.582

1200

2192

0.2488

0.2575 0.2253 0.2478 0.5112 3.600

1300

2372

0.2499

0.2587 0.2264 0.2510 0.5185 3.617

1400

2552

0.2512

0.2600 0.2275 0.2540 0.5268 3.635

1500

2732

0.2525

0.2613 0.2287 0.2569 0.5357 3.652

1600

2912

0.2539

0.2628 0.2299 0.2596 0.5458 3.669

1700

3092

0.2554

0.2643 0.2313 0.2621 0.5566 3.687

1800

3272

0.2569

0.2659 0.2327 0.2645 0.5666 3.704

1900

3452

0.2585

0.2675 0.2341 0.2668 0.5790 3.721

2000

3632

0.2602

0.2693 0.2356 0.2689 0.5911 3.739

FUEL
Natural Gas
Coke Oven Gas
Raw Prod. Gas
Clean Prod. Gas
Towns Gas
Commercial Butane
Blue Water Gas
Blast Furnace Gas
Commercial Propane
Ethane
No. 1 Fuel Oil
No. 2 Fuel Oil
No. 3 Fuel Oil
No. 6 Fuel Oil

1-800-845-3052
27

GROSS HEATING VALUE

NET HEATING VALUE

BTU/CU. FT. FOR GASES


BTU/LB. FOR LIQUIDS

BTU/CU. FT. FOR GASES


BTU/LB. FOR LIQUIDS

1097
561
147
138
545
3190
301
92.3
2550
1760
19,800
19,600
19,350
18,300

993
500
137.3
129
499
2935
276
90.6

18,650
18,400
18,350
17,340

SPECIFICATIONS FOR STEEL TUBING AND PIPE


TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
SPEC

PARTIAL
ANALYSIS

DESCRIPTION

tensile

yield

elongation
(0.0 in. 2)

pressure
tested*

ASTM
Welded and Seamless
A-53 Carbon Steel Pipe

Carbon
Phosphorous

.30 max.
.05 max.

Seamless
A-106 Carbon Steel Pipe

Grade B:
Carbon
Manganese
Silicon

.30 max.
1.06 max.
.10 min.

OD

WALL

OTHER

45,000 - 60,000 psi

30,000 - 35,000 psi

30%

Yes

Schedule 10 thru 160


1
/8" - 26" IPS Standard
Wall Tolerance
X Heavy, XX Heavy 121 /2% max.

60,000 min. psi

Grade B
35,000 min. psi

30%

Yes

Nonspecified

Nonspecified

Yes

/8" - 26" IPS

Schedule 40 thru 160


Standard
Wall Tolerance
X Heavy, XX Heavy 131/2% max.

Welded and Seamless


A-120 Galvanized Steel Pipe

Nonspecified

A-178 Electric Resistance Welded


Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes

Grade A:
Carbon
Manganese

.06 - .18
.27 - .63

60,000 min. psi

37,000 min. psi

30%

Optional

Min. Wall
.035" - .320"

ASTM A-450 Applies

Seamless
A-179 Cold Drawn Carbon Steel
Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tubes

Carbon
Manganese

.06 -.18
.27 - .63

60,000 min. psi

37,000 min. psi

30%

Optional

None Specified

ASTM A-450 Applies

Seamless
A-192 Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes
for High Pressure Service

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon

.06 - .18
.27 - .63
25 max.

Maximum Hardness
Under 200 Wall, Not
200 Wall and Over,

to Exceed Rockwell B-77 35%


Not to Exceed Brinell 137

Optional

1/2" - 7" OD Min. Wall


.085" - 1.000"

ASTM A-450 Applies

Optional

35%

Optional

.155 - 5" OD Min. Wall


.015" - .500"
.555 - 5" OD Min. Wall

ASTM A-450 Applies

All 400 Series

.18 max.
.27 - .63

26,000 min. psi


47,000 min. psi
30,000 min. psi
75,000 min. psi
Not to Exceed
Rockwell B-90 max.
Brinell 200 max.

30%

Seamless Stainless and Alloy Ferritic


A-213 Boiler, Superheater and
Heat Exchanger Tubes Austenitic
Welded
A-214 Carbon Steel Heat Exchanger and
Condenser Tubes

Not to Exceed
Rockwell B-90 max.
Brinell 200 max.

All 300 Series

70,000 min. psi

25,000 min. psi

All 300 Series

75,000 min. psi

30,000 min. psi

Welded
Austenitic Stainless Steel Boiler
A-249 Superheater, Heat Exchanger and
Condenser Tubes
Welded and Seamless
A-269 Austenitic Stainless Steel
Tubing for General Service

All 300 Series


Carbon
Manganese

MIL-T specifications are approved by the Naval SEA System Command and are

/2" - 16" IPS All


/2" - 5" OD

/8" - 3" OD

Optional

/8" - 3" OD

Min. Wall Only

35%

Optional

.155 - 5" OD

Min. Wall
.015" - .320"

35%

Optional

Under 8" OD Average Wall

ASTM A-450 Applies

ASTM A-450 Applies

ASTM A-450 Applies

available for use by all Departments and Agencies of the Department of Defense

MIL-T

Chemical and Mechanical Properties


are Similar to
ASTM A-192

Seamless
16286 E Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes
Class A
Seamless
Class C Stainless Steel Boiler Tubes
18% CR 8% NI

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Carbon
Manganese
Silicon

.06 - .18
.27 - .63
.25 max.
0.8 max.
2.0 max.
.75 max.

Seamless
Class E Alloy Steel Boiler Tubes
21 /4% CR 1% Moly

Carbon
Manganese

.15 max.
.30 - .60

Silicon

.50 max.

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon

.27 max.
.93 max.
.10 min.

50,000 min. psi

37,000 min. psi

30%

Yes

Min. Wall Only

ASTM A-210
Grade A-1

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon

.06 - .08
.27 - .63
.050 max.

60,000 min. psi

37,000 min. psi

30%

Yes

Min. Wall Only

ASTM A-226

Seamless
Class G Medium Carbon Boiler Tubes

47,000 min. psi

26,000 min. psi

35%

Yes

Min. Wall Only

75,000 min. psi

30,000 min. psi

35%

Yes

Min. Wall Only

ASTM A-213
GR T321 - T347

50,000 min. psi

30,000 min. psi

30%

Yes

Min. Wall Only

ASTM A-213
GR T22

MIL-T
Welded
17188 Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes
Class A

28

BOILER TUBE COMPANY OF AMERICA


KEEPS YOUR BOILER OPERATING
Whether you need to get a boiler back on line fast or plan a retrofit for improved efficiency,
depend on Boiler Tube Company of Americathe boiler fabrication specialists who have
returned thousands of boilers to service all across the globe.
The largest stock of boiler tubes in the world.
Hot and cold bending facilities with a full range of tooling.
Complete fabrication facilities to expedite your order.
Code weld assembly plant with multiple stamp approval and complete facilities to hydro test,
heat treat and ultrasonic test, and radiograph after assembly.
A file of over 40,000 drawings of tube details and tube arrangements for nearly every type of
boiler ever built. Your boiler probably matches one already in our files.
Over 60 years in the business. Years devoted exclusively to supply replacement boiler tubes
and tube arrangements to keep existing units operating with a minimum of interruption.
We offer on-site design and engineering capability for redesign. We are also the only company
in America able to supply extended surface Economizers.

Boiler Tube Company of America


P.O. Box 517
506 Charlotte Highway
Lyman, South Carolina 29365
(864) 439-0220, 1-800-845-3052
Fax: (864) 439-8292
650 Green Lane
P.O. Box 2065
Union, NJ 07083
1-800-345-0632

1999 Boiler Tube Company of America

29