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Cutting Force Measurement (CFM)

Aim
To study the relation between cutting force and process parameters of machining like feed, velocity of cutting and depth of cut.

Theory of Operation
Machining can be defined as the process of removing material from a workpiece by the shearing action. Machining is characterized by chip formation. As the chip is removed, a new surface is exposed.

Cutting force is measured to find out the efficiency of the machining process and tool life. It is well known that during the cutting process, the cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut often present a deviation from the calculated values. There are many types of force measurement dynamometers mainly working on the principle of measurement of elastic deformation of a known material. Two main types of dynamometers are strain gauge type and piezoelectric type. Strain gauge type dynamometers are inexpensive but less accurate and consistent, whereas, the piezoelectric type are highly accurate, reliable and consistent but very expensive for high material cost and stringent construction. Turning dynamometers may be strain gauge or piezoelectric type and may be of one, two or three dimensions capable to monitor all of P , P
X Y

and P .
Z

For ease of manufacture and low cost, strain gauge type turning dynamometers are widely used and preferably of 2 D (dimension) for simpler construction, lower cost and ability to provide almost all the desired force values. In general motion of tool relative to the workpiece has two components. vz = The motion resulting from the motion of tool i.e. feed motion vy = The motion due to rotation of the workpiece Hence there are three principal forces during a turning process: ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar Page 1

Fy = The cutting or tangential force acts downward on the tool tip. It supplies the energy required for the cutting operation. Fz = The axial, thrust or feed force acts in the longitudinal direction. This force tends to push the tool away from the chuck. Fx = The radial force acts in the radial direction and tends to push the tool away from the workpiece.

The power consumed by the machine largely depends on the cutting force and is given as = Where, = cutting force = the cutting speed Feed power is calculated as, = Where, = the feed force = the velocity of feed is found out by, = Where, = angular velocity of workpiece r = radius of workpiece is found out by, = ( ) Where, N = RPM

Procedure
Mount the component, an aluminum cylinder, on the lathe Fix up a turning dynamometer on the carriage to measure the force components. Mount a tool on the same. Change the values of depth of cut, the feed rate and the rpm and note down the subsequent values of the dynamometer. Repeat the procedure for mild steel also. Ensure zero reading on the dynamometer before each machining process. Page 2

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

Observation Table
RPM Depth of cut, t (mm) 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.75 RPM Depth of cut, t (mm) 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.75 0.25 0.75 For Aluminum Fc (N) 20.0 23.0 16.0 13.0 6.00 8.00 4.00 10.0 Ff (N) 13.0 15.0 8.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 1.00 3.00 Fr (N) 7.00 6.00 5.00 2.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 3.00 Feed rate, (MM/rev.) 0.175 0.175 0.175 0.175 0.350 0.350 0.350 0.350 Radius (mm) Vf (m/s) 2.6310-4 2.6310-4 4.0810-4 4.0810-4 8.1710-4 8.1710-4 5.2510-4 5.2510-4 Vc (m/s) 8.4810-2 8.0110-2 12.110-2 11.410-2 11.010-2 10.310-2 6.3610-2 5.8910-2 Pf (J/s) 3.41310-3 3.93810-3 3.26710-3 2.04210-3 1.63310-3 2.45010-3 0.52510-3 1.57510-3 Pc (J/s) 1.70 1.84 1.93 1.48 0.659 0.821 0.254 0.589

90.0 90.0 140 140 140 140 90.0 90.0

9.00 8.50 8.25 7.75 7.50 7.00 6.75 6.25

For Mild Steel Fc (N) 12.0 22.0 12.0 19.0 18.0 28.0 19.0 29.0 Ff (N) 3.00 8.00 5.00 7.00 6.00 10.0 6.00 10.0 Fr (N) 2.00 5.00 3.00 6.00 4.00 6.00 6.00 8.00 Feed rate, (MM/rev.) 0.350 0.350 0.350 0.350 0.175 0.175 0.175 0.175 Radius (mm) Vf (m/s) 5.2510-4 5.2510-4 8.1710-4 8.1710-4 2.6310-4 2.6310-4 4.0810-4 4.0810-4 Vc (m/s) 11.510-2 11.110-2 16.810-2 16.110-2 10.110-2 9.7010-2 14.610-2 13.910-2 Pf (J/s) 1.5710-3 4.2010-3 4.0810-3 5.7210-3 1.5610-3 2.6310-3 2.4510-3 4.0810-3 Pc (J/s) 1.38 2.44 2.02 3.06 1.82 2.70 2.78 4.04

90.0 90.0 140 140 90.0 90.0 140 140

12.25 11.75 11.50 11.00 10.75 10.25 10.00 9.50

Possible Errors
It was difficult to take readings of the dynamometer because of its high sensitivity the readings varied a lot. Setting of zero in the dynamometer was not exact. The vibrations occurring during turning process might have affected the dynamometer readings.

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Suggestions
Number of readings should be more. Use of piezoelectric dynamometer would have improved the accuracy of the readings.

Conclusion
The Required power increases with increase in RPM, feed rate and depth of cut. The power required by Aluminum is much lesser than the power required by steel.

-Vrushiket Patil(09003044) Mechanical Btech 2009 Date: 14 / 10 / 2011

ME-311, IIT Gandhinagar

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