Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 122

March 2006

Translate August 2007

Technical guide

Road drainage

The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'tudes techniques des routes et autoroutes - Stra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures. The Stra supports the public owner The Stra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: improve the projects quality; help with the asset management; define, apply and evaluate the public policies; guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; bring an expertise on complex projects. The Stra, producer of the state of the art Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Stra: takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; fosters the exchanges of experience; evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; contributes to the training and information of the technical community. The Stra, a work in partnership The Stra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Rseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'tudes techniques de l'Equipement CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Rseau Ferr de France RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development The Stra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral co-operations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Stra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organization for Technical Approvals).

Technical guide

Road drainage

This document is the translation of the work "Drainage routier" published in March 2006 under the reference 0605.

Road drainage Technical guide

This Road Drainage guide has been written by a working group, including: Marie-Odile Cavaills (Stra) Yasmina Boussafir (CETE Normandie-Centre - LRPC Blois) Marc Valin (CETE Nord-Picardie) Francis Van laethem (CETE Nord-Picardie - LRPC Lille) The team has relied heavily on the in-depth work carried out in 1997 by: - Jean-Louis Paute (CETE de LOuest - LRPC Saint-Brieuc), with inputs from: - Yves Arnaud (CETE de Lyon - LRPC Clermont-Ferrand), - Jean-Louis Aussedat (Scetauroute), - Vronique Berche (CETE Normandie-Centre - LRPC Saint-Quentin), - Patrice Bioche (CETE de LOuest - LRPC Angers), - Pierre-Yves Bot (DDE du Morbihan), - Didier Giloppe (CETE Normandie-Centre), - Herv Havard (LCPC), - Alain Quibel (CETE Normandie-Centre).

Notes on reading the guide - Bibliographical references: the numbers in square brackets [ ] in the text relate to the documents listed in the bibliography in Appendix 5 - The abbreviations encountered in the text are explained in Appendix 6.1 - References to the glossary: words or expressions marked by * in the text relate to terms explained in Appendix 6.2

"Tools" Collection Stra

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Contents
The Stra supports the public owner ............................................................................2 The Stra, producer of the state of the art....................................................................2 The Stra, a work in partnership..................................................................................2

Contents..................................................................................................................... 5 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 10 Chapter 1................................................................................................................. 11 1 - General notions about drainage ...................................................................... 11 1.1 - Definition of drainage .................................................................................... 12 1.2 - Criteria to be considering during a drainage study.................................... 14 1.2.1 - When is drainage necessary? .................................................................... 14 1.2.2 - Climatic or meteorological context........................................................... 15 1.2.3 - Hydrogeological context (see Appendix 1)............................................... 17 1.2.4 - Type of subgrades and pavement courses................................................. 19 1.2.5 - Unusual pavement points .......................................................................... 19 1.3 - Effects of drainage on the environment ....................................................... 21 Chapter 2................................................................................................................. 22 2 - Drainage in a new road project ....................................................................... 22 2.1 - General dimensioning rules .......................................................................... 23 2.1.1 - Designing the drainage project.................................................................. 23 2.1.2 - Optimizing the road project layout ........................................................... 23 2.1.3 - Subsequent maintenance and repair .......................................................... 23 2.1.4 - Geometric characteristics of drainage systems ......................................... 23 2.1.5 - Rules for evacuating drainage water ......................................................... 24 2.1.6 - Environmental impacts.............................................................................. 25
Impact on water..........................................................................................................25 Waste management.....................................................................................................25

2.1.7 - Flow rate assessment................................................................................. 26


Drainage of subgrades ...............................................................................................26 Pavement drainage.....................................................................................................27

2.2 - Earthworks ..................................................................................................... 28 2.2.1 - Site capacity and traffic............................................................................. 28 2.2.2 - Improvement in the hydric state of soils to be re-used; ............................ 30 2.2.3 - Interception of water ingress in cut........................................................... 31
Generalized water ingress and bank stabilization .....................................................31 Random water ingress ................................................................................................31 Unpredictable random water ingress.........................................................................31
"Tools" Collection Stra 5 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.2.4 - Interception of water ingress in fill ........................................................... 33


General case...............................................................................................................33 Special case of natural slopes ....................................................................................33

2.3 - Pavement formation levels ............................................................................ 35 2.3.1. - Subformation (below capping level) (PST): ............................................ 35
PST (Subformation (below capping level)) classification and improvement .............35 Treatment of singular points in the longitudinal section............................................40

2.3.2 - Capping layer ............................................................................................ 42 2.4 - Pavement......................................................................................................... 44 2.4.1 - Drainage systems in pavement courses..................................................... 44 2.4.2 - Drainage systems at singular points.......................................................... 47
Shoulder and emergency hard shoulder (BAU) .........................................................47 Median........................................................................................................................47 Dividing island, directional island and obstacle island .............................................47 Roundabout ................................................................................................................47

Chapter 3................................................................................................................. 48 3 - Drainage of an existing pavement ................................................................... 48 3.1 - Types of disorder encountered in pavements.............................................. 49 3.1.1 - Flexible pavements.................................................................................... 49 3.1.2 - Rigid or semi-rigid pavements .................................................................. 50 3.1.3 - Cement concrete pavements...................................................................... 50 3.1.4 - Bituminous material courses ..................................................................... 50 3.1.5 - Modular material pavements (paving blocks and slabs) ........................... 50 3.1.6 - List of singular pavement points with respect to drainage........................ 50 3.2 - Analysis ........................................................................................................... 52 3.2.1 - Compiling information.............................................................................. 52 3.2.2 - Putting the analysis together ..................................................................... 54
Marking systems .........................................................................................................54 Table interpretation....................................................................................................54 Decision model ...........................................................................................................55

3.3 - Definition of work solutions .......................................................................... 56 3.4 - Dimensioning or assessment of flow rates to be drained through the old pavement .................................................................................................................................. 56 Chapter 4................................................................................................................. 58 4 - Characteristics of drainage systems and of materials used in them ............ 58 4.1 - Drainage structures and systems.................................................................. 59 4.1.1 - Deep ditches .............................................................................................. 60
Objective.....................................................................................................................60 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................60 Operating method.......................................................................................................62
"Tools" Collection Stra 6 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................62 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................62

4.1.2 - Cutoff drains.............................................................................................. 63


Objective.....................................................................................................................63 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................63 Operating method.......................................................................................................63 Shallow trench............................................................................................................................63 Deep trench ................................................................................................................................63 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................65 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................67

4.1.3 Grips and draining stacks ............................................................................ 68


Objective.....................................................................................................................68 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................68 Operating method.......................................................................................................68 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................68 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................68

4.1.4 - Fin drains at pavement edge (EDRC) ....................................................... 70


Objective.....................................................................................................................70 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................70 Operating method.......................................................................................................72 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................72 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................72

4.1.5 - Draining courses........................................................................................ 73


Objectives ...................................................................................................................73 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................73 Operating method.......................................................................................................74 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................74 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................74

4.1.6 - Shafts (vertical drainage) .......................................................................... 75


Objective.....................................................................................................................75 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................75 Operating method.......................................................................................................77 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................77 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................77

4.1.7 - Bank stabilization systems (shields and stacks)........................................ 78


Objective.....................................................................................................................78 Standard schemes .......................................................................................................78 Operating method.......................................................................................................78 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................80 Elements required for dimensioning ..........................................................................80

4.2 - Stipulations on materials............................................................................... 81 4.2.1 - Draining and filtering materials ................................................................ 81


Filtering power...........................................................................................................81 Draining power ..........................................................................................................81 Other criteria..............................................................................................................83 Comment on porous concretes ...................................................................................83

4.2.2 - Geotextiles and related products ............................................................... 84


Role in the drainage structures ..................................................................................84 Main characteristics to be determined .......................................................................84 Filtering function........................................................................................................................84 Drainage function.......................................................................................................................84 Mechanical characteristics .........................................................................................................84
"Tools" Collection Stra 7 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Elements required for choosing the geotextile ...........................................................88

4.2.3 - Drains or drain pipes ................................................................................. 90


Role and types ............................................................................................................90 Pre-coating.................................................................................................................92 Dimensioning: Flow rate - Diameter - Slopes ...........................................................92 Durability and maintenance.......................................................................................92

4.3 - Ancillary structures ....................................................................................... 94


4.3.1 - Crossings.........................................................................................................94 4.3.2 - Inspection chambers .......................................................................................94 4.3.3 - Outlets .............................................................................................................94

Chapter 5................................................................................................................. 96 5 - Execution of work, application of quality assurance, completion of drainage work, operation and maintenance ................................................................................... 96 5.1 - Execution of drainage work .......................................................................... 97 5.1.1 - Execution of work ..................................................................................... 97
Optimum work period.................................................................................................97 Managing interfaces...................................................................................................97

5.1.2 - Special drainage applications in earthworks phase................................... 98


Surface maintenance ..................................................................................................98 Evacuation of rainwater.............................................................................................98 A few rules for carrying out the work.......................................................................100

5.1.3 - Checks ..................................................................................................... 100 5.2 - Application of quality assurance in the drainage work............................ 101 5.2.1 - Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme (SOPAQ).................... 101 5.2.2 - Site-specific Quality Assurance Plan (PAQ) .......................................... 101 5.2.3 - Quality Master Plan (SDQ) ................................................................... 103 5.3 - Completion of drainage work ..................................................................... 104 5.3.1 - Acceptance .............................................................................................. 104 5.3.2 - Handover of as-built drawing.................................................................. 104 5.4 - Drainage system operation and maintenance............................................ 104 5.4.1 - Inspection of structure with as-built drawing.......................................... 104 5.4.2 - Establishment of the zero point in the absence of an as-built drawing... 104 5.4.3 - Maintenance and repair work ................................................................ 105
Monitoring................................................................................................................105 Repairs and repair frequency...................................................................................105

Appendices ............................................................................................................ 106 Appendix 1 - Special hydrogeological* studies.................................................. 107 G11 mission, preliminary feasibility study ........................................................ 107 G12 standard mission, geotechnical* feasibility study ...................................... 107 G2 standard mission, geotechnical* feasibility study ........................................ 107
"Tools" Collection Stra 8 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendix 2 - Improvement in hydric conditions of materials ......................... 108 Appendix 3 - Assessment of flow rates to be drained........................................ 110 3.1 - Through subgrades ..................................................................................... 110 3.2 - Through the pavement................................................................................ 112
3.2.1 - Diffuse infiltrations via the surface courses..................................................112 3.2.2 - Infiltration through the cracks (see Diagram 45) .........................................114 Sample estimation of a drainage system dimensioning. ..........................................................115 Checking the utility of draining ...............................................................................................115

Appendix 4 - Elements to establish the special technical clauses (CCTP) ...... 116 1 - Description of work to be carried out ........................................................... 116
1.1 - Localization of work.........................................................................................116 1.2 - General description of work reserved for the contractor ................................116 1.3 - Work not included in the contract....................................................................116

1.4 - References to drawings extracted from the capital investment project...... 116 2 - Quality assurance .......................................................................................... 116 3 - Material, product and component specifications .......................................... 116
3.1 - Required characteristics of drainage systems..................................................116 3.2 - Materials for earthworks and backfill..............................................................116 3.3 - Ancillary structures..........................................................................................117

4 - Work execution method (example for cutoff drains and EDRC) ................. 117
4.1 - Specifications on installation and setting out of systems .................................117 4.2. - Acceptance and storage of supplies and materials .........................................117 4.3 - Trench execution method .................................................................................117 4.4 - Laying specifications........................................................................................117 4.5 - Compacting specifications ...............................................................................117 4.6 - Dealing with singular points............................................................................117 4.7 - Installing inspection chambers, connections to outlets....................................117 4.8 - Ancillary work..................................................................................................117 4.9 - Using the road during the work .......................................................................118

5 - Checks and quality ........................................................................................ 118


5.1 - Compacting reference areas ............................................................................118 5.2 - Checks at hold points .......................................................................................118

Appendix 5 - Bibliography .................................................................................. 118 Standards: ........................................................................................................... 118 Technical documents:......................................................................................... 118 For information:.................................................................................................. 119 Appendix 6 - Abbreviations and glossary .......................................................... 120 6.1 - Abbreviations ............................................................................................. 120 6.2 - Glossary...................................................................................................... 120

"Tools" Collection Stra

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Introduction
Varying amounts of water are found in the road environment, be it in the cut and fill banks, inside the pavement itself or in the underlying soils or adjacent shoulders. A well-drained pavement has better mechanical behavior in a subgrade whose bearing capacity is also improved. The result of pavement and formation levels containing less water throughout the climatic cycles is a considerable increase in pavement lifetime, less frequent maintenance sequences and effective protection against the highly-damaging effects of freezing and thawing phenomena. The terms "draining" and "drainage" are used to describe both the evacuation of run-off water and the elimination of subsurface water. To avoid any confusion in the purpose and design of systems, clear distinction is made between the specific functions of internal pavement draining systems and surface drainage, as indicated in Chapter 1.

This guide is the first methods document on road drainage to encourage taking drainage needs in road works systematically in account. It suggests solutions based on the type of structure, siting, dimensioning and maintenance for new road projects, including earthworks and for existing pavements. This document is intended for Project Engineers and Clients, managers, Design Offices and public works contractors involved in studying, creating and maintaining road drainage.

"Tools" Collection Stra

10

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Chapter 1 1 - General notions about drainage

"Tools" Collection Stra

11

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

1.1 - Definition of drainage


Road drainage relates to the collection and evacuation of water present in the subgrade and pavements. It is one of three aspects of road drainage (see Technical Guide [21]), along with surface water evacuation (surface drainage) and re-routing natural flows. Drainage is an essential component in the pavement's good mechanical behavior and thus makes a significant contribution to the durability of road structures. Subsurface water to be drained comes from: infiltrations through the pavement towards the pavement layers and pavement/subgrade interfaces; infiltrations from the shoulders towards the pavement layers and pavement/subgrade interfaces fed by the formation level; water ingress from the lateral surroundings towards the pavement/subgrade interfaces and the subgrade originating from catchment areas, cuts and discharges from water tables. Although the various drainage systems frequently use common outlets, it is essential to distinguish between them, for they have distinctive functions: in particular, the drainage network conveying a so-called "clean" water (not soiled) must not in any circumstances be disturbed by run-off water, which is frequently polluted (mud, oils, vegetation, etc.) and flows faster (to prevent loading).

Diagram 1: distinction between the various road drainage systems

Prcipitations Ruissellement Foss de crte Evacuation Infiltrations dans la structure DEBLAI Infiltrations REMBLAI
"Tools" Collection Stra

Rainfall Run off Ditch on crest Evacuation Infiltrations in the structure CUT Infiltrations FILL
12 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Drainage chausse Drainage terrassement selon contexte hydrogologique Drainage commun chausse + terrain Equilibre avec une nappe ventuelle Remontes capillaires Nappe ou circulation d'eau sous-jacente

Pavement drainage Earthworks drainage depending on hydrogeological context Common pavement + ground drainage Equilibrium with any water table Capillary rises Water table or underlying water circulation

"Tools" Collection Stra

13

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

1.2 - Criteria to be considering during a drainage study


1.2.1 - When is drainage necessary?
The French climate imposes systematic draining of the subgrades, capping layer and pavement. It is however possible to avoid mandatory drainage in the following cases: favorable climate context; in the earthworks phase, the drainage must be analyzed with specific reference to the hydrogeological context (see 1.2.2); very light heavy traffic (T5) for a correctly-dimensioned pavement; favorable hydrogeological context, subgrade and type of pavement courses in the short and long term (see 1.2.3).

Diagram 2: subgrade, capping layer and pavement drainage.*

Ruissellements Run off Dblai Cut Contexte climatique Climatic context Indice d'humidit Humidity index Intensit du gel Frost intensity Vgtation Vegetation Couche de chausse Pavement course Sols support Subgrades Gel Frost Equilibre avec une nappe ventuelle Equilibrium with any water table Remblai Fill Nature des sols support et couches de Type of subgrades and pavement courses chausses Contexte hydrogologique Hydrogeological context Nappes, zones humides, sources Water tables, wetlands, springs
"Tools" Collection Stra 14 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

1.2.2 - Climatic or meteorological context


The mapping is based on the siting and density of meteorological stations. Studies have shown that the French climate is normally wet to very wet (see map 1), with rare dry areas. However, whatever the type of climate, humidity spread throughout the seasonal cycle, with heavy concentrations over a few months, accentuates the risk of damage to pavements from moisture. The degree of humidity in soils and pavement materials is linked to the climate and its fluctuations. Water reduces the mechanical characteristics of soils and materials (see 3.1). This characteristic worsens when temperatures drop below freezing and the water freezes in the structures (see map 2). This map takes into account the maximum frost index (exceptionally hard winter) read in 95 stations during the period 1951-1991. The designer is advised to take the least favorable criterion on the edge of a zone. Two contexts are possible depending on the geographical location of the project: where drainage can be avoided: dry climatic variations with moderate climatic variations; where drainage should be systematically planned: in wet to very wet climatic zones.

Map 1: humidity distribution in France. Map based on Mto France study [16]. The value of climatic indices on a particular site may be calculated more accurately when neighboring meteorological readings are available. However, this greater accuracy can only be illusory, as the climate at a given point undergoes major fluctuations and is not reproduced identically every year.

Lgende Key trs humides avec de fortes variations very humid with major seasonal variations saisonnires
"Tools" Collection Stra 15 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

humide avec de fortes variations saisonnires sche avec de fortes variations saisonnires trs humide avec variations saisonnires modres sche avec variations saisonnires modres trs humide sans variations saisonnires

humid with major seasonal variations dry with major seasonal variations very humid with moderate seasonal variations dry with moderate seasonal variations very humid with no seasonal variations

"Tools" Collection Stra

16

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

In conclusion, drainage is necessary in the majority of cases, except for dry zones with moderate seasonal variations (southern Corsica, part of the Bouches-du-Rhne and part of Alsace (see map 1).

1.2.3 - Hydrogeological context (see Appendix 1).


This context must at least be defined in the geotechnical study. Additional studies will be performed on special cases. The hydrogeological context is: favorable when the pavement does not intercept any known hydrogeological system. This is often the case of a pavement with long sections filled in or at the top of a relief. unfavorable: when the pavement intercepts hydrogeological systems with varying degrees of durability or size. This scenario is frequently encountered in a succession of cut and fill or for mixedprofile pavements. This is made worse when the crossfall accentuates water concentration in some zones; very unfavorable when the alignment definitely intercepts known hydrogeological systems. These are typically pavements with skimming profile on the plain, pavements in cuts and mixed-profile pavements. Note that depending on project progress, the context can become favorable by altering the geometric criteria of the alignment: by raising the red line*, creating fills, modifying the alignment siting, etc.

Map 2: variation of atmospheric frost index*. Map based on Mto France study [16]. I 250 : regions marked by long winters with low temperatures (frost). The frost front penetrates in depth in the soil, hence damage during the thaw. 100 I 250 : regions where the temperature fluctuates around 0C. Some years the frostthaw cycles can affect the road foundation materials. I < 100 : regions marked by mild winters. Moderate frosts only have an

"Tools" Collection Stra

17

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

impact on certain flexible, lightweight pavement structures.

Indice de gel C x jours

Frost index C x days

"Tools" Collection Stra

18

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

1.2.4 - Type of subgrades and pavement courses


Subgrades The bearing capacity performance of some subgrades can be seen to fall over time due to water infiltration or rises in water table. These are "water-sensitive" soils. This characteristic is taken into account when dimensioning the subformation (below capping level) and the thickness of the capping form. Distinction must be made between soils of different types (see Table 14 in Appendix 2): favorable (porous soil): these are soils insensitive to water which require no special drainage precautions (D, B1, B3, some C1 and C2); unfavorable (water-sensitive soils): their hydric state can improve or remain constant under the effect of draining action, within reasonable timescales (A1, B2, B4, B5 and some B6); very unfavorable (impermeable soils): the water content of these water-sensitive soils hardly diminishes through draining action if they are in wet hydric states initially, whilst remaining within reasonable deadlines (A2, A3, A4, some B5 and B6). Water circulates in rocks through cracks or general discontinuities (stratification, fracturing, etc.). Few rocks disaggregate under the effect of water (unlike soil), but site traffic, blasting, re-use operations and so on can change the part involved by the earthworks. In this case, the rocky zone likely to change will be assimilated with a soil by the geotechnical engineer and classified under the same criteria. The following distribution is frequently accepted: favorable: certain R1, certain R2, certain R4 and certain R6; unfavorable: R11, R21, R22, R32, R33, R41, R42, R61 and R62; very unfavorable: R12, R13, R23, R31, R34, R5, certain R43 and R63. Materials making up the pavement courses The mechanical performances of these materials are normally reduced in the presence of water. The change varies, however, depending on the technique adopted and pathologies also appear based on the type of pavement technique. Distinction is made between techniques: favorable: these are structures that are hardly influenced by the presence of water when they are constructed correctly such as material courses treated with hydrocarbon binder; unfavorable: materials processed with hydrocarbon binders and concrete courses have special drainage needs relating to the appearance of cracks; very unfavorable: this involves untreated graded aggregates, where performance depends greatly on the water content.

1.2.5 - Unusual pavement points


Some parts of a structure require draining more than others regardless of the meteorological and hydrogeological* criteria or types of material. For example: medians and central islands; cut and fill transition zones; low points in longitudinal section; cut crossfall zones.

"Tools" Collection Stra

19

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Photo 1: water accumulated in the central island exists by the lowest point and flows onto the pavement. (Photo CETE Normandie - Centre/LRPC Blois)

"Tools" Collection Stra

20

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

1.3 - Effects of drainage on the environment


Drainage water is so-called "clean" (not soiled by the collection system) which is evacuated into the natural environment via an outlet. The environment is modified in varying degrees by building the drainage structures. The designer must be aware of: regulations in force [15]; State undertakings under the project in terms of the environmental protection and also with respect to local residents. Some negative effects from drainage and earthworks: the effect on vegetation, particularly shrubs near the structures through drying out of soils (and large oak trees that were marked for preservation on the edge of the cut have rapidly turned into a major hazard for users through decline and the risk of falling); reduction of wet zones which have been dried out (not dealt with in this guide); settling of structures built on barely compacted soils, host to a water table lowered without special care (not dealt with in this guide); altered water flow directions through barriers.

"Tools" Collection Stra

21

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Chapter 2 2 - Drainage in a new road project

"Tools" Collection Stra

22

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

There are three stages in a new road project: the earthworks; the formation levels (upper earthworks and capping layer); the pavements. This chapter gives the general dimensioning rules and describes the draining requirements and specific dimensioning rules for each stage.

2.1 - General dimensioning rules


2.1.1 - Designing the drainage project
The drainage must be examined at each project phase from the preliminary study until the work is carried out. The study levels relating to the drainage project are defined in Appendix 1. The design trend nowadays is to "stick" to the natural landscape as far as possible (objectives of road calming, landscape integration, etc.).

2.1.2 - Optimizing the road project layout


The designer can adapt his project for optimum drainage by modifying the red line* and avoiding: long upwards gradients; slopes < 0.5%; low points in cut zone; cuts in water tables; wet zones.

2.1.3 - Subsequent maintenance and repair


The effect of drainage is taken into account in the mechanical dimensioning of the roadbed for its longterm operation; it is therefore essential to organize the verification and schedule the maintenance of the drainage system to increase its lifetime.

2.1.4 - Geometric characteristics of drainage systems


The geometric characteristics of drainage systems (height, depth, slope) depend on: the part of the structure to be drained (road foundation, shoulder, median, cut, structure abutments, etc.), the drainage system adopted; restrictions in project execution; the amounts of water to be evacuated; taking the pavement longitudinal slope into account; taking crossfalls into account, especially those accentuating concentrations of moisture at the low points; the choice of the location of drainage systems in the cross section; the location of possible outlets. A description of the various drainage structures and an indication of the orders of magnitude of the dimensions of these structures can be found in Chapter 4. The slope - a major parameter - must reconcile the following essential requirements: a minimum slope > 2% is necessary. Less slope (up to 0.5%) requires drains to be over-dimensioned and more frequent maintenance. These values can vary from one structure to the next (see Chapter 4); too pronounced a slope (more than 5 to 10%), as found in mountain areas, for example, creates excessive water speeds, especially with respect to problems of structure erosion (ditches, banks, etc.) which dictate suitable precautions (stabilized ditches, partitioning of ditches, energy dissipation structures and more crossings).
"Tools" Collection Stra 23 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.1.5 - Rules for evacuating drainage water


It is normally advantageous to avoid mixing drainage water, evacuated in priority towards the natural environment, and road run-off water in order to optimize structure dimensioning. In some cases (e.g. in southern France), drainage water added to storm water treatment basins can make them more efficient (better water oxygenation and maintaining dead storage). in cut The water is evacuated at the exit of the cut trench. Like the drainage systems, the collector installed at the edge of the cut roadbed must be connected to a drain at the foot of the fill bank (ditch, trickle channel, etc.) which leads to a natural outlet. in fill The water drained by the collector is evacuated at the foot of the fill through drainage outfalls aligned to the longitudinal slope (the lesser the slope, the lesser the distance must be between outfalls) and to the minimum in the low points. in mixed profile Water collected in cut are directed towards the ditch at the foot of the fill through under-pavement crossings and returned to the banks by drainage outfalls, as for fills.

"Tools" Collection Stra

24

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.1.6 - Environmental impacts


Impact on water
Planned drainage activities and systems in the construction of road infrastructures are governed by the authorizations and declarations provided for under Articles L.214.1 to L.214.6 of the Environmental Code (former Article 10 of Law 92-3 on water of 3 January 1992). Water policing applies to all surface, groundwater, state- or privately-owned, coastal maritime waters and wetlands. Decree 93-743 of 29 March 1993 sets the nomenclature of operations thus subject to authorization (A) and declaration (D). The headings likely to involve drainage work more especially are as follows:

- "1.1.0. Sounding, borehole, building of shaft or underground structure not intended for domestic use, created for the purposes of research or monitoring or groundwaters or for temporary or permanent sampling in the groundwaters, including in the water course water tables D".

- "1.1.1. Permanent or temporary samples taken from a borehole, shaft or underground structure in an aquifer system excluding water course water tables by pumping, draining, diversion or any other process: 1. Total, Reminder: creating a drainage network alters the water maximum capacity of sampling facilities greater content in the surrounding soils and diverts or interrupts than or equal to 80 m3/hour A underground flows. These disturbances modify the site ecology. These headings are designed to protect and 2. Total, maximum capacity of sampling preserve groundwater bodies which are potentially major, facilities greater than 8 m3/hour but less than 80 fragile water resources. Similarly, protecting wetlands is a m3/h. D national priority (environments with huge diversity and ecological wealth). It is therefore important to prevent or - 4.1.0. Drying, priming, surface sealing, filling limit their degradation. of wetlands and marshes, the dried or primed Overall, drainage culminates in water originating from zone being: varying points of the land being concentrated towards the outlet. Water inputs are therefore greatly increased at a 1. Greater than or equal to 1 ha A given point and there is no harm in assessing this action particularly in sensitive ground to avoid disorders 2. Greater than 0.1 ha but less than 1 ha D" appearing downstream. - 4.2.0*. Creation of drainage networks to drain Ideally, the discharge point chosen or found on the site is a surface area of: a natural, already-existing flow zone, with no sign of disorder and capable of absorbing the drained water. 1. Greater than or equal to 100 ha A It is also useful to channel the drainage water from the outlet to the natural receiving flow for a few meters to 2. Greater than 20 ha but less than 100 ha D prevent in particular problems of erosion or the effect of - 4.3.0. Structures, installations, works allowing natural deposits. full water sampling in a zone where constant In the event of accidental pollution, the manager must quantitative distribution measurements, in monitor the outlets and discharge points. particular under Article 8-2 of the Law of 3 January 1992 on water, have provided for the Waste management lowering of thresholds: This involves materials extracted during work which in an 3 ideal scenario will be re-used. Excess cuts from the site 1. Capacity greater than or equal to 8 m /hour A footprint must be evacuated in accordance with the Waste Evacuation and Management Organization Scheme 2. In other cases D" SOGED (see CCTP type earthworks).

"Tools" Collection Stra

25

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.1.7 - Flow rate assessment


Drainage of subgrades
The diagrams grouped in Appendix 3.1, with just one presented below (see Diagram 3), indicate the orders of magnitude of the drainage flow rates (in liters per hour and for a length of 100 m) for a cutoff drain capturing from a single side in miscellaneous contexts. These are distinguished by the permeability of the medium, the depth of the water table and of the drawdown (see Diagram 4). The diagrams show that for the majority of soils, regardless of the geometry of the water table or the drawdown system, current drains 100-150 in diameter mm are theoretically largely over-dimensioned. In practice, other phenomena have to be considered: the reduction in the useful diameter of the drain by out-of-roundness, crushing or obstruction (accumulation of settled sediments, in particular for counterslopes, or the presence of roots, animals, etc.); ingress of unwanted or unforeseen water: for example, if the drainage network is installed in the earthworks phase, it is frequently not just the only outlet for the groundwaters but also for the storm water during this period. In this case, the drain diameter is too small and the risk of obstruction from mud is very real; difficulties in assessing soil permeability. For all these reasons, we suggest: using drains 100 or 150 mm in diameter for all common scenarios (interior drawdown at 2 m and soils with permeability less than or equal to 1.10-5 m/s); determining the necessary diameter after a specific hydrogeological study for all other scenarios. This study will determine in particular the overdimensioning to be considered for the drain diameter (with multiplication coefficient for flow rates to 3).

Diagram 3: water table flow rates according to soil permeability Diagram 4: flow rates according to the permeability of the for a trench side and a length of 100 m medium, the depth of the water table and the drawdown.

Diagram 3 Dbits en l'heure pour 100 ml Epaisseur de la nappe Diamtre drain rabattement Permabilit des sols en m/s Diagram 4 Dbits Rabattement Aquifre Epaisseur de la nappe Impermable

Diagram 3 Flow rates in one hour for 100 ml Water table thickness Drain diameter drawdown Soil permeability in m/s Diagram 4 Flow rates Drawdown Aquifer Water table thickness Impermeable

"Tools" Collection Stra

26

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Pavement drainage
(see Appendix 3.2 Assessment of flow rates to be drained through the pavement). FT : transverse crack PL : longitudinal crack P : rainfall

FT : transverse crack PL : longitudinal crack P : rainfall

Diagram 5: schematic diagram of the various types of flow rates under pavements and shoulder. Qe, through the surface course; Qft, via the transverse cracks and Qfl via the longitudinal cracks; Qr, at the pavement-shoulder interface; Qa, corresponding to inputs from the shoulder and the lateral catchment area; Qi flow rates transiting at the interfaces; Qs flow rates feeding the subgrade.

The estimation by excess of the infiltration water flow rate is given by the sum: Q = Qe + Qfl + Qft + Qr + Qa
New or repaired pavement Minimum assessed flow rate Maximum assessed flow rate Theoretical maximum flow rate(1)

Designation

Qe Qfl

Flow rate resulting from the permeability of the asphalt (changing with age and t ) Flow rate proportional to the number of transverse cracks and their opening Flow rate proportional to the number of longitudinal cracks (including Qr axis and edge) and their opening Flow rate proportional to the permeability of the shoulder materials Total flow rate evacuated by the pavement per linear meter Total flow rate evacuated by the pavement per 100 linear meters

0.0125 l/h 1.25 l/h

3.75 l/h 25 l/h

125 l/h (porous h lt ) 250 l/h

Qfl

1.00 l/h

15 l/h

150 l/h

Qa

1.80 l/h 4.06 l/h 406 l/h

18 l/h 61.75 l/h 6,175 l/h

18 l/h 543 l/h 54,300 l/h

Table 1: assessment of infiltration water flow rates. (1) this scenario assumes that all the water from falling rain infiltrates a half-pavement of 3.50 m

The flow rate assessment culminates in a range of 400 to 6,000 l/h for 100 linear meters; for new and repaired pavements the use of drains or drainage systems equivalent to 100 to 150 mm should suffice.
"Tools" Collection Stra 27 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.2 - Earthworks
In the earthworks phase, the difficulties (machine progress, compacting, roadbed and bank stability) more often than not relate to excessive water. It is therefore obviously a distinct advantage to carry out this phase in dry periods. Drainage in this phase can in part remedy the difficulties encountered, but when this need for drainage appears during the work phase and has not been scheduled in the project it is frequently too late to take effective action: the improvement actions will have a bearing on costs and timescales. Drainage hypotheses should therefore be defined accurately during project design in conjunction with meteorological and hydrogeological forecasts for the site (see chapter 1-2 Criteria to be considered during a drainage study and Diagram 6). The following objectives are pursued with drainage techniques during this work phase: 1 - Site bearing capacity and traffic; 2 - Improvement in the hydric state of materials to be extracted; 3 - Interception of water ingress in cut; 4 - Interception of water ingress in fill (stabilization of cutting banks and sometimes natural slopes).

2.2.1 - Site capacity and traffic


The bearing capacity varies according to the water content, above all for compressible soils that are difficult to drain. A variety of solutions may be suggested depending on the type of soil, the position of the water table and the meteorological conditions. 1st drainage by ditches or lateral trenches for porous soils; the efficiency of this system will also depend on the state of the surface, hence the importance of shaping the surface (cross slope). there are two possibilities when the drainage is insufficient to improve the bearing capacity: introducing non-water-sensitive materials into the road for construction traffic: - sufficiently dimensioned, this road could be re-used in the capping layer; - frequently built using draining gravelly materials (water trap), the road should be designed for rapid evacuation of infiltrated waters (accentuated rooftop profile and side ditches, even subsoil drains on the base); processing soils according to needs and possibilities. Remember that good practices impose maintaining outlets and ditches and repairing surfaces (shaping, smoothing and compacting) see CCTG Travaux [8]. The special case of compressible zones must be dealt with separately: although the problem of bearing capacity can be solved by building thick roads as work progresses (possibly after cleaning), the problems raised by the amplitude and length of settling under excess load frequently forces the use of special drainage techniques; these are designed to purge the water from the subgrade more rapidly via vertical drains or more highly-specialized techniques. These special methods are not dealt with in this guide [14].

"Tools" Collection Stra

28

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Diagram 6: the three main causes of a need for drainage in the earthworks phase

Mtorologie dfavorable Circulation d'eau libre (zones humides, nappe phratique) en surface ou dans un dblai BESOIN DE DRAINAGE Matriaux en tats hydriques humides

Unfavourable meteorology Free water circulation (wetlands, water table) on the surface or in a cut NEED FOR DRAINAGE Materials in humid hydric states

"Tools" Collection Stra

29

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.2.2 - Improvement in the hydric state of soils to be re-used;


Improvement is only possible within materials conducive to drainage and on condition that there is sufficient drainage time before the material is extracted (see Appendix 2). This requires installing the drainage system well before the earthworks themselves. Do not however expect a miracle: the timescales are too long and the suction too high in the majority of compressible soils, with the result that it is impossible to achieve sufficient drop in water content for re-use as is (even if the drainage provides a genuine improvement). Complementary solutions consist of encouraging evaporation (swelling - installation in compressible and extended layers), mixing with drier materials, treating with hydraulic binder (usually quicklime) or of applying the material too wet in suitable conditions (average or low compacting but in return limited thicknesses to avoid too much settling). These techniques are expanded in the guide Creating fills and capping layers [9]. The most common systems for improving the hydric state of cut materials, fill subgrades and soils used for a construction traffic road are: deep ditches; fin or cutoff drains in the bank (which can sometimes be installed before earthworks, even without a gravity outlet, by pumping or negative pressure - vacuum pump); vertical drainage (see Table 2). Drainage system Conditions for use
System suitable for pre-earthworks to improve hydric conditions of soils with average to low permeability lending themselves to drainage (Table 14, Appendix 2). May be created using traditional methods, for operating depths 5 meters (possible 6 or 7 methods depending on the shovels). Suitable for slopes in the order of 2.5% or less.

Disadvantages
Generates cut materials for evacuation or storage. Site safety organization (restricted access, signaling, suitable bank slope, etc.) Reduction in overall volume of reusable cut. Not suitable for easily-eroded materials. Needs specific equipment and material resources which must be planned in advance. Needs as-built drawings and scheduled maintenance.

Deep ditch

Trench or fin drain

Preferred system when long-term cutting bank stabilization or reduced interstitial pressure is also an issue. Suitable for stabilizing homogeneous materials and lowering a water level. Design for common structures up to 6 or 7 meters deep and up to 20 meters with special equipment (cutting machine). Suitable for all longitudinal section slopes. Generates little cut and integrates discreetly with the project. Can operate temporarily without gravity outlet (vacuum pump). Suitable for drawdown of water table located in alternating permeable and barely permeable layers. Above all suitable for very permeable soils where flow rates are high. Suitable for water table drawdown in sandy

Vertical drainage by pumping

Needs specific equipment and material resources which must be planned in advance. Site restrictions.

Vertical drainage by materials and may show bubbling* phenomena. wellpoint


Table 2: systems for improving hydric states of soils (the most commonly used)

Needs specific equipment resources which must be planned in advance. Site restrictions.

"Tools" Collection Stra

30

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.2.3 - Interception of water ingress in cut


Generalized water ingress and bank stabilization
This is the traditional scenario where the "red line" intercepts the "blue line", i.e. when the earthworks descend below the level of the water table. Earthwork conditions could be improved partly if: the longitudinal section is extended to its maximum taking into account the landscape integration objectives; the drainage network is installed early enough (see previous ); the earthworks are scheduled for low water periods1. A special hydrogeological study is essential in all cases of this type (see Appendix 1). It will specify in particular the flow rates and bank stability conditions and will suggest suitable counter-measures (water table drawdown, drainage shield, etc.). The solutions as the same as for the previous scenario 2.2.2 (ditches, trenches, shafts, etc.). The basic difference lies in the slope stabilization: although the previous solutions can cut the water ingress, they cannot necessarily guarantee bank stability (particularly for the ditches). Cutoff drains, lateral ditches and the installation of such systems as shields and draining stacks can provide this stability (note that it can sometimes be possible to apply these systems to one side only when the flow directions are clear and cut across the cut). Remember also that the "damproof course" solution can sometimes be an interesting variant (particularly if the course can also act as retaining structure - sheet piling, diaphragm walls) (see Diagram 7).

Random water ingress


The draining stack is the most frequent solution applied in the most common random water inflows (springs, fault zone, etc.). The water is evacuated towards a draining collector at the foot of the bank linked to an outlet. When faced with certain rocky materials where flows take preferential paths, for example limestones and their karstic networks, these special cases call on specific solutions (ditches, collectors, shafts) which are not dealt with in this guide.

Unpredictable random water ingress


The geotechnical study does not always localize all the random water ingress. In the simplest scenarios, the drainage structures could be installed and dimensioned definitively during the earthworks. The contract would provide for an estimated quantity, with greater detail provided as work progresses by contradictory observations. In addition, when potential disorders are free from danger for both the structure and users and the water ingress are not visible when work takes place, one pragmatic solution is also to carry out the minimum work, namely simple shaping, on the banks and let one winter go by. This can localize the water ingress accurately (frozen water, higher flow rates, appearance of first disorders) before carrying out drainage work.

Photo 2: ditch, used during the earthworks phase and part of

Diagram 7: interception of the water table, lateral damproofing and stabilization of cutting banks by damproof course or damproof retaining structure

"Tools" Collection Stra

31

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

the final project, intercepting water ingress circulating at the interface between sands and a clay substrate (A85 Romorantin Theillay)

(1) The water tables vary the most frequently with the seasons; the "high waters" occur most often in winter-spring and the "low waters" in summer and early autumn.

Diagram 7 Ecran non arm au coulis argile-ciment Niveau d'eau Drainage des eaux rsiduelles Niveau impermable Ecran rigide (parois arme, palplanches) Fiche

Diagram 7 Non-reinforced fin with clay-cement slurry Water level Drainage of residual water Impermeable level Rigid fin (reinforced wall, sheet piling) Sheet

"Tools" Collection Stra

32

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.2.4 - Interception of water ingress in fill


General case
Interception by drainage of water ingress in fill scenarios takes place in the following circumstances (see Diagram 8 and Table 3):

Special case of natural slopes


Surface or deep drainage is one of the most efficient and most frequently used techniques to stabilize unstable natural slopes (see guide Stabilization of landslides [17]). It is however useful to know that the majority of these disorders are simply reactivating old disorders and they can therefore more often than not be detected by a comprehensive geotechnical* and hydrogeological* study before the work (see Appendix 1).

Case Case Case Case Case

a by the pavement or miscellaneous networks b by the cut and fill transition zone c by resurgences on the slope flank underneath the fill d by capillary rises e via low points in the longitudinal section

Case f by stopping on an obstacle (structure pier*) Diagram 8: identification of potential water supply routes to the fill

DEBLAI Zone altre Chausse ou rseau divers Ouvrage Nappe REMBLAI


Case Drainage requirements

CUT Altered zone Pavement or miscellaneous networks Structure Water table FILL
Suggested systems (no dimensioning)

Cut and fill transition The transition zone made up of altered, frequently permeable materials encourages water infiltration and the formation of water traps. Surface resurgences The geotechnical study must list water appearances or resurgences on the slope flank. These zones found underneath the fill are the cause of slow, continuous infiltrations which can "undermine" the fill base.
33

This zone can be replaced by draining materials combined with drains at the bottom of the cavity linked to an outlet.

These zones are drained via a draining course and a drain linked to an outlet.

"Tools" Collection Stra

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Outcropping water table zone Fill in compressible materials like silts or fly ash can encourage capillary water rises in the body of the fill when the fill subgrade is in a compressible zone or outcropping water table. This phenomenon is all the more apparent when the material used is made up of compressible soils in a dry state. Low points in longitudinal section The low points in longitudinal section are drained in traditional fashion to prevent water accumulating in water-sensitive materials. Obstacles and friction points such as engineering and retaining structures must be drained to prevent water accumulating in contact with the fill, on the uphill side of the slope.

It suffices to intercept the rising water with a draining course of a thickness greater than the estimated settling and of at least 1 meter. Wetlands can also be drained to evacuate the water from the subgrade and improve the bearing capacity by trenches/fin drains or deep ditches.

Creation of draining stacks linked to an outlet.

If the material making up the technical fill is insensitive to water, the drainage will be by gravity; otherwise, solutions using a geocomposite could be envisaged.

Table 3: drainage solutions for the various interception cases for water ingress in fill

"Tools" Collection Stra

34

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.3 - Pavement formation levels


They comprise two entities: the capping layer; the upper earthworks, the surface of which makes up the subformation level. These entities and their classification are addressed in the guide "Creating fills and capping layers [9] see Diagram 9.

2.3.1. - Subformation (below capping level) (PST):


Two problems are answered by defining the drainage needs for the subformation (below capping level) (PST): the PST classification under the guide [9] and any improvements to it: all soils, except those insensitive to water (naturally or after treatment) have mechanical properties which alter when the water content increases. Draining operations are therefore essential when the PST is located in an unfavorable hydric context and moreover formed of material sensitive to water and frost; the treatment of singular points in the longitudinal section: some singular points in the longitudinal section or cross section are potential accumulation zones for infiltration water and thus require a specific drainage system. Non-exhaustive examples: cut and fill transition zones, low points in fill, pronounced slopes and low points in crossfalls.

PST (Subformation (below capping level)) classification and improvement


The upper earthworks, the surface of which makes up the subformation level, may be made up of: the existing soil (depth considered around 1 m); a lesser depth of existing soil treated with hydraulic binders; a variable depth of substitution or input material. The possible scenarios are defined in the guide to Creating fills and capping levels [9]. This document claims to distinguish between seven PST cases (PST0 to PST6) depending on the type of medium (existing soil or fill), its sensitivity to water and its hydric state. The PST quality (bearing capacity) differentiates four subformation level categories (AR1 to AR4). To provide for PST drainage requirements and possible systems, the subgrades (particularly their drainage capability), extreme water table levels (piezometry) and random water ingress zones need to be understood and identified. The geotechnical engineer will specify in particular whether specific studies are necessary to detail the initial information. It may be important in some cases to carry out a hydrogeological study over at least on year. Knowledge of materials and hydrogeological conditions influences earthworks strategies. The drainage project adopted will be the result of economic comparison of the various subformation improvement techniques (drainage, treatment or substitution) in terms of feasibility and effectiveness and techniques (especially depths) adopted when dimensioning the pavement structure. Distinction can be made between three scenarios in terms of drainage: in cut or skimming profile: it will be advantageous in most cases to provide for a useful structure in the earthworks phase which could be taken over as the final structure. The safety aspect must be taken into account at the project design stage (see guides [18] and [20]). Table 4 gives the PST-AR re-dimensioning thanks to the drainage systems;

Diagram 9: definition of various terms

plates-formes
"Tools" Collection Stra

roadbeds
35 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Plate-forme support de chausse Accotement Chausse roulement, base, fondation Arase terrassement partie suprieure des terrassements 1 m en dblai ou remblai

Formation level Shoulder Surface course, base, foundation Subformation level subformation (below capping level) 1 m in cut or fill

"Tools" Collection Stra

36

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Type of soil

Water table
Washed by the water table

Initial bearing capacity

Long-term bearing capacity

Initial PST-AR

Drainage structures

Final PSTAR

Natural soil sensitive to water state th

zero

Very low

PST0AR0

Drawdown by deep ditches, trenches, etc.

PST1-AR1

Natural soil sensitive to water state h Natural soil sensitive to water state m Intermittent water table

Very low

Very low

PST1

Drainage pointless

Good

Low

PST2-AR1

Drawdown by deep ditches, trenches, etc.

PST3-AR1

Natural soil sensitive to water state m

No water table or water table lowered

Good

Low (rain infiltration)

PST3AR1

Drainage of pavement and capping layer (1)

PST3-AR2

Natural soil improved by treatment

Washed by the water table

Variable

Good to very good

PST4AR2

Lowering by deep ditches, trenches, etc.

PST4-AR2 (2)

Soil not sensitive to water

Washed by the water table

Good

Good

PST 5 and 6

Drawdown by deep ditches, trenches, etc.

PST 5 and 6 AR 2,3,4 (2)

"Tools" Collection Stra

37

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Table 4: PST - AR redimensioning thanks to drainage systems

Chausse et couche de forme Maxi Maxi en hiver

Pavement and capping layer Max. Max. in winter

(1) see 2.3.2: as the aim is to avoid humidification of the pavement subgrade, this will be the preferential domain for edge of pavement fin drains (EDRC). Note that the drainage systems at the base of the capping layer (for capping layers comprising very permeable materials) such as drains and draining courses, although essential cannot guarantee no infiltration. (2) drainage remains necessary to reduce the structure's sensitivity to frost and improve earthworks conditions.

"Tools" Collection Stra

38

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

in fill: no PST drainage (except for special cases); when drainage is necessary for the PST and capping layer, it could be wise to plan a joint structure independently of the surface drainage system, as shown in schematic Diagram 10. If appropriate, attention should be paid to installing support anchoring (see 4.1.2) in relation to the drainage network to avoid perforations. The structures are miscellaneous, longitudinal drains, trenches, EDRC, draining courses, draining Diagram 10: cutoff drain installed at the foot of the cutting bank to drain the PST stacks, etc. (see Chapter 4). If necessary the drainage system may be supplemented by: transverse drains in the subformation (below capping level) (see Diagram 11); drains slanting from the axis ("fishbone"), so that they flow into longitudinal drains an axial longitudinal drain (see Diagram 12). The distance between two drains and the drain depth must be dimensioned according to the hydrogeological and geotechnical characteristics of Diagram 11: sample complex draining system (slope the site and the project.
subformation level)

Diagram 12: Distribution of drains or additional grips

Diagram 10 Cunette Regard de visite Accotement ou bande d'arrt d'urgence Chausse Couche de forme Diagram 11 Talus Axe chausse Collecteur principal tranches latrales - tranche axiale - tranch transversale Diagram 12 DRAINS LATERAL, AXIAL, TRANSVERSAL VUE EN PLAN DRAINS LATERAL, AXIAL, OBLIQUE AXE CHAUSSEE
"Tools" Collection Stra

Diagram 10 Trickle channel Inspection chamber Shoulder or emergency hard shoulder Pavement Capping layer Diagram 11 Bank Pavement axis Main collector lateral trenches - axial trench - transverse trench Diagram 12 LATERAL, AXIAL AND TRANSVERSE DRAINS PLAN VIEW LATERAL, AXIAL AND OBLIQUE DRAINS PAVEMENT AXIS
39 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Treatment of singular points in the longitudinal section


The earthworks subformation level or the PST must be drained in the following cases from the longitudinal section: low points, cut and fill transition zones and major slopes. Low points: they will be systematically drained by a draining stack system; cut and fill transition zone: it is treated specifically and virtually systematically. The aim is to purge the surface materials and drain any water inflows from the cut (see Diagrams 13 and Diagram 13: sample use of a draining course at the cut and fill 14); interface, used to improve the altered zone - cross-sectional zones with pronounced slope ( 5%) and moreover in a major linear ( 500 meters) encouraging water collection and their possible loading at courses in aggregate material (PST or capping layer). The solution to prevent this scenario is regular water capture by draining stacks. (see Diagram 15).
view

Diagram 14: sample use of drains in cut and fill transition zone plan view

Diagram 15: schematic diagram of positioning transverse drains every section or every two sections at the earthworks subformation level - cross-sectional view

Diagram 13 Arase de terrassement DEBLAI REMBLAI Couche drainante Captages ventuels sur la pente zone de transition distance dfinir en fonction profondeur de la zone altre Matriau drainant Drain reli un exutoire Diagram 14 foss de pied foss de crte REMBLAI POSITION DU DRAIN EN EPI
"Tools" Collection Stra

de

Diagram 13 Subformation level CUT FILL Draining course Any inflows on the slope transition zone la distance to be defined based on the depth of the altered zone Draining material Drain connected to an outlet Diagram 14 ditch at foot ditch on crest FILL POSITION OF DRAIN IN STACK
40 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

DEBLAI Sens de la pente Regard dans la berne Diagram 15 DEBLAI Zone de transition dblai - remblai Epi drainant Arase de terrassement REMBLAI

CUT Direction of slope Inspection chamber in soft verge Diagram 15 CUT Cut and fill transition zone: Draining stack Subformation level FILL

"Tools" Collection Stra

41

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.3.2 - Capping layer


The capping layer dimensioning is provided for in the guide Creating fills and capping layers [9]: where a capping layer is made up of the existing soils: the drainage is only necessary underneath the water table level, to prevent the table rising into the capping layer or the project becoming waterlogged. The most frequent solution is lateral trenches; for a capping layer treated with hydraulic binders: the treated material could be considered as neutral (indifferent to the drainage), but drainage is however necessary underneath the water table level to prevent water rising through cracking. The most frequent solution is lateral trenches which may be combined with PST drainage; for a brought-in capping layer of material insensitive to water: drainage is essential when there is danger of creating a real water trap which could be fed by storm water as soon as it is installed, before being covered by the pavements. Side trenches are more often than not used for the drainage, either by side longitudinal drains arranged at the bases of the capping layer combined, if necessary, with PST drainage (see Diagrams 16, 17, 18 and 19). In all circumstances, if the discharge is towards a ditch, the designer will take care to adjust the outlets above the maximum water level in the ditches. (see Diagram 20).

Diagram 16: in cut or skimming profile in zone outside water table

Diagram 19: installation of drain on edge of capping layer.

Diagram 17: in cut or skimming profile in zone under drained water table

Diagram 20: adjustment of outlets Diagram 18: in fill

Diagram 16 PST peu permable Couche de forme Diagram 17


"Tools" Collection Stra

Diagram 16 PST with low permeability Capping layer Diagram 17


42 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Couche de forme Tranche axiale complmentaire si ncessaire Tranche drainante latrale continuit hydraulique Diagram 18 Couche de forme drain dispos sur le fond de la couche de forme drain dispos en encoche au fond de la couche de forme ( privilgier) Diagram 19 Gotextile Encoche Sillon Sur arase ( viter) Diagram 20 CAS A EVITER

Capping layer Additional axial trench if necessary Lateral cutoff drain hydraulic continuity Diagram 18 Capping layer drain laid on the bottom of the capping layer drain laid in slot at the bottom of the capping layer (preferred) Diagram 19 Geotextile Slot Groove On subformation level (to be avoided) Diagram 20 TO BE AVOIDED

"Tools" Collection Stra

43

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.4 - Pavement
The mechanical characteristics and performances of a pavement structure can diminish very clearly over time in the presence of water which is frequently the cause of normally irreversible pathologies: appearance of depressions*, edge subsidence, crazing, rising mud and slab rocking. Methods of draining the pavement itself are therefore also sought.

Diagram 21: required functions and possible emplacements of drainage systems

Drainer les interfaces de chausses dans le Drain the pavement interfaces in the median TPC Drainer le TPC Drain the median Drainer les interfaces de chausses en rive Drain the pavement interfaces at the edge exutoire outlet pente slope Couches d'assise Road foundations Drainer sous la chausse Drain underneath the pavement Sens de circulation de l'eau Water circulation direction Infiltration de l'eau Water infiltration
The pavement structure drainage needs are closely linked to the type of materials and singular points (median and emergency hard shoulder). Refer to Chapter 3 for a description of disorders encountered in pavements if there is no drainage and for a list of singular points in the pavement in terms of drainage.

2.4.1 - Drainage systems in pavement courses


Table 5 summarizes the main drainage requirements, by providing inputs for response in terms of possible drainage system.

"Tools" Collection Stra

44

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Pavement course Bituminous materials

Drainage requirements

Possible drainage systems

No drainage requirement in the strict sense (except for porous asphalts), but protective role for underlying courses through: pavement maintenance and repair, damp-proofing, etc.; checks on joint compacting and course bonding. evacuation of water infiltrating in the cracks. maintenance and repair: damp-proofing of surface pavement; prevention: pre-cracking of courses treated with hydraulic binders: solution 1: lateral drainage in the height of the course at the pavement edge shoulder or median side (depending on cross-section slope), by trenches or fin drains solution 2: lateral drainage by the shoulders or the median (depending on the cross-section slope), made up of draining material and evacuation of water through drains towards an outlet. prevention: damproofing of cracks with seals made from impermeable products (shut-off joint, construction joint, longitudinal and transverse joints, contacts between the slab and the median, the emergency hard shoulder or the shoulder); creation of a draining course under the concrete structure; for reinforced concrete structures, lateral drainage via: - solution 1: longitudinal structures such as trench or fin drain; - solution 2: shoulders in draining material and evacuation of water through drains to an outlet.

Material treated with hydraulic binders

Concrete

evacuation of water infiltrating in the cracks.

Untreated graded aggregates

evacuation of free water, reduction in interstitial pressures; elimination of accumulated water in the low points.

prevention and maintenance and repair: damp-proofing of surface pavement; choice of a porous untreated graded aggregate: - solution 1: lateral drainage in the height of the course at the pavement edge shoulder or median side (depending on crosssection slope), by trenches or fin drains; - solution 2: lateral drainage by the shoulders or the median (depending on the cross-section slope), made up of draining material with greater permeability than untreated graded aggregates and evacuation of water through drains towards an outlet; transverse drainage of low points by draining stacks.

Table 5: drainage systems according to drainage requirements

dalle bton paisse tanchification des fissures et des joints GNT


"Tools" Collection Stra

thick concrete slab sealing of cracks and joints GNT


45 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

couche drainante bton arm continu bton maigre matriau drainant tranches ou crans drainants

draining course continuously reinforced concrete lean concrete draining material cutoff or fin drains

"Tools" Collection Stra

46

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

2.4.2 - Drainage systems at singular points


Shoulder and emergency hard shoulder (BAU)
The infiltrated water under the shoulder or emergency hard shoulder (BAU) must be evacuating by drain at the low point of the cross section or by a deep lateral ditch when the structure continues under the BAU to the ditch.

Median
It must be possible to offset the drainage structure from the median axis to allow the installation of brackets for rails. lampposts and run-off water collection systems. The drainage system must carry the collected water through the cut and fill towards a semi-crossing or upstream of an underground passage structure (portal frame, frame or metallic duct) also towards a semicrossing. The drain must be deep enough in all circumstances to bear the site traffic without damage (see Chapter 4.3.1, crossing characteristics). It should be position to be able to collect water circulation above a level with low permeability (normally the formation level). For pavements with reversed crossfalls, the waters tend to concentrate in the median. Provision must therefore be made for an underground drain above the collector (see Diagram 22).

Dividing island, directional island and obstacle island


Depending on the formation level slope, one or two drains (plugged upstream) will be placed at the pavement edge underneath the island and connected at the end of the structure by a semi-crossing towards a collection system at the pavement edge. These drains must be strong enough to avoid being crushed when installing the island constituent materials.

Roundabout
Safety regulations specify underground systems rather than lateral ditches.

Diagram 22: installation of a cutoff drain in the median the drain is therefore particularly vulnerable to being pierced blind before being installed Inspecting this drain once work has finished seems an elementary precaution

Impermabilisation Regard de visite construire en deux tapes Chausse future Couche de forme Evacuation latrale sous-chausse Drain

Damproofing Inspection chamber to be built in two stages Future pavement Capping layer Lateral sub-pavement evacuation Drain

"Tools" Collection Stra

47

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Chapter 3 3 - Drainage of an existing pavement

"Tools" Collection Stra

48

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Excessive water content in the pavement courses due to infiltration from a variety of sources (run-off water, subsurface water, etc.) causes a marked acceleration in pavement ageing. This damage is even greater with the addition of frost and thaw phenomena. The pavement surface courses let through not inconsiderable quantities of water, especially when they show early signs of ageing. This chapter describes the damage noted for each type of pavement and suggests an approach in putting together the analysis so that possible drainage solutions can be envisaged.

3.1 - Types of disorder encountered in pavements


3.1.1 - Flexible pavements
Untreated graded aggregates (GNT) forming the foundation for flexible pavements have a mechanical behavior that depends greatly on their water content. Increases in residual water content lowers the modulus of rigidity and heightens permanent damage. The GNT pavement structures must more than any other be carefully drained, for developing pathologies appear rapidly over several meters (see Photo 3). A failure to drain under-dimensioned pavements therefore results in: permanent damage. The most characteristic is longitudinal rutting with wide curve radius created by the passage of HGV wheels, leaving tracks of anything up to 0.80 m wide. Note also the appearance of depressions* at edges; longitudinal cracking in the wheel paths. This appears in the wheel paths, branches out and turns into a tighter mesh crazing. A flexible pavement subjected to infiltrations before a frost accelerates both these types of damage during the thaw.

Photo 3: sample rutting of a flexible pavement caused by the untreated foundation and the subgrade (photo Stra)

Photo 4: erosion developed around a crack in the hydraulic aggregates of reinforced structures, RN 59 at St. Di (photo J.L. BIETH, CETE de lEST - LRPC Strasbourg)

"Tools" Collection Stra

49

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

3.1.2 - Rigid or semi-rigid pavements


Materials treated with hydraulic binders are little or not at all sensitive to the action of water thanks to the mechanical characteristics provided by the hydraulic setting. Water infiltrations are encouraged in the following cases: where there are transverse cracks from shrinking, which makes the cracks larger and reduces the bonding between courses; when vertical cracking reaches the subgrade; this causes the loss of bearing capacity, the development of pumping phenomenon, rising mud, then circular crazing and finally depressions and potholes (see Photo 4); when the joint between the paths formed at implementation has a compacting defect. The same types of damage are seen in mixed structures (although more rarely), relating to the type of road foundation. This damage is nevertheless attenuated by the depth of the bituminous layers.

3.1.3 - Cement concrete pavements


For rigid pavements, the "pumping" triggered by water accumulating in line with the slab joints and at the edges has been recognized as the major cause of concrete pavement damage through slab rocking and the "staircase" effect (see Photo 5).

3.1.4 - Bituminous material courses


The effect of the water has little significance compared with damage from mechanical fatigue. On the other hand, the appearance of cracks will encourage water to infiltrate in the underlying structures. There is no need to drain these courses, but they must be maintained and repaired, for it guarantees damproofing by protecting the underlying courses.

3.1.5 - Modular material pavements (paving blocks and slabs)


Water can accumulated in the sand bedding course.

3.1.6 - List of singular pavement points with respect to drainage


Certain singular points require specially-adapted drainage, such as: central islands and medians (frequently made up of untreated graded aggregate or lean concrete) (see Photo 6); structure piers. Water infiltration and concentration is easy due to high permeability or to major cracking or poor surface state. The gradual accumulation of water can create a mechanically-weak zone or, more often than not, a bleeding point for the accumulated water, which creates a sensitive zone (skidding and frost which are accident factors, especially for 2-wheelers).

Photo 5: sample damage in a concrete pavement (photo Stra) Photo 6: resurgences from central islands (photo CETE

"Tools" Collection Stra

50

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Normandie-Centre, LRPC Blois)

"Tools" Collection Stra

51

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

3.2 - Analysis
The analysis must distinguish between water-related damage and damage pertaining to structure underdimensioning or another structural quality problem.

3.2.1 - Compiling information


The following six main parameters are used to assess the danger of this damage developing rapidly in the presence of excess water: lack of pavement damproofing (r): the overall poor state of the pavement, pavement permeability, cracks etc. are behind water infiltrating into the structure; surface water drainage (a): non-existent ditches, failure to maintain and repair ditches and shoulders, ponding, raised shoulders, significance of noted flow rates and unfavorable topographical context; hydrogeological environment (h) of the pavement: amount of water fed by the water catchment, water resurgences, outcropping water table and capillary water rises; the effectiveness of any internal drainage system (d): poor state of drains and outlets; water sensitivity and drainage capability of subgrades (s); and the water sensitivity and drainage capability of the pavement material courses (m). Drainage needs are analyzed from field observations (constant inspection of the itinerary which will detect sensitive sectors and balance conflicting interests between insufficient drainage and a structural pavement defect). In addition to the itinerary scheme, the information compiled should include a damage survey, an as-built file for drainage systems if one exists and, if necessary, a geotechnical* or hydrogeological* study. A visual inspection could also be envisaged for the inspection chambers and outlets, to take soundings, deflection measurements, etc.

"Tools" Collection Stra

52

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Table 6: sample synopsis of marks on an itinerary (mark 0 = no problem, mark 2 = major problem).

LEGENDE sablons alluvions ruisseau rivire, fleuve mergence de la nappe coulements naturels Profil en long remblai dblai profil mixte Etanchit du revtement Assainissement superficiel Environnement hydrogologie Drainage de la chausse Sol support Matriaux de la chausse Note de risque global

KEY very fine sands alluvial deposits stream river water table emergence natural flows Longitudinal section fill cut mixed profile Pavement damproofing Surface drainage Hydrogeological environment Pavement drainage Subgrade Pavement materials Overall risk mark

"Tools" Collection Stra

53

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

3.2.2 - Putting the analysis together


The analysis can be carried out using the tools described in the following paragraphs.

Marking systems
A risk mark is attributed to each section identified in an analysis and observation table. By adding the risk factors together, the itinerary scheme can identify the sensitive zones theoretically requiring drainage. The most sensitive zones are given the highest mark. The hydric conditions of the itinerary are assessed by "homogeneous" 200 m-long sections for each of the parameters r, a, h, d, s and m described below and by using a three-level marking system: 0 = conditions not propitious to damage from water (and frost); 1 = average conditions potentially contributing to the appearance or rapid development of damage from water (and frost); 2 = determining conditions for the appearance or rapid development of damage from water (and frost);

Table interpretation
Pavement damproofing, r r = 0: bituminous asphalt surface course in good condition (asphalt compactness > 93% in 95% of measurements); r = 1: asphalt surface course not compact enough or made up of a surface dressing in good condition; -7 r = 2: relatively permeable surface course >10 m/s with unsealed cracks. Surface drainage, a a = 0: surface drainage maintained and effective (ditches in good condition, damproofed shoulders or excellent run off from shoulders to the ditches, etc.), topographic context propitious to run off (road in fill > 1 m in height). The longitudinal profile provides satisfactory flow for run-off water; a = 1: ineffective surface drainage, average run off water flow (vegetation in the ditches), water course on edge of pavement despite the shoulders being flush, permeable shoulders with plant growth. The road (or the section in question) is a mixed profile or cut and fill in succession; a = 2: totally ineffective surface drainage, non-existent ditches or in poor condition, raised or highlydamaged shoulders retaining the run-off water. The road (or the section in question) is on flat ground. The water flows in the ditches and the drainage structures is very mediocre and the outlets are not functioning. Hydrogeological environment of the pavement, h h = 0: the water table does not exist or is very deep (more than 5 m below the pavement). The pavement does not intercept water circulation nor permanent or temporary resurgence; h = 1: potential supply in subsurface waters from lateral water catchment; h = 2: mixed profile with upstream feed, cut and fill transition zone, very powerful lateral water catchment (pavement fed with water by circulation through cracks in the rock or by more permeable layers in the natural geotechnical profile). The water table varies in a range which cuts across the PST, even the capping layer and the pavement foundation. Pavement drainage, d d = 0: an internal drainage system in good condition exists. Its position in the cross section means that it evacuates water circulations in the pavement structure and in the subgrade, more especially in the critical zones; d = 1: a drainage system exists, it is satisfactorily located in the cross section, but the state of maintenance of the drainage network is such that it is not totally effective; d = 2: no drainage system or system not functioning or unsuitable for the local context. Subgrade sensitivity, s s = 0: soil insensitive to water or treated subgrades (with effect lasting over time); s = 1: soils assumed sensitive to water, but showing no signs of this; s = 2: water-sensitive soils. Sensitivity of pavement foundation materials, m m = 0: Continuously reinforced concrete, bitumen graded aggregate (base and foundation); m = 1: hydraulic graded aggregates, concrete, mixed structure; m = 2: Untreated graded aggregates.

"Tools" Collection Stra

54

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Decision model
The summary mark is established by elementary sections at least 100 meters long. It corresponds to the hydric risk mark = r + a + h + d + s + m. This mark is the risk from a combination of unfavorable factors and is used to assess an itinerary regardless of its state. The risk mark varies between 0 and 12 and shows up the sensitive zones based on the following risk scale: no risk of change: 0 to 3 low risk: 4 to 7 major risk of change: 8 to 12. Highlighting sensitive zones under the procedure described above defines the intervention sections when the following converge: zones with the highest risk marks: high risk mark between 8 and 12; analysis of the structural pavement state: deflections dm > 200/100 mm, significant damage survey of disorders (slab rocking, mud rising, longitudinal rutting, etc.).
Where a high risk mark and a poor structural condition of the pavement converge, this means that the pavement damage is due to water or is aggravated by it and that the drainage work is justified. No convergence means that the damage is caused otherwise (structure under-dimensioned for the traffic, poor quality materials, etc.). In these circumstances, installing drainage systems will not alone provide the expected solution.

"Tools" Collection Stra

55

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

3.3 - Definition of work solutions


There are many possible drainage systems. The analysis of parameters used to produce the risk mark must help define them. Table 7 summarizes the various possible actions (drainage systems themselves are described in greater detail in Chapter 4); these resources should not worsen the situation with respect to the treatment of lateral obstacles when reprofiling ditches, for example [20].

3.4 - Dimensioning or assessment of flow rates to be drained through the old pavement
(see Appendix 3.2).
The drainage system in an old pavement must evacuate the excess water in the pavement structure and possibly the subgrade up to 1 m under the pavement structure (PST); it would be possible to make do with drains or equivalent systems of 100 to 150 mm for a maximum flow rate well below 10000 l/h for 100 linear meters: a drain 100 to 150 mm will nearly always be sufficient. The other cases will be studied specifically: water table drawdown, major cracking or severely-damage surface state. Parameter
Pavement damproofing (r) Surface drainage (a) Drainage requirements Damproofing the pavement

Possible solutions and drainage systems


Installation of a dressing, bridging, milling and repairing the surface course. Overhaul of drainage systems: examination of water flow directions, increasing slopes, creations of more efficient outlets; cleaning and reprofiling ditches; making shoulders flush; creating surface grips(1); damproofing and overhaul of trickle channels; checking the state of outlets and inspection chambers; cleaning channels; modifying the longitudinal section (of the pavement or existing drainage systems) or the cross section; capturing water inflows in the bank by stacks or drainage shields; lowering of water table level (subhorizontal drain, trench or fin drain, pumping); interception of surface water feeds (deep ditch, trench or fin drain); cleaning channels; checking and overhauling drains, outlets and inspection chambers; interception of surface water feeds or water infiltrations via the shoulders (trench or fin drain); repair of pavements and/or soil substitution;

Re-establishing the flows, prevent water stagnation

Unfavorable hydrogeologic al environment (h)

Interception of water inflows, water table drawdown beneath the PST level, creation or maintenance and repair of outlets. Depending on how complex the situations are, a hydrogeological study may be necessary to dimension the structures and define their characteristics. Overhaul or repair of drainage network

Pavement drainage (d) Subgrade sensitivity (s)

Protection of water-sensitive subgrades from possible infiltrations. Improvement in hydric state of soils when they lend themselves to this (see Table 14, Appendix 2) is a difficult objective and sometimes takes a long time. In some cases (very unfavorable soils), drainage provides no improvement. Evacuation of subsurface waters, protection of underlying layers by maintenance and/or repair of the surface course.

Pavement material sensitivity (m)

creation of drains at pavement edge; damproofing of the surface and cracks, reprofiling, programming maintenance and repair campaign.

Table 7: solutions and systems according to drainage requirements

"Tools" Collection Stra

56

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

(1) in compliance with safety rules

"Tools" Collection Stra

57

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Chapter 4 4 - Characteristics of drainage systems and of materials used in them

"Tools" Collection Stra

58

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

The purpose of this chapter is firstly to describe the most common drainage systems and their main characteristics. This description should assist the designer in ensuring that his planned drainage method is clearly suitable and to define the corresponding specifications. The second section is devoted to stipulations over the materials used in these structures.

4.1 - Drainage structures and systems


The drainage systems described in this chapter are as follows: Deep ditches; Cutoff drains; Grips (and draining stacks); Fin drains at pavement edge (EDRC); Draining courses; Shafts (vertical drainage); and although not really roadbed drainage structures, bank stabilization systems (shields, stacks).

Photo 7: trench dug mechanically (photo CETE Nord-Picardie)

"Tools" Collection Stra

59

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.1 - Deep ditches


Objective
This type of ditch, over 50 cm deep, basically performs two functions: it collects the run-off water and enables the water table to be lowered in certain conditions. It is used extensively in provisional phase during earthworks, when it can sometimes make operations easier by reducing the water content of soils to be extracted (easier re-use and improved trafficability), see Appendix 2. The sensitivity of the receiving medium could occasionally prohibit or limit the use of this technique where the run-off and internal drainage waters are mixed.

Standard schemes
Final structure: (see Diagram 23). For a deep ditch to be effective in draining pavement courses and the subgrade, it must be positioned as close as possible to the pavement (1 to 2 m from the pavement edge) and combined with a shoulder in draining material. For the national road network and given road safety constraints, it is almost impossible these days to use the deep ditch as a final drainage structure for the pavement subsurface water. Safety regulations impose a minimum safety zone of seven meters for new, multi-function roads and four meters for existing roads. Even when installing safety rails, there must be a recovery zone 2 meters wide between the edge of the pavement and the straight line of the rail [18] [19] and [20]. Therefore, at very best, the deep ditch axis will be more than four meters from the pavement, which makes it virtually impossible for it to fulfill its role as drainage structure. It is therefore preferable to replace the deep ditch with a buried drainage system (cutoff drain). Provisional structure during earthworks: (see Diagram 24). One possible variant is creating cuts per half roadbed. Natural ground fill is used at the foot of the bank. The longitudinal slope of the ditch must be between 0.5% and 2.5% (watch out for stagnation or gullying problems). The gutter will be located at least 0.20 m below the capping course at the edge or 1 m below the subformation level (for the earthworks phase). The deeper the ditch, the more effective it will be.

Diagram 23: deep longitudinal ditch

Diagram 24: changes in profile as the earthworks become deeper (temporary structure)

Diagram 23 Zone de rcupration Corps de chausse


"Tools" Collection Stra

Diagram 23 Recovery zone Pavement body


60 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Couche de forme Cheminement de l'eau Accotement en matriau drainant

Capping layer Water routing Shoulder in draining material

"Tools" Collection Stra

61

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Operating method
A mechanical shovel is used most of the time. The side slopes are sometimes too steep: the stability of the slope of the ditch bank must be checked (obvious condition for its effectiveness); this must not exceed what is allocated to this material in the cutting bank. Where the soils are sensitive to erosion, the banks may be covered with a permeable stabilizing layer: riprap or geotextile-based synthetic materials. The deep ditch often is the least onerous solution for a temporary drainage structure in earthworks phase and the easiest to achieve. One variant is to create cuts per half roadbed, thereby providing the cut with more advantageous drainage conditions. The ditch must be at least one meter below the planned formation level for the earthworks to drain the PST also. The water is evacuated from the end of the ditch by gravity via the gutter or by pumping at the ditch end when unavoidable.

Durability and maintenance


Refer to the guide Current road drainage maintenance and repair [10]. Inasmuch as the previously-mentioned installation conditions are complied with, the deep ditch can fulfill its function totally. It is easy to check its operation and maintenance except when the ditch bank slopes are too steep or when the water stagnates at the bottom and the bank has no protection. Maintenance normally consists of mowing once or twice a year, possibly collecting waste in advance, and in cleaning and reforming the profile every five to ten years. Conversely, it can play a highly unfavorable role and feed the pavement or capping layer with water if it is not deep enough or maintained correctly (when the ditch is obstructed or the water can no longer flow along the gutter towards an outlet).

Elements required for dimensioning


project geometry (particularly bank slopes); safety considerations; water table (depth, seasonal and annual variations, flow direction, permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering flow rates; soil type: Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification. Special points to be examined: stability of the cutting bank or ditch slope. This evacuation requires mechanical soil elements (friction angle and soil cohesion) and stability calculations; sensitivity to gulling and disturbances (general case for sandy soils A1, B5, B6, D1 and D2) see Appendix 2, Table 14; sensitivity of receiving medium when run-off and internal drainage waters are mixed.

"Tools" Collection Stra

62

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.2 - Cutoff drains


Objective
The purpose of cutoff trenches is to: drain the subgrade; lower the water level under the roadbed (short- or long-term gain in bearing capacity, frost-thaw protection). They are basically used when the water table must be lowered to create the cut, wherein lies the fundamental difference with fin drains at the pavement edge. Their depth may vary for a major cut (current maximum six meters in mechanized trench). They can sometimes only be used in provisional phase for the earthworks (even if there is no gravity outlet, with discharge via traditional or vacuum pumping).

Standard schemes
Several standard schemes can be proposed depending on the installation depth and objectives sought: Shallow cutoff drains (maximum of about 2.5 m). (see Diagram 25). A geotextile is used as a filter if the draining material is liable to clogging by the surrounding soil. Deep cutoff drains (2.5 to 6 m) (see Diagram 26). These structures are used above all when creating a cut where the water table has to be lowered and the banks are very high. In this case, installing a geotextile is difficult, if not to say impossible. The drain alone is therefore protected by a geotextile coating. Cutoff drains installed sufficiently early before work commences can lower the water table level and make earthworks easier. Their location at this time is such that they help stabilize the cutting bank in the final phase.

Operating method
Shallow trench
This is dug with a mechanical shovel (most frequently) or a mechanical ditcher. Its width varies according to the tool used: 0.30 to 0.50 m, even more (see Photos 8 and 9). It is filled with draining material (with a permeability higher than the surrounding material), which may be surrounded by a geotextile filter to make this structure long-lasting. At its base, a drain is normally laid on the correctly-shaped trench bottom. The installation of a drain will be mandatory if the materials are likely to be carried along in the presence of water. The draining material can in some cases be made up of porous concrete.

Deep trench
This alternative to ditches takes up less land (less footprint, less extracted material and therefore less evacuation or storage) and reaches greater depths, with a maximum in the order of six meters when mechanized ditchers can be used1. The trench has the advantage of inserting discreetly into the landscape and can be used as a final drainage structure for future banks or the PST in skimming profile. It will go at least one meter underneath the provisional earthworks subformation level so that it also drains the PST. (see Diagram 27).

"Tools" Collection Stra

63

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Diagram 25: shallow cutoff drains

Diagram 26: deep cutoff drain

(1) The use of such high-output machines, capable of digging 1 km of trench per day in good conditions, is however limited to loose compressible soils, without blocks and with sufficient bearing capacity.

Diagram 25 hauteur drainante avec gotextile sans tuyau drainant remblai gotextile matriaux drainants avec gotextile sans tuyau drainant intrieur tuyau drainant Diagram 26 sans enveloppe gotextile avec drain prenrob matriaux drainants tuyau drainant gotextile

Diagram 25 draining height with geotextile without cutoff drain fill geotextile draining materials with geotextile without inside cutoff drain cutoff drain Diagram 26 without geotextile envelope with pre-coated drain draining materials cutoff drain geotextile

"Tools" Collection Stra

64

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Table 8 below specifies the various implementation possibilities depending on installation depth. These structures should not collect surface and subsurface water at the same time: the load placed on the network by the surface water produces the reverse effect from the one sought; the pollution risks and loads are not the same, which complicates the treatment chains prior to discharge into the natural environment.

Durability and maintenance


Cutoff drain creation requires checks on products and their appropriate implementation. It is important to provide for drain inspection chambers: sufficiently large inside (recommended 0.70 x 0.40 meter) to facilitate the introduction of hydrocleaning equipment; at 100-metre intervals maximum (ideally at 70 to 80 meters). Where cutoff drains are installed before the earthworks, it is essential to ensure that they are in good condition and functioning correctly at the end of the earthworks phase (no breaks, joint dislocation, crushing, clogging); major repairs once pavements have been laid are difficult and onerous. These structures also demand regular maintenance and repair thanks to duly established as-built drawings, with inspections of ancillary structures (checking flows at inspection chambers and outlets) and drain cleaning. An annual inspection and hydrocleaning every three to five years1 are advisable.
Depth Shovel Slight (< 1 m) Average (1 m to around 2.5 m) Tool Ditcher (1) Geotextile Draining system Bare drain Coated drain (2)

Yes Yes no

no no Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes no

Yes Yes Yes no

no no no Yes

Deep (2.5 - 6 m)

no

Table 8: implementation possibilities according to the installation depth

(1) if no block - (2) by geotextile

Photos 8 and 9: cutoff drain installed with a ditcher in a motorway roadbed (photo CETE Nord-Picardie, LRPC Lille)

"Tools" Collection Stra

65

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

(1) Average value, the actual frequency should be based on the results of the annual inspection

"Tools" Collection Stra

66

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Elements required for dimensioning


project geometry; water table (depth, seasonal and annual variations, flow direction, permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering* flow rates; soil type: - Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification; - the grading (in particular d85*) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering; special points to be examined: - survey elements to make sure there are no networks or blocks buried and to check soil resistance on the vertical wall; - drain resistance (to shocks or becoming out-of-round, according to standard NF P 16-351 [5]; - - position of support anchoring (rails, panel, anti-noise wall, lamp post).

Diagram 27: sample deep cutoff drain

Limite d'emprise Tranche drainante DEBLAI Arase terrassement Niveau de nappe Niveau de rabattement

Footprint limit Cutoff drain CUT Subformation level Water table level Drawdown level

"Tools" Collection Stra

67

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.3 Grips and draining stacks


Objective
The grip should be installed under shoulders in water accumulation zones (low points). Its purpose is to evacuate water percolating through the pavement. It must always be combined with a draining course or a draining capping layer for which it is the outlet (towards a ditch or cutoff drain).

Elements required for dimensioning


project geometry; water table (depth, seasonal and annual variations, flow direction, permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering* flow rates; soil type: - soil type: Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification; - the grading (in particular d85*) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering.

The drain stack is a variant of the transverse grip installed under the roadbed. Its role is normally to recover the water from the low or singular points (for example change from a cut to a fill). It can also occasionally reinforce the draining course Other survey elements are useful in ensuring, amongst other things, the regularity of the future (prescreening the water table). cavity bottom and the lack of elements likely to attack the geotextile. Standard schemes (see Diagrams 28, 29 and 30) These systems are fairly shallow (normally 0.3 to 0.6 m) with potentially variable widths (0.3 to 1 m); they are produced in draining material and may or may not contain a perforated drain to speed up the water evacuation. Their transverse cross sections thus lend themselves to a shallow cutoff drain (see previous paragraph). A geotextile envelope is necessary in Diagram 28: lateral grip linked to the capping layer clogging, compressible soil.

Operating method
As they are fairly shallow they do not normally pose any special problem (dug with a mechanical shovel). It is however important to make sure that slopes are regular (above all if they are very long, case of draining stacks). Diagram 29: longitudinal grip with drain

Durability and maintenance


As these structures are totally covered, it is difficult to maintain them regularly unless they are enclosing accessible drains. Basic maintenance must focus on the outlet to prevent any loading which would cause water to rise Diagram 30: draining stacks (under the capping layer or towards the pavement.
draining course)

Diagram 28 chausse couche de forme saigne latrale pente minimum 4% paisseur minimale foss latral Diagram 29 chausse couche de forme saigne longitudinale drain
"Tools" Collection Stra

Diagram 28 pavement capping layer lateral groove minimum 4% slope minimum thickness lateral ditch Diagram 29 pavement capping layer longitudinal groove drain
68 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

foss latral Diagram 30 Pente longitudinale variable Pente transversales > ou = 5% Espace variable selon les sols 5 20m

lateral ditch Diagram 30 Variable longitudinal slope Transverse slope > or = 5% Variable space depending on the soils 5 to 20 m

"Tools" Collection Stra

69

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.4 - Fin drains at pavement edge (EDRC)


Refer to the Guide EDRC information on this system. [12] for further

Objective
A soil drained efficiently becomes a non-saturated soil; its water content stays at a level that is dictated by its suction characteristics and water movements in such a soil are complex. The main objective of EDRC is to improve the hydric state of materials in the pavement and subgrade, over a thickness dependent on the pavement type, to evacuate water which has penetrated the pavement and limit water ingress from shoulders. Unlike the cutoff drain, EDRC cannot be installed very deep (1.5 m maximum) and must not be used to lower a water table.

Whereas the normal goal is to improve the overall bearing capacity of the pavement, using the EDRC can also be advisable to control dessiccation* and when draining the PST, the installation depth can be limited to 50 cm underneath the subformation improve protection from frost-thaw. level when the aim is preventive protection against water infiltration and improved hydric states of soils.

in a median axis; at the pavement edge in contact with pavement structure in semi-rigid or possibly rigid structure, when the material in the shoulder is less permeable than in the pavement. Depending on circumstances, the EDRC can vary in installation depth depending on whether the project involves just the pavement or includes its subgrade: when draining flexible pavement, an improved hydric state is sought over the entire pavement height and over at least the upper 0.30 m of the subgrade; for rigid or semi-rigid pavements, the depth of the system will be limited to the pavement with the essential role of evacuating the infiltration water at interfaces, cracks and/or joints without damproofing; to evacuate interstitial over-pressures during the thaw, the installation must be deeper than the depth of frost corresponding to the frost warning index depending on the pavement type in question;

Standard schemes

The EDRC is a product which is either manufactured and installed on site with specific machines, or is constructed on site. It is basically made up of a geotextile filter, enveloping a draining core, possibly with a collecting system in its lower section (see Photo 10). A manufactured fin drain is far thinner than a fin drain constructed on site (2 to 4 cm for the first and 15 to 25 cm for the second. The functions vary depending on whether the road is new or old and whether the pavement is flexible or rigid. Diagram 31: standard cross section of a pavement fitted with The EDRC is normally positioned an EDRC located where the shoulder meets the pavement where the shoulder meets the road structure structure (see Diagrams 31 and 32). It can be installed: laterally at the foot of the cutting bank; laterally under the extreme edges of the capping or foundation layers for flexible pavements;
Photo 10: sample manufactured fin drain (photo CETE Nord-Picardie, LRPC Lille) Diagram 32: installation of an EDRC at the pavement edge

"Tools" Collection Stra

70

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Diagram 31 hauteur de recouvrement de l'EDRC (> 0,06 m) hauteur de l'EDRC hauteur drainante profondeur de pose profondeur sous le corps de chausse L'EDRC comporte un systme d'vacuation des eaux infiltres. Il est plaqu contre le bord de la chausse dans une tranche troite dont la partie suprieure est tanch aprs remblaiement. Le foss latral est rduit un rle de cunette pour l'limination des eaux de ruissellement. Diagram 32 Cot chausse Cot accotement enveloppe gotextile filtrante remblai me intrieure fort indice de vide drain ou zone drainante

Diagram 31 EDRC recovery height (> 0.06 m) EDRC height draining height laying depth depth beneath the pavement body The EDRC has an evacuation system for infiltrated water. It is set against the edge of the pavement in a narrow trench whose upper part is sealed after backfilling. The lateral ditch simply plays a trickle channel role to eliminate the run-off water. Diagram 32 Pavement side Shoulder side filtering geotextile envelope fill inside core with high vacuum index drain or draining zone

"Tools" Collection Stra

71

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Operating method
An EDRC can be installed in one of two ways - manual after digging the trench or mechanized (recommended). It is normally installed in a narrow trench at a depth of between 30 cm and 1 meter. The width of the cavity depends on the mechanical shovel or ditcher used (30 to 50 cm). The space is subsequently backfilled with compacted extracted material. It is advisable to use a laser to shape the slope and make it more regular. When installed manually, the EDRC must be held in place on the vertical wall pavement side during backfilling. The EDRC is placed automatically during mechanized installation by the box section which holds it against the wall pavement side. Site material is used for the backfilling. However, it is important to remove the largest blocks (max. 100 mm) as far as possible. Whenever possible, the trench should be partially backfilled, alternating with compacting in accordance with the stipulations in the guide Backfilling Trenches [11].

Durability and maintenance


EDRC installation requires checks on products and their appropriate implementation (particular attention should be paid to the problem of compacting the trench). The covers on the drain inspection chambers must resist rolling loads and be large enough inside (recommended 0.70 x 0.40 m) to facilitate the introduction of hydrocleaning materials. They also demand regular maintenance and repair thanks to duly established as-built drawings, with inspections of ancillary structures (checking flows at inspection chambers and outlets) and drain cleaning. In automated installation, the EDRC have nevertheless the advantage of guaranteeing quality, more especially when inserted in trenches with a gentle slope. An annual inspection and hydrocleaning every three to five years are advisable1.

Elements required for dimensioning


Technically, an EDRC is chosen according to the following criteria: geometric: the height of the EDRC (He) varies according to pavement characteristics (type, thickness, position) and the type of problem to be solved (drainage, frost/thaw, dessiccation); hydraulic: the necessary longitudinal evacuation capacity depends mainly on the EDRC transmissivity characteristics and the permeability of the surrounding ground; predictable installation constraints: obstacles or buried networks in old pavements, trench resistance (type of material) and soil type and grading.

"Tools" Collection Stra

72

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.5 - Draining courses


Objectives
The draining course is made up of very permeable aggregate material to intercept an upwards or downwards water current. It is therefore found: slotted between pavement and subgrade; it recovers any water ingress through the pavement and above all water inflows from the subgrade, for example: - under a concrete pavement structure, to drain infiltration water vertically; - on cut and fill interface to evacuate water ingress from the cut roadbed and prevent it flowing towards the fill (substitution or draining of the cut and fill transition zone); - underneath a cut or skimming profile pavement, when the water table (or any other water inflow underneath the roadbed) is likely to rise up to the structure (terminology can vary - this may be referred to as a substitution of the upper earthworks section or as an aggregate capping layer, with specific dimensioning); - in flat zones or those liable to flooding, as courses standing in the way of capillary water rises (fill base in draining material); - underneath a fill in a compressible or wet zone (draining base); - under the pavement and the fill in mixed profile; slotted between an impermeable layer (invert, geomembrane) and the subgrade. The objective here is to intercept water ingress from the subgrade and reduce the sub-pressures.
Important comment: although this scenario moves away from the context of the guide, it is important to remember that the draining course may also intercept the entrained air or the fermentation gases underneath the geomembrane. This arrangement is essential when the soils in question contain fermentable organic matter (surface soils and peaty or silty organic layers) or when the water table is nearby.

Standard schemes
(see Diagrams 33 and 34)

Diagram 33: draining course in cut

Diagram 34: draining course in fill

Diagram 33 Gotextile Couche drainante Collecteur Exutoire Pente Diagram 34 Cote des plus hautes eaux Pente Gotextile Couche drainante Collecteurs

Diagram 33 Geotextile Draining course Collector Outlet Slope Diagram 34 Dimension of highest waters Slope Geotextile Draining course Collectors

"Tools" Collection Stra

73

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Operating method
Made up of aggregate draining materials, the draining courses are laid by traditional blade earthwork machines. The courses must be laid on a soil with sufficient bearing capacity and well shaped to avoid depressions and ruts (on a soil with little bearing capacity, shaping takes place afterwards whereas the draining material is pushed forwards in a single layer, sufficiently thick to avoid being deformed under the weight of machines). To create draining courses which can be assimilated with special capping layers, the specifications in the guide Creating fills and capping layers [9] will be applied. The thickness depends on the flow rates to be collected (drains can be inserted for major flow rates), but above all on the transient role played by this course during the earthworks phase (road) or its incorporation in the capping layer which it can replace partially or totally. When faced with compressible soils with low permeability, the thickness required to evacuate the flow rates could be reduced (< 0.10 m), but the implementation conditions (insufficient bearing capacity, deformability) frequently impose a thickness of > 0.40 m. Laying a geotextile at the base is necessary when the percentage of fines is > 5%. A geosynthetic variant can nevertheless be envisaged: if the flow rates are limited; if the mechanical role of this layer is reduced (sufficient subgrade bearing capacity to support the site traffic); and if the differential settling of the subgrade does not exceed a few centimeters. This then involves geocomposites* which may include a draining core or mini-drains.

Durability and maintenance


Once covered over, the draining course cannot be inspected nor maintained. It is therefore essential to dimension it carefully by ensuring a good safety margin (for example, by taking a safety coefficient at least equal to 2 into account when calculating the flow rates). The outlets and dewatering collectors must be installed and maintained as in the previous systems (inspection chamber every 70-80 m of sufficient size, annual inspection and hydrocleaning every three to five years)1.

Elements required for dimensioning


Project geometry. Water table (hydraulic head and head variations, permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering* flow rates; Soil type: - Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils (soils which may be drained and draining soils which may be used in a draining course) according to their classification; - the grading (in particular d85) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering; - other survey elements are useful in ensuring, for example, the regularity of the future cavity bottom and the lack of elements likely to harm the geotextile; - the envisaged bearing capacity on installation must also be taken into account.

"Tools" Collection Stra

74

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.6 - Shafts (vertical drainage)


Objective
Shafts evacuate water vertically on an ad hoc basis by raising it to a surface outlet. They are most frequently used as temporary installations during earthworks. (see Diagram 35). The zone where the water table level is lowered (drawdown influence zone) varies according to soil permeability. Thus, for a line of shafts to play a barrier role, the distance between the shafts can be fairly loosely spaced (20-30 m) in very permeable soils (permeability > 10-5 m/s), but should be closer together (up to less than 1.5 m apart) in soils with low permeability (< 10-6 m/s). In the first case, traditional shafts take preference; they are fitted with submerged centrifugal pumps and the raising height will not be limited (except by the power of the pumps). In the second scenario, narrow shafts (diameter < 10 cm) are normally used, connected to the surface by a vacuum pump. The raising height is then limited to 6-7 m (see Diagram 36). Note that some shaft-type systems, but without pumps, can aim to bring two different aquifers into contact with each other: to draw down and inject water from the upper aquifer towards the deep aquifer (injection shaft, see Diagram 37); or to reduce the water pressure in the lower aquifer by allowing it to expand towards the upper aquifer (discharge shaft, see Diagram 37); Given the potential implementation problems of these systems (clogging, maintenance, pollution, etc.), they are only used in exceptional circumstances and are not dealt with here. Preference may be given to using shafts instead of the deep cutoff drain in special contexts such as: potential very high dewatering* flow rates (which correspond to a major drawdown influence zone, frequently higher than 500 m); drawdown depth to be modulated selectively for environmental problems (for example, to limit setting under nearby constructions); significant drawdown depth above the maximum depth of mechanized trenches (about 6 m)1 (see 4.1.2); no gravity outlet to drawdown dimension.

Standard schemes
(see Diagram 36).

Diagram 35: schematic diagram of vertical shaft drainage

Diagram 36: vertical drainage methods

(1) In certain special cases, draining panels can be used (boring with grab or cutter), where the depth can be considerably more than the 6 m of current mechanized trenches.

Diagram 35
"Tools" Collection Stra

Diagram 35
75 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Rayon d'influence du rabattement Pompe Niveau de la nappe initial (statique) Niveau de la nappe rabattu (dynamique) Impermable Diagram 36 Puits exhaure Pointes filtrantes Vers pompe vide Aquifre Pompe En vert : Tubage plein En jaune : tubage perfor (crpine) niveau impermable

Drawdown influence radius Pump Initial water table level (static) Lowered water table level (dynamic) Impermeable Diagram 36 Shaft dewatering Filtering points Towards vacuum pump Aquifer Pump In green: Full piping In yellow: perforated piping (perforated casing) impermeable level

"Tools" Collection Stra

76

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Operating method
Know-how and specific equipment adapted to each individual case is required to create these structures: hole boring by jetting, pipe ramming, hammering and rotation with or without boring fluid (water, mud, air); metal or PVC tubing, perforated casing pieced on (manufactured) or not, perforation type and density, filter in natural (sand or gravel) or manufactured (sand+resin filter, geotextile) material; pump types and power; shaft spacing (and number of lines for a linear structure) to be determined; installation of a temporary collector up to the outlet.

Durability and maintenance


Drawdown structures are only used as temporary measures during earthworks except for extremely special cases. Problems of durability and maintenance do not arise.

Elements required for dimensioning


project geometry; detailed hydrodynamic characteristics (aquifer geometry, discontinuities, vertical and horizontal permeabilities, transmissivity, drainage porosity, flow direction and piezometric variations); soil type: - Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification; - the grading (in particular d85*) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering; special points concerning these techniques: - sensitivity of nearby structures to differential settling (frequent in this type of operation) and supply deficits (nearby bodies of water and water courses in equilibrium with the level of the water table).

Diagram 37: shaft-type systems

Puits d'injection niveau imperm. Aquifre Puits de dcharge niveau impermable

Injection shaft imperm. level Aquifer Discharge shaft impermeable level

"Tools" Collection Stra

77

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.1.7 - Bank stabilization systems (shields and stacks)


Objective
They aim to intercept the water in the banks (and thus contribute to roadbed drainage) but also to act as a retaining mass to increase the general stability. They are therefore used in downwards cuts (even temporarily) below the level of the water table. Finalizing the system and above all its geometry necessitates specific calculations dominated by the mechanical characteristics of the surrounding soils.

Standard schemes
The shield (see Diagram 38) replaces the existing soil with a soil mass draining and applying friction over an extended length (in the entire potentially unstable zone). Except where the draining material could act as a filter for the surrounding soil (infrequent), the mass is laid on a filtering geotextile and closed at the foot by a drain pipe intended to facilitate and accelerate the evacuation of the water collected. It is essential for this drain pipe to be plugged upstream. The stack (see Diagram 39) is based on an analogue principle and in this case the substitution is perpendicular to the cut axis. The stack system is preferable to the shield system when short-term bank stability (when laying the draining system) is truly critical or when there are random water ingress. Other parameters such as the flow rate quantities, bank aesthetics, grass seeding problems and the volumes of materials to be moved must also be taken into account, but can vary from one site to the next. Special techniques are used to stiffen the shield slope itself (mix of sand and synthetic threads, nailing with piles or angle irons.

Operating method
By principle intended to stabilize very unstable banks, these structures are often created under difficult site conditions (critical stability, water ingress, soils with little bearing capacity). For shields, progressing using limited-length pins are used to improve stability during the site duration. A slow-rate mechanical shovel is most frequently used for the earthworks and to lay the mass. Given the frequently difficult conditions, there is little need to focus on the regularity of the sides or the bottom of the extraction zone, which can be and stay irregular (above all, do not reprofile with extracted materials). On the other hand, the regularity of the slope of the collection and evacuation drain pipe is essential; to overcome problems of accuracy, avoid adopting slopes of less than 5 cm per meter for the stacks and 2 cm for the shields. Any necessary planting can be made by slotting in a geotextile filter and using a honeycomb geosynthetic* or a geogrid*. Note that in some special cases, a geocomposite* can be used instead of or in addition to the draining material (see Diagram 40).

Diagram 38: draining shield

Diagram 39: draining stacks

Diagram 38 Masque drainant Gotextile


"Tools" Collection Stra

Diagram 38 Draining shield Geotextile


78 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Obturation en amont Vers exutoire Collecteur - drain longitudinal Diagram 39 Eperon obturation amont Drain transversal vers exutoire Gotextile Collecteur- drain longitudinal

Upstream plugging Towards outlet Collector - longitudinal drain Diagram 39 Stack upstream plugging Transverse drain towards outlet Geotextile Collector - longitudinal drain

"Tools" Collection Stra

79

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Durability and maintenance


The draining mass is buried and therefore maintenance is impossible. The evacuation drain must be accessible and include inspection chambers every 25 to 50 m (depending on the safety level required) for the shields and at every tap in the longitudinal collector for the stacks. A full inspection (including via video in the drains) is a good idea when the site is finished and an accurate as-built drawing is essential. In terms of maintenance, a visual survey should be planned (assessment of flow rates and above all of clogging) of the state of the drain holes at each inspection chamber and more frequently at the beginning of the structure's life; for example inspections at one month, three months, six months and one year. Hydrocleaning is recommended at least every three to five years (more frequently if the previous monitoring has shown a trend towards rapid incrustation).

Elements required for dimensioning


project geometry (particularly the natural cross slope of the ground); hydrodynamic characteristics of the soils (aquifer geometry, discontinuities, permeabilities, flow directions and piezometric variations); soil type: Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification; special points concerning these techniques: - block size distribution* and grading (in particular d85* of the soils) to assess the state of the cavity bottom and the opening of the geotextile filtering; - detailed geomechanical characteristics (cohesion C and internal friction angle of surrounding soils).

Diagram 40: geocomposite used instead of or in addition to the draining material.

Gocomposite filtre-drain Masque drainant

Filter-drain geocomposite Draining shield

"Tools" Collection Stra

80

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.2 - Stipulations on materials


4.2.1 - Draining and filtering materials
Drainage consists of moving water as fast as possible from an aquifer medium to a drainage structure and beyond that to an outlet. Filtering tempers this passage by retaining the elements making up the aquifer medium.

Filtering power
The filtering power of a material over another material is assessed via particle size characteristics and rules based on these characteristics. In most cases it can be tricky to apply these rules, as they are established for homogeneous soils and call on materials that are frequently very elaborate and costly. A geotextile is therefore more often than not used for this role. Under these conditions the addition material simply has to evacuate the water rapidly and therefore has a draining role only. For "rustic" structures with no geotextile and which are therefore both filtering and raining (in earthworks phase, for example, or when it is impossible to use a geotextile), a road aggregate with 0-30 or 3-40 continuous grading1 (a hollow aggregate is easier to clog) may be used, with: less than 5% fines under 80 m; a sand equivalent (ES) higher than 50, or VBS 0.1; a passing fraction at 2 mm of less than 10% for a porous concrete drain coating and less than 15% for a PVC drain pipe coating. (see Diagram 41). Note that for deep mechanized trenches, where it is rarely possible to lay an envelope geotextile, the filter is placed direction around the drain ("geotextile sock") and the aggregate is simply used to fill the trench. The only requirement is ease of installation and self-tightening and the following will thus be requested: rolled rather than crushed aggregate; continuous grading; particle size (D) limited to 20 mm (narrow trench); a percentage of fines of less than 80 m limited to 5%.

Draining power
This is the ease with which the water flows within the material, or more specifically the reduction in head losses (of energy) by friction. The greater the voids the better the water flow, the ideal being to reduce the friction to the minimum as in the pipes. Incompatibility with the filtering power becomes clear.

Diagram 41: particle size curves continuous or discontinuous shape

"Tools" Collection Stra

81

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

(1) Each grading class is represented and the shape of the curve tends towards the diagonal. The reverse is true of the discontinuous grading where the curve is very hollow.

Pourcentage des refus cumuls SABLE FIN GROS SABLE GRAVIERS CAILLOUX GALETS MOELLONS BLOC granularit continue courbe "creuse" Dimensions des tamis en mm

Percentage of accumulated rejections FINE SAND COARSE SAND GRAVELS PEBBLES SHINGLE RUBBLE BLOCK continuous grading "hollow" curve Sieve dimensions in mm

"Tools" Collection Stra

82

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

As an indication, the characteristics of a draining only aggregate (behind a filter) could be as follows: hollow aggregate (see above); ES (sand equivalent) > 50 or VBS 0.1 g of blue per 100 g of soil; passing fraction at 2 mm < 10%; a percentage of fines of less than 80 m limited to 5%. Other criteria may also be adopted to take the limits relating to the structure into account, in particular: the installation (D far below 3 or 4 times the layer thickness); damage risks for the textile filters (it is preferable to reduce the grading with crushed materials); a very clean material (without filler with a percentage of fines < 1% for a draining only material.) The most commonly used gradings are less than 30-40 mm. Table 9 suggests a classification for untreated granular materials based only on their drainage capability from three parameters: D: the dimension of the largest components f: the fines content (passing fraction at 80 m) d10 the particle dimension corresponding to the 10% passing fraction

Other criteria
For the soils: the mechanical strength and above all the sensitivity to the attrition* (in the first instance, LA and MDE coefficients below or equal to 45); frost resistance (in principle respected with the mechanical characteristics); resistance in terms of the aggressivity of the waters in the medium or the water used for declogging (incompatibility of limestone aggregates and acid media). For GNT developed materials (category C aggregates, even D with conditions): the values are stated in standard XPP 18-540 [3]/

Comment on porous concretes


This technique seems little used but it has certain advantages: in certain cases of sites with difficult access when compacting can cause problems; when the networks are dense and compacting possibilities are few and far between; when the draining zone must have high mechanical resistances. A porous concrete has a porosity of between 15 and 25% and will have compressive resistance criteria after 90 days close to 10 MPa. The mineralogical nature of aggregates and the type of hydraulic binder will be chosen based on the aggressivity of local waters. Material
f in % d10 in mm

Permeability
in m/s

Type

0/D according to NF P 98-129 (14 < D < 31.5 mm) 0/D, (14 < D < 31.5 mm) d/D ( D 40 mm)

<5

0.1

10-6< K 10-5

draining GNT

2 1

0.8 8

10-5 10-1

very draining material very draining material

Table 9: classification of untreated granular materials

"Tools" Collection Stra

83

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.2.2 - Geotextiles and related products


The geotextiles and related products improve the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the soil and their use in road techniques has developed widely in highly diverse fields: there are now a vast number of products on offer. There are five main functions - separation, filtering, drainage, reinforcement and protection. The properties required vary depending on the anticipated functions.

Role in the drainage structures


In the drainage structures, the geotextiles and related products are used to replace the sometimes complex granular draining systems which are both difficult to dimension and costly to implement. They will be made in the main by one or more layers of fine synthetic tangled fibers woven or non-woven (thermobonded or lashed) possibly combined with other geosynthetics (geospacers, mini-drains, etc.) where preference is given to drainage and filtering functions. (see Diagram 42). As for the granular materials, the drainage function characterizes the ability of the geotextile to collect and convey the water in its thickness (notion of transmissivity). This capacity could vary depending on the thickness and therefore its behavior when compressed (compressive creep). The filtering function acts as a barrier to the conveyance of the soil particles which could migrate under hydrodynamic forces, whilst allowing free circulation of water through the filter. In the case of geotextile, the soil is frequently re-organized and a filter layer forms where the geotextile is in contact with the soil. The mechanisms are complex and depend on the geotextile's functional characteristics (opening of characteristic filtering, permeability perpendicular to the plane, etc.). This is the preferred function when the geotextile is in contact with the soil and envelopes the drain or the draining material. (see Diagram 43). To these functional characteristics must be added mechanical and minimum durability characteristics to prevent damage to the geotextile during implementation and during the lifetime of the structure. Standard NF EN 13252 [7] defines the required characteristics for use in the drainage structures. Table 10 below is an extract.

Main characteristics to be determined


Filtering function
Characteristic filtering opening O90. It must be less than d85 of the soil multiplied by a variable coefficient C depending on the use scenarios (filter only or filter-drain), the soil characteristics and the hydraulic conditions. This calculation method is explained in standard G38-061 [6]. Permeability perpendicular to the plane: velocity index VH50. The permeability of the geotextile is specified from the permeability of the soil with a variable corrective factor depending on the use scenarios (type of structure) and the compressive creep characteristics of the geotextile. For common (non sensitive) structures, the VH50 value varies from 0.5 to 30 mm/s. Resistance to water penetration. This parameter does not appear in Table 10. It expresses the minimum thickness of the amount of rainfall required for the water to start penetrating the geotextile. The value normally required is less than 50 mm.

Drainage function
Flow rate capability in the plane (equivalent to the transmissivity). It must correspond to the minimum transmissivity required to evacuate the flow rates affected by a coefficient. This coefficient, which is also found in standard G38-061, can vary from 3 to 100.

Mechanical characteristics
Apart from damage when being laid, the resistance to traction, deformation under maximum load, resistance to dynamic perforation and other parameters not taken up in Table 10, can be added to the list of required parameters, if necessary.

"Tools" Collection Stra

84

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Diagram 42: use of geotextiles for the drainage structures

Diagram 43: formation of a natural stable filter upstream of the geotextile

Diagram 42 masque drainant couche drainante par gocomposite tranche drainante couche drainante granulaire gotextile Diagram 43 SOL EN PLACE Zone de rarrangement des grains GEOTEXTILE

Diagram 42 draining shield draining course by geocomposite cutoff drain granular cutoff drain geotextile Diagram 43 EXISTING SOIL Particle re-arrangement zone GEOTEXTILE

"Tools" Collection Stra

85

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

It is impossible to define value ranges given the variability and specific features of the possible scenarios. Overall, the conclusion will be drawn that the values must tend towards an optimum which can vary depending on the uses. Thus: there must be maximum flexibility at the irregular cavity bottoms, particularly in the cutoff drains; this is less important in shaped and compacted cavity bottoms; resistance to traction and deformation under maximum load will be chosen based on the deformability and bearing capacity of the subgrade, with an extension of at least 50% in loose or irregular soils; the resistance to static puncturing and the resistance to dynamic perforation limit the risk of damage in contact with irregularities; the thickness and the compressive creep can alter the transmissivity.

Table 10: required characteristics for use in drainage structures

Caractristiques Mthode d'essai Fonction


"Tools" Collection Stra

Characteristics Test method Function


86 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Filtration Sparation Renforcement Rsistance la traction Dformation sous charge maximale Rsistance la traction des coutures et joints Poinonnement statique (essai CBR) Rsistance la perforation dynamique (chute de cne) Caractristiques en frottement Fluage en traction Endommagement la mise en uvre Ouverture de filtration caractristique Permabilit perpendiculairement au plan Durabilit Conformment l'annexe B Rsistance aux agents climatiques Rsistance au vieillissement Rsistance au vieillissement chimique Rsistance la dgradation microbiologique Pertinence : essentielle pour l'harmonisation s'applique toutes les conditions d'utilisation s'applique des conditions spcifiques d'utilisation indique que les caractristiques ne sont pas applicables la fonction en question Il convient de considrer avec attention la validit de ces essais dont le principe peut de pas tre applicable certains types de produits (par exemple les gogrilles). Si les proprits mcaniques (traction et poinonnement statique) sont indiques H cela signifie que le producteur doit fournir les donnes pour ces deux proprits. L'emploi d l'une seulement (rsistance en traction ou poinonnement statique) est suffisant dans la spcification.

Filtering Separation Reinforcement Resistance to traction Deformation under maximum load Resistance to the traction of welts and seals Static puncturing (CBR test) Resistance to dynamic perforation (falling cone) Characteristics under friction Creep in traction Damage on laying Characteristic filtering opening Permeability perpendicular to the plane Durability In accordance with Appendix B Resistance to climatic agents Resistance to ageing Resistance to chemical ageing Resistance to microbiological degradation Relevance: essential for harmonisation applies to all conditions of use applies to all specific conditions of use indicates that the characteristics are not applicable to the function in question It is important to pay particular attention to the validity of these tests, where the principle may only be applicable to certain types of product (for example the geogrids). Mechanical properties (traction and static puncturing) indicated H mean that the producer must provide data for these two properties. Using one only (resistance under traction or static puncturing) is sufficient in the specification.

"Tools" Collection Stra

87

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Elements required for choosing the geotextile


Depending on the drainage system being built, the main data to be collected are as follows: structure type and geometry (dimensioning depends on the position of the geotextile in the structure and its function - vertical or horizontal draining or filtering); the flow rate to be drained and therefore the hydrodynamic characteristics of soils; grading of soils (type of soil to be filtered) or the material in which the flow is produced; the type of aggregate used; the constraints applied to the geotextile (height of material overspill, installation depth, for a draining course, its thickness and the rigidity of subgrade, hydraulic head). The CE marking is specified in standard NF EN 13252 [7]. This is mandatory legal marking for the free circulation of goods within the European Community. Voluntary ASQUAL certification is a sign of quality: it is an added plus to the CE marking and guarantees the stated characteristics under a specific reference framework.
Warning:

standard NF G 38 061 is currently being revised as it refers to obsolete French standards replaced by the CEN standards listed in Table 10 and which are not strictly equivalent. Caution is advised, therefore, when using it to determine geotextile characteristics, particularly the filtering opening and even more the permeability, as there is no possible correlation between the old "permittivity" and the CEN "permeability" standard.

Photo 11: flexible, ringed drain with plant coating (coconut) (photo CETE Nord-Picardie/LRPC)

"Tools" Collection Stra

88

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Photo 12: flexible, ringed drain with synthetic geotextile coating (photo CETE Nord - Picardie/LRPC)

Photo 13: rigid, ringed drain with trickle channel (photo CETE Nord - Picardie/LRPC)

Photo 14: "road" drain with trickle channel (photo CETE Nord - Picardie/LRPC)

"Tools" Collection Stra

89

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.2.3 - Drains or drain pipes


Role and types
Drains or drain pipes are designed to: collect the water via their periphery; facilitate its rapid evacuation (drainage function in the true sense of the term). When they do not collect water via their periphery, even though it can be customary to call them drains, they are in fact only simply pipes which are not dealt with in this guide. They can take a variety of shapes (round or tunnel-shape, egg-shaped or with a flat bottom) and materials (earthenware, now no longer used, sandstone, porous or fibrous concrete and above all synthetic materials, basically polyethylene and PVC). The material and the shapes determine the rigidity of components which are fundamentally of type types: longitudinal components of variable length but limited to a few meters (round or tunnel section, concrete or synthetic materials) and very long crowns for flexible shapes (round section and synthetic materials ) (see photos 11, 12, 13 and 14). Water is collected at the periphery by diffuse pores (porous concrete) or by variable-size slots or perforations (fibrous concretes and synthetic materials). These holes may be spread the length of the periphery or located in the upper part only (drains with trickle channel). Note lastly that most drains in thin, synthetic material are reinforced against becoming out-of-round and crushing by splines (ringed shapes). These splines retain the longitudinal flexibility but increase the internal roughness (reduced flow rates). Certain rigid models therefore have two envelopes, one outside with splines with a smooth one inside. As an indication, Tables 11 and 12 give a few of their main characteristics and their preferred areas of use.
Drain or draining collector in concrete or sandstone Length Diameter Perforations Perforation position Major disadvantage Synthetic drain or draining collector, rigid or with trickle channel(1) Flexible, synthetic ringed drain

Variable, 0.5 to 1 m 75 to over 1000 mm Variable, up to 13 mm Circumference or upper part Heavy and brittle

4 to 6 m 80 to 630 mm 0.8 to 3.5 mm Circumference or upper part Semi-rigid

Crowns 5 to 200 mm About 1 mm Circumference Crushes

Table 11: main drain characteristics

Perforations or slots in Flexible, ringed drains(2) Rigid drains

Preferred use

Use to be avoided

Total surface area

Mechanized laying with considerable depth (at least 3) > 1 m)( Shallow depth

Shallow depth (risk of being flattened) Heterogeneous soils with perched water tables

Total surface area

Drains with trickle channel Pre-coated drains


Table 12: preferred areas

Upper part

High flow rates Erosive soils (risk of carrying fines along) Erosive soils (risk of carrying fines along)

Upper part or total surface area

(1) see standard NF P 16-351 [5]


(2) In accordance with the new fascicule 70 title II II 6, "agricultural drains (reference to standard NF U 51.101) can be used under non-traffic spaces". The filters must however be dimensioned as for traditional road structures (characteristic filtering opening O 90, see 4.2.2) and not according to normal agricultural drainage practices which, with a wider opening, encourage the water to flow through with the added risk of also encouraging the movement of fine elements.

"Tools" Collection Stra

90

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

(3) The choice of the drain based on installation depth depends on the mechanical resistance of the material and the general laying context: any surface rolling load, width of the cavity, backfill material and compacting method.

"Tools" Collection Stra

91

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Laying depths for road drains are defined by standard NFP 16-351: without surface rolling load and from 0.8 m deep, ND category drains will be used. SD category drains will be chosen for all other circumstances. No standard gives guidance on agricultural drains: in this case a minimum depth of about a meter will be accepted.

Pre-coating
Pre-coating (before laying via a filter fixed on the drain) is always stipulated, as it reduces the risk of carrying fine particles from the soil considerably and thus the risks of internal obstruction in the drain and surface disorder (settling). A suitably-dimensioned geotextile is used for this purpose (rules in previous paragraph, especially regarding the filtering opening). The use of plant fibers (coconut) which is often suggested is to be avoided due to the risks of putrefaction, particularly if the drain is laid in a zone alternates between flooding and dewatering.

Dimensioning: Flow rate - Diameter - Slopes


The flow rate can be calculated with traditional formulae incorporating diameter and slope; Diagram 44 is given as an indication for ringed drains (coefficient of roughness 45). The diameter must be determined based on captured flow rates; however, given uncertainties over the "soil" parameters (homogeneity, permeability, etc.), it is essential to over-dimension (by at least two). This coefficient should be increased even further when the drainage network is installed before or during the earthworks (higher flow rates and inevitable partial clogging). It is also essential to take every precaution to avoid obstructions: installation of grills or valves to prevent animals from intruding; no planting of trees or shrubs near or directly above the drain. Slope is a major factor. The gentler the slope of the drains, the more the diameter of the drain must be over-dimensioned to take account of retention and sedimentation zones in the drainage network. Conversely, slopes that are too pronounced can generate erosion and cavitation phenomena between the soil and the drain. It is preferable to reduce pronounced slopes by drops at inspection chambers. A poorly-leveled drain (or insufficiently maintained) produces water retention zones with the reverse effect of drainage: better not to drain at all than to drain badly.

Durability and maintenance


The main parameter is the resistance to the various loads such as compacting or site traffic which can cause serious damage to drains (by crushing or deformation) or the asphalt and therefore restrict or even prevent the drain structure from working immediately it goes into operation. Standard NF P 16-351 [5] indicates minimum rigidity and shock-resistance values for plastic pipes, but in all circumstances with a risk of crushing (drains laid within a draining course, for example), reference areas are recommended to approve the products based on their behavior on implementation or under traffic. Note that the new version of fascicule 70 (title II II-6) indicates that "agricultural drains can be used for non-traffic spaces". For these pipes, see standard NF U51-101 [2]. When the site is over, the acceptance procedure stipulates an inspection of all inspection chambers, outlet and discharges as well as video soundings of theoretically the most critical sections. The subsequent survey intervals must be set based on the structure in which the drains play a role (trench, stack, draining course, etc.). It is essential to maintain the outlet and orifices in good condition.

"Tools" Collection Stra

92

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Diagram 44: flow rate for ringed drains based on the slope and diameter

dbit en l/s pente en mm/m

flow rate in l/s slope in mm/m

"Tools" Collection Stra

93

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.3 - Ancillary structures


For safety reasons, these structures must be taken into account at the design stage and in accordance with the general principles of the guide Dealing with lateral obstacles [20].

4.3.1 - Crossings
Crossings are buried pipes channeling the water so that it can cross the pavements underground. In particular, they connect drainage structures located in a median or on one side of the pavement (mixed profiles or pavements with a single crossfall) to collectors or an outlet located towards the downstream side of the cross section. These structural parts will be designed as traditional connections (non-draining pipes) or as extensions to drainage structures (trenches, grips, stacks and fin drains). The draining part (steel ducts, PVC drain, etc.) will ideally comprise a single element guaranteeing a continuous flow downstream. Particular attention must be paid to the downstream connection in works phase, as joint dislocations can generate disorders relating to water which infiltrates instead of flowing.

4.3.2 - Inspection chambers


In all shapes and sizes - round, square or rectangular -, inspection chambers can be prefabricated when repeated or poured on site. They must be dimensioned correctly with a minimum of 0.70 x 0.70 m (to allow a man or the hydrocleaner through in all circumstances) and must be flush with the finished ground level. Some EDRC manufacturers offer prefabricated elements in PVC with a lower section that fits onto the drain. These systems are suitable for depths of less than one meter. Their internal diameter of 0.40 m and the adapted shape ("curve" entrance) allows the hydrocleaner to pass through. Some are rectangular (0.40 x 0.70 m). If they are not fitted to edge drains, they are installed away from the emergency hard shoulders on the soft verge* and located where there is a change in direction or in a link section to comply with the maintenance requirements. They have an invert in the lower part, a variable-height box section and a head into which fits the removable cover. Monitoring and maintenance inspection chambers should be installed about every 70 to 80 m and at all places useful for maintenance. The maximum distance is 100 m to allow the hydrocleaner to move through (in principle every three or five years). The installation must be determined accurately, making sure that the inspection chambers do not open into zones where roadbed run-off water is concentrated (trickle channel, for example). The covers on the inspection chambers or outlet chambers, insofar as they are near traffic lanes, must be calculated to resist major rolling loads (1/2 axle) depending where they are used (sidewalk, shoulder, road path, etc.) When the chambers are located at the pavement edge, it is preferable, for safety reasons, to provide them with lockable iron covers to limit dangers to user safety and maintenance costs. The chambers must also be placed carefully so that maintenance engineers can access them in total safety. The condition of the chambers must be inspection on a very regular basis. It is also advisable to raise the lids every year to check that the whole system is working properly and thus highlight any overloading.

4.3.3 - Outlets
These are points where water is discharged from the footprint and more generally anything that evacuates water collected (ditch, piping, etc.). It is normally marked by an inspection chamber connecting the overall drainage network and the specific drainage network from the roadbed. For safety reasons, regardless of the longitudinal evacuation capacity of systems, there is every advantage in not leaving too much distance between outlets. They can share a joint position with inspection chambers. Wherever possible, the distance between a high point of the drain and an outlet located immediately downstream or between two outlets located in the same flow must not exceed 500 m. A specific collector must be installed if the configuration of the ground makes this impossible. Water is normally discharged into a ditch, which must have a safety head if placed along a lane open to traffic. In all circumstances, the drain exit must be marked by a concrete outlet head with an anti-rodent grill. The drain head must be raised in the ditch bank so that it does not hinder mowing.
"Tools" Collection Stra 94 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

It can be useful to channel discharges in natural flow zones for a few meters at least, or even better as far as the natural receiving flow. The most commonly used outfalls are components fitting together (tiles) or arc of circle components (metallic half-ducts). The first system frequently ages poorly (joint dislocation) more often than not due to incorrect installation.

"Tools" Collection Stra

95

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Chapter 5 5 - Execution of work, application of quality assurance, completion of drainage work, operation and maintenance

"Tools" Collection Stra

96

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

5.1 - Execution of drainage work


Please also refer to Chapter 7 in the guide Fin drains at pavement edge for the execution of work [12]. Once the investment decision has been taken, the quality of installation of drainage system structures is the only real guarantee of pavement durability. At worst, this type of structure can feed pavements and their subgrade with water, thereby creating far more rapid degradation that when no drainage system is installed. The implementation of the various drainage systems is dealt with in Chapter 4 of this guide, which addresses the execution of work, special drainage applications in earthworks phase and inspections.

5.1.1 - Execution of work


Optimum work period
The optimum period for installing drainage systems depends on what stage of the work has been reached: where a deep structure to drain the water table drawdown is involved, it is important to choose a lowwater period (normally summer, early autumn) to take advantage of the water content of the soils, incorporating the timescale provided for in the geotechnical* or hydrogeological* study; for surface structure drainage in earthworks and draining new or old pavements, rainy periods must be avoided as for the earthworks, as the soil surface produces mud and therefore pollution during implementation; for the special case of laying edge drains (cutoff drain or EDRC), the optimum period depends on the targeted objectives: - where the system is intended to attenuate harmful effects of increased humidity during rainy periods or to increase protection against frost-thaw, the optimum period is when the water contents are at their lowest, i.e. between July and October in France; - when the aim is to control dessiccation*, the optimum period is more in late spring, early summer, when the water content is not too low (before cracks appear); - for curative work (cracks already evident), there is no longer an optimum period.

Managing interfaces
Most traditional drainage systems - grips, draining stacks, draining courses and cutoff drains - do not lend themselves to construction which changes as work progresses from the earthworks phase to the construction of the pavement itself. This scenario can, however, be envisaged with some types of manufactured EDRC. The laying of pavement edge drains varies according to whether or not the pavement and shoulder have already been built. This aspect of site phases is a factor in the choice of longitudinal structures (cutoff drain, manufactured fin drain, fin drain built on site). Contract or contractor interfaces will be covered by hold points* when there are at least two contractors, to check the continuity of the drainage structure.

Photo 15: poor site organization creating water stagnation at the low point of the road, despite the presence of ditches on either side (photo CETE Normandie-Centre, LRPC Blois)

"Tools" Collection Stra

97

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

5.1.2 - Special drainage applications in earthworks phase


Earthworks involving fills, cuts and capping layers cannot be carried out without complying with some elementary rules in controlling water. Some of these provisions represent good earthworks practices and are mentioned in the CCTG Travaux [8] fascicule 2 - Articles 5.10 Temporary site drainage and 5.15 Draining structures. The earthworks (extraction, traffic, compacting, etc.) are made difficult by structures undermined by water infiltration (drop in bearing capacities, breaking banks, gullying, etc.). The knock-on effect on deadlines and costs are far from negligible (processing obligations, substitutions, execution delays, etc.).

Surface maintenance
It is primordial to maintain surfaces that have been or are going to be regraded, in both cut and fill. There are many justifications for this operation which benefits contractor and project owner alike, for: it encourages run off, thereby reducing infiltration at the same time; it maintains the hydric state of materials and the bearing capacity of soils; it is favorable to machine traffic; it reduces the volume of soils to be processed; the work execution timescales are shortened. Maintenance normally consists of: creating and maintaining a transverse slope of at least 4% (single crossfall or rooftop), regular leveling with a blade (grader or bulldozer) to remove the excess materials and reduce rutting throughout the day, to ensure continuous run off, shaping and daily settling of surfaces by compacting preferably with tires, however insignificant, in cut and in fill.

Evacuation of rainwater
Temporary structures are installed for this purpose; they are maintained on a daily basis in both rainy and dry spells. In cut, a continuous flow of water must be maintained at the foot of a bank connected to an outlet. In fill, to prevent uncontrolled run off and gullying along banks, a ridge of earth at the edge of the bank channels the water to a (temporary or final) outfall at the low point and carefully connected. The banks of both cuts and fills must be protected against run-off water. In anticipation of a final structure (if appropriate), temporary drainage outfalls can be installed. A ditch at the crest of the bank is frequently dug for cuts: it will be important to remember it is there when the site comes to an end to avoid any water stagnation at the top of a bank. Water collected on the site must be returned to the natural environment in compliance with regulations in the law on water and undertakings made the water policing file [15]. Materials in suspension (mineral pollution at least from site mud) must be eliminated from the site water via settling tanks and possibly straw dams or other before being returned to the natural environment.

"Tools" Collection Stra

98

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Photo 16: sample cut without outlet. The accumulation of rainwater has created a "swimming pool" effect [the red arrow marks a common point] (photo CETE Normandie-Centre, LRPC Blois)

"Tools" Collection Stra

99

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

A few rules for carrying out the work


avoid forming basins or low points which are ideal water traps. Constructing underground passage structures or creating cuts from a high point without installing an outlet can momentarily block a site through water accumulation; watch out for maintaining a longitudinal slope towards an outlet to avoid creating a "swimming pool" effect. Any situation of this nature which cannot be avoided should be included in the contract so that the contractor is obliged to provide means despite everything of evacuating the water (pumping, drain ramming, etc.). perform earthworks following the drop in water levels in soils with low permeability and where there is a water table: work carried out too quickly could make the banks unstable, despite a correctlyassessed slope, in the long term. An alternative solution is to lower the water table before soil extraction commences; normally start the cuts with their downstream side in longitudinal section, so that they are drained continuously; compact the fill edges as well as its heart, for poorly-compacted banks of a fill are liable to rapid infiltration, thereby causing disorders. For safety reasons compactors do not operate on bank edges; it is therefore advisable to create the roadbed with an excess width of at least equal to one meter, which is subsequently removed with shovel or blade. This requires a larger soil footprint on a temporary basis see Article 5.8 Fills in fascicule 2 of the CCTG [8]; it frequently transpires that the drains are highly damaged after the earthworks or after laying the pavement. Particular attention must be paid to this point if drain action is ultimately taken into account in pavement dimensioning.

5.1.3 - Checks
Depending on the details in the control, miscellaneous checks are possible and may be carried out under the responsibility of the contractor or the project engineer. This technical guide does not suggest a standard distribution of checks between these two entities (Contractor-Project Engineer). Refer to Chapter 5.2.2 Quality Assurance plan for the list of checks with the hold points* and critical points*, given as an indication, to be performed during and after the work has been carried out (see Table 13).

"Tools" Collection Stra

100

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

5.2 - Application of quality assurance in the drainage work


For further information, refer to the guide Quality Assurance organization in earthworks [13]. Installing a drainage structure is an application of particular interest in a quality approach for two reasons: the care applied to the works in their smallest detail conditions the quality of the whole; bad workmanship is not easy to observe after installation and even less so to find. Total reconstruction is very often their only remedy. In this lies the advantage of a quality approach which monitors all the quality components at the time of installation itself. Whether or not drainage work is covered by specific contracts or is part of larger contracts (earthworks, pavements), they must include drainage work quality assurance. The project owner or his project engineer expresses his interest in the contractor's quality management when the Contractor Tender Document (DCE) is being written. This DCE defines: the technical stipulations of the structure(s) to be built (CCTP); the organization of the quality assurance required from the contractor: - checks under the responsibility of the contractor (CCTP); - the critical points* (PC) and the holds points* (PA) (CCTP); - the content of the SOPAQ (RC) and the PAQ (CCTP).

5.2.1 - Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme (SOPAQ)


All the provisions adopted by contractor to satisfy the technical stipulations expressed in the Special Technical Specifications (CCTP - see Appendix 4) must figure in the SOPAQ. The project engineer must define in the Tender Regulations (RC) the requirements to be taken into account by the contractor to draw up his SOPAQ. These needs are governed by the drainage system adopted and are explained in detail in the Contractor Tender Document (DCE). The SOPAQ includes the contractor's organization chart with the various functions, which services are subcontracted and the main sub-contractors, where the supplies come from, a description of the resources and execution methods employed and the inspection resources and methods envisaged. If the RC so requires, the contractor will describe in this document the special technical features of the drainage process to be implemented, for example the ditching resources employed, the guiding type if a ditched is used, assembling geosynthetics, compacting methods, operation of the road under the site, etc. The contractor submits the SOPAQ with his proposal; it is his commitment in terms of quality assurance and as such represents a key factor in the approach, for it serves firstly to judge proposals and secondly to prefigure the PAQ. The SOPAQ must be contractualized by the CCAP and is the contractual reference framework throughout the site's lifetime.

5.2.2 - Site-specific Quality Assurance Plan (PAQ)


The contractor sets out a draft PAQ based on his SOPAQ during site preparations. Once finalized, the PAQ is stamped by the project engineer. The CCTP specifies that the PAQ includes the following items: a general organization note, including in particular: - allocation of tasks; - management of interfaces; - organization of internal inspections; - the principles of managing and processing non-conformities; the execution procedures defining: - the resources and conditions for executing work; - methods for the topographical installation and monitoring;
"Tools" Collection Stra 101 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

- checks and tests performed (type, frequency); - hold points* and critical points* in addition to those defined in the CCTP; follow-up and result sheets, one sheet per basic task and/or per work day; these sheets prove to the project engineer that the contract stipulations have been met. They also serve in establishing the as-built file. Table 13 gives some hold points* (PA) and critical points* (PC). Certain tasks common to earthworks (signaling, safety, etc.) are not repeated in this table.

"Tools" Collection Stra

102

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Approval of prefabricated components Checking the conformity with the contract specifications (manufactured EDRC, outlet equipment, inspection chambers, geotextile, drains, piping, etc.). Approval of materials Checking material characteristics and approval: composition of porous concrete, untreated graded aggregates, granular filling materials, etc. Site safety Work under traffic, bank stabilization, verticality of trench walls, etc. Checks on implementation They include checking the following points at least: - structure installations at the desired position in the cross section; Greater rigor must be applied in the installation of structures at the end of the earthworks phase - structure width; - structure depth and the regularity of the longitudinal slope: this can require an accurate leveling reference system (laser, wire, etc.). All low points should be avoided when building the structure; - cleanliness and regularity of the cavity bottom; - need for purges; - connection of drains, channels and geotextiles in the cutoff drains, manufactured stacks or filter envelopes of EDRC built on site, the integrity of assemblies once passed through the box section; - continuity of guiding systems, connections to inspection chambers and outlets and checking they are working correctly, unless it is impossible to provide for structure acceptance in this PA scenario; - installation of ancillary structures in general (outlet exits, anti-rodent grills, etc.); - verticality of longitudinal structure installation (fin in the box section, in the trench) and their positioning against the interfaces to be drained; - cleaning the structure surrounds; - shaping the surface of the shoulder; - conformity of the compacting material; - compacting quality of courses laid (number and thickness of fill layers, type and condition of materials, number of compacting passes, compacting width, compactor speed) [11] after building a convenience area which is marked by a hold point; - regularity of supplies, their conformity and the absence of material segregation; - filling regularity of trenches.

PA

PA

PC

PC

PC PC

PC PA PC

PC

PC PC PC PC PA PC PC PA PC PC

Table 13: a few hold points (PA) and critical points (PC).

5.2.3 - Quality Master Plan (SDQ)


During site preparations, the project engineer in conjunction with the contractor and the outside inspection the Quality Master Plan (SDQ). It is not contractual; its aim is the consistency expected in the quality approach from each participant by examining the planned actions as a whole. It can change throughout the site lifetime. It is the accurate description of all the tasks to be performed and if possible the people designated to fulfill them. This plan includes in particular: the Quality Assurance Plans (PAQ) of the various participants; the organization of the external check* with respect to the internal check*; the list of critical points* and hold points*; the management of interfaces between the services provided by the various contractors. These interfaces are frequently behind a lack of quality.

"Tools" Collection Stra

103

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

5.3 - Completion of drainage work


5.3.1 - Acceptance
Acceptance is pronounced based on checks made at the end of the site. They can carried out by eye or by sampling, by a surveyor, piezometry, soundings, excavation, geophysical method (georadar), video, etc. The checks cover: conformity of the work; measurement of fill material compactness: this may be measured with a dynamic penotrometer. Although this is only a selective test, it can be multiplied and used in a statistical sounding program; flow continuity: once the structures have been built, water from a tank can be injected into the network via inspection chambers to check that the flows are definitely found downstream. This test should be analyzed with care. A positive result does not necessarily guarantee the regularity of the water flow. For EDRC, this method can only be interpreted if the fin has a leaktight collecting device at its base. The check may also be made with a video camera, combining with moving the hydrocleaner (direct check on operation) through the parts of the drainage system made up of collectors that can usually be inspected, which, let us not forget, limits the maximum distance between inspection chambers to 100 meters. The trench can be opened in the event of a dispute.

5.3.2 - Handover of as-built drawing


Unlike the clean-up drainage systems, where virtually all components are on the surface and can therefore be repaired, almost all components in a drainage network are underground, which makes them difficult to check their existence or their state of repair. It is therefore essential that the road management department is provided with an as-built drawing produced when the drainage network is constructed. The as-built drawing indicates the actual location of systems, outlets, inspection chambers, etc.

5.4 - Drainage system operation and maintenance


Equipping a pavement with a drainage systems is an investment with an on-going objective: evacuating the excessive water in the pavement and subgrade structures to prevent early and/or accelerated degradation. The drainage networks must therefore be monitored and maintained in the same way as the clean-up drainage.

5.4.1 - Inspection of structure with as-built drawing


Once the structure has been handed over, the maintenance department is advised to carry out a full inspection of the structure based on the as-built file to recognize all the parts of the drainage system and in the maintenance guide for these structures. This operation is essential prior to setting the inspection and periodic maintenance schedule. The following in particular will be located: accessibility and protection of inspection and outlet chamber covers; the position of outlet heads.

5.4.2 - Establishment of the zero point in the absence of an as-built drawing


When there is no as-built file, the operating management department has a duty to create the "zero point" when taking over the structure.

"Tools" Collection Stra

104

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Initially, the contract documents will provide information on the planned drainage solutions. Their existence must subsequently be checked in the field. As the systems are underground, an indication of their presence can be given by the inspection chambers and outlets which must be located accurately. It is thus possible to have an overall view of the systems. structure geometry and accessibility; slope of drain water flows; system connections to outlets; position of inspection chambers, diameters of drains, etc.; protection of outlet heads. Secondly, and if necessary to understand the drainage system, recourse may be possible to openings as indicated in 5.3.1. The zero point must specify the state of repair of all parts of the system so that a list of first maintenance work essential for the structure to work correctly may eventually be drawn up. The following in particular will be checked: that water is flowing in the ditches or channels or outfalls after a rainy spell and is being evacuated (check on water flow levels in ditches compared with the drainage system outlets); that there are no mudslides at the outlets (their presence is a sign of a damaged geotextile filter in the drainage system or even worse that it is missing). All these observations must be indicated on the drainage network "zero point" drawing, so that priorities can be set for repair activities depending on the extent of damage observed. Whereas such provisions are not very restrictive for a specialist department in charge of expressway or motorway maintenance, there is no guarantee that the same applies for departments in charge of current networks in national or departmental roads. This task is nevertheless primordial and must be carried out by any means possible.

5.4.3 - Maintenance and repair work


When the manager is obliged to establish a zero point and carry out backfit work, this involves a preliminary task which must be studied following expert assessment. The type and significance of the work should be defined from rules specified in Chapter 5.1.2. Maintaining a drainage network has two parts - monitoring and repair.

Monitoring
Monitoring must be regular and carried out jointly with the clean-up drainage monitoring [10]. Note that the most propitious periods to detect functioning anomalies are during or immediately after a rainy period.

Repairs and repair frequency


Refer to Chapter 4 of this guide for the maintenance and repair of the various drainage systems.

"Tools" Collection Stra

105

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendices

"Tools" Collection Stra

106

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendix 1 - Special hydrogeological* studies


Hydrogeological* studies potentially requested as part of the project which require special drainage conditions (existence of a water table, capturing water inflows in the bank, etc.) will include, depending on the reference geotechnical mission requested (standard NF P 94-500 [4]):

G11 mission, preliminary feasibility study


The geotechnical study will have highlighted the need for counter-measures, frequently with difficulties in specifying orders of magnitude for these structures. The number and type of soundings has tremendous impact on the accuracy of conclusions. The study will nevertheless specify in the report and/or in the longitudinal geotechnical section the cuts and the section numbers concerned by any water inflows detected. It must also reveal the presence of water, specifying whenever possible: if there is a water table and monitoring its evolution for at least a year if not more if a high-capacity water table is involved; if there are any water inflows; if the water is permanent or liable to dry up; if there are water circulations, known resurgences or any other element that only a field investigation can bring to light. It is also important to specify the meteorological context for taking the soundings; in dry spells the results are frequently optimistic. Other sources of information could also be consulted: bibliography, regional knowledge, field survey, etc. The geotechnical study will also indicate, when this is predictable, if the structures are necessary on both banks: it may be that the water ingress dry up in the bank opposite the preferred circulation direction of the subsurface waters. It will be necessary to specify: the presentation of major local hydrogeological units or underground flows in the context of regional knowledge or prior experience; the approximate assessment of possible impact of the hydrogeology on the project; conversely, the predictable impact of the project on the local hydrogeology (altered flows, etc.); an assessment of uncertainties in the study over the information provided; the definition of the G12 standard study program to be undertaken on the topic.

G12 standard mission, geotechnical* feasibility study


This is a special study to validate the drainage hypotheses and define in detail the general construction principles for drainage structures. To achieve this, the following must be defined: the detailed geometry of the aquifer1 reservoir1 (roof and wall positions, slopes, etc.); the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer1 (permeabilities, piezometric map, etc.); the report on feed and losses (with any tracings); the site equipment to monitor changes in the piezometry (installation of piezometers, etc.); the assessment of constraints caused by the aquifer in developing the project and conversely the assessment of the predictable impact of the project on aquifer1 disturbances; an assessment of uncertainties in the study over the information provided; the definition of the G2 standard study program to be undertaken on the topic.

G2 standard mission, geotechnical* feasibility study


This mission is used to establish very accurately the structure's geometry and dimensioning. Phase 1 includes a few dimensioning design notes, estimated quantities, timescales and costs for building structures and phase 2 the documents required for contractor tenders.

"Tools" Collection Stra

107

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendix 2 - Improvement in hydric conditions of materials


This involves creating structures intended to collect surface or underground water and drain the natural ground; these temporary structures may be built into the final drainage systems of all types depending on circumstances. This work will provide the best conditions for carrying out the earthworks and a better material re-use rate. However, it must be added that even if the initial situation is improved by reducing the water content of materials, the drainage does not prevent treating the materials with suitable reagents in all cases. When the goal is improve hydric state of materials, the studies will defined (see Appendix 1): the type of soils to be drained, their hydric state and geometry; the assessment of their permeability; the meteorological conditions during the soundings in particular and their impact in terms of drainage needs; the characteristics of the water table or the hydrogeological conditions in general; the effects of the project on the environment (and vice versa); possible means of creating the drainage and the dimensioning. The studies must obviously give a good idea of the least favorable hydrogeological conditions. Ideally, water levels will be monitored over at least a year, specifying the climatic context (wet or drought year). In addition to traditional sounding and field survey methods (piezometers, sample taking, pumping tests, etc.), photointerpretation can offer certain advantages in detecting wetlands and hydric, hydromorphological or phytographic indices. Other sources of information may also be of interest: bibliography, regional knowledge, field survey, etc. Special case: Drainage operations for subgrades in a fill (peaty, marshy or wetlands, generally compressible zones) consolidate soils by evacuating the water. The techniques addressed in this guide can be used for modest drainage operations to prepare access to a plot in non-compressible zones but with very low bearing capacity (thickness of soils to be improved 1 m). For compressible soils*, a specific study will take into account subgrade mechanics and imposed loads (see guide Creating fills in compressible soils [14]). Using drainage to lower the water content will be stipulated if the soil type so lends itself.
Soil identification (under NF P11-300) Soil description Normal permeability coefficient (in m/s) Approximate time to remove excess water under favorable meteorological conditions

A1, B5, some B6 B1, B2, B4, D1 D2, D3, B3, R11, R21, R22, R32, R33, R41, R42, R61, R62, R12, R13, R23, R31, R34, R43, R63

Silts, fine clay sands Fine sands, aggregates with little clay Clean aggregates, scree, cracked and micro-fissured rock (limestone, clay schist, puddingstone sandstone, magmatic and metamorpic rock) Chalk, rocks altered under the influence of water (soft limestone, clay rock, silts, altered hard rocks)

10-5 to 10-9 10-3 to 10-5 1 to 10-3

minimum 6 months, even more 3 to 6 months 3 months

Materials lending themselves with difficulty to improvement through drainage except specific study taking account of the cracking, microfissuring and intrinsic permeability of materials on site
septembre 2007

"Tools" Collection Stra

108

Road drainage Technical guide

C1, C2

Soils with large elements (Dmax > 50 mm) Clays, marls, sandy clays, salty rock, changing clay rock, unfissured rock 10-9 to 10-13

Refer to the characteristics of the 0/50 mm fraction Materials not lending themselves to improvement by drainage

A2, A3, A4, certain B6, R5, R3

Table 14: identification of soils (according to standard NF P 11-300) which can be drained

"Tools" Collection Stra

109

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendix 3 - Assessment of flow rates to be drained


3.1 - Through subgrades
Depending on the texture of the substrate and its intersection with the pavement, water ingress from a water catchment of varying size can infiltrate the ground and feed the pavement "via the bottom". It can often be tricky to identify (very low seasonal flow rates are sufficient to vary considerably the water content of soils and the untreated materials in the structure). It can also normally be detected during earthworks in wet spells. Resurgences in a pavement in service are more easily revealed during dry weather after a wet spell. Any diffuse resurgences in a localized zone can be captured by longitudinal cutoff drains or by using a draining course. Note also the effectiveness of deep ditches in obstructing lateral water ingress in cut zones. However, when a random resurgence is detected, recourse to capture at a specific point is necessary. In any event, the assessment of flow rates from detected resurgences must be provided by a standard G2 hydrogeological study (see Appendix 1).

"Tools" Collection Stra

110

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Shown below are diagrams on the flow rates depending on the drawdown, the thickness of the water table and the permeability of soils for a cutoff drain. These diagrams attempt to show that the flow rate (and therefore the soil permeability) is not, in the main, dimensioning with respect to the drain pipe, as far greater permeabilities (1E-3 et 1E-2) must be reached before encountering evacuation problems with common drains. The dimensioning will depend on other parameters (risk of obstruction, crushing or settling) which require a high safety coefficient. Thus, in the most common scenarios (silty clays or sandy clays with fine sand), a 150 mm pipe could be adopted without major risk. However, as soon as soils with high permeability (more than 1E-5) come into play, a specific hydrogeotechnical study is highly recommended, to dimension the drainage network.

Permeability scale (reminder): Inf to 1E-9: clays 1E-7 to 1E-9: clay silts, clay sands, clay graded aggregates 1E-5 to 1E-7: silts, silty sands, silty graded aggregates 1E-5 to 1E-4: clean sands more than 1E-4: fissured rocks (including chalk) and clean graded aggregates In black: water table dewatering* flow rates according to soil permeability for one trench side (for the total trench flow rate, double the figure obtained) and a length of 100 m. The four diagrams correspond to different water table depths (idle): 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. In red: maximum flow rate of a ringed drain with a 2.5% slope, based on drain diameters 100, 150 and 300 mm.

Epaisseur de la nappe rabattement Diamtre drain Dbits en litres/heure pour 100 ml Permabilit des sols en m/s

Water table thickness drawdown Drain diameter Flow rates in litres/hour for 100 ml Soil permeability in m/s

"Tools" Collection Stra

111

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

3.2 - Through the pavement


To dimension the drainage systems, which usually collect relatively modest effluents, it can be enough to obtain an estimation by excess of water flow rates entering the pavement structure through the rainfall. The various elements playing a role in determining the flow rate are presented in Diagram 45. The principle of the calculation is to estimate the flow rates to be drained per linear meter of pavement from daily duration D, rainfall P and the run off. It is assumed that infiltration takes place when the surfacing is covered by a film or water (the pavement surface is subject to hydraulic gradient potential equal to the unit). Distinction is made between: flow rates entering the pavement: - Qe, through the surface course; - Qft, via the transverse cracks or Qfl, via the longitudinal cracks; - Qr, at the pavement-shoulder interface; - Qa, corresponding to inputs from the shoulder and the lateral catchment area; flow rates transiting at the interfaces, Qi; flow rates feeding the subgrade. Qs.

3.2.1 - Diffuse infiltrations via the surface courses


The Qe flow rates depend on the permeability coefficient of the asphalt. Based on the permeability coefficient (Table 15, column 2), for rainfall lasting one hour, the theoretical infiltration values in column 3 are obtained under the assumption that the pavement surface is fed permanently. In reality, taking the levels and durations of rainfall into account produces the values in column 4, which give the proportion of water infiltrating through an asphalt in relation to the rainfall1. It is quite clear that an asphalt surface layer can only really resist infiltration when it is over 93% compacted. Diagram 46 has been established to illustrate this point with a dispersion of the compactness of 2 or 3 points from the average.

Diagram 45: schematic diagram of the various types of flow rates under pavements and shoulder

Diagram 46: relationship between the surface layer compactness and rain infiltrating the pavement

Diagram 45 fissure transversale fissure longitudinale prcipitations Diagram 46 Coefficient d'infiltration moyen Compacit moyenne en %

Diagram 45 transverse crack longitudinal crack rainfall Diagram 46 Average infiltration coefficient Average compactness as %

(1)
Compactness (%)

(2)
Permeability coefficient (m/s)

(3)
Theoretical infiltration (l/h) under constant feed

(4)
Average annual infiltration coefficient m (in % rainfall)

85
"Tools" Collection Stra

1.10-5
112

250

100
septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide


3.10-7 1.10 1.10
-7 -9

92 93 95

7.5 2.5 0.025

60 30 <5

Table 15: infiltration through an non-fissured, asphalt surface course for 1 linear meter of 7 m-wide pavement.

(1) Average of three standard rainfalls: 4 mm in four hours, 4 mm in twelve hours and 40 mm in twelve hours. These three cases are an accurate simulation of a typical southern French climate. Higher rainfalls in the North can increase the values in columns (4).

"Tools" Collection Stra

113

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

3.2.2 - Infiltration through the cracks (see Diagram 45)


The infiltrations Qf via the cracks depend on their opening. Distinction is made between infiltration via transverse cracks, Qft, and infiltrations via longitudinal or edge cracks, Qfl or Qr (see Tables 16 and 17). Type Qa infiltrations from shoulders, the lateral water catchment, the interception of springs and confined water tables by the pavement are trickier to assess. Wherever possible, any random water inflow, or one limited in space, must be treated specifically. The water flows transiting at the interfaces with flow rate Qi correspond to the various inputs caused by contrasting permeabilities between neighboring courses and the fact that the interface zone has a higher permeability than the full-thickness materials. The Qa infiltrations also feed the water flows at the interfaces. These inputs trigger local saturation which encourages the flows in saturated conditions. The Qi flow rates (of the interfaces) are lower than the infiltration through the surfacing, as the courses must be loaded for them to appear, unless underground water ingress is intercepted by the pavement. These flow rates are therefore considered to be negligible. The Qs flow rate values (of the subgrades) are difficult to assess and without practical purpose for the targeted objective or are dimensioned by a hydrogeological study. When dimensioning an edge drain, the estimation by excess of infiltration water flow rate, Qt, reaching the drainage system per linear meter in the pavement is given by the sum: Qt = Qe + Qf + Qr + Qa By way of indication, Table 18 gives an estimation of the total flow rate of infiltration water through a pavement surfacing with shrinkage cracks and a longitudinal crack. The high valves emphasize the advantage in bridging cracks and obtaining asphalts with an acceptable minimum compactness.
Opening of transverse cracks (mm) 0.1 0.4 2.4

3 5 10

8.5 (65%) 5.0 (50%) 2.5 (30%)

85 (100%) 50 (100%) 25 (100%)

840 (100%) (1) 500 (100%) (1) 250 (100%) (1)


Opening of longitudinal cracks (mm)

0.1 1 (15%)

0.4 10 (70%)

2.4 100 (100%)(1)

Table 16: infiltration via transverse cracks, in liters/hour, for one linear meter of a 7 m-wide pavement based on the distance between cracks (percentage of infiltrated water with respect to rainfall)

Table 17: infiltration via a longitudinal crack or by an edge joint for one linear meter of pavement in liters/hour (in brackets, percentage of infiltrated water with respect to rainfall)

(1) theoretical value very much higher than rainfall volume

Conditions

Surfacing permeability coefficient (m/s)

3.10 -7 Non-fissured With 0.1 mm transverse cracks every 3 m With 0.4 mm longitudinal crack at edge 60% 80% 100%

1.10 -7 30% 70% 95%

1.10 -9 < 5% 65% 90%

Table 18: combined impact of surfacing compactness and the presence of cracking on the percentage of water infiltrating through a pavement surface course

"Tools" Collection Stra

114

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Sample estimation of a drainage system dimensioning.


Let us examine the case of a half-pavement (3.50 m carriageway) with 2% longitudinal slope, made up of an asphalt concrete (BB) + Foundation + Subgrade. The data considered are: - BB compactness = 92%; - Existence of transverse cracking every 3 m, opening 0.1 mm; - Existence of longitudinal cracking at the edge, opening 0.1 mm; - Shoulder permeability, 10-6 m/s i.e. 3.6 mm/ h. An EDRC 0.50 m deep, HD, with a projected collecting drain 90 mm in diameter. The goal is to estimate the maximum flow it is likely to capture. The flow rates entering the pavement are calculated per linear meter. They are the sum of three terms: 1. Qe = flow rate crossing the BB. C = 92% produces a theoretical infiltration of 7.5 l/h for a width of 7 m (Table 15), hence Qe = 7.5 x 3.5/7 = 3.75 l/h; 2. Qft = flow rate due to the transverse cracking. Table 16 indicates an input of 8.5 l/h for a width of 7 m, therefore Qft = 8.5 x 3.5/7 = 4.25 l/h; 3. Qr = flow rate due to the input at the edge. Table 17 indicates 1 l/h per linear meter. Total flow rate from the pavement = Qe + Qft + Qr = 9 l/h which, under established rainfall conditions (extended duration) and where the subgrade has very low permeability, will feed the edge drain. To this must be added the flow rate capable of being collected by the face shoulder side of the drain, i.e. a width of 1 m from the edge in question for a height of 0.50 m: Qa = 10-6 1 0.5 3600 1000 = 1.8 l/h. The flow rate collected is therefore in the order of 11 l/h per linear meter, i.e. 3.10
3

l/s

The nomographs (supplier documentation) show that a 90 mm-diameter drain, with 2% slope, evacuates 15,000 l/h, i.e. 4.2 l/s. The distance between neighboring outlets could be 1 km (for 15,000/11 > 1,000 m), but a limit of 500 m will be set.

Checking the utility of draining


The utility of draining can be checked. A relatively permeable subgrade would absorb the 9 l/h before the drain. To achieve this it would require a permeability (assumed under saturated state) higher than: 9 10-3/3600/3.5= 7 10-7 m/s. As soon as the subgrade is less permeable, temporary storage will occur in the foundation; failure to drain this stored water may hinder the foundation from working correctly (an untreated graded aggregate will lose tremendous rigidity during extended rainfall, a treated foundation could slip with the BB, etc.). Comment: as shown by the calculations below, the results are closely linked to the permeability coefficient value considered. The risk of error is without practical consequence if the nature of the materials is such that they have very high or very low permeability. On the other hand, for the intermediate levels, major errors can slip in if the permeability coefficient is estimated from identification characteristics alone. It is then necessary to refer to results of standardized tests.

"Tools" Collection Stra

115

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendix 4 - Elements to establish the special technical clauses (CCTP)


This appendix does not represent a standard CCTP, more a canvas to be adapted to each site scenario. It incorporates a concern over managing the quality of work. It must be remembered that the drainage work is integrated, in a good many cases, with earthworks and pavement construction work (or maintenance and repair or rehabilitation). This very generally includes drainage work. How to manage interfaces between these various work aspects should be dealt with in one or other of the CCTP.

1 - Description of work to be carried out


1.1 - Localization of work 1.2 - General description of work reserved for the contractor
Description of type of drainage structure to be constructed Hydraulic data Geotechnical data Preparatory work

1.3 - Work not included in the contract 1.4 - References to drawings extracted from the capital investment project

2 - Quality assurance
Service conditions for the drainage structure General provisions for controlling quality Degree of PAQ development Type of site Dealing with anomalies Quality Assurance Plan Critical points Hold points Organization of external check Organization of internal check

3 - Material, product and component specifications


3.1 - Required characteristics of drainage systems
- System typology - Geometric, mechanical and hydraulic characteristics (see Chapter 4)

3.2 - Materials for earthworks and backfill


Soils, untreated graded aggregates, d/D graded aggregates - Classification Appendix 5 [1]. Size of largest elements compared with the thickness of the compacted layer - Type of materials according to the densification objective - Special provisions or rejection of certain materials (frost susceptibility of soils, industrial byproducts) - Aggressivity (chemical, biological) of certain soils or industrial by-products to installed networks or some components like the geotextiles or geomembranes - Composition of porous concretes, etc. Geotextiles
"Tools" Collection Stra 116 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Geotextile certified, not certified for (destination of geotextile), inspection Geotextile characteristics to be determined: - Resistance to traction - Deformation under maximum load - Resistance to dynamic perforation - Permeability to the water normally to the plane - Filtering opening, Of, and resistance to water penetration Drains - Drain destination, drain type, hydraulic characteristics, chemical stability, stability in terms of atmospheric agents, collecting system for edge of pavement fin drain, etc. Edge of pavement fin drains - Destination of the EDRC, hydraulic characteristics, thickness, height, etc. - Prefabricated EDRC or manufactured on site. - Related geotextile (Of), draining materials, porous concrete, characteristics of draining core, material properties, hydraulic characteristics, flexibility and mechanical stability.

3.3 - Ancillary structures


Example: inspection chambers (dimensions, covers, etc., outlets (diameter, anti-rodent grill, outlet head).

4 - Work execution method (example for cutoff drains and EDRC)


4.1 - Specifications on installation and setting out of systems
- Plane installation (description of sections to be treated, distance from the lane axis) - Leveled installation (section and water flow slopes).

4.2. - Acceptance and storage of supplies and materials 4.3 - Trench execution method
- Width (depending on process adopted), depth - Preparation, opening the trench, characteristics of cavity bottom, any lagging

4.4 - Laying specifications


- Laying of bedding course materials, draining materials, drains and geotextiles - Installation drawing (working drawing), cutting rolls, the geotextile, assembly by recovering by welts, heat welding, stapling, bonding, wind action - Laying in the trench Laying EDRC Laying the EDRC using laying material fitted with a box section - EDRC manufactured on site or prefabricated - Filling with porous concrete - Laying the EDRC without box section - Removing box section - Preparing the cavity bottom - Laying and anchoring the textile, laying materials.

4.5 - Compacting specifications


See guide Backfilling trenches [11]

4.6 - Dealing with singular points


Crossing carriageways, buried transverse networks

4.7 - Installing inspection chambers, connections to outlets 4.8 - Ancillary work


For example, damproofing course above an Edrc or a cutoff drain.
"Tools" Collection Stra 117 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

4.9 - Using the road during the work


- Protection provision, length of alternating traffic arrangement - Packing up equipment in the evenings and at weekends, etc.

5 - Checks and quality


5.1 - Compacting reference areas
See guide Backfilling trenches [11]

5.2 - Checks at hold points


5.3 - Acceptance checks - As-built drawing

Appendix 5 - Bibliography
Standards:
[1] NF P 11-300: Earthworks execution. Classification for materials that may be used in the construction of fills and capping layers in road infrastructures. AFNOR, September 1992. [2] NF U 51-101: Agricultural drainage. Ringed pipes in unplasticised polyvinyl chloride. Specifications. AFNOR - December 1987. [3] XPP 18-540: Aggregates - definitions, conformity and specifications. AFNOR, October 1997. [4] NF 94-500: Geotechnical missions - classification and specifications. AFNOR, June 2000. [5] NF P 16-351: Plastics. Plastic piping systems for buried drainage. Civil engineering specification. AFNOR, July 1998. [6] NF G 38 061: Recommendations for the use of geotextiles and related products. Determination of hydraulic characteristics and laying in drainage and filtering systems. AFNOR, February 1993 (currently being revised). [7] NF EN 13252: Geotextiles and related products - required characteristics for use in drainage systems. AFNOR, November 2001. [8] CCTG travaux (General Technical Clauses for works) fascicule 2: General earthworks. AFNOR, March 2003.

Technical documents:
[9] Creating fills and capping layers - Technical guide. Fasc. 1 and 2. Stra LCPC, September 1992, Ref. D9233. [10] Common road drainage maintenance and repair - Practical guide. Stra, 1998, Ref. D9841. [11] Backfilling trenches and repairing pavements - Technical guide. Stra LCPC, 1994, Ref. D9441. [12] Edge of pavement fin drains - Technical guide. Stra LCPC, 1992, Ref. D9237. [13] Quality assurance organization in earthworks - Technical guide. Stra LCPC, 2000, Ref. D.9923. [14] Creating fills in compressible soils - Technical guide. Stra LCPC, 2000, Ref. D.0034. [15] Water and the road - systems for dealing with rainwater - volumes 3 and 7 - Stra guide, 1992, Ref. B 9741. [16] Climate characterization for pavement drainage. C. Devreton, 1997, study conducted by the Central Department for Meteorological Exploitation. Mto-France. [17] Stabilization of landslides - LCPC Technical guide - LPC technique and method, 1998. [18] Development of main roads (ARP) - Technical guide. Stra, 1994, Ref. B9668. [19] Instruction on the Technical Development Conditions for Link Motorways (ICTAAL) - Technical guide. Stra, December 2000, Ref. B0103. [20] Dealing with lateral obstacles - Technical guide. Stra, 2002, Ref. E0233.
"Tools" Collection Stra 118 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

[21] Road drainage - Technical guide. Stra, Ref. - to be published in 2006.

For information:
Law 92-3 of 3 January 1992 on water and its application decrees Assistance in choosing draining and drainage solutions for existing roads (ACSARE) - Technical guide. Stra, 1993, Ref. D9232. Designing and dimensioning pavement structures - Technical guide. Stra LCPC, 1995, Ref. D9511. Preventive maintenance of the national road network - Technical guide. Stra LCPC, 1979, Ref. D7905. Considering motorcyclists in infrastructure development and management - Technical guide. Stra CERTU, 2000, Ref. E 0026.

"Tools" Collection Stra

119

septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

Appendix 6 - Abbreviations and glossary


6.1 - Abbreviations
AR BAC BAU BB CCAG CCTP EC DCE EDRC ES GNT LA MDE QAP PST RC : Subformation level (Arase des terrassements) : Continuously reinforced concrete (Bton Arm Continu) : Emergency hard shoulder (Bande dArrt dUrgence) : Asphalt concrete (Bton bitumineux) : General Conditions of Contract (Cahier des Clauses Administratives Gnrales) : Special Technical Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Techniques Particulires) : European Community (Communaut europenne) : Contractor Tender Document (Document de Consultation des Entreprises) : Edge of pavement fin drain (Ecran Drainant de Rive de Chausse) : Sand equivalent (Equivalent de Sable) : Untreated graded aggregate (Grave Non Traite) : Los Angeles coefficient (coefficient Los Angeles) (standard NF P 18-573) (norme NF P 18-573) : Micro-Deval coefficient (coefficient micro-Deval) (standard NF P 18-572) (norme NF P 18-572) : Quality Assurance Plan (Plan dAssurance Qualit) : Subformation (below capping level) (Partie Suprieure des Terrassements) : Tender Regulations (Rglement de Consultation)

SOGED : Waste Evacuation and Management Organization Scheme (Schma dOrganisation de Gestion et dvacuation des Dchets) SOPAQ : Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme (Schma Organisationnel du Plan dAssurance Qualit) SDQ TPC VBS : Quality Master Plan (Schma Directeur de la Qualit) : Median (Terre-Plein Central) : methylene blue value of a soil (valeur de bleu dun sol)

6.2 - Glossary
Terms in the glossary are marked with a * in this guide. Aquifer: water-bearing zone which may be partially driven by gravity Attrition: phenomenon modifying the grading layer due to the reduced size of certain particles. It may be seen when the particles collide with each other or other obstacles. Soft verge: the non-drivable section of the shoulder, between the stabilized structures and the banks or trickle channels. Block size distribution: size of rubbly components of a material. Boiling: the boiling phenomenon is observed in certain soils when the normally upwards water pressure is likely to liquefy this soil by placing particles in suspension in water and canceling out the effective stress quicksand is an example of this phenomenon. External check: checking that the contractor's Quality Assurance Plan is applied and assessing the reliability of the internal check by the Project Engineer. Internal check: includes the internal check (by the Site Manager) and the external check (by the contractor's Quality Manager).
"Tools" Collection Stra 120 septembre 2007

Road drainage Technical guide

d85: grading criterion determined on the particle size analysis curve: d85 is the diameter of soil components, like 85% in weight of components in this soil are less than this diameter. Cut: below the natural level of the ground Dessiccation: loss of water contained in the soil. Hydrogeological study: study providing information on the circulation of groundwaters and water table behavior. Geo-technical study: study of soils from all aspects of interest to the Civil Engineer. Dewatering: drainage water Depression: circular depression away from edge Geocomposite: manufactured assembly of materials, where at least one component is a geosynthetic product. Geospacer: three-dimensional, polymer-based structure designed to create an air space in the soil and/or other materials in the geotechnical and civil engineering fields. Geogrid: flat, polymer-based structure comprising an open, regular network of tensile strength components which may be assembled by extrusion, bonding or interweaving and where the openings are larger than the constituents. Geosynthetics: geotextile, geomembrane and related products. Honeycomb geosynthetics: three-dimensional honeycomb or similar structure, permeable, polymerbased, made up of interlinked geosynthetic strips. Geotextile: flat textile material, permeable and polymer-based (natural or synthetic) which may be unwoven, knitted or woven, used in contact with the soil or with other materials in geotechnics and civil engineering. Frost index: measurable quantity characterizing the hardness of a winter for pavement structures. It is defined as being the absolute value of the sum of average below-zero daily temperatures for a given place and period. Blue line: line depicting the water surface in a profile Red line: line depicting the surface of the pavement Karstic network: karstic phenomena are the result of limestones being dissolved by infiltration water. These phenomena manifest themselves on the surface and underground by creating networks of cavities of varying degrees of continuity and size. Subformation (below capping level): this is made up of material(s) located about 1 m below the capping layer (or below the foundation layer if there is no capping layer) Pier: vertical upright holding up the arches of a structure Formation level: flat surface on which is laid the first pavement foundation; it is the formation level for the capping layer or subformation level if there is no capping layer. Hold points: points defined in an appropriate document, beyond which an activity must not proceed without the approval of a designated organization or authority. Critical points: situations for which it has been decided to perform an internal check on a participant, with the external check being advised formally of the time of its execution and/or result. Mixed profile: cross section of the roadbed, where one side is located in fill and the other in cut. Skimming profile: cross section of the roadbed nearly at natural ground level. Fill: volume of earth brought in to fill or raise the natural ground level. Compressible soil: (or soft soil) is a soil that deforms easily such as loose sands, peats, loess, loams, soft clays and certain clay silts.

"Tools" Collection Stra

121

septembre 2007

This Road Drainage technical guide is the first methods document to encourage taking drainage needs in road works systematically in account. It suggests solutions based on the type of structure, installation, dimensioning and maintenance for new road projects, including earthworks and for existing pavements. This guide is intended for Project Engineers and Clients, managers, Design Offices and public works contractors involved in studying, creating and maintaining road drainage.

This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Stra website: http://www.setra.equipement.gouv.f

Photographers:: Alis (A28-Rouen/Alenon en construction) - Yasmina Boussafir (Cete NormandieCentre - Lrpc Blois) - Marc Valin (Cete Nord-Picardie) - Francis Vanlaethem (Cete Nord-Picardie Lrpc Lille) The Stra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) 2007 Stra - Reference: 0743A - ISRN: EQ-SETRA--07-ED40--FR+ENG

The Stra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST)

Оценить