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# Venturimeter and Orifice meter

Aim
To determine the discharge coefficient of venturimeter and orifice meter.

Apparatus
Venturimeter and orifice meter. The throat and the inlet has been connected to mercury manometer for the pressure readings. Sump tank Measuring tank Pump to circulate the water Stopwatch

Theory

venturimeter In the upstream cone of the Venturi meter, velocity is increased, pressure is decreased. Pressure drop in the upstream cone is utilized to measure the rate of flow through the instrument. Velocity is then decreased and pressure is largely recovered in the downstream cone. According to Bernoullis theorem the sum of pressure head and velocity head remains constant along a streamline. This helps us find out the velocity at the various cross sections and hence discharge coefficient. Theoretical expression for Bernoullis equation can be written as

## ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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2 + + = 2 Where, = = g=acceleration due to gravity z=height of point on streamline from reference point =density of the fluid Let us now consider two points 1 and 2 which are inlet and throat of venturimeter. Let the cross sectional areas, velocities and pressures at the two points be a1, a2, v1, v2, p1 and p2 respectively. We can now write two equations i.e. continuity equation and Bernoullis equation. Eq.1 Eq.2 Bernoullis equation --Continuity equation--2 1

2 2

= 1 1 = 2 2

## Solving Eq.1 and Eq.2 we have,

2 p1-p2 = p = 1 [ 2
2 1 2 2

1]

after getting v1 we can multiply it by a1 to get Qtheoretical. We can calculate Qexperimental from stopwatch and volume of fluid. The same calculation process can be carried out for orifice meter.

Orifice meter

## ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Procedure
Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Open the control valve of venturimeter Switch on the main power supply. Switch on the pump. Regulate flow of water through venturimeter with the help of given flow control valve. Remove the water bubble from the tube connecting manometer if any. Measure Flow Rate using Measuring Tank and Stop Watch. Measure the pressure difference between two sections in the venturimeter using mercury manometer. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates. Repeat the whole experiment for the flow through orifice meter. When experiment is over, Switch off Pump and Power Supply. Drain water from sump tanks with the help of given drain valve.

Data
Area of sump tank = 0.1 m2 (mercury) = 13500 kg/m3. (water) = 1000 kg/m3 Venturimeter Data: Dia. at inlet =28mm Dia. at throat =14mm Orifice meter Data: Dia. at inlet =28mm Dia. at throat =14mm

Observation
For Venturimeter Observation table Sr. p (mm Hg) 1 2 3 40 28 10

t(ses) 30 30 30

## ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Plot for

Vs Qactual (venturimeter)

Venturimeter
7 6 5 H^0.5 4 3 2 1 0 Venturimeter

0.0001

0.0002

0.0003

0.0004

0.0005

Q actual

For Orifice meter Observation table Sr. p (mm Hg) 1 2 3 Plot for
2

t(ses) 30 30 30

71 46 16

## 8.42615 6.78233 4.00000

Vs Qactual (venturimeter)

Orifice meter
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.0001 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005

H^0.5

Orifice meter

Q actual

## ME-313, IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

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Precaution
Never start the pump when valves of venturimeter and orifice meter are closed simultaneously.

Errors
Due to use of stop watch manual errors in timings are introduced. Mercury lining was not completely visible.

Conclusion
Coefficient of discharge for venturimeter was found to be 0.94 Coefficient of discharge for Orifice meter was found to be 0.68

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