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Pitot Static Tube

Aim
To determine velocity of fluid at various points across the cross section of pipe.

Apparatus
Pitot tube to measure velocity Pointer gauge with Pitot tube attached at the end Transparent cross section Pump to circulate the fluid Stopwatch and sump tank to measure Qactual

Theory
The Pitot tube measures a fluid velocity by converting the kinetic energy of the flow into potential energy. The conversion takes place at the stagnation point, located at the Pitot tube entrance. A pressure higher than the free-stream (i.e. dynamic) pressure results from the kinematic to potential conversion. This static pressure is measured by comparing it to the flow's dynamic pressure with a manometer.

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Relationship between the velocity and pressure along a streamline can be give by Bernoullis equation.

Evaluated at two different points along a streamline, the Bernoulli equation yields,

If z1 = z2 and point 2 is a stagnation point, i.e., v2 = 0, the above equation reduces to,

The velocity of the flow can hence be obtained,

Reynolds No=Re=vD/ Where, D=0.028 m =.00098 at 210C Vmax=2 x Average velocity average theoretical velocity = vdA/Atotal Coefficient of pitot can be calculated as average vactual/average vtheoritical

Procedure
Check the level of CCl4 in the manometer tube. It should be up to half. If it is less, then fill it. Close all pressure taps of Manometer connected to manometers. Now switch on the main power supply (220 Volts AC, 50 Hz) and switch on the pump. Operate the flow control valve to regulate the flow of water. Open the pressure taps of the manometer slowly and remove the air bubbles (if any) from the manometer tube Record the manometer readings and measure the discharge with the help of measuring tank and stop watch. Now move the Pitot tube up and down tube for the same flow rate and note the manometer readings to estimate the velocity at different points in pipe. Take readings at sufficient number of points to plot the velocity profile across the cross section. Repeat the same procedure for different flow rates of water by operating the control valve, and by-pass valve. When the experiment is over, close all manometer pressure taps first and switch off the pump. Page 2

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Switch off the power supply to panel. Drain the water from sump tanks using the drain valves.

Data
Area of sump tank= 0.1 m2. Cross sectional area of pipe = 0.0006157 m2 Density of manometric fluid ( CCl4 )=1590 kg / m3

Observation
Sr 1 2 3 P-9 169 159 118 P-5 192 173 135 P0 196 178 136 P5 207 183 134 P9 203 188 133 Height(cm) 19.7 19.3 16.7 time(sec) 30 30 30

Calculation
Velocity profile for various distances from centre of pipe. Sr v-14 v-9 v-5 v0
1 2 3 0 0 0 1.909345 1.844072 1.568375 1.977423 1.867833 1.623638 1.96 1.867833 1.632667

v5
1.977423 1.867833 1.623638

v9
1.9093454 1.8440716 1.568375

v14
0 0 0

Sr 1 2 3

Qactual(m3/s) 0.00066 0.00064 0.00056

Vactual
1.066537 1.044881 0.90412

Qtheortical
0.000764 0.000733 0.000628

Vtheoretical
1.242019 1.19088 1.020098

ReD
30472.48 29853.75 25832

Cpitot
0.858712 0.877403 0.886307

ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Flow Profile
20 15

10
Radius(mm) 5 0 -5 0 -10 -15 -20 Velocity(m/s) 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Flow1 Flow2 Flow3

Precaution
CCl4 is lighter than water hence be careful while opening the manometer valves. Beware of bubbles in manometer tube.

Error
Use of stopwatch manually adds to the error. Use of Bernoullis equation for turbulent fluids.

Conclusion
Velocity profile in a pipe was observed with the help of Pitot tube. Coefficient of Pitot tube was observed to be 0.854. The flow was turbulent as Reynolds no. was above 2100.

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