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, , - . 3. , . . , , , .. , , , , , . , . 4. , , , , - . . SUMMARY The present stage of linguistic research is characterized by a great interest towards the problem connected with the study of the text and its components. The present diploma paper is devoted to the comprehensive study of stylistic device the epithet in the tales of Oscar Wilde. Done at the junction of linguistic and literary analysis the work is concerned with a number of problems of the text interpretation, stylistic, linguistic and literary analysis. Despite the fact that there are many works devoted to the problem under analysis some important aspects such as structural semantic parameters of the text and lexical stylistic device the epithet as its component have not been fully investigated. This defines the actuality of the work and its theoretical value. The basic purpose of diploma work is formulated as a research of linguistic nature of epithet, its types from the point of semantic, structural parameters and its informational significance in the text. The given aim predetermines the concrete tasks of the research. The diploma paper pursues the following tasks : 1) to substantiate tasks of text interpretation; 2) to reveal the theoretical notion of the text and its categories; 3) to observe emotional, evaluative, expressive components of the lexical meaning of adjectives;

4) to work out the classification of types of epithet. The novelty of our work is that the epithet is inspected as the necessary component of the functional whole-text; the investigation of metaphorical epithet, from the position of intentional and implicational components of meaning. From the theoretical point of view this work presents the comprehensive study of epithet that makes it possible to reveal its linguo-stylistic and functional features. The research of structural characteristics of epithet and revealing its role in text formation makes the certain contribution to a further work in linguistic text. The practical value of the work lies in the fact that the results of the investigation can be used in the courses of lectures in stylistics, seminars in style and text interpretation and also can be useful for practical courses of English language. The tails by Oscar Wailed were used as linguistic material for our research. In this work there were used the following methods of linguistic analysis: words definitions analysis, contextual-situative and text analysis for revealing the informational value of epithet. The work consists of introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a summary and the reference list of the works used. The first chapter deals with the theoretical notions of the text and its categories, substantiation of the tasks of text interpretation. As a result of the study of these problems we can come to the conclusion that text interpretation resting on the junction of stylistics and text linguistics is aimed at extracting, aesthetic and meaningful, emotional information from the literary text. The second chapter is concerned with the semantic and stylistic analysis of the epithet. In the work the epithet is determined as a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in a attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader. The epithet always has the emotional meaning or emotional color due to peculiarities of semantic structure of adjectives. For the purpose of study of linguistic nature of epithet we dwell on the problem of lexical and stylistic meaning of adjectives. The use of adjectives as epithet as preconditioned by the contact and functional characteristics that is predicativeness, stylistic churdge and liability for stylistic actualization in the context. Next undertake the study the types of epithet and its informational meaning in the text. We suggested the following classification of the epithet: conventional or standing; explanatory, metaphorical, mixed and syntactical types of epithet (invertational and phrase). Under the conventional epithet we understand the firm combinations, which point out the property of the subject. The explanatory epithet points out the main feature of the word.

The metaphorical epithet is treated as a sort of explicit metaphor. In the work there were described 2 types of the metaphorical epithet : intersional and implicational.

In the mixed epithet the syntactical ties between components of the string of epithet do not coincide with their semantic ties. Inverted epithet is characterized by three variation of lexical components. The increase of expressiveness can be achieved with the help of word combinations or sentences functioning like a syntactically independent word. The research done testifies to the great role of epithets in the creation of imaginativeness, expressiveness, evaluativeness as the basis for exposing the writers attitude towards the given object. Thus epithets make a fair contribution to the revealing of the conceptual idea of the literary text. : : : 2007-01-18 21:32:19 : 8670

Introduction 3
Chapter I. Epithet - stylistic device. Types of epithets 6 1.1. Epithet is a stylistic device. 6 1.2.Types of epithets 11 Chapter II. Ray Bradbury and his epithets Ray Bradbury. 19 Conclusion 23 Bibliography 25 : Problems of the communications, grammar and poetics of the text, problem of formation of sense and text technologies, functioning of an art word, stylistic devices (metaphors,

, comparisons, an epithet), problems of style of the writer and were investigated by many linguists (F. I. Buslaev, A. G. Go feld, A. A. Potebnja, A. N.Veselovsky, M.M. Bakhtin, B.M. Ejhenbaum, L.I.Timoth, V.M.Zhirmunsky, B.V. Tomashev, V.V. Vinogradov, N.D. Arutyunov, A.T. Rubajlo, T.G. Vinokur, V.P.Grigoriev, A.P. Evgeneva, I.A.Ste in, L.I. Zubova. M.V. Fedorova, K.S. Gorbachevich, E.P. Hablo, A.G. Moskaleva, D.E. Rosental, V.P. Kovalev, V.K.Harchenko, E.T.Tcherkasov, S.M. Mezenin, E.A.Nekrasov, J.Lalevich, Century , O.I.moskals, U.Eko, G.J.Solganik, V.G.Admoni and others). One of the main trop is epithet which is coinside more often with definition-function of an adjective, genetic attributive which became a subject of the linguistic analysis in V.M.Brysinoj, E.A.Zemskoj, A.I.Kajdalovoj, G.M.Shipitsynoj, E.M.Volf's works, M.F.Lukina, N.A.Mironovoj, I.S.Toroptseva, I.A.Ustimenko and others. In spite of the fact that there are many researches in this problematics, to a problem of epithet a few of them are devoted. Especially emotionally - estimated aspect of the adjectives forming an epithet is studied insufficiently. The question about the way emotive component enters into a lexical word meaning in linguistics is not solved. Emotional human life refracts in language and its semantics. In speech practically any word can become emotive: neutral words, being combined, with each other, can form emotive word-combinations and superphrase unities. According to Prof. Galperin I.R., Epithet is a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in an attributive word, phrase or even sentence, used to characterise an object and pointing out to the reader and frequently imposing on him. According to Prof. Sosnovskaya V.B., Epithet is an attributive characterisation of a person, thing or phenomenon. It is, as a rule, simple in form. In the majority of cases it consists of one word: adjective or adverb, modifying respectively nouns or verbs. e.g. I tell you that had it ever occurred to me, that such a monstrous suspicion would have entered your mind, I would have died rather than have crossed your life. The important problem remains also metaphorizing adjectives and patity of metaphorical and estimated sense. In the work the attention will be given first of all to a stylistic problematics, to consideration of usage of such stylistic device as an epithet. The epithet can carry out two basic functions - to concretize the description, adding to the created picture new details and to strengthen the emotional effect created by the text. These functions are not mutually exclusive: the same epithet is capable to solve both problems; moreover, the epithet without second function, in the art text is excessive. Nevertheless it is important to distinguish these functions, because "graphic" function of an epithet is additional and rather essential to the main aim of the art text [5, c. 59]. Despite the fact that there are many works devoted to the problem of epithet, some important aspects have not been fully investigated. This defines the actuality of the work and its theoretical value. The purpose of the work is to consider an epithet and its role in the original text.

The basic purpose of our work is formulated as a research of linguistic nature of epithet, its types from the point of semantic, structural parameters and its informational significance in the text. The given aim predetermines the concrete tasks of the research: 1) to consider epithet is a stylistic device; 2) to describe the types of epithets; 3) to analyze epithets in Ray Bradburys work. To reveal the informational value of epithet in our work the following methods of linguistic analysis were used: words definitions analysis, contextual and text analysis. The work consists of introduction, two chapters, a conclusion and the list of used literature. : The purpose of the work was - research of a linguistic nature of an epithet and its informative importance in fiction, from the point of view of structural, semantic and stylistic parameters. Epithet is an adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject, as in "laughing happiness," "sneering contempt," "untroubled sleep," "peaceful dawn," and "lifegiving water." Sometimes a metaphorical epithet will be good to use, as in "lazy road," "tired landscape," "smirking billboards," "anxious apple." Aptness and brilliant effectiveness are the key considerations in choosing epithets. Be fresh, seek striking images, pay attention to connotative value. In work the epithet is considered as means transfering the individual, subjective - estimated attitude to the described phenomenon. Use of adjectives in this function is determined by their substantial and functional characteristics, namely the predicativity, to stylistic values inherent in them. In the work the epithet is considered as the necessary component of the whole-text. We consider also metaphorical epithet, from the position of intentional and implicational components of meaning. The analysis of the language material has shown the big variety of epithets from the point of view of their structural, semantic and stylistic characteristics. Structural types of epithets are various. They can be expressed by nouns, adjectives, the whole word collocations in syntactic function, qualitative adverbs etc. In work there are such types of epithets, as constant, explanatory, metaphorical, inverted, phrase and mixed are considered. It was also interesting a metaphorical epithet which is bright means creating figurativeness of the art text and realization of conceptual sense. 4. The analysis once again confirms that the epithet is the basic means with the help of which figurativeness is created, and on the basis of it the individual - estimated attitude of the author to a subject comes to light. It also determines its high informative importance in a work of art. The second chapter is concerned with the semantic and stylistic analysis of the epithet. In the work the epithet is determined as a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in a attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader. The epithet always has the emotional meaning or emotional color due to peculiarities of semantic structure of adjectives

STYLISTIC DEVICES BASED ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE LOGICAL AND EMOTIVE MEANINGS Epithet Epithet is a stylistic device based on the interaction of the logical and emotive meanings. It shows the purely individual emotional attitude of the writer or the speaker towards the object mentioned. Epithet is expressed by: 1) adjectives; 2) adverbs; Adjectives and adverbs constitute the greatest majority of epithets. 3) participles, both present and past; 4) nouns, especially often in of-phrases; 5) word-combinations; 6) whole phrases. The last two groups of epithets help the writer in a rather concise form to express the emotional attitude of a personage towards an object or phenomenon. In most cases it is a direct quotation of the characters remark. Such a usage of a quotation for an epithet stresses the subjectivity, individuality of the characters perception. It renders the emotional attitude of the personage. Phrase-epithet helps not only to reveal the individual view of the author and his characters but at the same time to do it in a rather economical manner. One more structural type of epithet is monopolized by the English language. It is based on the illogical syntactical relations between the modifier and the modified. Such constructions enable the writer to use nouns of high emotional coloring, supplying them with additional characteristics without overcrowding the description. Epithets vary not only in structure but in the manner of application too. So, most often we meet one-word, or simple epithet. Rather often epithets are used in pairs. Not seldom three, four, five and even more epithets are joined in chains. From the viewpoint of their expressive power epithets can be regarded as those stressing qualities of the object or phenomenon and as those transferring the quality of one object to its closest neighbour. When the same definition is given to a smile it becomes an individual evaluation of the same, and is classified as a transferred epithet. A metaphoric epithet presents a metaphor within an epithet. In most cases metaphoric epithet is expressed by adjectives and adverbs. Into the same group of metaphoric epithets must be included compound epithets, the second element of which is -like. As all the other stylistic devices, epithets become hackneyed through long usage. Epithets should not be mixed up with logical attributes which have the same syntactical function but which do not convey the subjective attitude of the author towards the described object, pointing out only the objectively existing feature of the same. e.g. Can you tell me what time that game starts today? The girl gave him a lipsticky smile.

probably as well known to you as metaphor, because it is widely mentioned-by the critics, scholars, teachers, and students discussing a literary work. Epithet expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary. Its basic feature is its emotiveness and subjectivity: the characteristic attached to the object to qualify it is always chosen by the speaker himself. Our speech ontologically being always emotionally coloured, it is possible to say that in epithet it is the emotive meaning of the word that is foregrounded to suppress the denotational meaning of the latter. Epithet has remained over the centuries the most widely used SD, which is understandable - it offers ample opportunities of qualifying every object from the author's partial and subjective viewpoint, which is indispensable in creative prose, publicist style, and everyday speech. Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed. Many fixed epithets are closely connected with folklore and can be traced buck to folk ballads (e.g. "true love", "merry Christmas", etc.). A number of them have originated in euphemistic writing of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (e.g. "a valiant youth", "a trembling maiden", "dead silence", etc.). Those which were first found in Homer's poetry and have been repeated since, are known as Homeric epithets (e.g. "swift-footed Achilles", "rosy-fingered dawn"). The structure and semantics of epithets are extremely variable which is explained by their long and wide use. Semantically, there should be differentiated two main groups, the biggest of them being affective (or emotive proper). These epithets serve to convey the emotional.evaluation of the object by the speaker. Most of the qualifying words found in the dictionary can be and are used as affective epithets (e.g. "gorgeous", "nasty", "magnificent", "atrocious", etc.). The second group - figurative, or transferred, epithets - is formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes (which will be discussed later) expressed by adjectives. E.g. "the smiling sun", "the frowning cloud", "the sleepless pillow", ''the tobacco-stained smile", "a ghpst-like face", "a dreamlike experience". Like metaphor, metonymy and simile, corresponding epithets are also based on similarity of characteristics of - two objects in the first case, on nearness of the qualified objects in the second one, and on their comparison in the third. In the ovei vvhelming majority of examples epithet is expressed by adjectives or qualitative adverbs (e.g. "his triumphant look" = he looked triumphantly).* Nouns come next. They are used either as exclamatory sentences ("You, ostrich!") or as postpositive attributes ("Alonzo the Clown", "Richard of the Lion Heart"). Epithets are used singly, in pairs, in chains, in two-step structures, and in inverted constructions, also as phrase-attributes. All previously given examples demonstrated single epithets. Pairs are represented by two epithets joined by a conjunction or asyndetically as in "wonderful and incomparable beauty" (O.W.) or "a tired old town" (H.L.). Chains (also called strings) of epithets present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more. E.g. "You're a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature." (D.) From the last example it is evident that if a logical attribute (which

Epithet is

in our case is the word "old") is included into the chain of epithets it begins to shine with their reflected light, i.e. the subjectivity of epithets irradiates onto the logical attribute and adapts it for expressive purposes, along with epithets proper. Two-step epithets are so called because the process of qualifying seemingly passes two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the qualification itself, as in "an unnaturally mild day" (Hut.), or "a pompously majestic female". (D.) As you see from the examples, two-step epithets have a fixed structure of Adv + Adj model. Phrase-epithets always produce an original impression Cf.: "the sunshine-inthe-breakfast-room smell" (J.B.), or "a move-if-you-dare expression". (Gr.) Their originality proceeds from the fact of the rare repetition of the once coined phraseepithet which, in its turn, is explained by the fact that into a phrase-epithet is turned a semantically self-sufficient word combination or even a whole sentence, which loses some of its independence and self-sufficiency, becoming a member of another sentence, and strives to return to normality. The forcible manner of this syntactical transformation is the main obstacle for repeated use of such phrasallystructured epithets. A different linguistic mechanism is responsible for the emergence of one more structural type of epithets, namely, inverted epithets They are based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. E.g. instead of "this devilish woman", where "devilish" is both logically and syntactically defining, and "woman" also both logically and syntactically defined, W. Thackeray says "this devil of a woman". Here "of a woman" is syntactically an attribute, i.e. the defining, and "devil" the defined, while the logical relations between the two remain the same as in the previous example - "a woman" is defined by "the devil". All inverted epithets are easily transformed into epithets of a more habitual structure where there is no logico-syntactical contradiction. Cf.: "the giant of a man" (a gigantic man); "the prude of a woman" (a prudish woman), etc. When meeting an inverted epithet do not mix it up with an ordinary of-phrase. Here the article with the second noun will help you in doubtful cases: "the toy of the girl" (the toy belonging to the girl); "the toy of a girl" (a small, toylike girl), or "the kitten of the woman" (the cat belonging to the woman); "the kitten of a woman" (a kittenlike woman). Exercise VI. Discuss the structure and semantics of epithets in the following examples. Define the type and function of epithets: 1. He has that unmistakable tall lanky "rangy" loose-jointed graceful closecropped formidably clean American look. (I.M.) 2. Across the ditch Doll was having an entirely different reaction. With all his heart and soul, furiously, jealously, vindictively, he was hoping Queen would not win. (J.) 3. During the past few weeks she had become most sharply conscious of the smiling interest of Hauptwanger. His straight lithe body - his quick, aggressive manner - his assertive, seeking eyes. (Dr.)

4. He's a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (D.) 5. The Fascisti, or extreme Nationalists, which means black-shirted, knifecarrying, club-swinging, quick-stepping, nineteen-year-old-pot-shot patriots, have worn out their welcome in Italy. (H.) 6. Where the devil was heaven? Was it up? Down? There was no up or down in a finite but expanding universe in which even the vast, burning, dazzling, majestic sun was in a state of progressive decay that would eventually destroy the earth too. (Js.H.) 7. She has taken to wearing heavy blue bulky shapeless quilted People's Volunteers trousers rather than the tight tremendous how-the-West-was-won trousers she formerly wore. (D.B.) 8. Harrison - a fine, muscular, sun-bronzed, gentle-eyed, patrician-nosed, steak-fed, Oilman-Schooled, soft-spoken, well-tailored aristocrat was an out-andout leaflet-writing revolutionary at the time. (Jn.B.) 9. In the cold, gray, street-washing, milk-delivering, shutters-coming-offthe-shops early morning, the midnight train from Paris arrived in Strasbourg. (H.) 10. Her painful shoes slipped off. (U.) 11. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A. C.) 12. And she still has that look, that don't-you-touch-me look, that women who-were beautiful carry with them to the grave. (J.B.) 13. Ten-thirty is a dark hour in a town where respectable doors are locked at nine. (T.C.) 14. He loved the afterswim salt-and-sunshine smell of her hair. (Jn.B.) 15. I was to secretly record, with the help of a powerful long-range moviecamera lens, the walking-along-the-Battery-in-the-sunshine meeting between Ken and Jerry. (D.U.) 16. "Thief!" Pilon shouted. "Dirty pig of an untrue friend!" (J.St.) 17. She spent hausfrau afternoons hopping about in the sweatbox of her midget kitchen. (T.C.) 18. He acknowledged an early-afternoon customer with a be-with-you-in-aminute nod. (D.U.) 19. He thoroughly disliked this never-far-from-tragic look of a ham Shakespearian actor. (H.) 20. "What a picture!" cried the ladies. "Oh! The lambs! Oh, the sweets! Oh, the ducks! Oh, the pets!" (K.M.) 21. A branch, cracking under his weight sent through the tree a sad cruel thunder. (T.C.) 22. There was none of the Old-fashioned Five-Four-Three-Two-One-Zero business, so tough on the human nervous system. (A. Cl.) 23. His shrivelled head bobbed like a dried pod on his frail stick of a body. (J.G.) 24. The children were very brown and filthily dirty. (W. V.) 25. Liza Hamilton was a very different kettle of Irish. Her head was small and round and it held small and round convictions. (J. St.) 26. He sat with Daisy in his arms for a long silent time. (Sc.F.)

27. From the Splendide Hotel guests and servants were pouring in chattering bright streams. (R.Ch.) ASSIGNMENTS FOR SELF-CONTROL 1. What lexical meaning is instrumental in the formation of epithets? 2. What semantic types of epithets do you know? 3. What structural types of epithets do you know? 4. What parts of speech are predominantly used as epithets and why? 5. When reading a book pay attention to the type and distribution of epithets there and to what defines the quantity and the quality of epithets in a literary work. .. : .

Epithet Epithet is a lexical stylistic device that relies on the foregrounding of the emotive meaning. The emotive meaning of the word is foregrounded to suppress the denotational meaning of the latter. The characteristic attached to the object to qualify it is always chosen by the speaker himself. Epithet gives opportunities of qualifying every object from subjective viewpoint, which is indispensable in creative prose, publicist style and everyday speech. Like metaphor, metonymy and simile epithets are also based o n similarity between two objects, on nearness of the qualified objects and on their comparison . Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed . Many fixed epithets are closely connected with folklore. First fixed epithets were found in Homers poetry (e.g. swift-footed Achilles). Semantically, there should be differentiated two main groups. The biggest one is affective epithets. These epithets serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker. Most of qualifying words found in the dictionary can be and are used as affective epithets. The second group figurative epithets . The group is formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes and expressed predominantly by adjectives (e.g. the smiling sun, the frowning cloud), qualitative adverbs (e.g. his triumphant look), or rarely by nouns in exclamatory sentences (e.g. You, ostrich!) and postpositive attributes (e.g. Richard of the Lion Heart). Two-step epithets are so called because the process of qualifying passes two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the qualification itself, as in an unnaturally mild day. Two-step epithets have a fixed structure of Adv+Adj model.

Phrase-epithets always produce an original impression (e.g. shutters-coming-off-the-shops early morning). Their originality proceeds from rare repetitions. Phrase-epithet is semantically selfsufficient word combination or even a whole sentence which loses some of its independence and self-sufficiY.M.Skrebnev. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. M. V.Sh. 1994 Y.M.Skrebnev. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. M. V.Sh. 1994 I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. M. V.Sh. 1981 V.A.Kukharenko. A Book of Practice in Stylistics. M. V.Sh. 1986

. . ) ( ) ( conversational standing epithet) , : green wood, lady gay, fair lady, fair England, salt seas, true love, , . , . : -Its winter answered the Swallow, and chill snow will soon be here( Happy Prince). Chill- unpleasantly cold. chill snow - , Its winter, . , , . Example: In Egypt the sun is warm on the green palm trees, and crocodiles lie in the mud and look lazily about them. warm and green . Example: Her (Mermaid) body was as white ivory and her tail was of silver pearl (p134). white ivory . ) - , , . Example: How selfish I have been said the Giant; Now I know why the spring would not come here. Selfish deficient for consideration for others. . : And the king looked in the mirror, and seeing his own face he gave a grate cry and woke(page 101). . .

, . , , , , . , , ( , : white passion, white silence, white music, yellow music, purple voice; ). , , . Example: My lord, I pray thee set aside these black thoughts of thine, and put on this robe(p. 102) , . , . : 1) , ; 2) , ; 3) , . Example: The mountains were, in fact, too dry. Too much of the world was inhospitable, intractable. Why prove that it had ever once been green? the effort of comprehension was beyond her. In the middle of nowhere, high up, a solitary lunatic in her dry crater the world was drying out, and everything she touch would die. green , inhospitable, intractable, too high, too hot, too dry. green dry (dry crater; the word was drying out). green - full of life, good to live in. green , , . ( . . : ). ) . , . . , , . , , , ( ), .

. , . , ( / ) ( / , , . . ), , , . . , / , . . hungry eyes hungry man dreamy air dreamy mood , : . : Example: he is a good ass , , . . , : : crude line crude smile- . -straight line straight answer. , . , . Example: dark horse- , - . . , , , , , . , , , , . . , , - . , . : : Example: silver visage (Shakespeare) snowy arm, sable hair, dewy star (Wordsworth).

, . Example: It was push and jam for a minute, with grim beast silenceto prove its quality, and than it melted inward, like logs floating and disappeared. . . Example: grim /stern, severe, sinister/ Beast / unpleasant, foul, sensual/ . beast silence - . : Example: foxy tongue, stony idiom (of the brain)(Tomas); marble heaven (Shakespeare). , . Example: Why indeed whispered a Daisy to his neighbor in a soft, low voice(p 40). . () : rude sea (Shakespeare), happy wave (Byron). , : ) + : Example: mad careening of the storm(Coleridge). ) + + : Example: angry clouds (Byron). Salt was the honey of the hair, yet he tasted it with a bitter joy (p. 174). Bitter caused by or mental pain or resentment. . , of: Example: for on the loom of sorrow a d by the white hands of Pain, has this my robe been woven. , , .

, , , , , . , - , . : ) : A hell of mess, a devil of sea, a dwarf of a fellow etc Example: There is Blood in the heart of the ruby and death in the heart of the pearl. . , , . , , , . -, . . . , , - . , , - . , . . , , , . . , , , , , . , . , , , , - . . SUMMARY

The present stage of linguistic research is characterized by a great interest towards the problem connected with the study of the text and its components. The present diploma paper is devoted to the comprehensive study of stylistic device the epithet in the tales of Oscar Wilde. Done at the junction of linguistic and literary analysis the work is concerned with a number of problems of the text interpretation, stylistic, linguistic and literary analysis. Despite the fact that there are many works devoted to the problem under analysis some important aspects such as structuralsemantic parameters of the text and lexical stylistic device the epithet as its component have not been fully investigated. This defines the actuality of the work and its theoretical value. The basic purpose of diploma work is formulated as a research of linguistic nature of epithet, its types from the point of semantic, structural parameters and its informational significance in the text. The given aim predetermines the concrete tasks of the research. The diploma paper pursues the following tasks : to substantiate tasks of text interpretation; to reveal the theoretical notion of the text and its categories; to observe emotional, evaluative, expressive components of the lexical meaning of adjectives; to work out the classification of types of epithet. The novelty of our work is that the epithet is inspected as the necessary component of the functional whole-text; the investigation of metaphorical epithet, from the position of intentional and implicational components of meaning. From the theoretical point of view this work presents the comprehensive study of epithet that makes it possible to reveal its linguo-stylistic and functional features. The research of structural characteristics of epithet and revealing its role in text formation makes the certain contribution to a further work in linguistic text. The practical value of the work lies in the fact that the results of the investigation can be used in the courses of lectures in stylistics, seminars in style and text interpretation and also can be useful for practical courses of English language. The tails by Oscar Wailed were used as linguistic material for our research. In this work there were used the following methods of linguistic analysis: words definitions analysis, contextualsituative and text analysis for revealing the informational value of epithet. The work consists of introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a summary and the reference list of the works used. The first chapter deals with the theoretical notions of the text and its categories, substantiation of the tasks of text interpretation. As a result of the study of these problems we can come to the conclusion that text interpretation resting on the junction of stylistics and text linguistics is aimed at extracting, aesthetic and meaningful, emotional information from the literary text.

The second chapter is concerned with the semantic and stylistic analysis of the epithet. In the work the epithet is determined as a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in a attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader. The epithet always has the emotional meaning or emotional color due to peculiarities of semantic structure of adjectives. For the purpose of study of linguistic nature of epithet we dwell on the problem of lexical and stylistic meaning of adjectives. The use of adjectives as epithet as preconditioned by the contact and functional characteristics that is predicativeness, stylistic churdge and liability for stylistic actualization in the context. Next undertake the study the types of epithet and its informational meaning in the text. We suggested the following classification of the epithet: conventional or standing; explanatory, metaphorical, mixed and syntactical types of epithet (invertational and phrase). Under the conventional epithet we understand the firm combinations, which point out the property of the subject. The explanatory epithet points out the main feature of the word. The metaphorical epithet is treated as a sort of explicit metaphor. In the work there were described 2 types of the metaphorical epithet : intersional and implicational. In the mixed epithet the syntactical ties between components of the string of epithet do not coincide with their semantic ties. Inverted epithet is characterized by three variation of lexical components. The increase of expressiveness can be achieved with the help of word combinations or sentences functioning like a syntactically independent word. The research done testifies to the great role of epithets in the creation of imaginativeness, expressiveness, evaluativeness as the basis for exposing the writers attitude towards the given object. Thus epithets make a fair contribution to the revealing of the conceptual idea of the literary text.

Consider the features of the functioning and role of stylistic varieties epithet for example, tales of Oscar Wilde. Epithets without violating the semantic matching. A) constant (or tautological) epithet Under constant epithet (conversational English term or standing epithet) refers to stable combinations, such as: green wood, lady gay, fair lady, fair England, salt seas, true love, preserved imagery, despite the extensive use of poetry and folklore. In prose such epithets are tautologous, indicating a need for the subject sign. For example: - "It's winter answered the Swallow," and chill snow will soon be here (Happy Prince). Chill-unpleasantly cold. In this context, the combination of the words chill snow-suggests something unpleasant, helps to make the logical accent on the first part of the sentence "It's winter", shows the emotional relation to the described phenomenon. Very often the adjectives of color designations, distinguishing basic, inherent quality of an object defined by performing descriptive function. Example: In Egypt the sun is warm on the green palm trees, and crocodiles lie in the mud and look lazily about them. In this context, the adjectives warm and green contribute to the reconstruction of the environment. Example: Her (Mermaid) body was as white ivory and her tail was of silver pearl (p134). In this context, white ivory reinforces and emphasizes the whiteness of the body Mermaid. B) The explanatory epithet Explanatory epithet points to some important features that define, but not necessarily inherent to the entire class of objects to which it belongs. Example: "How selfish I have been said the Giant;" Now I know why the spring would not come here. " Selfish-deficient for consideration for others. This epithet reveals a character trait. In the following examples: And the king looked in the mirror, and seeing his own face he gave a grate cry and woke ... (page 101). Here the epithet reveals the significant property. Epithets in violation of semantic matching. A significant group of such epithets form adjectives of color designations, which are used in the context of occasional. "Color-rate effect, and the human mind creates unusual color images of objects, gives his assessment generates a complex, sometimes unexpected associations." Actualizer adjectives, including adjectives of color, in most cases the noun (enough to bring such

examples of literary texts as: white passion, white silence, white music, yellow music, purple voice;). Analysis of the attribute combinations indicates that contextual referents adjectives are not included in the lists of visually assigned denotata and can not detect color are signs that the mainstream is a sign of adjectives colors. Example: My lord, I pray thee set aside these black thoughts of thine, and put on this robe ... (p. 102) A feature of stylistic adjectives-actualization tsvetooboznacheny is its associative mechanism that determines the nature of the relations between the original color and the derivatives of rational attributes. One type of associative link-implicational relationship, when in the presence of a characteristic conclude the presence of characteristic B. The main signals a stylistic mainstream adjectives of color in a literary text are: 1) correlation with the occasional reviewer, with no signs of color, and 2) correlation with the different referents, creating a verbal ambiguity, and 3) contrast technique, based on the opposition of adjectives colors with the "Netsvetov" adjectives micro and macrocontext. Example: The mountains were, in fact, too dry. Too much of the world was inhospitable, intractable. Why prove that it had ever once been green? ... The effort of comprehension was beyond her. In the middle of nowhere, high up, a solitary lunatic in her dry crater the world was drying out, and everything she touch would die. In this context, the adjective in the position of the predicate greennahoditsya nomination, as opposed to "no color" predicate evaluation harakterainhospitable nominations, intractable, too high, too hot, too dry. In the analysis there is a clear opposition to "green-dry" (dry crater; the word was drying out). As a result, the epithet green gets emotional and evaluative significance of high-intensity "full of life, good to live in". The stylistic effect of the adjective-actualization tsvetooboznacheniya green in this context against the background of "bleached" the perception of the heroine of the world, cruel, impenetrable, lifeless space-polysemous. (Sample and analysis are taken from E. Simon, "actualization of the stylistic features of adjectives-tsvetooboznacheny in Fiction"). B) A special group of metaphorical epithets epithet. Metaphorical epithets should be attributed to a variety of implicit metaphors, because their figurative meaning is represented, usually in the form of implicit and detected as a result of updating the semantic attribute of the token in mikrokontekste the word it modifies. It is known that in the construction of metaphors involves four components are the two rich object, main and auxiliary correlated with each other (they are called subjects of the metaphor), and the properties of each. The metaphor created by the main subject of predication attributes a subsidiary subject. If there are no objects or signs, the metaphorical transfer does not occur. It is believed that obscheotsenochnye words (good / bad), including affective (beautiful / gorgeous, cheesy, disgusting, etc.), can not have a metaphorical sense, since they do not represent descriptive attributes of objects, and express only the attitude of the subject assessment of its object. In other words they do not have a semantic basis for metaphor. Of course, the overall rating of "good / bad" is usually derived on the basis of the descriptive attributes of objects, but these very characteristics obscheotsenochnye words in their semantics do not. Wed hungry eyes and hungry man-transfer feature on an intangible object creates a metaphor but dreamy air and dreamy mood transfer feature is not as descriptive character is not named: the good, and in either

case contains an assessment. Sometimes obscheotsenochnoe "good" may be part of metaphorical expressions: Example: he is a good ass - he's a nice ass Estimated adjectives, which include in its membership descriptive seme, ie adjectives so-called special assessments, it is easy to acquire a metaphorical sense: the transfer characteristic of the physical world with the object to other objects is one of the key ways metaphor: crude line-curve and crude smile - curl of the lips. Straight line-straight line and a straight answer straight answer. Adjectives that describe the objects subject to the physical properties by themselves do not contain evaluative meanings. However, in the metaphor they may have evaluative meaning. Example: dark horse-in the literal sense of the phrase is not evaluative connotations, but in the metaphorical sense, "dark horse" - a suspicious politician gets a value-bad. All the above indicates a major role in the creation of metaphorical adjectives adjectives. It should be emphasized that the metaphorical epithet is the result of a secondary, verbal signification lexical unit, and its relevance is secondary, derivatnoe value of the sign, a qualifying feature or quality. As a symbolic nature, metaphorical epithet in one of his knowledge indirectly motivated by the conceptual system of the primary values of the source of the sign, including, as denotative and associative semantic features. The researchers propose a classification of metaphorical epithets on intensional and implikatsionalny. Intensional metaphorical epithet updated necessarily represented in the lexical value of an attribute seme that support its high-quality, denotative certainty in artistic speech variation and word semantics in the context of its lingvostilicheskom performs an evaluation and image-characteristic function. Implicational metaphorical epithet is an attributive metaphor, context semanticized structural meanings, signs implikatsionalnogo level values of attributes of the word. Structurally, the following types: Intensional metaphorical epithets with a substantive basis: Example: silver visage (Shakespeare) snowy arm, sable hair, dewy star (Wordsworth). Attribute in this case expressed in real or concrete noun or an adjective derived from it. Example: It was push and jam for a minute, with grim beast silenceto prove its quality, and than it melted inward, like logs floating and disappeared. The use of nouns as the definition of the norm for English. In this case, the noun is used with a strong evaluative sense. Example: grim / stern, severe, sinister / Beast / unpleasant, foul, sensual / These epithets create an image of silence. The word beast is concrete and is an attribute to the abstract concept of silence in the context of emotional and evaluative actualized meaning.

implicational metaphorical epithets with a substantive basis: Example: foxy tongue, stony idiom (of the brain) (Tomas); marble heaven (Shakespeare). Metaphorical epithets actualize this type of modified implicational semantic features of the substantive metaphorical tokens, performing in relation to the function denoted by the sign of differentiation is the content of metaphoric transposition. Example: "Why indeed" whispered a Daisy to his neighbor in a soft, low voice (p 40). The metaphoric and a positive evaluation epithet derived from the analysis of dictionary definitions. Implikatsionalnye metaphorical epithets with adjectival (nesubstantivnoy) basis: rude sea (Shakespeare), happy wave (Byron). A number of metaphorical epithets can actualize not just one but a set of core semantic features implikatsionalnyh: A) Motion + Sound: Example: mad careening of the storm (Coleridge). B) motion + form + color: Example: angry clouds (Byron). Salt was the honey of the hair, yet he tasted it with a bitter joy (p. 174). Bitter - caused by or mental pain or resentment. It emphasizes the disordered state of the epithet Fisher. Metaphorical epithet can be expressed as a noun, defines the noun following it with the preposition of: Example: for on the loom of sorrow ad by the white hands of Pain, has this my robe been woven. Thus, the metaphorical epithet is a prime tool for creating imagery of a literary text, a means for the characterization of heroes. It should be noted that simple definitions, which give proper subject of the main symptom, often being drawn into the orbit of the adjectives themselves are beginning to acquire an epithet. This is due to the fact that such adjectives start-determination under the influence of "radiation" emotional values themselves painted in some sensual tone. Syntactic types: D) In the literature widely emphatic attributive construction in transferring type: A hell of mess, a devil of sea, a dwarf of a fellow etc ... Example: There is Blood in the heart of the ruby and death in the heart of the pearl. CONCLUSION. The aim of the thesis was a study-linguistic nature of the epithet and its informative value in literature, in terms of structural, semantic and stylistic parameters. Interpretation, as part of the stylistic analysis, aims not only to describe the stylistic variation in a literary text, but the link between the use of variational linguistic units and the intention of the author's text relative to the anticipated reaction of the reader. Interpretation of the text is aimed at the development of ideological and aesthetic, semantic and emotional information in fiction.

Interpretation of the text is closely connected with problems of text linguistics. Ontological features of the text-solid media - it is informative category. In this paper we consider the epithet as a means of transferring an individual, subjective assessment related to the described phenomena. The use of adjectives in this function is defined by its meaningful and functional characteristics, namely predicativity, inherent stylistic values and actualization of emotional and estimates of meanings in context. The analysis of linguistic material showed a large variety of adjectives in terms of their structural, semantic and stylistic characteristics. Structural types of adjectives are varied. They can be expressed by nouns, adjectives, whole phrases in the syntactic function, qualitative adverbs, etc. This paper deals with these types of adjectives, as a permanent, explanatory, metaphorical, inverted, phrase, and mixed. Little interest in the metaphorical epithet, which is a tool for creating vivid imagery of a literary text and the implementation of a conceptual sense. The analysis confirms the position that the epithet is the main means by which to create the imagery, expressiveness, and estimated on the basis of the detected individually estimated the author's attitude to the subject of thought. This is also determined by its high informative value in fiction. SUMMARY The present stage of linguistic research is characterized by a great interest towards the problem connected with the study of the text and it's components. The present diploma paper is devoted to the comprehensive study of stylistic device-the epithet in the tales of Oscar Wilde. Done at the junction of linguistic and literary analysis the work is concerned with a number of problems of the text interpretation, stylistic, linguistic and literary analysis. Despite the fact that there are many works devoted to the problem under analysis some important aspects such as structural-semantic parameters of the text and lexical stylistic device the epithet as its component have not been fully investigated. This defines the actuality of the work and its theoretical value. The basic purpose of diploma work is formulated as a research of linguistic nature of epithet, its types from the point of semantic, structural parameters and its informational significance in the text. The given aim predetermines the concrete tasks of the research. The diploma paper pursues the following tasks: to substantiate tasks of text interpretation; to reveal the theoretical notion of the text and its categories; to observe emotional, evaluative, expressive components of the lexical meaning of adjectives; to work out the classification of types of epithet.

The novelty of our work is that the epithet is inspected as the necessary component of the functional whole-text; the investigation of metaphorical epithet, from the position of intentional and implicational components of meaning. From the theoretical point of view this work presents the comprehensive study of epithet that makes it possible to reveal its linguo-stylistic and functional features. The research of structural characteristics of epithet and revealing its role in text formation makes the certain contribution to a further work in linguistic text. The practical value of the work lies in the fact that the results of the investigation can be used in the courses of lectures in stylistics, seminars in style and text interpretation and also can be useful for practical courses of English language. The tails by Oscar Wailed were used as linguistic material for our research. In this work there were used the following methods of linguistic analysis: word's definitions analysis, contextualsituative and text analysis for revealing the informational value of epithet. The work consists of introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a summary and the reference list of the works used. The first chapter deals with the theoretical notions of the text and its categories, substantiation of the tasks of text interpretation. As a result of the study of these problems we can come to the conclusion that text interpretation resting on the junction of stylistics and text linguistics is aimed at extracting, aesthetic and meaningful, emotional information from the literary text. The second chapter is concerned with the semantic and stylistic analysis of the epithet. In the work the epithet is determined as a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in a attributive word, phrase or even sentence used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader. The epithet always has the emotional meaning or emotional color due to peculiarities of semantic structure of adjectives. For the purpose of study of linguistic nature of epithet we dwell on the problem of lexical and stylistic meaning of adjectives. The use of adjectives as epithet as preconditioned by the contact and functional characteristics that is predicativeness, stylistic churdge and liability for stylistic actualization in the context. Next undertake the study the types of epithet and its informational meaning in the text. We suggested the following classification of the epithet: conventional or standing; explanatory, metaphorical, mixed and syntactical types of epithet (invertational and phrase). Under the conventional epithet we understand the firm combinations, which point out the property of the subject. The explanatory epithet points out the main feature of the word. The metaphorical epithet is treated as a sort of explicit metaphor. In the work there were described two types of the metaphorical epithet: intersional and implicational. In the mixed epithet the syntactical ties between components of the string of epithet do not coincide with their semantic ties.

Inverted epithet is characterized by three variation of lexical components. The increase of expressiveness can be achieved with the help of word combinations or sentences functioning like a syntactically independent word. The research done testifies to the great role of epithets in the creation of imaginativeness, expressiveness, evaluativeness as the basis for exposing the writer's attitude towards the given object. Thus epithets make a fair contribution to the revealing of the conceptual idea of the literary text.

Epithet expresses a characteristic of an object, both existing and imaginary. Our speech ontologically being always emotionally coloured, it is possible to say that in epithet it is the emotive meaning of the word that is foregrounded to suppress the denotational meaning of the latter. Epithet is the most widely used SD Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed. The structure and semantics of epithets are extremely variable which is explained by their long and wide use. Semantically, there should be differentiated two main groups , the biggest of them being affective (or emotive proper). These epithets serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker. The second group figurative, or transferred, epithets -is formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes expressed by adjectives. E.g. "the smiling sun", corresponding epithets are based on similarity of characteristics of two objects in the first case, on nearness of the qualified objects in the second one, and on their comparison in the third. Epithets are used singly, in pairs, in chains, in two-step structures, and in inverted constructions, also as phrase-attributes. All previously given examples are single epithets. Pairs are represented by two epithets joined by a conjunction or asyndetically as in "wonderful and incomparable beauty Chains (also called strings) of epithets present a group of homogeneous attributes. E.g. "You're a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature." Two-step epithets are so called because the process of qualifying seemingly passes two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the qualification itself, as in "an unnaturally mild day" (Hut.), or "a pompously majestic female". (D.) As you see from the examples, two-step epithets have a fixed structure of Adv + Adj model.

Phrase-epithets always produce an original impression. Cf.: "the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell" a semantically self-sufficient word combination or even a whole sentence, which loses some of its independence and self-sufficiency, becoming a member of another sentence, A different linguistic mechanism is responsible for the emergence of one more structural type of epithets, namely, Inverted epithets. They are based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical "this devilish woman", "this devil of a woman". All inverted epithets are easily transformed into epithets of a more habitual structure where there is no logicosyntactical contradiction. When meeting an inverted epithet do not mix it up with an ordinary ofphrase. Here the article with the second noun will help you in doubtful cases: "the toy of the girl"= toy belonging to the girl); "the toy of a girl" = a small toylike girl.
Another structural variety of the epithet is the n which we shall term reversed. The reversed epithet is composed of two nouns linked 4ft an e/-phrase. The subjective, evaluating, emotional element is embodied not in the noun attribute but in the noun structurally described, for example: "the shadow of a smile"; "a devil of a job" (Maugham); "...he smiled brightly, neatly, efficiently, a military abbreviation of a smile" (Graham Green); "A devil of a sea rolls in that bay" (Byron); "A little Flying Dutchman of a cab" (Galsworthy); "a dog of a fellow" (Dickens); "her brute of a brother" (Galsworthy); "...a long nightshirt of a mackintosh..." (Cronin)

: 1. .. . .: , 1996. 295 . 2. .. . .: , 1990. 300 . 3. .. . ., 1977. 334 . 4. .. . .: . , 1977. 332 . 5. .. . ., 2002. 272 c. 6. .., .. . ., 1991. 144 . 7. . . // . . . .: . ., 1966. . 359-361.

8. . / . . . .: . , 1990. 685 . 9. .. . , 1997. 215 . 10. .. ( ). . . . . ., 2007. 21 c. 11. .. ( . .). .: : ACT, 2003. 221 c. 12. .. . , 1975. 176 . 13. // (http://www.krugosvet.ru/articles/76/1007656/1007656a1.htm) 14. Borzova E.V. A foreign language lesson in high school // Modern perspectives in foreign language teaching. St. Petesburg, 1999. P. 104-106. 15. Broughton, Geoffrey; Brumfit, Christopher; Flavell, Roger; Hill, Peter; Pincas, Anita. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. New York: Routledge, 1980. 16. Epithet // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epithet) 17. Galperin. I.R. Stylistics. M.: V.Sh., 1981. 332 . 18. Halliday M. A. K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold, 1985. P. 160-167. 19. Howe V.J. Epithets in Homer (http://www.angelfire.com/art/archictecture/articles/008.htm) 20. Hunt R.A., Vipond D. Evaluations in Literary Reading. // Text. Amsterdam, 1986, vol. 6, No. 1. P. 53-71. 21. Figure of speech // The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. P. 16907. 22. Harmer, Jeremy. How to teach English. An introduction to the practice of English language teaching. Longman, 2004. 23. Kabakchi V.V. English language teaching in the multi-cultural world civilization at the turn of the Millenium // Modern perspectives in foreign language teaching. St. Petesburg, 1999. P. 24-27. 24. Koukharenko V.A. A book of practice in Stylistics. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyga, 2000. 160 . New Perspectives on Call for Second Language Classrooms / Ed. by Sandra Fotos; Charles M. Browne. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. 25. Panteleeva L.V., Charskaya T. K. Some ways of making oral speech teaching of elementary school children more effective // Modern perspectives in foreign language teaching. St. Petesburg, 1999. P. 333-335. 26. Randaccio, Monica. Language change in scientific discourse // JCOM 3 (2), June 2004 (http://jcom.sissa.it/)Thornby, Scott. How to teach Grammar. Oxfordshire, UK. 1999. 27. The Collaborative International Dictionary of English (http://dic.academic.ru/contents.nsf/cide/) 28. Thornbury S. How to teach Vocabulary. Oxfordshire, UK, 2002. 185 p. 29. Van De Bogart, Willard. Teaching Conversational English to Thai Students. An alternative approach using Role Play for ESL Students. August 27, 2006 (http://www.earthportals.com/Portal_Messenger/conversationesl.html) 30. W. Somerset Maugham // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Somerset_Maugham) 31. Websters Dictionary. Ashland: Landoll. Inc., 1999. 32. William Saroyan (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0765490/bio) 33. William Saroyan // Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/) 34. Willis, Jane. A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Birmingham, 1996.

The problem of the epithet is too large and too significant to be fully dealt with in a short chapter. Indeed, it may be regarded as the crucial problem in emotive language and epithets, correspondingly, among the stylistic devices of the language. It remains only to say that the epithet is a direct and straightforward way of showing the author's attitude towards the things described, whereas other stylistic devices, even image-bearing ones, will reveal the author's evaluation of the object only indirectly. That is probably why those authors who wish to show a seeming impartiality and objectivity in depicting their heroes and describing events use few epithets. Realistic authors use epithets much more sparingly, as statistical data have shown. Roughly speaking, Romanticism, on the other hand, may to some extent be characterized by its abundant use of epithets. In illustration we have taken at random a few lines from a stanza in Byron's "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage": The horrid crags, by toppling convent, crowned, The cork-trees hoar that clothe the shaggy steep, The mountain-moss by scorching skies imbrown'd, The sunken glen, whose sunless shrubs must weep, The orange tints that gild the greenest bough...

Three Types of Simile Here's something I wrote while deeply bored some time ago. As you can imagine, I'm still desperately bored - too bored even to blog propely, though I've started posting again over at CTS. I had a volume of Hardy and a cup of tea to hand when I wrote it. The first type of simile simply tries to invoke some genuine quality of a real object through reference to another object. The relevant clich is as hot as an oven. With these concrete similes, the danger for the writer is that clich is difficult to avoid; exaggeration also creeps up on you. But the possibility is always there for a simple simile of this type to contain other, hidden meanings or connotations. Take this example from Thomas Hardys poem The Clock Winder: It is as dark as a cave. Nothing too complicated there, the image is clear, the reference, obvious. But think for a while on the nature of caves. Claustrophobic, tapering into ancient rocks, the home of unknown streams, stalactites and stalagmites, the origins of human civilisation, hidden realms. The darkness of the very ordinary night Hardy is explaining now takes on a more psychological aspect. The depth of similes such as these is, of course, entirely up to the writer. But writers and students should be encouraged to think very carefully about the objects they choose to place into their similes. The second type does the same thing, but invokes non-existent objects that people are nonetheless familiar with. For example: Quick feet as light/As the feet of a sprite from the poem Signs and Tokens. It is easy to see the reference, even though there are (as far as we know) no such things as sprites. The word sprite itself has become almost a metaphor for quickness and lightness. With this kind of simile a writer can convey some sense of numinosity or give an ethereal atmosphere to a scene or idea. A clichd example of this type would be

something like, She looked like an angel. A better one would be this, from Hardys poem Apostrophe to an Old Psalm Tune, ..sweet as angels laughters. The third type of simile intends to reference the object or quality only vaguely or slightly to anything, and is instead a satire, or a play with language for its own sake. This is exceptionally difficult to write appropriately. Most usually it is done to make the reader question the writing process and think about the difficulty of communication. It is mainly associated with modernist and post-modernist writing. An example would be The years were like the cries of children, in which a sense of fear is invoked, but otherwise the similarities are slight or non-existent. These types of simile can also be adapted, extended or cut. Often a writer will slide the usual expressions into hot like an oven or oven-hot or with the heat of an oven or some other phrase. To avoid clich and extend the image though this has to be done with caution a writer might take a simile like she looked like an angel and change it to she looked like an angel, full of its sadness for humankind the idea being to give the object of reference more detail in order to make the image more complex. In the following quotation Hardy doubles his simile to give it more shades of meaning: From tides the lofty coastlands screen Come smitings like the slam of doors Or hammerings on hollow floors (from The Winds Prophecy) Posted by Bill Haydon at 12:30 PM Labels: literature, similes

Explicit Similes As sly as a fox. As quiet as a mouse. As wise as an owl. As clever as a fox. As wily as a coyote. As cute as a button. As pretty as a picture. As soft as a baby's behind. As hard as a rock. As dumb as rocks. As brave as a lion. As noisy as a herd of elephants. As pure as the driven snow. As white as the driven snow. As black as night. As red as a tomato. As graceful as a swan. As poor as a church mouse. As slow as molasses in January. As fast/quick as lightning.

As colorful as a rainbow. As playful as a kitten. As dead as a door nail. As pale as a ghost. As skinny as a rail. As fat as a cow. As hungry as a hippo. As cool as a cat. As sick as a dog. As plain as day. As fake as a three-dollar bill. As crooked as a politician. As happy as a lark. As naked as a jay bird. As blind as a bat. As strong as a horse. As dumb as an ox. As tough as nails. As harmless as a dove. As stubborn as a mule. As busy as a bee. Implicit Similes Eat like a bird. Live like a pig. Eat like a pig. Swim like a fish. Eyes like a hawk. Sleep like a baby. Work like the devil. Drink like a fish. Run around like a chicken with its head cut off. Live like a candle in the wind. Lie like a sieve. Take it like a man. Sing like a bird. Like finding a needle in a haystack. Multiply like rabbits. To know like the back of ones hand. As many as the sands of the seashore. Like a wolf in sheep's clothing.

Children, I grant, should be innocent; but when the epithet is applied to men, or women, it is but a civil term for weakness." (Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley) "In art, all who have done something other than their predecessors have merited the epithet of revolutionary; and it is they alone who are masters." (Paul Gauguin) "Bravely bold Sir Robin rode forth from Camelot. He was not afraid to die, oh brave Sir Robin. He was not at all afraid to be killed in nasty ways, brave, brave, brave, brave Sir Robin." (Monty Python and the Holy Grail) "The fixed epithet, a special variety found in epic poetry, is the repeated use of an adjective or phrase for the same subject; thus in Homer's Odyssey, the wife Penelope is always 'prudent,' the son Telemachus is always 'sound minded,' and Odysseus himself is 'many minded.'"

(Stephen Adams, Poetic Designs. Broadview, 1997) "As a result of the feminist revolution, 'feminine' becomes an abusive epithet." (Wyndham Lewis) "[I]t will generally happen, that the Epithets employed by a skillful orator, will be found to be, in fact, so many abridged arguments, the force of which is sufficiently conveyed by a mere hint; e.g. if any one says, 'We ought to take warning from the bloody revolution of France,' the Epithet suggests one of the reasons for our being warned; and that, not less clearly, and more forcibly, than if the argument had been stated at length." (Richard Whately, Elements of Rhetoric, 6th ed., 1841) "The snotgreen sea. The scrotumtightening sea." (James Joyce, Ulysses) "'I am working on a piece about nationalism with a focus on epithet as a smear word,' writes David Binder, my longtime Times colleague, 'which was still a synonym for 'delineation' or 'characterization' in my big 1942 Websters but now seems to be almost exclusively a synonym for derogation or smear word. . . . In the past century, [epithet] blossomed as 'a word of abuse,' today gleefully seized upon to describe political smears." (William Safire, "Presents of Mind." The New York Times, June 22, 2008) "[T]he use of epithets in poetry, or even in prose where expressiveness is aimed at, is a danger. If you want to express the terror which something causes, you must not give it an epithet like 'dreadful.' For that describes the emotion instead of expressing it, and your language becomes frigid, that is inexpressive, at once. A genuine poet, in his moments of genuine poetry, never mentions by name the emotions he is expressing." (R.G. Collingwood, The Principles of Art, 1938)

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