303 views

Uploaded by Vrushiket Patil

- bernoulli's equation.pdf
- Viscosity by Efflux Time
- Gear Pump
- Pipe Fitting Losses
- Metacentric Height
- Rock Ramp Design Guidelines_09-2007
- Bernoulli's Theorem
- Venturimeter and Orifice Meter
- Free Vortex
- Forced Vortex
- Impact of Jet on Vanes
- Flow Through Orifice and Mouthpiece
- Pitot Static Tube
- history baler reaction paper
- E235 Pipes and Tubes
- Philippine Literature Pre-Spanish Period
- Bernoulli's Theorem Distribution Experiment
- Chapter 11 Gravity Flow Water Systems FINAL November 16 2008
- Hydraulic-Design(Phawa).pdf
- Steady Flow Analysis of Pipe Networks - An Instructional Manual

You are on page 1of 5

Aim

To observe the dependency between Reynolds number and friction factor for flow of water through circular pipes in turbulent flow regime and compare it with theoretical predictions. To use Moody Charts to determine the surface roughness factor of the internal walls of circular pipes.

Apparatus

Four test sections, made-up of circular pipes of different diameters, each with two pressure tapings on upstream and downstream side. Differential pressure cell for measuring frictional pressure drop across given test section. Water circulation system consisting of water reservoir, a centrifugal pump with a bypass line for changing the flow rate of water through test section. A digital flow meter for measuring the flow rate of water through the test section.

Theory

Changes to inviscid, incompressible flow from point a to point b is given by Bernoullis equation. ()2 = + 2

Bernoulli's equation states that the total head h along a streamline remains constant. This means that velocity head can be converted into gravity head and/or pressure head or viceversa, such that the total head h stays constant implying that no energy is lost for such a flow. This situation corresponds to ideal fluid flow. However for real viscous fluids, frictional losses due to the viscous boundary layer along the pipe walls leads to head loss along the length of the pipe in the direction of the flow. Therefore one cannot use Bernoulli's principle of conserved head (or energy) to calculate flow parameters. However one could still keep track of this head loss by incorporating another term called viscous head into Bernoulli's equation.

As the flow moves along the pipe, viscous head accumulates gradually taking available head away from the pressure, gravity, and velocity heads. However the conservation of energy implies that the total head h (or energy) remains constant. If the pipe diameter D remains constant along the length L of the pipe (as is the case with the current experiment) then by

Page 1

conservation of mass between any two stations (continuity equation), the fluid velocity U remains constant along the pipe. The Darcy-Weisbach Equation enables the estimation of experimental value of the pipe friction factor. = 2 2

In general, f depends on the Reynolds Number Re of the pipe flow and the relative roughness of the pipe wall. The function needs to be determined by theory or experiment. The roughness measure is the average size of the bumps on the pipe wall. The relative roughness /D corresponds to statistical measure of the size of the surface asperities which arise from pipe manufacturing and surface finish processes compared with the diameter of the pipe. For commercial pipes this is usually a very small number and perfectly smooth pipes should have a roughness of zero. For laminar flow (Re < 2000 in pipes), f can be deduced analytically by comparing the pressure change between points A and B defined by Eqn. (3) with the pressure drop corresponding to the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation which defines the pressure drop of incompressible laminar viscous flow in a long circular pipe. This leads the Fannings friction factor (mainly used by Chemical Engineers) for laminar flow in circular pipes as follows Fanning f =16/Re The Darcy friction factor or Moodys friction factor (mainly used by Mechanical and Civil Engineers) is four times the magnitude of Fannings friction factor, i.e. Darcy f =64/Re The difference arises because of the use of hydraulic diameter in the DarcyWeisbach formula instead of the pipe diameter in Fannings formula. The hydraulic radius calculation involves dividing the cross sectional area of flow by the wetted perimeter. For a round pipe with full flow the hydraulic radius is equal to of the pipe diameter.

Page 2

Moody Charts often indicate the type of friction factor, or at least provide the formula for the friction factor with laminar flow. If the formula for laminar flow is f = 16/Re, it's the Fanning factor, and if the formula for laminar flow is f = 64/Re, it's the DarcyWeisbach factor.

Procedure

Fill the reservoir with water to about 90% of its capacity. Select the test section by opening the ball valve leading to that test section keeping the ball valve leading to other test section closed. Open the valve on the suction side of the pump. Open the valve on the bypass line of the pump fully. Switch on the power supply of the pump. Page 3

Adjust the desired flow rate of water through the test section by manipulating the valve on the test section as well as the valve on the bypass line of the pump. Note down the pressure differential across the test section making use of differential pressure cell. Read the flow rate from the given flow meter. Take last reading at the maximum possible flow rate through the test section. Record the following parameters: Inside diameter of pipe (D) Distance between two pressure tapings (L) Average temperature of water during the run Density, Dynamic , Kinematic Viscosity of water at average temperature

Data

Average temperature=300 C Density=995.7 kg/m3 Kinematic viscosity=0.805x 10-6 Distance between two pressure tapings (L) = 1 m

Observation

Diameter(mm) pipe 1 pipe 2 pipe 3 pipe 4 10.7 23.6 7.3 4.5 P(kPa) 10 3.9 17.7 103.2 Flow(lit/min) 2.6 4.1 4.3 4

Calculation

Velocity pipe 1 pipe 2 pipe 3 pipe 4 0.482153013 0.15629279 1.713175394 4.193861236 Re 6408.742 4582 15535.63 23443.94 Friction factor 3.281750035 2.822918442 3.962943197 14.24340857 f(Darcy friction factor) 0.009986 0.013968 0.00412 0.00273

Page 4

Graph

=

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

2 2

Friction Factor

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

Reynold's number

f = 64/Re

0.016 0.014 Friction factor 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000

Reynold's number

Conclusion

The relation between Reynoldss number and friction factor was studied and was found to be decreasing with increase in Reynolds number.

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Page 5

- bernoulli's equation.pdfUploaded byjagdeep_sekhon
- Viscosity by Efflux TimeUploaded byAmit Jharbade
- Gear PumpUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Pipe Fitting LossesUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Metacentric HeightUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Rock Ramp Design Guidelines_09-2007Uploaded byvanjadamjanovic
- Bernoulli's TheoremUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Venturimeter and Orifice MeterUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Free VortexUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Forced VortexUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Impact of Jet on VanesUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Flow Through Orifice and MouthpieceUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Pitot Static TubeUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- history baler reaction paperUploaded byRoevan Keif Castro
- E235 Pipes and TubesUploaded byrasheed313
- Philippine Literature Pre-Spanish PeriodUploaded byMokaHanaMatsu
- Bernoulli's Theorem Distribution ExperimentUploaded byT/ROX
- Chapter 11 Gravity Flow Water Systems FINAL November 16 2008Uploaded bychukaluk
- Hydraulic-Design(Phawa).pdfUploaded byanon_620123698
- Steady Flow Analysis of Pipe Networks - An Instructional ManualUploaded byjeff_shaw
- CE308 - Ch2 - Pipe Flow v2.pdfUploaded byKhuram Shahzad
- Theory BernoullisUploaded byohdaus
- c6Uploaded byfatamorggana
- Pump CalUploaded byVikalp Shri Bachchan
- Cfd Simulation of Round and Flat Tube Fin Heat Exchanger for Laminar and Turbulent Flow ModelsUploaded bywhyread
- Compressible FlowUploaded byHarold Guittu
- Hydraulics Equations Solutions Mat LabUploaded byjosue.angelo9459
- viscosityUploaded byellil
- pump hp calculation lsgd wssUploaded byapi-320179740
- pig efficiency.pdfUploaded byVamsi Mahanti

- Gas Metal Arc WeldingUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Shielded Metal Arc WeldingUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Orthogonal MachiningUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Gas Tungsten Arc WeldingUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- EDMUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Cutting Force MeasurementUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Air Vee BendingUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Venturimeter and Orifice MeterUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Pitot Static TubeUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Flow Through Orifice and MouthpieceUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Impact of Jet on VanesUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Free VortexUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Forced VortexUploaded byVrushiket Patil
- Bernoulli's TheoremUploaded byVrushiket Patil

- Brochure Grua Grove RT890Uploaded byAlex Varas
- Lab 6 - Compression Testing of WoodUploaded byManikandan Selvam
- Flow Rate AnalysisUploaded byMuhammad Asif
- Final Exam Study GuideUploaded byasutsurido
- 2015-SAE-Prediction of High Altitude Performance for UAV Engine.pdfUploaded by128mansouri
- 38720613-Vintage-Playground-Plans-1950s.pdfUploaded byAlexandre Mello
- Operacion y Partes Compresores SullairUploaded byAbdul Zapata Escobar
- DAF AlloyGuideUploaded bysureshjeeva
- MDSP Elements 01 (Prime)Uploaded byRommel
- 9 Cswip 3.1 Welding Notes Unsolved Question With Given Answers Table Most Important Question Answers Solved Past Papers Cswip 3.1Uploaded bypatvin3
- Geotech3 LS7 Bearing CapacityUploaded byTirana Novitri
- Aerodynamics for Students_bladeUploaded byGaurang 'TottaPhilic' Gupta
- CFD Analysis of GearboxUploaded byJuanCa Barbosa
- methanol.pdfUploaded byMukesh
- shallow foundationUploaded bysivabathy
- DNV RulesUploaded byCvita Cvitić
- CAT hose coupling Guide.pdfUploaded byTimotije Timotic
- MTV 410 Exam June 2012Uploaded byWesley Botha
- Effect of Intercooler on Turbocharged EngineUploaded byShivam Sharma
- crandshaft 8Uploaded byGiri Kumar
- 17230gccsUploaded byDenis Jimenez
- Bearing FailureUploaded byabooali_abbadan4684
- ASD vs LRFDUploaded byمنير أحمد
- Coal Power Plant FundamentalsUploaded byGuruprasad Nagarajasastry
- Tool Life Wear Mach Inability Q a for StudentsUploaded byRavinder Antil
- Geotech Solved ExamplesUploaded byRaj Nigam
- Can Balkaya Erol Kalkan - A9_Balkaya_KalkanUploaded byovunctezer
- Lec5_AxiallyLoadedUploaded byElaine Johnson
- Badoz Spur Gear DesignUploaded byagung bado
- busbarUploaded byAbdulloh Khoirony