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Preliminary environmental information report

Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site assessment


CSO interception site

Regulations 2 and 10 of the Infrastructure Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 2009

Thames Tunnel

Phase two consultation documentation


General
Your guide to phase two consultation Why does London need the Thames Tunnel? Feedback form Equalities form Customer overview leaflet

Technical documents
Air management plan Book of plans Code of construction practice Part A: General requirements Consultation strategy and statement of community consultation Design development report Draft waste strategy Interim engagement report Needs Report Phase two scheme development report Preliminary environmental information report Report on phase one consultation Background technical paper Site selection methodology paper

Project information papers


Build Changes Consultation Design Environment Funding Managing construction Odour Options Overflow Regulatory framework Route and tunnel alignment Route to consent Settlement Site selection Timing Transport

Site information papers


Abbey Mills Pumping Station Acton Storm Tanks Albert Embankment Foreshore Barn Elms Beckton Sewage Treatment Works Bekesbourne Street Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Carnwarth Road Riverside Chambers Wharf Chelsea Embankment Foreshore Cremorne Wharf Depot Deptford Chrurch Street Dormay Street Earl Pumping Station Falconbrook Pumping Station Greenwich Pumping Station Hammersmith Pumping Station Heathwall Pumping Station Jews Row King Edward Memorial Park Forehore King Georges Park Kirtling Street Other works Putney Bridge Foreshore Shad Thames Pumping Station Victoria Embankment Foreshore

Thames Tunn

Thames Tunnel Preliminary environmental information report


List of contents Non technical summary Part A: Preliminary project information Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Volume 6 Volume 7 Volume 8 Volume 9 Introduction Proposed development Alternatives Scoping Opinions and technical engagement Assessment methodology Project-wide assessment Acton Storm Tanks CSO interception and main tunnel reception site Hammersmith Pumping Station CSO interception site Barn Elms CSO interception site

Part B: Preliminary site information

Volume 10 Putney Bridge Foreshore CSO interception site Volume 11 Dormay Street CSO interception and connection tunnel sequential drive shaft site Volume 12 King Georges Park CSO interception and connection tunnel reception shaft site Volume 13 Carnwath Road Riverside main tunnel reception and connection tunnel reception shaft site Volume 14 Falconbrook Pumping Station CSO interception site Volume 15 Cremorne Wharf Depot CSO interception site Volume 16 Chelsea Embankment Foreshore CSO interception site Volume 17 Kirtling Street main tunnel double drive shaft site Volume 18 Heathwall Pumping Station CSO interception site Volume 19 Albert Embankment Foreshore CSO interception site Volume 20 Victoria Embankment Foreshore CSO interception site Volume 21 Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore CSO interception site (this document) Volume 22 Chambers Wharf main tunnel drive and reception shaft and connection tunnel reception shaft site Volume 23 King Edward Memorial Park CSO interception site Volume 24 Earl Pumping Station CSO interception site Volume 25 Deptford Church Street CSO interception site

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Volume 26 Greenwich Pumping Station CSO interception and connection tunnel drive shaft site Volume 27 Abbey Mills Pumping Station main tunnel reception shaft site Volume 28 Beckton Sewage Treatment Works site

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Thames Tunnel Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore CSO site assessment
List of contents
Page number

1 2

Introduction ...................................................................................................... 1 Site context ....................................................................................................... 2 2.1 2.2 Site location ............................................................................................. 2 Environmental context ............................................................................. 2 Overview.................................................................................................. 4 Operation ................................................................................................. 5 Construction ............................................................................................ 7 Design development and on site alternatives ........................................ 12 Base case .............................................................................................. 13 Introduction ............................................................................................ 14 Proposed development .......................................................................... 14 Assessment methodology...................................................................... 16 Baseline conditions................................................................................ 18 Construction assessment ...................................................................... 22 Operational assessment ........................................................................ 25 Approach to mitigation ........................................................................... 26 Assessment summary ........................................................................... 27 Assessment completion ......................................................................... 28 Introduction ............................................................................................ 29 Proposed development .......................................................................... 29 Assessment methodology...................................................................... 31 Baseline conditions................................................................................ 32 Construction assessment ...................................................................... 39 Operational assessment ........................................................................ 47 Approach to mitigation ........................................................................... 52 Assessment summary ........................................................................... 54

Proposed development.................................................................................... 4 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Air quality and odour ..................................................................................... 14 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Ecology - aquatic ........................................................................................... 29 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

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5.9 6 6.1 6.2 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10 10.1 10.2

Assessment completion ......................................................................... 59 Introduction ............................................................................................ 60 Baseline conditions................................................................................ 60 Introduction ............................................................................................ 61 Proposed development .......................................................................... 61 Assessment methodology...................................................................... 62 Baseline conditions................................................................................ 64 Construction assessment ...................................................................... 85 Operational assessment ........................................................................ 92 Approach to mitigation ........................................................................... 94 Assessment summary ........................................................................... 97 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 102 Introduction .......................................................................................... 103 Proposed development ........................................................................ 103 Assessment methodology.................................................................... 103 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 104 Construction assessment .................................................................... 110 Operational assessment ...................................................................... 113 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 115 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 116 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 117 Introduction .......................................................................................... 118 Proposed development ........................................................................ 118 Assessment methodology.................................................................... 120 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 121 Construction assessment .................................................................... 124 Operational assessment ...................................................................... 133 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 136 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 138 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 140 Introduction .......................................................................................... 141 Proposed development ........................................................................ 141

Ecology terrestrial....................................................................................... 60

Historic environment ..................................................................................... 61

Land Quality ................................................................................................. 103

Noise and vibration ...................................................................................... 118

Socio-economics ......................................................................................... 141

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10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9

Assessment methodology.................................................................... 142 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 143 Construction assessment .................................................................... 150 Operational assessment ...................................................................... 161 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 164 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 165 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 167 Introduction .......................................................................................... 168 Proposed development ........................................................................ 168 Assessment methodology.................................................................... 169 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 171 Construction assessment .................................................................... 194 Operational assessment ...................................................................... 209 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 222 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 224 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 236 Introduction .......................................................................................... 237 Proposed development ........................................................................ 237 Assessment methodology.................................................................... 243 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 245 Construction assessment .................................................................... 250 Operational assessment ...................................................................... 257 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 262 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 265 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 268 Introduction .......................................................................................... 269 Proposed development ........................................................................ 269 Assessment methodology.................................................................... 270 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 271 Construction assessment .................................................................... 273 Operational effects .............................................................................. 278 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 280 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 282 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 284

Townscape and visual ................................................................................. 168

Transport ...................................................................................................... 237

Water resources groundwater ................................................................. 269

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14

Water resources surface water ................................................................ 285 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 Introduction .......................................................................................... 285 Proposed development ........................................................................ 285 Assessment methodology.................................................................... 287 Baseline conditions.............................................................................. 288 Construction assessment .................................................................... 290 Operational assessment ...................................................................... 299 Approach to mitigation ......................................................................... 305 Assessment summary ......................................................................... 307 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 308 Introduction .......................................................................................... 309 Policy considerations ........................................................................... 310 Regulatory position .............................................................................. 310 Assessment of flood risk ...................................................................... 312 Flood risk - design and mitigation ........................................................ 321 Assessment completion ....................................................................... 322

15

Water resources flood risk ....................................................................... 309 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6

Appendices ........................................................................................................... 324 Appendix A Historic environment ....................................................................... 326 Appendix B Land quality...................................................................................... 346 Appendix C Noise and vibration ......................................................................... 348 Appendix D Townscape and visual ..................................................................... 351 Appendix E Groundwater..................................................................................... 356 Glossary ................................................................................................................ 370 References ............................................................................................................ 385

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List of figures
Page number

Vol 21 Figure 2.1.1 Site location plan ........................................................................ 2 Vol 21 Figure 2.2.1 Environmental setting ................................................................. 2 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.1 Demolition and site clearance plan............................................. 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.2 Construction phasing plan - site setup ....................................... 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.3 Construction phasing plan - shaft construction ........................... 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.4 Construction - construction of other structures ........................... 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.5 Construction phasing plan - replacement pier ............................ 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.6 Permanent works layout 1 .......................................................... 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.7 Permanent works layout 2 .......................................................... 4 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.8 Permanent works layout 3 .......................................................... 4 Vol 21 Figure 4.4.1 Air quality monitoring locations .................................................. 20 Vol 21 Figure 5.4.1 Aquatic ecology sampling locations....................................... 34 Vol 21 Figure 5.4.2 Aquatic ecology - EA total fish catches .................................... 36 Vol 21 Figure 6.2.1 Terrestrial ecology Phase 1 habitat survey............................ 60 Vol 21 Figure 7.4.1 Historic environment - features map ......................................... 65 Vol 21 Figure 8.4.1 Land quality contaminative land uses.................................. 104 Vol 21 Figure 8.4.2 Land quality proposed borehole locations ........................... 108 Vol 21 Figure 8.4.3 Land quality environmental records and waste sites ........... 109 Vol 21 Figure 9.4.1 Noise and vibration - residential receptors ............................. 121 Vol 21 Figure 10.4.1 Socio-economic context ....................................................... 144 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.1 Townscape and visual development pattern and scale ..... 172 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.2 Townscape and visual vegetation pattern and extent ........ 172 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.3 Townscape and visual open space distribution and type... 173 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.4 Townscape and visual transport network .......................... 174 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.5 Townscape and visual townscape character areas ........... 177 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.6 Townscape and visual viewpoint locations ........................ 188 Vol 21 Figure 12.2.1 Transport - construction traffic routes ................................... 238 Vol 21 Figure 12.2.2 Transport - construction lorry profile ..................................... 240 Vol 21 Figure 12.2.3 Transport - construction barge profile ................................... 241 Vol 21 Figure 12.4.1 Transport local site plan .................................................... 245 Vol 21 Figure 15.4.1 Flood risk EA flood zones .................................................. 312

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List of tables
Page number

Vol 21 Table 3.3.1 Working hours ........................................................................... 11 Vol 21 Table 3.4.1 Design development at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore ................ 12 Vol 21 Table 4.3.1 Air quality and odour - stakeholder engagement ....................... 16 Vol 21 Table 4.4.1 Air quality - NO2 concentrations ................................................. 18 Vol 21 Table 4.4.2 Air quality - PM10 concentrations ............................................... 19 Vol 21 Table 4.4.3 Air quality - additional monitoring locations................................ 20 Vol 21 Table 4.4.4 Air quality - background pollutant concentrations ...................... 20 Vol 21 Table 4.4.5 Air quality - construction receptors ............................................ 21 Vol 21 Table 4.6.1 Odour impacts at ground level - operation ................................. 26 Vol 21 Table 4.6.2 Odour impacts at buildings - operation ...................................... 26 Vol 21 Table 4.8.1 Air quality - construction assessment ........................................ 27 Vol 21 Table 4.8.2 Odour - operational assessment................................................ 27 Vol 21 Table 5.3.1 Aquatic ecology stakeholder engagement ................................. 31 Vol 21 Table 5.4.1 Aquatic ecology features of interest........................................... 33 Vol 21 Table 5.4.2 Aquatic ecology - autumn 2010 fish survey ............................... 34 Vol 21 Table 5.4.3 Aquatic ecology - Invertebrate fauna ......................................... 37 Vol 21 Table 5.4.4 Aquatic ecology receptors ......................................................... 39 Vol 21 Table 5.5.1 Aquatic ecology impacts - construction ..................................... 42 Vol 21 Table 5.6.1 Aquatic ecology impacts - operation .......................................... 48 Vol 21 Table 5.8.1 Aquatic ecology construction assessment ................................. 54 Vol 21 Table 5.8.2 Aquatic ecology operation assessment ..................................... 56 Vol 21 Table 7.4.1 Historical environment receptors ............................................... 83 Vol 21 Table 7.5.1 Historical environment effects - construction ............................. 89 Vol 21 Table 7.6.1 Historic environment effects -operation ..................................... 93 Vol 21 Table 7.8.1 Historic environment - construction assessment ....................... 97 Vol 21 Table 7.8.2 Historic environment - operation assessment .......................... 101 Vol 21 Table 8.4.1 Land quality - contaminative land use summary ...................... 104 Vol 21 Table 8.4.2 Land quality - site geology and hydrogeology.......................... 106 Vol 21 Table 8.4.3 Land quality - GI for boreholes ................................................ 108 Vol 21 Table 8.4.4 Land quality - environmental records and waste ..................... 109 Vol 21 Table 8.5.1 Land quality impacts -construction .......................................... 112 Vol 21 Table 8.5.2 Land quality receptors - construction ....................................... 113 Vol 21 Table 8.5.3 Land quality effects - construction ........................................... 113

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Vol 21 Table 8.6.1 Land quality impacts operation ............................................. 114 Vol 21 Table 8.6.2 Land quality - receptors - operation ......................................... 114 Vol 21 Table 8.6.3 Land quality effects - operation................................................ 114 Vol 21 Table 8.8.1 Land quality - construction assessment ................................... 116 Vol 21 Table 8.8.2 Land quality - operational assessment .................................... 116 Vol 21 Table 9.4.1 Noise and vibration - current noise levels ................................ 122 Vol 21 Table 9.4.2 Noise and vibration receptors .................................................. 123 Vol 21 Table 9.4.3 Noise and vibration assessment categories ............................ 123 Vol 21 Table 9.5.1 Noise impacts Kings Bench Walk- construction ...................... 124 Vol 21 Table 9.5.2 Noise impacts HH and 40-50 VE - construction....................... 125 Vol 21 Table 9.5.3 Noise impacts Sion College - construction .............................. 126 Vol 21 Table 9.5.4 Noise impacts 60/100 Victoria Embankment - construction ..... 127 Vol 21 Table 9.5.5 Noise impacts Mermaid CC - construction............................... 128 Vol 21 Table 9.5.6 Noise impacts 1-87 River Court - construction ........................ 129 Vol 21 Table 9.5.7 Vibration impacts at structures - construction .......................... 130 Vol 21 Table 9.5.8 Vibration - human response - construction .............................. 132 Vol 21 Table 9.5.9 Noise and vibration construction effects .................................. 133 Vol 21 Table 9.6.1 Airborne noise impacts - operation .......................................... 134 Vol 21 Table 9.6.2 Noise and vibration - operational effects.................................. 135 Vol 21 Table 9.8.1 Noise and vibration construction assessment.......................... 138 Vol 21 Table 9.8.2 Noise and vibration operational assessment ........................... 139 Vol 21 Table 10.3.1 Socio-economics stakeholder engagement ........................... 142 Vol 21 Table 10.4.1 Socio-economics receptors ................................................... 149 Vol 21 Table 10.5.1 Socio-economics - construction effects ................................. 159 Vol 7 Table 10.6.1 Socio-economics operational effects ....................................... 163 Vol 21 Table 10.8.1 Socio-economics construction assessment ........................... 165 Vol 21 Table 10.8.2 Socio economics operational assessment ............................. 166 Vol 21 Table 11.4.1 Townscape and visual - open space type and distribution..... 173 Vol 21 Table 11.4.2 Townscape and visual site components ................................ 175 Vol 21 Table 11.4.3 Townscape character areas .................................................. 187 Vol 21 Table 11.4.4 Visual viewpoints ................................................................... 193 Vol 21 Table 11.5.1 Townscape site component effects - construction ................. 194 Vol 21 Table 11.5.2 Visual effects - construction ................................................... 201 Vol 21 Table 11.5.3 Visual effects - construction ................................................... 208 Vol 21 Table 11.6.1 Townscape and visual site effects (Year 1 operation) ........ 209

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Vol 21 Table 11.6.2 Townscape effects operation, Year 1 ................................. 214 Vol 21 Table 11.6.3 Visual effects operation, Year 1 .......................................... 220 Vol 21 Table 11.8.1 Townscape assessment summary- construction ................... 224 Vol 21 Table 11.8.2 Visual assessment summary - construction........................... 226 Vol 21 Table 11.8.3 Townscape assessment summary - operational.................... 229 Vol 21 Table 11.8.4 Visual assessment summary - operational ............................ 232 Vol 21 Table 12.2.1 Transport - site construction traffic details ............................. 238 Vol 21 Table 12.2.2 Transport - construction worker numbers .............................. 242 Vol 21 Table 12.3.1 Transport - stakeholder engagement ..................................... 243 Vol 21 Table 12.4.1 Transport - bus service frequencies ...................................... 246 Vol 21 Table 12.4.2 Transport receptors ............................................................... 250 Vol 21 Table 12.5.1 Transport forecast construction vehicle movements ........... 253 Vol 21 Table 12.8.1 Transport - summary of construction assessment ................. 265 Vol 21 Table 12.8.2 Transport - summary of operational assessment................... 267 Vol 21 Table 13.2.1 Groundwater - methods of construction ................................. 269 Vol 21 Table 13.4.1 Groundwater - anticipated ground conditions/hydrogeology .. 271 Vol 21 Table 13.4.2 Groundwater receptors .......................................................... 273 Vol 21 Table 13.5.1 Groundwater impacts - construction ...................................... 276 Vol 21 Table 13.5.2 Groundwater resources receptors - construction ................... 277 Vol 21 Table 13.5.3 Groundwater significance of effects - construction ................ 277 Vol 21 Table 13.6.1 Groundwater impacts and magnitudes during operation ....... 279 Vol 21 Table 13.6.2 Groundwater - receptor values/sensitivities - construction .... 279 Vol 21 Table 13.6.3 Groundwater significance of effects - operation..................... 280 Vol 21 Table 13.8.1 Groundwater summary of construction assessment .............. 282 Vol 21 Table 13.8.2 Groundwater summary of operation assessment .................. 283 Vol 21 Table 14.4.1 Surface water - identification of receptors.............................. 288 Vol 21 Table 14.5.1 Groundwater summary assessment - construction................ 296 Vol 21 Table 14.5.2 Surface water significance of effects - construction ............... 299 Vol 21 Table 14.6.1 Surface water impact assessment - operation ....................... 302 Vol 21 Table 14.8.1 Surface water summary of construction assessment ............ 307 Vol 21 Table 14.8.2 Surface water summary of operational assessment .............. 307 Vol 21 Table 15.4.1 Flood risk existing/post development runoff rates onsite .... 319

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List of abbreviations AADT ACE AM AOD APZ AQEG AQMA AQO ARS ASR ASSI ATC ATD AURN BAP BGS BMWP BOD BPIP BPM BS CABE CAMS CCI CCSS CCTV CDA CEMP CIRIA CLR CoCP CoPA CROW Annual Average Daily Traffic Arts Culture and Entertainment Morning Above Ordnance Datum Archaeological Priority Zone Air Quality Expert Group Air Quality Management Area Air Quality Objective Artificial Recharge Scheme Aquifer Storage and Recovery Area of Special Scientific Interest Automated Traffic Counter Above Tunnel Datum (defined at ~100m AOD) Automatic Urban and Rural Network Biodiversity Action Plan British Geological Survey Biological Monitoring Working Party Biochemical Oxygen Demand Building Profile Input Programme Best Practicable Means British Standard Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy Community Conservation Index Community Consultation Strategy Closed Circuit Television Critical Drainage Area Construction Environment Management Programmes Construction Industry Research and Information Association Contaminated Land Report Code of Construction Practice Control of Pollution Act Countryside and Rights of Way
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CSO dB dB LAeq,T

Combined Sewer Overflow Decibel a equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level having the same energy as a fluctuating sound over a specified time period T Department for Culture, Media and Sport Development Consent Order Department for Communities and Local Government Department for Culture media and Sport Department of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Department for Transport Development Management Plan Development Management Policies Document Design Manual for Roads and Bridges Dissolved Oxygen Development Plan Document Digital Terrain Mapping Environment Agency European Commission Ecological Impact Assessment Estimated Vibration Dose Value European Economic Area Environment Food and Rural Affairs Committee English Heritage Environmental Health Officer Environmental Impact Assessment European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme English Nature Environment Protection Agency Earth Pressure Balance Earth Pressure Balance Machine Equality Impact Assessment Environmental Quality Standard Environmental Statement European Union Frequently Asked Questions
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DCMS DCO DCLG DCMS Defra DfT DMP DMPD DMRB DO DPD DTM EA EC EcIA eVDV EEA EFRA EH EHO EIA EMEP EN EPA EPB EPBM EqIA EQS ES EU FAQ

FIDOR FRA GARDIT GI GiGL GIS GLA GLHER GQA GSHP GWB GWMU H2S ha HA HDV HEA HER HGV HIA HIAB HPA HQ HRA HTC HWR IEEM IEMA IMD IPC Iron Age JNCC kg km

Frequency, Intensity, Duration, Offensiveness, Receptor Flood Risk Assessment General Aquifer Research Development and Investigation Team Ground Investigation Greenspace Information for Greater London Geographical Information System Greater London Authority Greater London Historic Environment Record General Quality Assessment (EA water quality classification) Ground Source Heat Pump Groundwater Body: distinct volume of groundwater within an aquifer or aquifers Ground Water Management Unit Hydrogen sulphide hectares Highways Authority Heavy Duty Vehicle Historic Environmental Assessment Historic Environment Record Heavy Goods Vehicle Health Impact Assessment Hydrauliska Industri AB Company Health Protection Agency Headquarter Habitats Regulations Assessment Hammersmith Town Centre Hazardous Waste Regulations (2005) Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment Index of Multiple Deprivation Infrastructure Planning Commission 600 BC AD 43 Joint Nature Conservation Committee kilograms kilometre
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kVA kW l/d l/s LA LAARC LAQM LAQN LB LBAP LDF LGV LHA LMB LNR loWR LSB LtB LTI LTT LUL LVMF m m AOD m ATD m/s MAGIC Mbgl MEICA Ml/d MoD MOL MOLA NE NESR

kilo watt amperes kilowatt litres per day litres per second Local Authority London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre Local Air Quality Management London Air Quality Network London Borough Local Biodiversity Action Plan Local Development Framework Light Goods Vehicle Local Highway Authority Lambeth Mottled Beds Local Nature Reserve List of Wastes Regulations 2005 Lower Shelly Beds Laminated Beds London Tideway Improvements London Tideway Tunnels London Underground Limited London View Management Framework metre metres above Ordinance Datum (see AOD) metres above temporary datum, (see ATD) metres per second Multi-Agency Geographic Information for the Countryside Metres below ground level Mechanical Electrical Instrumentation Controls Automation Megalitres per day (million litres per day) Ministry of Defence Metropolitan Open Land Museum of London Archaeology Natural England North East Storm Relief
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NCR NGR NMR NNR NO2 NOx NPPF NPS NRMM NSIP NSRA NTS OCU Ofwat OS OUE PAH PCB PEI PEIR PEL PICP PIP PLA PM PM10 PPC PPE PPG PPS PPV PRoW PS pSPA PWS

National Cycle Route National Grid Reference National Monuments Record National Nature Reserve Nitrogen dioxide Oxides of nitrogen National Planning Policy Framework National Policy Statement Non Road Mobile Machinery Nationally Significant Infrastructure Project National Small-bore Rifle Association Non Technical Summary Odour Control Unit The Water Services Regulations Authority Ordnance Survey European Odour Unit Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Polychlorinated Biphenyl Preliminary Environmental Information Preliminary Environmental Information Report Probable Effect Levels Pollution Incident Control Plan Project Information Paper Port of London Authority Afternoon Particles on the order of ~10 micrometers or less Pollution Prevention and Control Personal Protective Equipment Pollution Prevention Guidance Planning Policy Statement Peak Particle Velocity Public Rights of Way Pumping Station Potential Special Protected Area Public Water Supply
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RAMS RAMSAR RB RBKC RBMP RDB RHS RPG RSPB RDB RTC RTD SA SAC SAM SCI SCL SFRA SI SINC SMI SNCI SO2 SoCC SPA SPD S-P-R SPZ SR SRN SSR SSSI STW SUDS

Risk Assessment Method Statement The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Royal Borough Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea River Basin Management Plans Red Data Book Royal Horticultural Society Regional Planning Guidance Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Red data book Real Time Control River Terrace Deposits Sustainability Appraisal Special Area of Conservation Scheduled Ancient Monument. More commonly referred to as Scheduled Monument Statement of Community Involvement Sprayed Concrete Lining Strategic Flood Risk Assessment Statutory Instrument Site of Importance for Nature Conservation Site of Metropolitan Importance Site Nature Conservation Importance Sulphur dioxide Statement of Community Consultation Special Protection Area Supplementary Planning Document Source-pathway-receptor Source Protection Zone Storm Relief Strategic Road Network Site Suitability Report Site of Special Scientific Interest Sewage Treatment Works Sustainable (Urban) Drainage Systems
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SWMP SWMP t TA TAS TBC TBM TDP TEBP TEL TfL TFRM TH TLRN Tpa TPO TT TTQI TTSS TWU UDP UK UKHO UMB UPN UWWTD UWWTR UXO VDV VNEB OA WCA WEEE WFD WIA WRAP

waste - Site Waste Management Plan water Surface Water Management Plan tonne Transport Assessment Thames Archaeological Survey To be confirmed Tunnel Boring Machine Thames Discovery Programme Thames Estuary Benthic Programme Threshold Effect Levels Transport for London Tideway Fish Risk Model Tower Hamlets Transport for London Road Network tonnes per annum Tree Preservation Order Thames Tunnel Thames Tideway Quality Improvements Thames Tideway Strategic Study 2005 Thames Water Utilities Unitary Development Plan United Kingdom United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Upper Mottled Beds Upnor Formation Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Urban Waste Water Treatment Regulations Unexploded Ordnance Vibration Dose Value Vauxhall Nine Elms Battersea Opportunity Area Wildlife and Countryside Act Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive Water Framework Directive Water Industry Act 1991 Waste Resources Action Programme
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WSI WWT ZTV ZVI

Written Scheme of Investigation Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust Zone of Theoretical Visibility Zone of Visual Influence

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore

Section 1: Introduction

1
1.1.1 1.1.2

Introduction
This volume presents the preliminary environmental information for the Thames Tunnel proposals at Blackfriars Bridge foreshore. This document reports the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant environmental effects of the Thames Tunnel project at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore. The planned activities to assist in completing the environmental impact assessment (EIA) include: a. conclude baseline environmental surveys b. confirm final design, informed by, amongst other things, feedback from public consultation c. undertake design of possible mitigation to address adverse effects.

1.1.3

Once complete, the findings of the EIA will be reported in full in the Environmental Statement which will be submitted with the consent application. This volume describes the site and environmental context in Section 2. The proposed development including construction and operation is described in Section 3. The design evolution for this site is set out in Section 3.4. Finally Section 3.5 refers to other development schemes which have been submitted or with extant planning approval within or in proximity to the site. The development at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore would link the existing northern low level sewer No.1 and the Fleet Main CSO through a CSO drop shaft to the main tunnel. The Fleet Main storm relief sewer CSO currently discharges approximately 20 times a year at approximately 521,100m3 per year. A description of the Thames Tunnel project is included in Volume 2. This includes the planning context for the project as well as local planning policies relevant to this site. The alternatives which have been considered are described in Volume 3. Scoping and technical engagement is covered in Volume 4, while Volume 5 sets out the technical assessment methodology. A project-wide assessment is provided in Volume 6. The remaining Volumes 7 to 28 contain the site specific assessments.

1.1.4

1.1.5

1.1.6

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore

Section 2: Site Context

2 2.1
2.1.1

Site context Site location


The site is located in the City of London. It comprises the River Thames foreshore to the west of the road bridge (A201), sections of the Victoria Embankment slip road up to Blackfriars Bridge and areas of the pavement along Victoria Embankment and Pauls Walk covering an area of approximately 2.9ha. The site is shown in Vol 21 Figure 2.1.1. Vol 21 Figure 2.1.1 Site location plan (see Volume 21 Figures document)

2.1.2

The site is bounded to the north by the A3211 (Victoria Embankment/ Blackfriars Underpass / Upper Thames Street), beyond which are multistorey office buildings, and to the east by the River Thames with Blackfriars Bridge and the Blackfriars Station railway bridge. To the south of the site is the River Thames, and beyond this, commercial and residential blocks within the London Borough (LB) of Southwark. To the west of the site is the River Thames and a disused river mooring, Chrysanthemum Pier. Access to the site is from the Blackfriars Bridge junction, from the westbound off-slip road to Victoria Embankment. Blackfriars Station, located approximately 120m northeast of the site provides access to both National Rail and London Underground services (Circle and District lines). The Thames Path National Trail Public Right of Way (PRoW) runs through the site along the footpaths of Victoria Embankment and Pauls Walk. The majority of the site is on the River Thames foreshore. The Blackfriars Millennium Pier and the vessel President are also located within the site area. There is also some hardstanding associated with the footpaths of Victoria Embankment and Pauls Walk, which carries a designation of City Walkway.

2.1.3

2.1.4

2.1.5 2.1.6

2.2
2.2.1

Environmental context
Environmental designations for the site and immediate surrounds are shown in Vol 21 Figure 2.2.1. Vol 21 Figure 2.2.1 Environmental setting (see Volume 21 Figures document)

2.2.2 2.2.3

The site is predominantly located within the River Thames and Tidal Tributaries Site of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINC). With regard to historical designations, Blackfriars Bridge is Grade 2 listed. The embankment wall with cast iron lamp standards on Victoria Embankment is also Grade 2 listed. The site lies within the Whitefriars Conservation Area and also in the City of London Archaeological Priority Area. The avenue of trees lining Victoria Embankment to the west of the site terminates within the western boundary of the site to allow clear

2.2.4

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore

Section 2: Site Context

panoramas from the other side of the river, towards St Pauls Cathedral (responding to the requirements of the London View Management Framework). There are no other trees on or in the immediate vicinity of the site. 2.2.5 The Thames Path, (a PRoW) runs along the northern boundary of the site along the footpaths of Victoria Embankment and Pauls Walk. The site is also within a protected strategic view of St Pauls Cathedral and River Prospects from Blackfriars Bridge and the South Bank. The site is located in the City of London Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) which is a Borough-wide designation in relation to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10). The main noise sources in the area are road traffic on Victoria Embankment/ Blackfriars Underpass / Upper Thames Street (A3211) and on Blackfriars Bridge, and trains going to/ from Blackfriars Station across Blackfriars Rail Bridge (located immediately east of the road bridge). There is considered to be a low potential for contamination at the site. Local geology comprises 6m of superficial deposits and made ground, 27m of London Clay (unproductive strata), 14m of Lambeth Group (secondary aquifer) and 12m of Thanet Sand (secondary aquifer). The site is located within the River Thames and hence is considered to be functional flood plain (Flood Zone 3b).

2.2.6

2.2.7

2.2.8

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore

Section 3: Overview of proposed development

3 3.1
3.1.1

Proposed development Overview


The development at Blackfriars Bridge would link the existing northern low level sewer No.1 and the Fleet Main CSO through a CSO drop shaft to the Thames Tunnel. Plans of construction and permanent works plans are provided: Vol 21 Figure 3.1.1 Demolition and site clearance plan Vol 21 Figure 3.1.2 Construction phasing plan - site setup Vol 21 Figure 3.1.3 Construction phasing plan - shaft construction Vol 21 Figure 3.1.4 Construction - construction of other structures Vol 21 Figure 3.1.5 Construction phasing plan - replacement pier Vol 21 Figure 3.1.6 Permanent works layout 1 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.7 Permanent works layout 2 Vol 21 Figure 3.1.8 Permanent works layout 3 (see Volume 21 Figures document)

3.1.2

Construction is scheduled to commence in mid 2017 (year 1) and be completed by 2022, taking approximately five years. Early works, such as utility connections and diversions and the relocation of Blackfriars Millennium Pier and the vessel President may be undertaken in advance of the main works. The site would be operational in 2023. Further detail of the programme is described in Section 3.3. The following lists the structures required at this site: a. a drop shaft b. an underground overflow weir chamber to the northern Low Level Sewer No.1with ground level access cover(s) c. underground valve chamber d. underground connection culvert linked to the Fleet CSO e. underground high pressure release chamber with ground level access cover(s) f. air management structures comprising an underground passive filter chamber and five above ground ventilation columns

3.1.3

g. underground culverts for ventilation of the shaft and pits and ducts for cables and hydraulic pipelines h. two above ground electrical and control kiosks i. permanent restoration of the temporary construction site comprising levelling, infilling and making good, and landscaping works to incorporate maintenance vehicle hardstanding and access to chamber covers

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Further details of these elements are given in Section 3.2 where these are relevant to the technical assessments that follow. The following construction related elements would be required: a. the placement and removal of a temporary barge grid/campshed on the foreshore b. gates to site entrance and exit c. hoardings and other means of enclosure, barrier or screening d. office, welfare and security accommodation and facilities e. workshops and stores f. plant and machinery g. power generation plant and lighting h. highways access, internal site roads and vehicle turning areas i. j. material storage and handling areas and treatment facilities including bentonite plant steel reinforcement preparation area

3.1.6

Further details of these methods and the relevant phases are given in Section 3.2 where these are relevant to the technical assessments that follow.

3.2
3.2.1

Operation
Once developed the project would divert the majority of current CSO discharges via the CSO shaft and connection tunnel to the main tunnel for conveyance and treatment at Beckton Sewage Treatment Works (STW). The number of CSO discharges would be reduced from 20 spill events a year to approximately 4 times a year at an average rate of approximately 36,800m3 per year.

Permanent structures
3.2.2 A plan of the permanent structures is provided in Vol 21 Figure 3.1.6 to Vol 21 Figure 3.1.8. The area of operational land required by the project is less than that required for the construction phase. The land which is not required for operational purposes would be returned to the original owner on completion of the works. Once constructed and operational there would remain on site the structures listed in the following sections. The operational structure at the site would be constructed within the reclaimed foreshore area behind the new river wall, which would be granite clad. There would be a new paved surface mainly at existing embankment level with areas at a higher level around the river side of the site and to the north-east where the site adjoins the down ramp from the bridge. The design and finishing proposed for the above ground features would be further developed during the period up to the submission.

3.2.3 3.2.4

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Shaft
3.2.5 The CSO drop shaft would have an internal diameter of 24m. The shaft would be approximately 53m deep. The Blackfriars Bridge shaft would be constructed on the line of the main tunnel that would run from Kirtling Street to Chambers Wharf, a full description of this tunnel is provided in Volume 3. The shaft would be finished to the existing embankment level. A parapet wall would extend approximately 1m above this at the east of the site and a raised paved area with balustrade extending approximately an additional 2m above the existing embankment level at the west of the site. There would be covers on top of the shaft to allow access and inspection. There would be high pressure air release and air inlet structures on top of the shaft.

3.2.6

3.2.7

Interception chambers and culverts


3.2.8 The overflow weir chamber, culverts, valves, passive filter chamber, air inlet and high pressure air release damper chambers and overflow chamber would be below ground. There would be covers on top of the chambers to allow access and inspection.

Tunnel
3.2.9 There will be no tunnelling from the site as the CSO shaft will be online with the main tunnel from Kirtling Street to Chambers Wharf.

Ventilation structures
3.2.10 Five 4m high ventilation columns would sit on top of the raised paved area at the west end of the site. These would release air which has passed through a below ground passive filter and allow air inlet for the ventilation of the tunnel. A below ground plenum with weighted louvers would control the inlet and exhaust of air. Two 6m high ventilation columns are located to the east of the site and provide ventilation for the culverts.

Electrical and control kiosk


3.2.11 Electrical equipment would be housed within two new stone-faced kiosks constructed on top of the new paved area. One would be at the west end of the site and would be approximately 11m long by 2m wide by 1m high. The other would be 70m west of the bridge and would be approximately 13m long by 3m wide by 3m high.

Paved areas
3.2.12 The area above the structures would be finished with hardstanding to allow maintenance vehicle and crane access to the covers on top of the shaft. This hardstanding would form an extension to the Thames Path and would usually be publicly accessible, but Thames Water would retain a right of access over it and would install temporary security fencing on parts of it when the area is used for shaft access.

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Access and maintenance works


3.2.13 Access to the Blackfriars Bridge site would be via a new vehicular access from Victoria Embankment. This would be constructed at the foot of the down ramp from Blackfriars Bridge and would accessed from the ramp. The site would be accessible to the public by foot. Vehicular access to the area would be restricted by bollards which would be movable should vehicular access to the site be required. Access would be required for a light commercial vehicle on a three to six monthly maintenance schedule. This would be carried out during normal working hours and would take approximately half a day. There would be no aerial lighting. A layby would be constructed on the Victoria Embankment footpath in front of the vehicular access to allow the maintenance vehicle to park without having to access the site. Additionally once every ten years, more significant maintenance work would be carried out. This would be carried out in normal working hours. Two cranes would be required for these visits. There would also be a need to make visits to the site for unplanned maintenance or repairs, for example, if a blockage or equipment failure were to occur.

3.2.14

3.2.15

3.2.16

3.2.17

3.3
3.3.1

Construction
The construction work at Blackfriars would largely be constructed within the foreshore adjacent to (and extending beneath) Blackfriars Bridge and through the existing river wall. To facilitate main construction, enabling works will be required within the carriageway and to the east side of Blackfriars Bridge to relocate existing facilities. Vol 21 Figure 3.1.1 to Vol 21 Figure 3.1.4 show the demolition and site clearance and construction phasing to be undertaken at the site. The methods, order and timing of the construction work outlined herewith are indicative only, but representative of a practical method to construct the works and suitable upon which to base this report. It is recognised that, following further design development and selection of contractors, alternate methodology and scheduling may be proposed. The following sections describe: a. construction works including construction of the shaft, tunnel and CSO interception and processes and working methods to be applied b. access and movement c. construction programme and working hours.

3.3.2

3.3.3

Construction works
3.3.4 The following physical construction works are described: a. demolition and site setup (see Vol 21 Figure 3.1.1 and Vol 21 Figure 3.1.2) b. shaft construction (see Vol 21 Figure 3.1.3)

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construction of other structures (Vol 21 Figure 3.1.4).

All works would be undertaken in accordance with the Thames Tunnel Code of Construction Practice (a draft is appended to Volume 2) The CoCP sets out a series of measures to protect the environment and limit disturbance from construction activities as far as reasonably practicable These measures would be applied throughout the construction process at this site and any measures particularly relevant to particular phases of construction are highlighted below. Site setup One tree to the west of the site on Victoria Embankment would require removal in advance of the works (see Vol 21 Figure 3.1.1). Parts of the site are currently occupied by businesses and a specialist sports club which would need to be relocated. This includes relocation of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier from its current position to a new location east of Blackfriars Bridge. Prior to any works commencing the site boundary would be established and secured. The boundary would be built to an appropriate height for the site. Welfare and office facilities would also be set up. Telecommunications, water and power supplies to the site would be established by connecting to local services on Victoria Embankment. As the site is within the River Thames foreshore a cofferdam would need to be constructed. This would be formed by sheet piling techniques serviced largely from the river by a jack up barge. For the purpose of this assessment it is assumed that the piles would be driven using silent piling techniques. The cofferdam would be filled with a granular material to existing road level. The bulk of this material would be transported by barge and unloaded by excavators within the cofferdam. The outer wall of the cofferdam would be raised to flood defence level. To create additional site area within the foreshore a piled deck would be constructed by installing driven tubular piles from the jack up barge and decking with steel and timber.

3.3.7

3.3.8 3.3.9

3.3.10

3.3.11

3.3.12 3.3.13

Shaft construction
3.3.14 Plant and material storage areas, waste skips, muck bin and delivery vehicle turning areas would be established. Cranes, diaphragm wall rig, bentonite silos, water tanks, mixing pan, compressor, air receptor, excavator and dumper for excavated material handling are among the items of plant that would all be required on site. The shaft would be constructed by diaphragm wall construction techniques and have a cast in situ secondary lining. The first stage in the construction of each section of diaphragm wall would be the excavation and setting of inner and outer guide walls. These guide walls would retain the ground and allow excavation for the diaphragm walls between them. During excavation the void is filled with bentonite for

3.3.15 3.3.16

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ground support; on completion of excavation steel bar reinforcement cages are lowered in before concrete is pumped into the wall and the bentonite displaced. This process is repeated for each panel which creates the full circle of the shaft. 3.3.17 The diaphragm wall would be taken to a depth suitable to reduce the flow of water into the shaft. Grouting at the toe of the diaphragm wall may also be required to reduce the flow of water. The size of the diaphragm wall panels would require an extended working day to enable the pour to be completed. This would be agreed with the local authority in advance. The shaft excavation commences after the diaphragm walls are complete with the guide walls being broken out, and the shaft excavated exposing the walls. The excavator would load shaft skips hoisted by crawler crane, depositing the excavated material within the excavated material handling area. A steel reinforced concrete base plug would be formed at the base of the shaft. The size of the concrete base slab would require an extended working day to enable the pour to be completed. This would be agreed with the local authority in advance. The shaft would be excavated through water bearing ground and dewatering would be required at the site. For the shaft dewatering wells would be drilled from the surface (external to the shaft). These pumps would be operational during shaft construction. Dewatering would also be required during the construction of the other structures for the interception works. Grouting would be required either side of the shaft to facilitate tunnel boring machine (TBM) break in/ break out. This would consist of a block of treated ground, external to the shaft. Ground treatment would also be required during the interception and CSO works and to the base of the existing river wall.

3.3.18

3.3.19

3.3.20

3.3.21

3.3.22 3.3.23

3.3.24

Tunnelling
3.3.25 As Blackfriars shaft is online with the main tunnel drive, there is no connection tunnel to be constructed. However a temporary cradle would be constructed to receive the TBM from Kirtling Street and re-launch to Chambers Wharf. Tunnel portals with launch and reception seals would be formed in the shaft lining. The portals would consist of cast in-situ concrete portal with seals tied to the shaft lining.

3.3.26

Construction of other structures


3.3.27 The existing storm relief sewers that outfall to the River Thames under the Blackfriars Road bridge would be extended to the eastern end of the site, maintaining flows during the works. These would be fully enclosed with flap valves fitted to prevent tidal surcharge.

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An interception chamber and culvert would intercept the northern Low Level Sewer No.1 running along the embankment. Secant and sheet pile walls would be used to provide ground support within which the overflow weir chamber walls would be constructed. Ground treatment and dewatering is anticipated. To enable this to be constructed the down ramp from Blackfriars Bridge will be closed, partially removed and reinstated on completion. Existing telecommunications cables located in the footpath and carriageway in the ramp would be protected and suspended above the working area. The overflow weir chamber would be excavated exposing the sewer. The sewer would be internally lined and supported during excavation. Localised submersible pumps within the chamber would be utilised to manage ground water ingress. The pumps would discharge to the sewer or Thames after being treated through a settlement system. The walls of the overflow weir chamber would be formed by in situ concrete techniques. Ready mixed concrete will be delivered to site from external supplier and either pumped or skipped to the chamber. The main shaft will have internal secondary lining and internal structures constructed in a similar manner. On completion the site area would be reinstated and above ground structures finished.

3.3.30

3.3.31

3.3.32

3.3.33 3.3.34

Access and movement


3.3.35 For the purposes of this report one vehicle movement is defined as a vehicle either accessing or egressing the site. For the purposes of construction logistics, site traffic is measured in units of lorries or barges where one lorry/barge is equivalent to a single lorry/barge accessing and then egressing the site. The highest lorry movements at the site would occur during the shaft construction when excavated material would be removed from the site by road. The peak daily vehicle movements, averaged over a one month period, would be 70 heavy goods vehicles (HGV) movements per day. The highest barge movements would occur during the cofferdam construction when 90% of imported material for the cofferdam would be brought to the site by barge. Peak daily barge movements, averaged over a one month period, would be approximately six barge movements per day. 90% of excavated material from the cofferdam would also be removed by barge after construction. The site access point is via a left turn into the site from Victoria Embankment at the foot of the down ramp from Blackfriars Bridge and the egress is a left turn back out onto Victoria Embankment. During construction the access would be overseen by a site security guard. A traffic management plan for the site will be prepared.

3.3.36

3.3.37

3.3.38

3.3.39

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Reinstatement and commissioning


3.3.40 Once the main elements of construction are completed, the final landscaping works will be undertaken including final treatments and surfaces, planting and installation of street furniture. Testing and commissioning would also be undertaken once construction is complete. For the purposes of this report, completion of the commissioning stage represents the end of construction and the commencement of the operational development.

3.3.41

Construction programme and working hours


Construction programme 3.3.42 Construction activity would peak during two main periods: concrete pours for the diaphragm walls of the shaft and construction of the overflow weir chamber and culverts. Construction at this site is anticipated to take approximately five years and would involve the following steps (with some overlaps): a. Year 1 to 2 - Site setup (approximately 17 months) b. Year 2 - Shaft construction (approximately 13 months) c. Year 3 to 5 - Construction of other structures (approximately 26 months)

3.3.43

d. Year 5 - Completion of works and site restoration (approximately 7 months). e. System-wide commissioning would take place following site restoration and is not included in the above programme. Working hours 3.3.44 The following working hours set out in the table below would apply for the construction at this site. Vol 21 Table 3.3.1 Working hours Key activities Core working hours Mobilisation period Hours 08:00 to 18:00 Weekdays 08:00 to 13:00 Saturdays Up to 1 hour before and after the Core Working Hours 07:00 to 08:00 and 18:00 to 19:00 Weekdays 07:00 to 08:00 and 13:00 to 14:00 Saturday Maintenance and support period 13:00 to 17:00 Saturdays 10:00 to 16:00 Sundays

Major concrete works, inc diaphragm wall and base slab

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Extended standard hours up to 22.00 weekdays. A limited number of extensions will be required for major concrete pours.

3.4
3.4.1

Design development and on site alternatives


The design presented here was completed in advance of the completion of all surveys and technical studies. The final design may alter significantly in response to this as well as feedback from phase two consultation. What follows is a description of how the design has developed with the information available at the time. The design of the proposals has developed since phase one consultation as described in the table below. Vol 21 Table 3.4.1 Design development at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Design development Works to be located further to the west Area of projecting structure increased and drop shaft diameter increased from 20m to approximately 24m Blackfriars Millennium Pier to be relocated to Paus Walk permanently, rather than temporarily Width of projecting structure has increased Reason Reduce potential effects on the Waterloo and City line tunnel and river flows under Blackfriars Bridge A hydraulic requirement established as a result of physical modelling of the drop shaft

3.4.2

Drop shaft diameter increase means that the works extends further out from the river wall, so the pier would be in the navigation channel if located here Connection to the northern Low Level Sewer No.1 is moved to avoid utilities so requires its own connection culvert which would run parallel to the Fleet Main CSO connection culvert

No ventilation building but Modified project-wide Air management more ventilation columns Plan 3.4.3 Further information on how the design has evolved at this site is included in the Design Development Report, which is also available as part of phase two consultation. Design development information, and the reasons for the choice of the final design at this site, including environmental design factors, will also be provided in the ES.

3.4.4

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3.5
3.5.1

Base case
The assessment undertaken for this site takes account of relevant development projects which have been submitted or with extant planning permission. Because of the other developments the future environmental conditions within and around this site irrespective of the Thames Tunnel are likely to change. This is termed the base case. The Lee Tunnel and the Thames Tideway Quality Improvement (TTQI) projects (improvement works at Mogden, Beckton, Crossness, Long Reach and Riverside Sewage Treatment Works) will be operational by the time construction of the Thames Tunnel commences. The base case would therefore be the water quality in the Tideway with the TTQI projects and the Lee Tunnel in place. As a result, by 2021 discharge from the CSO at the site will be 571,200m3 with 23 spills. The projected spill volumes and spill frequencies for the baseline conditions for the Thames Tunnel would still not be a sufficient level of CSO control to meet the UWWTD (see also Volume 2, Section 2.6). It is assumed that the redevelopment of Blackfriars Station will be finished and the local roads and footpaths realigned (2015-2020). There will be a separate station entrance on the South Bank. The developer at No.1 Puddle Dock may imminently sign a S106 to the planning permission for a redevelopment, likely to be a hotel (awaiting details from City of London). Bridge House (181 Queen Victoria Street) had planning permission granted in 2005 for office redevelopment that will significantly increase floor space to a total of 4500sqm. It is likely that this permission will have lapsed. An application for the proposed Thames River Park from Paul's Walk to Three Cranes Walk and from Hanseatic Walk to Water Lane was submitted to the City of London in July 2011 and is awaiting determination. Details of the scheme are being reviewed however the proposal has not been included in the base case for the assessment to date.

3.5.2

3.5.3

3.5.4

3.5.5

3.5.6

3.5.7

3.5.8

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4 4.1
4.1.1

Air quality and odour Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant air quality and odour effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. The proposed development has the potential to affect air quality and odour due to: a. Construction traffic on the road (air quality). b. Temporary closure of lanes during construction (air quality). c. Emissions from barges (air quality). d. Emissions from plant (air quality). e. Construction-generated dust (air quality). f. Operation of the tunnel (odour).

4.1.2

4.1.3

Each of these is considered within the assessment. This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment, and sets out what will be provided in the ES when the full assessment is available. Operational air quality effects from transport have been scoped out of the assessment due to the very limited number of maintenance visits required and hence the low number of vehicular movements.

4.1.4

4.2
4.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to air quality and odour are as follows.

Construction
Road traffic 4.2.2 During the proposed construction period, there would be road traffic movements in and out of the site in addition to the movement of some materials by barge. The highest number of lorry movements at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site would occur during shaft construction (Year 2 of construction). The peak number of vehicle movements at that time would be 70 lorry movements per day averaged over a one month period. These traffic effects are based on 90% of cofferdam fill, in and out, being transported by barge with the remaining movements by road. The construction traffic routes for the key material supply stages, traffic management and access to the site are detailed in Section 12. River barges 4.2.4 It is anticipated that approximately 90% of cofferdam fill material would be transported by barges with a mooring area for barges of up to 1,000t capacity located to the west of the site. The peak number of barge movements would be six barges a day averaged over a one month period.

4.2.3

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There are a number of items of plant to be used on site that may produce emissions that could affect local air quality. Construction dust Activities with the potential to give rise to dust emissions from the proposed development during construction are as follows: a. Site preparation and establishment b. Demolition of existing infrastructure and buildings (not significant at this site) c. Materials handling.

4.2.6

4.2.7

The potential for these processes to impact at sensitive receptors is dependent on many factors including the following: a. Location of the construction site b. Proximity of sensitive receptors c. Whether demolition will take place d. Extent of demolition e. Nature, location and size of stockpiles and length of time they are on site f. Occurrence and scale of dust generating activities; necessity for on site concrete crusher or cement batcher

g. Number and type of vehicles and plant required on site h. Potential for dirt or mud to be made airborne through vehicle movements i. 4.2.8 Weather conditions. The Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site comprises two construction sites the main construction site and the new pier location to the east of the bridge. A separate construction dust assessment is undertaken for each of the sites. Appropriate dust and emission control measures are included in the draft CoCP in accordance with the London Councils Best Practice Guidance 1. Measures incorporated into the CoCP to reduce air quality impacts include measures in relation to vehicle and plant emissions, measures to reduce dust formation and resuspension, measures to control dust present and to reduce particulate emissions. These would be observed across all phases of demolition and construction.

4.2.9

Operation
4.2.10 A below ground chamber would house the odour control unit (OCU) comprising of a passive filter that would treat 2m3/s. The maximum air release rate during a typical year is expected to be 1.5m3/s, which is well within the capacity of the OCU. Air would be released from the ventilation column for an average of 24 hours per year in the typical year scenario, all

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of which would have passed through the OCU. For the remaining hours, no air would be released. 4.2.11 This information on the ventilation structures provided input data to the dispersion model used to assess odour dispersion at the site.

4.3
4.3.1

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. All consultee comments relevant to this site and topic are presented in the table below. Vol 21 Table 4.3.1 Air quality and odour - stakeholder engagement Organisation Comment City of The odour impact beyond London the immediate vicinity of the site at Blackfriars should be considered. Of particular concern is the impact during operation of the odours emanating from other parts of the sewer network. Ideally the EIA scoping should include investigation of mitigation for existing sewer related odours or at the very least provide evidence that such odours will not be worsen during the operation of the Thames Tunnel. City of London Assess the potential for construction traffic to lead to an exceedance of the PM10 24 hour AQO along Upper / Lower Thames St and Victoria Embankment. May require extra controls over emissions of PM10 from construction vehicles here (ie, latest Euro standards for HGVs and LGVs). All nonroad mobile machinery should meet Stage IIIA emissions criteria. Response Odour modelling will generally be carried out for an area of around 500m from the vent at a resolution of 5m. It is not expected that odours from existing sewers would worsen with the Tunnel, because the operation of the Tunnel is designed to stop the overflows going into the Thames, not to alter the operation of the sewers.

Dispersion modelling will assess the potential impacts of the construction phase at all proposed sites for the relevant short- and long-term NO2 and PM10 air quality objectives. In line with the predicted impacts of the construction phase from both road traffic and on-site activities, proportional mitigation would be applied. Additionally, a CoCP is being drawn up for the project that will be agreed through consultation with all relevant local

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Section 4: Air quality and odour Response authorities. All NRMM would meet the criteria set out in the Non-Road Mobile Machinery (Emission of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants) (Amendment) Regulations 2006. The proposed vent sites were selected after careful consideration of a wide range of factors such as location of the CSOs, tunnel engineering factors, land availability, access to the site for construction, sensitivity of land use and size of site. The tunnel is not expected to affect discharges from existing vents. The control of potential odours during the construction works are dealt with in the CoCP. Locations agreed with Environmental Policy Officer. No odour complaints made to City of London near Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site in recent years; confirmed by Technical Officer.

City of London

Odour concern over smell nuisance escaping from the works and the possibilities of increased smell/odour loads on City sewers from the works on the TWU trunk sewers. Sewer vents need to be installed in locations where odours will not be a further problem. New trunk sewers would most likely have an impact on our low level vents in the roads as these are the current positions for TWU trunk sewer to vent. Monitoring locations

City of London

Odour complaints

Baseline
4.3.2 The baseline methodology follows the standard methodology described in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Construction
4.3.3 The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology described in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

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Operation
4.3.4 The operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology described in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Assumptions and limitations


4.3.5 It has been assumed that background odour concentrations are negligible. This assumption will be supported by baseline hydrogen sulphide monitoring currently being undertaken at all sites (in August 2011 with repeat monitoring to be undertaken in autumn 2011).

4.4

Baseline conditions Local air quality


Pollutant concentrations

4.4.1 4.4.2

The current conditions with regard to local air quality are best established through long-term air quality monitoring. As part of their duties under Part IV of the Environment Act 1995, local authorities, especially in urban areas where air quality is a significant issue, undertake long-term air quality monitoring within their administrative areas. The City of London Corporation presently has four continuous monitoring stations and three diffusion tubes which collect data pertinent to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. The NO2 monitoring data are listed in Vol 21 Table 4.4.1 and the PM10 monitoring data are listed in Vol 21 Table 4.4.2 for the years 2007 to 2010. Vol 21 Table 4.4.1 Air quality - NO2 concentrations Annual Mean (g/m3)

4.4.3

Monitoring Site

Site Type

Number of Exceedances of Hourly Standard


2010* 2009 2008 2007

2010 *

2009

2008

2007

Continuous Monitoring Sites Senator House (CT1) Sir John Cass School (CT3) Walbrook Wharf (CT6) Beech Street (CT4) Urban Background Urban Background Roadside Roadside 51 55 116 N/A 48 56 131 90 49 55 128 85 48 54 108+ 90 1 4 570 N/A 0 2 951 189 0 0 866 106 2 0 184+ 302

Diffusion Tube Monitoring Sites Queen Roadside 61 67 75 69 NM

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Section 4: Air quality and odour Number of Exceedances of Hourly Standard


2010* 2009 2008 2007

Annual Mean (g/m3)

2010 *

2009

2008

2007

Victoria Street (CL38) St Dunstans, Fleet Street (CL39) St Bartholomew s Hospital (CL05) Roadside 88 102 82 108 NM

Urban Centre

43

43

43

50

NM

* 2010 data not fully ratified. + Data capture of 46%. NM indicates not measured. N/A indicates not 3 available. Emboldened figures indicate an exceedance of the objective / limit value which is 40g/m 3 for the annual mean and 200g/m for the hourly mean which can be exceeded 18 times per year.

4.4.4

The NO2 monitoring indicates that all seven sites are measuring exceedances of the annual mean NO2 standard (40g/m3) and two of the four sites (Walbrook Wharf and Beech Street both roadside sites) measuring hourly NO2 concentrations indicate exceedances of the NO2 hourly standard over recent years. Vol 21 Table 4.4.2 Air quality - PM10 concentrations Annual Mean (g/m3)

Monitoring Site Upper Thames Street (CT8) Sir John Cass School (CT3) Beech Street (CT4)

Site Type

Number of Exceedances of Daily Standard

2010* 2009 2008 2007 2010* 2009 2008 2007 Roadside 36 Urban Backgroun d Roadside 36 32 35+ 52 44 42 33+

26

27

26

31^

10

11

15

31^

N/A

28

26

34

N/A

23

20

60

* 2010 data not fully ratified. + Data capture of 57%. ^ Data capture of 81%. NM indicates not measured. N/A indicates not available. Embolden figures indicate an exceedance of 3 3 the objective which is 40g/m for the annual mean and 50g/m for the daily mean which can be exceeded 35 times per year.

4.4.5

The PM10 monitoring indicates that none of the three sites have measured exceedances of the annual mean PM10 standard (40g/m3) over recent years. However, two of the three sites have shown exceedances of the PM10 daily standard over the past four years.

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Section 4: Air quality and odour

As a result of these exceedances in 2010 and in previous years, the City of London Corporation has declared an AQMA for NO2 and PM10. This AQMA covers the whole authority. In addition to this local authority monitoring, diffusion tube monitoring has been set up as part of the project to monitor NO2 concentrations in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This monitoring comprises four diffusion tubes based at the locations detailed in Vol 21 Table 4.4.3. A triplicate site has been established next to a continuous monitoring station in Putney for bias adjustment purposes; otherwise all the monitoring locations have single tubes. All identified existing and new sites relating to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site (as well as other sites where they are in close proximity) are shown in the table below. Vol 21 Figure 4.4.1 Air quality monitoring locations (see Volume 21 Figures document) Vol 21 Table 4.4.3 Air quality - additional monitoring locations Monitoring Site A201 Blackfriars Bridge (Bfrs 1) A3211 Victoria Embankment (Bfrs 2) A201 New Bridge Street 2 (Bfrs 3) A201 New Bridge Street 1 (Bfrs 4) Grid Reference 531667, 180488 531398, 180840 531658, 181056 531631, 181282

4.4.7

4.4.8

This monitoring will be used in conjunction with existing local authority monitoring to provide the baseline situation and also provide input to model verification. A full baseline will be reported in the ES. In addition to monitoring data, an indication of baseline pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of the site can also be obtained from looking at background data on the air quality section of the Defra website where mapped background pollutant concentrations are available for each 1km by 1km grid square within every local authoritys administrative area for the years 2008 and 2020 2. The background data relating to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site are given in the table below for 2010 (baseline year). Vol 21 Table 4.4.4 Air quality - background pollutant concentrations Pollutant NOX (g/m3) NO2 (g/m ) PM10 (g/m ) Receptors
3 3

4.4.9

2010 82.6 45.7 22.3

Note: annual mean for 1km grid square centred on 531500, 181500

4.4.10

The nearest sensitive receptors to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site are offices and commercial properties which are within 20m. There is also

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the Crowne Plaza hotel on the corner of New Bridge Street and Watergate, approximately 120m north of the site and the proposed hotel development at No. 1 Puddle Dock (within 100m of the site). The nearest residential receptors are 240m away at River Court on the south bank of the river. 4.4.11 All these receptors are relevant, albeit to different levels of sensitivity, to the emissions sources identified in the local air quality assessment. The sensitivity of identified receptors has been determined using the criteria detailed in Volume 5 this identifies their sensitivity in relation to both local air quality and dust nuisance, as shown in the table below and described in the text that follows. These receptors are relevant to the assessment of emissions from construction road traffic, river barges and construction plant, as well as the assessment of construction dust. Vol 21 Table 4.4.5 Air quality - construction receptors Receptors (relating to all identified emissions sources) Residential properties Value/sensitivity and justification

Exposure relevant to annual mean and daily mean standards. High sensitivity to local air quality. Medium sensitivity to dust nuisance. Not relevant with regard to ambient air quality standards due to occupational nature of the activities. Low sensitivity to local air quality. Medium sensitivity to dust nuisance. Exposure not relevant with regard to annual mean unless there are people who live at the hotel permanently. Exposure is relevant for the daily mean and hourly mean standards. Medium sensitivity to local air quality. Medium sensitivity to dust nuisance.

Commercial/offices

Crowne Plaza Hotel and 1 Puddle Dock

Odour
4.4.12 There have been no odour complaints to the local authority in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site in recent years. It is noted that there have however been complaints about sewer odours from existing sewers in other parts of the City 3. Complaint data from the Thames Water odour database is currently being interrogated. The nearest sensitive receptors are described in para. 4.4.10. For the purposes of the odour assessment, the sensitivity of these receptors has been determined in accordance with the criteria in Volume 5 which indicates that the commercial/office buildings to the north are identified as being of medium sensitivity while the users of the river to the south are of low sensitivity as it is used as a transport route. A riverside footpath passes between the offices and the foreshore site where people could be

4.4.13

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exposed to odour from the vent this is of low sensitivity. The Crowne Plaza Hotel and residential properties are located too far away to be affected by any odour from the site and therefore are not recognised as receptors for the purpose of this assessment.

4.5
4.5.1

Construction assessment Construction base and development cases


The peak construction year (Year 2 of construction) is used as the year of assessment for construction effects (road transport, river barges, construction plant and construction dust) in which the development case will be assessed against the base case to identify likely significant effects for the Thames Tunnel project. The base case conditions for the construction assessment year will change from the current conditions due to modifications to the sources of the air pollution in the intervening period. For road vehicles, there will be a change in the penetration of new Euro standards to the fleet composition between the current situation and the future peak construction year. The uptake of newer vehicles with improved emission controls should lead to a reduction in existing NO2 and PM10 concentrations. However, the uptake of newer vehicles has not improved NO2 concentrations greatly in the last ten years in London, so as a worst case the NOx contribution from diesel vehicles has assumed to be the same for Euro 1 to 5 vehicles in line with Defra advice 4. Reduced emission factors from the introduction of Euro 6 vehicles in the future will reduce the base case concentrations when compared to the 2010 baseline. Other emissions sources should also reduce due to local and national policies. Therefore, the non-road sources of the background concentrations used in the modelling will be reduced in line with Defra guidance LAQM.TG(09) 5.

4.5.2

4.5.3

4.5.4

Construction assessment area


4.5.5 The assessment area for the local air quality study covers a square area of 700m by 600m centred on the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This assessment area is used for the assessment of road transport, river barges, construction plant and construction dust and has been selected on the basis of professional judgment to ensure that the effects of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site are fully assessed. A distance of 200m is generally considered sufficient to ensure that any significant effects are considered the selected assessment area exceeds this by some margin.

Construction effects
Emissions from road traffic 4.5.6 Road traffic is likely to affect local air quality in two ways: from emissions from the construction traffic; and from enhanced emissions from other road vehicles due to congestion or re-routing due to lane closures.

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A qualitative assessment of road traffic effects has been undertaken for this report. When traffic surveys are complete, a more detailed quantitative assessment using air quality modelling will be undertaken, the findings of which will be reported in the ES. Based on professional judgement for the purposes of this report, it is however predicted that the impacts due to construction traffic are expected to be small (ie, small magnitude of change according to the criteria detailed in Volume 5) due to the low number of additional lorries during construction in the context of the existing traffic flows on the local road network. The greatest impacts are likely to be during lane closures, which would cause congestion and require diversion of traffic. Given that the Crowne Plaza hotel / proposed No. 1 Puddle Dock and residential properties have a medium and high sensitivity to local air quality respectively (as identified in Section 4.4), the likely significance of the combined effect of construction traffic and traffic management due to lane closures is a minor adverse effect (according to the criteria detailed in Volume 5). At the commercial/office receptors, which have a low sensitivity to local air quality, the significance of effect would be negligible. Emissions from river barges River barges are only expected to be likely to affect local air quality through direct emissions from the tugs pulling them. During the peak construction year for the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site the peak number of barge movements would be six barges a day averaged over a one month period. However, data regarding the river barges and the operation of these barges are still being gathered and so modelling has not yet been possible (but will be completed for inclusion in the ES). Based on professional judgement for the purposes of this report, it is noted that the effects due to barge emissions are expected to be negligible (ie, negligible magnitude of change according to the criteria detailed in Volume 5) due to the low number of barges required during construction. At all receptors the likely significance of the barge emissions on local air quality is a negligible effect (according to the criteria in Volume 5). Emissions from plant Construction plant is likely to affect local air quality in two ways: from direct exhaust emissions; and from construction dust associated with the use and movement of the plant around the site. Emission factors are being assigned to each item of plant. More data are being gathered regarding the operation of these items of plant in terms of expected usage through the construction phase. A qualitative assessment has been undertaken. Modelling is currently being undertaken, the findings of which will be reported in the ES. Based on professional judgement for the purposes of this report it is noted that the impacts due to construction plant are expected to be small (ie, small magnitude of change according to the criteria in Volume 5), given

4.5.8

4.5.9

4.5.10 4.5.11

4.5.12

4.5.13

4.5.14

4.5.15

4.5.16 4.5.17

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the localised nature of the emissions (ie, emissions are only generated on the construction site). Compared to the traffic flows in the surrounding area, the amount of plant and their emissions are likely to have a negligible impact. 4.5.18 At the Crowne Plaza hotel / proposed No. 1 Puddle Dock and residential properties, which have a medium and high sensitivity to local air quality respectively, the likely significance of the effect is a minor adverse effect (according to the criteria detailed in Volume 5). At the office receptors, which have a low sensitivity to local air quality, the significance of effect would be negligible. Construction dust 4.5.19 4.5.20 Construction dust would be generated from both on-site activities and from road vehicles assessing and servicing the site. Dust sensitive receptors have been identified in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site in accordance with the criteria in Volume 5, as described in Vol 21 Table 4.4.5. In line with the London Councils guidance 6, the site has been categorised using the criteria given in Volume 5 which takes into account the area taken up by the development and the potential impact of the development on sensitive receptors close to the development. The site comprises two construction sites the main construction site and the new pier construction site. The specific site details relating to the sites with respect to the criteria set are: a. Sites would have maximum construction areas of approximately 22,800m2 (main construction site) and 6,200m2 (new pier construction site). b. The project is a non-residential development. c. 4.5.23 4.5.24 Main construction at the site would last approximately five years. d. There are likely intermittent impacts on identified sensitive receptors. On this basis, the development has been classified as a high risk site. Given that receptor sensitivity is identified as medium (as identified in Section 4.4) and the closest receptor of medium sensitivity (commercial/offices) is approximately 20m from the construction site boundary, the likely significance of the construction dust effects is deemed to be a moderate adverse effect (according to the criteria detailed in Volume 5) at these receptors. Effects are likely to be minor adverse at the Crowne Plaza hotel and negligible at the residential properties at River Court (south side of the river). These effects would be reduced by the implementation of the measures contained in the CoCP (see Section 4.2). This would result in a minor adverse effect at the commercial/office premises and negligible at all other receptors.

4.5.21

4.5.22

4.5.25

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Section 4: Air quality and odour

When considering the overall local air quality construction effects (ie, effects from construction road traffic, river barges and plant), it is concluded that the overall significance of effects is likely to be minor adverse at residential properties and the Crowne Plaza hotel, and negligible at commercial/office receptors. With regard to construction dust, the likely significance of effects is minor adverse at the commercial/office premises, and negligible at the Crowne Plaza hotel and residential properties. On this basis no significant construction effects are predicted.

4.5.27

4.5.28

4.6
4.6.1 4.6.2

Operational assessment Operational base and development cases


The assessment undertaken for a typical use year (as described in Volume 5) applies equally to all operational years. Base and development cases have been developed for modelling purposes. Base case conditions have been assumed to be the same as baseline conditions with respect to background odour concentrations as no change in background odour concentrations is anticipated.

Operational assessment area


4.6.3 Odour dispersion modelling was carried out over an area of 600m by 650m centred on the site. The assessment area was selected on the basis of it being considered the potential maximum extent of the impact area.

Operational effects
4.6.4 The table below shows the predicted maximum ground level odour concentrations at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. These are the highest concentrations that could occur at the worst affected ground level receptor at or near the site. In accordance with the odour criterion set up by the Environment Agency and in the draft NPS7, results are presented for the 98th percentile of hourly average concentrations in the year (or the 176th highest concentration in the year) and the number of hours in a year with concentrations above 1.5ouE/m3. The number of hours with concentrations above 1.5 ouE/m3 gives an indication of the number of hours in a year that an odour might be detectable at the worst affected receptor. The table also identifies the magnitude of the identified impacts in accordance with the criteria detailed in Volume 5. The table below gives similar results for the predicted impacts at the worst affected buildings, where concentrations at ground level and at height have been considered.

4.6.5

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Vol 21 Table 4.6.1 Odour impacts at ground level - operation Year Typical Maximum at ground level locations 98th percentile 0 (ouE/m3) No. of hours > 15 1.5ouE/m3 Impact magnitude and justification Negligible 98th percentile concentration is less than 1ouE/m3

Vol 21 Table 4.6.2 Odour impacts at buildings - operation Year Typical Maximum at buildings 98th percentile (ouE/m3) No. of hours > 1.5ouE/m3 4.6.6 0 0 Impact magnitude and justification Negligible 98th percentile concentration is less than 1ouE/m3

In the two tables above, the 98th percentile is shown as zero as the number of hours with air released from the vent would be less than 176 and therefore the 98th percentile concentration would be zero at all locations, thus achieving the odour criterion at all locations. This represents an impact of negligible magnitude The highest concentrations are predicted to occur close to the ventilation columns with an odour above 1.5ouE/m3 for 15 hours in a year. Odour is predicted to be above this level for at least two hours in a year over a small area covering the site, adjoining footpath and road, part of the river closest to the site and front of the closest commercial/office building. With regard to the significance of effects at ground level and building locations, given that the predicted odour concentrations at all locations and at buildings do not exceed the 98th percentile criterion of 1.5ouE/m3, it is considered that overall significance effects would be negligible in relation to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. No significant effects are therefore predicted in relation to odour.

4.6.7

4.6.8

4.7
4.7.1

Approach to mitigation Construction


All measures embedded in the draft CoCP of relevance to air quality and odour are summarised in Section 4.2. No mitigation is required.

Operation
4.7.2 No mitigation is required.

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4.8
Vol 21 Table 4.8.1 Air quality - construction assessment Effect Minor adverse None required Significance Mitigation Residual significance Minor adverse

Assessment summary

Receptor

Residential properties

Local air quality effects from construction road traffic, river barges and plant emissions Negligible Negligible None required None required

Effects from construction dust

Negligible Negligible

Commercial/offices

Local air quality effects from construction road traffic, river barges and plant emissions Minor adverse Minor adverse None required None required

Effects from construction dust

Minor adverse Minor adverse

Crowne Plaza Hotel / proposed hotel at No.1 Puddle Dock Negligible

Local air quality effects from construction road traffic, river barges and plant emissions

Effects from construction dust

None required

Negligible

Vol 21 Table 4.8.2 Odour - operational assessment Effect Significance Negligible Negligible Mitigation None required None required Residual significance Negligible Negligible

Receptor

Commercial/offices

Odour

Footpath, river

Odour

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4.9
4.9.1

Assessment completion
The following work is required in order to complete the local air quality and odour assessment for the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site: a. Diffusion tube monitoring has been set up at four sites to monitor NO2 concentrations in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This monitoring will be used to provide a baseline to the assessment and as an input for model verification. b. For the assessment of road transport emissions, air quality modelling will be undertaken to predict the effects on local air quality. c. Further information is being collected in relation to the types of barges being used and the most appropriate emission factors to use. These data will then be input into the model in order to predict the effects of barges on local air quality.

d. The nature, quantities and operation of the construction plant are being finalised. The appropriate emission factors will then be applied to the plant in order to initialise the modelling work. These models will then be run and the effects of construction plant on local air quality predicted. e. The assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES. f. Following completion of the assessment the mitigation approaches for air quality and odour within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES.

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

5 5.1
5.1.1

Ecology - aquatic Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant aquatic ecology effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. For the purposes of the assessment of the Thames Tunnel project aquatic ecology includes plants and animals that live in and depend on the River Thames and its tidal tributaries (known collectively as the Thames Tideway). The topic includes the habitats, marine mammals, fish, invertebrates and algae which occur in the Thames Tideway in the vicinity of the site. Animals, plants and habitats which occur above the mean high water level are assessed in Terrestrial Ecology (Section 6). Waterfowl, including those which occur on the Thames Tideway are also included under Terrestrial Ecology. Further details of the scope of the assessment are provided in Volume 5.

5.2
5.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to aquatic ecology are as follows.

Construction
5.2.2 The CSO construction site at Blackfriars is located entirely on the foreshore. The elements of construction relevant to this assessment are: a. The installation of temporary and permanent sheet piling to create two separate cofferdams within the river, and subsequent removal of the temporary cofferdam b. The presence of a jack-up barge on the foreshore to install the cofferdams c. The creation of a temporary piled steel deck d. The placement and removal of a temporary barge grid/campshed on the foreshore outside the cofferdams, suitable for a 1000t barge e. Associated regular barge movements and resting on the barge grid/campshed (with a peak monthly average of six movements per day) f. Occasional night time working (up until 22.00), during which there would be lighting of in river structures

g. The creation of a new piled landing stage, pier/pedestrian ramp and pontoon downstream of Blackfriars Bridge to replace the existing structure (Blackfriars Millennium Pier) which would be removed for CSO interception. There would be dredging of an area of approximately 700m2 of subtidal sediment to facilitate this. The pontoon would be located entirely within the subtidal area so grounding out (resting of barges on the river bed) should not occur except occasionally on the lowest tides.

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

Measures incorporated into the draft CoCP to reduce aquatic ecology impacts include the following elements which are considered to be an integral part of the environmental design of the project for the purposes of this assessment: a. Avoiding piling at night, to ensure free windows of opportunity to allow fish to migrate pass the site within each 24-hour period b. Undertaking noise measurements at prescribed points and intervals to ensure compliance with the Code of Construction Practice. c. Limiting allowable increases in noise and vibration levels at the midpoint of the navigable channel to leave part of the river cross-section passable by fish at all times

d. Undertaking in river cofferdam/piling works at or around low tide where possible to avoid transmission of noise and vibration through the water column e. Utilising low noise/vibration cofferdam or pile/pier installation techniques such as pressing or vibro-piling rather than impact/percussive piling. Where vibro-piling is used, slowly increasing the power of the driving would enable those fish that are able to swim away to leave the area before the full power of the pile driver is felt through the river f. Where predictions indicate that best practice limits would not be achievable, confining as much of the underwater noise generating activities as possible to outside peak fish migration periods should be considered

g. Avoidance of pollution of the river. EA approval will be required for works which would be likely to affect any surface or groundwater resource. Discharge to watercourses will only be permitted where discharge consent or other relevant approval has been obtained. Measures to avoid pollution measures would accord with the principles set out in industry guidelines including as the EAs note PPG05: Works in near or liable to affect water courses and CIRIAs report C532: Control of water pollution from construction sites.

Operation
5.2.4 The elements of operation relevant to this assessment are: a. The presence of a permanent CSO interception structure in the river. b. A new piled landing stage, pier/pedestrian ramp and pontoon (measuring approximately 540m2 in total) upstream of Blackfriars Bridge to replace the existing structure (Blackfriars Millennium Pier). The pontoon would be located entirely within the subtidal area so grounding out (resting of barges on the river bed) should not occur except occasionally on the lowest tides. c. Discharges from the Fleet Main CSO would be intercepted as part of the project. Based on the base case (which includes permitted Thames Tideway sewage treatment works upgrades, and the Lee Tunnel project) discharges from the Fleet Main CSO are anticipated to

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increase to 571,200m3 by 2021. With the Thames Tunnel project in place discharges at Blackfriars Bridge are projected to reduce to 36,800m3. 5.2.5 The President is permanently moored to the west of the construction area. This would need to be moved to a mooring further upstream to enable construction. The effects of the new mooring location on aquatic ecology receptors will be assessed and reported in the ES once further details are available.

5.3
5.3.1

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. All consultee comments for this site relevant to aquatic ecology are presented in the table below. Vol 21 Table 5.3.1 Aquatic ecology stakeholder engagement Organisation Comment Local authorities City of London Under this topic the ecology of the foreshore will be considered. The Thames Estuary 2100 project identified that there are long lengths of eroding foreshore at Shadwell, Blackfriars, Pimlico and Chelsea. It may be necessary to set the defence line back when the defences are upgraded to avoid erosion damage to the defences. The EIA should consider the impact of new structures in the river on foreshore erosion and potential erosion damage to existing flood defences, which in some cases provide ecological habitat. A study of the potential for deposition and the accumulation of flotsam should be included. Response The effect of any new structures on the hydraulic regime of the river has been modelled. Impacts pertinent to aquatic ecology are considered in the site specific and project-wide assessments. (Volumes 7-28: Site specific and Volume 6: Project-wide).

Baseline
5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 Details of the approach to baseline collection and the assessment are presented in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site. Details of the background data sets are provided in Volume 5. Existing algal data has been requested and will be assessed and reported in the ES.

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Construction
5.3.5 The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Operation
5.3.6 The operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Assumptions and limitations


5.3.7 It has been assumed that: a. A frame barge grid would be used during construction rather than a solid concrete campshed and that only limited removal of sediment would be required to install it. b. The area between the outer edge of the temporary cofferdam and the Maximum extent of working area would be subject to disturbance and compaction. At this stage, the extent of the works footprint outside of the cofferdam ie, barge movements and sediment compaction and disturbance, is assumed to be likely to have a low impact. Further details of construction methods will be obtained to confirm this. 5.3.8 There would be no dredging at the CSO construction site.

5.4

Baseline conditions Designations


River Thames and Tidal Tributaries Site of Metropolitan Importance

5.4.1

Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore falls within the River Thames and Tidal Tributaries Site of Metropolitan Importance (Site Reference: M31). The designation, which is proposed by the Greater London Authority and adopted by all Boroughs which border the Thames, recognises the range and quality of estuarine habitats including mudflat, shingle beach, reedbeds and the river channel itself. Over 120 species of fish have been recorded in the Tideway, though many of these are only occasional visitors. The more common species include dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), bream (Abramis brama) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) in the freshwater reaches, and sand-smelt (Atherina presbyter), flounder (Platichtyhys flesus) and Dover sole (Solea solea) in the estuarine reaches. Important migratory species include Twaite shad (Alosa fallax), European eel (Anguilla anguilla), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta). A number of nationally rare snails occur, including the brackish water snail Pseudamnicola confusa, and an important assemblage of wetland and wading birds. The Tidal Thames is also the subject of a Habitat Action Plan under both the London 8 and City of London Biodiversity Action Plan 9. The Habitat Action Plan identifies a number of flagship habitats and species which characterise the estuary, such as gravel foreshore, mudflat and saltmarsh.

5.4.2

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A number of these habitats and species, including mudflat, are also the subject of action plans under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan.

Habitats
5.4.3 The river is divided into three zones within the Tidal Thames Habitat Action Plan; freshwater, brackish and marine. The brackish zone is equivalent to the transitional water definition of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore lies within the brackish zone, which means that the fish and invertebrate communities which occur within the river at this location consist of a mixture of more saline-tolerant freshwater species and more freshwater tolerant marine species. The distribution of salinity- sensitive species may shift seasonally and from year-to-year, depending on fluvial inputs, so that community composition can vary. Invertebrate diversity is generally the lowest in the brackish zone out of the three zones because species must be able to withstand wide variations in salinity and a stressful environment. Stress is caused by the fluctuating conditions, which means that flora and fauna have to be able to tolerate wide variations in salinity. The intertidal habitat is narrowest in this section of the river, and indeed absent for much of the length of this site (there is intertidal habitat for a length of approximately 50m, including an area under Blackfriars Bridge, over the 320m length that would be affected. This area consists of gravel foreshore dominated by pebbles and cobbles. Sand, shingle and silt were also present. However, it is classified as the priority habitat mudflat according to Natureonthemap.org.uk. Natural England (2011) and the priority habitat Thames Foreshore of the City of London Biodiversity Action Plan. The river in this location is confined by a constructed vertical river wall, and bridge abutments. There is no marginal vegetation and relatively little intertidal habitat. Vertical walls, sometimes clad with timber are identified as a Key Habitat in the City of London BAP due to the communities of plants and invertebrates that they can support. The river wall in this location does not appear to support communities of macro and microalgae. Further information regarding the vegetation communities of the river wall has been collected during surveys in summer 2011. This data will be analysed and reported in the ES. Following the survey methodology, a summary of habitat types present, and other features of interest are presented in the table below. Vol 21 Table 5.4.1 Aquatic ecology features of interest Target habitats present and features of interest Gravel foreshore Sublittoral sand and gravels River wall Substrate present in intertidal zone (approximate cover) Pebbles (50%) Cobbles (30%) Sand, silt (20%) Substrate present in subtidal samples Pebbles Sand Gravel

5.4.4

5.4.5

5.4.6

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

Although there is only a minimal area of intertidal habitat at Blackfriars the river margins provide an important migration route for juvenile fish along the estuarine corridor. The young of species such as eel (known as glass eels or elvers), flounder, dace and smelt rely upon access to these areas to avoid being washed out by tides and to avoid predation by the larger fish that occur in deeper water. Migrants of larger fish tend to use faster mid-channel routes.

Mammals
5.4.8 Records compiled by the Zoological Society of London for 2003-2011 indicate common seal and harbour porpoise have been observed in this area of the Thames.

Fish
5.4.9 A single day survey was undertaken at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore during October 2010. The extent of the survey and location of trawl and seine net hauls are presented in Vol 21 Figure 5.4.1. Full details of the methodology are presented in Volume 5. Vol 21 Figure 5.4.1 Aquatic ecology sampling locations (see Volume 21 Figures document) 5.4.10 The survey recorded low fish abundance in the area of Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore, with only forty-one individuals captured in total. The range of species recorded and the number of individuals is presented in the table below. Fish are routinely categorised into guilds according to their tolerance to salinity and habitat preference. The fish species which occur in the Thames Tideway can be divided into four guilds which are defined as follows: a. Freshwater Species which spend their complete lifecycle primarily in freshwater b. Estuarine resident Species which remain in the estuary for their complete lifecycle c. Diadromous Species which migrate through the estuary to spawn; d. Marine juvenile Species which spawn at sea but spend part of their lifecycle in the estuary. Vol 21 Table 5.4.2 Aquatic ecology - autumn 2010 fish survey Common name Flounder Common goby Sand goby Common smelt Specific name Number of individuals 10 1 9 Guild Estuarine resident Estuarine resident Estuarine resident Diadromous

Platichthys flesus 13 Pomatoschistus microps Pomatoschistus minutus Osmerus eperlanus

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Common name Eel Common bream Dace Roach 5.4.11 Specific name Anguilla anguilla Abramis brama Leuciscus leuciscus Rutilus rutilus

Section 5: Ecology - aquatic Number of individuals 3 2 2 1 Guild Diadromous Freshwater Freshwater Freshwater

This was a relatively low number in terms of absolute abundance of fish, compared with a catch exceeding 200 fish each at Barn Ems, Western Pumping Station and Cremorne Wharf, which had the highest abundance of fish of all sites surveyed in relation to the Thames Tideway project. The lowest catch (at Albert Embankment) was of 19 individuals. The low abundance of freshwater species at Blackfriars such as roach, bream and dace is explained by the site location, which is towards the downstream end of the freshwater zone (see Vol 21 Figure 5.4.1), where salinity is relatively close to the tolerance threshold of freshwater species. The EA carry out annual surveys of fish within the Thames Tideway, with data available from 1992-2010. Methodologies for the survey are provided in Volume 5. The nearest sampling site to Blackfriars Bridge is at Vauxhall, some 3.5km upstream, but records show that this was only surveyed in 1992-93. The EA data at this location indicates low fish diversity and abundance, principally consisting of small numbers of flounder (34), eel (29), dace (24),bass (16) and gobies (12) [numbers as totals for spring and autumn surveys, both years]. This broadly concurs with the October 2010 baseline surveys, although the baseline surveys actually found a greater diversity than Environment Agency data. A more comprehensive dataset exists for Battersea, located 6 km upstream, where EA surveys have been carried out every year from 1983 to 2010. Fifteen fish species are recorded for Battersea. These show fairly steady catches in from trawls but some indication of increasing seine-net catches in recent years (Vol 21 Figure 5.4.2). Catches are dominated by estuarine resident fish such as common goby, flounder and sandsmelt, freshwater species including dace, common bream, perch and roach, and migratory species including eel and smelt. Other migratory species such as salmon and sea trout must pass through the area but are too infrequent to be detected by only one or two surveys per year. Again, these concur well with the more limited Blackfriars and Vauxhall data and probably give a better view of the overall status of fish populations in the vicinity of the Blackfriars site.

5.4.12

5.4.13

5.4.14

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Vol 21 Figure 5.4.2 Aquatic ecology - EA total fish catches

From Battersea site using three sampling methods (x-axis: year; y-axis: numbers of fish)

5.4.15

In general, Tideway fish populations are mobile and wide ranging, and hence any analysis of population data needs to be based on an understanding of the ecological requirements and migratory habits of individual species. Although the abundance and diversity of fish at any one site may provide some indication of the habitat quality offered at that site it is important to consider the data within the context of sites throughout the Thames Tideway, since the factors influencing distribution are likely to be acting at this wider scale. Effects at this scale are assessed in Volume 6 (Project-wide effects assessment). Invertebrates A single day survey was undertaken at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore. The area covered by the survey is the same as that described for the fish survey above and illustrated in Vol 21 Figure 5.4.2. Further details of these methods can be found in Volume 6. Benthic invertebrates are used in the freshwater, estuarine and marine environments as biological indicators of water and sediment quality since their abundance and distribution reflects natural or man-made fluctuations in environmental conditions. Species diversity is influenced by factors such as substrate and salinity, however high species diversity (or numbers of species) at any given site generally indicates good water and/or sediment quality, whilst low diversity may indicate poor quality. Whilst the abundance and diversity of invertebrate species at any one site provide a more accurate reflection of conditions at that site than site specific fish data, invertebrate populations and particularly those which occur in the water column (pelagic) are influenced by conditions throughout the estuary. The strongest influences on invertebrate distribution and density tend to be physical factors such as salinity, and substrate type followed by water quality and local habitat conditions. These factors are discussed below in relation to the site specific data.

5.4.16

5.4.17

5.4.18

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore 5.4.19

Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

The invertebrates collected during the October 2010 field surveys are presented in the table below. The Community Conservation Index (CCI) score 10 has initially been used to identify species of nature conservation importance. CCI classifies many groups of invertebrates of inland waters according to their scarcity and conservation value in Great Britain and relates closely to the Red Data Book (RDB) 11;12. Vol 21 Table 5.4.3 Aquatic ecology - Invertebrate fauna No Individs subtidal samples AL1 AL2 6 1 20 5 1 9 3 1 1 1 1 200 700 20 135 120 8 8 CCI Score No Individs Intertidal samples Q SW1 SW2

Taxa Potamopyrgus antipodarum Radix balthica Oligochaeta Erpobdella sp. Palaemon longirostris Crangon crangon Eriocheir sinensis Lekanesphaera hookeri Acorophium lacustre Gammarus sp Gammarus zaddachi No Taxa 5.4.20

1 1

2 8 1

3 1 1 2 1

Blackfriars Bridge was characterised by low diversity in the intertidal zone and higher diversity in subtidal zones relative to other sites within the same reach of the Thames. Subtidal samples were relatively diverse (for this area of the Thames), and moderately sensitive groups, such as Gammarus zaddachi and Corophium were abundant. The low invertebrate diversity and abundance in the intertidal area is likely to reflect the physical conditions at the site. There is a very limited intertidal zone due to encroachment by the river defences and neighbouring development. Wave washing from the tide, and passing river craft is therefore intense and affects the entire width of the intertidal habitat. The site also lies within the brackish zone of the river which means that invertebrates are subject to considerable variations in salinity. The majority of taxa present are brackish species, with varying tolerance of different levels of salinity from estuarine to near freshwater. These included Gammarus zaddachi (a brackish species of shrimp) and Crangon crangon (shrimps, typical of estuarine and brackish conditions). However, the increasing saline influence compared to upstream sites is demonstrated by the presence of Lekanesphaera hookeri (a water louse), which are generally associated with estuarine or marine conditions. The only species of high nature conservation importance was Acorophium lacustre (CCI 8), an amphipod, or mud shrimp. It is a RDB species and was present in subtidal samples. Despite its RDB status, Acorophium lacustre is highly abundant throughout the tideway, being by far the most

5.4.21

5.4.22

5.4.23

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abundant species of Corophidae present in the samples taken in October 2010. Environment Agency data have shown A. lacustre to be common in the Thames Tideway and its distribution appears to have increased since it was classified. 5.4.24 Blackfriars Bridge is located approximately 900m downstream of the Environment Agency site at South Bank Centre, which is the nearest sampling location with recent data (2005-2007). South Bank Centre was sampled ten times in 2005 using a 0.1m core sampler, six times in 2006 using a 0.01m grab sampler and 31 times in 2007 using a grab sampler. The most abundant taxa that have been recorded at South Bank Centre between 2005 and 2007 included Gammarus zaddachi, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and other Oligochaeta worms and Potamopyrgus antipodarum. In addition to the native G. zaddachi, the amphipod G. tigrinus, of North American origin, was recorded at Southbank Centre in 2007. The species was not recorded in samples taken at Blackfriars Bridge in 2010. It is believed that this species of amphipod arrived in English waters via ballast water from ships. It lives in fresh and brackish waters and can expand rapidly, outcompeting local amphipods. However, based on available data, it appears to be much less abundant than the native Gammarus zaddachi within the Tideway. Species diversity recorded at Blackfriars Bridge in October 2010 is broadly consistent with data collected by the Environment Agency at South Bank Centre, and primarily reflects the mid-estuarine conditions at the site. Fewer species of animals are able to tolerate these intermediate levels of salinity than in true freshwater or marine environments. The differences between samples taken in 2010 at Blackfriars Bridge and samples from South Bank Centre, including the absence of Theodoxus fluviatilis and lower relative abundance of Polychaeta worms (one of the most diverse groups at Southbank Centre) and Potamopyrgus antipodarum at Blackfriars Bridge are likely to reflect subtle differences in habitat, seasonal and sampling variation and, potentially, water quality (there are a number of CSO outfalls in the area). Higher species richness recorded in some sample years at South Bank Centre may reflect greater sampling frequency. Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), an invasive species, was sampled in the subtidal zone of the site. Individual mitten crabs were captured at a number of sampling locations along the Thames Tideway, including Blackfriars. Mitten crabs can cause bank destabilisation and erosion, and also compete for food resources with other species. The former issue is less of a concern at this location as much of the river bank comprises hard defences, but competition with other species could occur. Algae 5.4.31 This will be assessed and reported in the ES.

5.4.25

5.4.26

5.4.27

5.4.28

5.4.29

5.4.30

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Aquatic ecology receptors values and sensitivities


5.4.32 Using the baseline set out above the value accorded to each receptor considered in this assessment is set out in the table below. The definitions of the different scales of importance used in this evaluation are set out in Volume 6. Vol 21 Table 5.4.4 Aquatic ecology receptors Receptor Foreshore habitat (intertidal and subtidal) Value/sensitivity and justification Medium (Metropolitan) value as part of Tidal Thames Site of Metropolitan Importance. Although very limited in extent due to encroachment by development on either bank the intertidal habitat also constitutes UKBAP habitat mudflats. Low (Local) value due to low number of records. Low-medium (Borough) value as Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore had one of the lowest fish catches of all the sites surveyed in October 2010. However, in a Borough context the fish populations are likely to notable. The value of Blackfriars Bridge is considered to be low for spawning fish. Invertebrates Low-medium (Borough) value. Although a RDB species is present, it is ubiquitous within the Tideway and therefore not considered to merit a higher value. Local diversity and abundance of invertebrates was limited. To be assessed and reported in the ES.

Mammals Fish

Algae

5.5
5.5.1

Construction assessment Construction impacts


The impacts associated with the construction stage of the project are described and summarised in Vol 21 Table 5.5.1. The definitions of the different magnitudes of impact referred to in this assessment are given in Volume 5.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Temporary landtake 5.5.2

Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

There would be a total of approximately 3600m2 of temporary landtake (of which approximately 700m2 would be from intertidal habitat close to Blackfriars Bridge, and the remainder from subtidal habitat) associated with the cofferdam and campshed/ barge grid. The cofferdam would be filled with an imported granular material, mobilised to site by barge or lorry. The structures would be in place for a total of five years. It is assumed for the purposes of the assessment that reinstatement of the area affected by temporary landtake would involve the removal of the granular material to the surrounding foreshore level. Although the foreshore would re-establish through natural accretion there would be considerable compaction of the surface layers of sediment which may prevent colonisation by invertebrates until new sediment has accreted. Given the uncertainty over the timescale for natural accretion and thus reestablishment of the habitat, the impact of temporary landtake is considered to be of medium negative magnitude. The probability of the impact occurring is considered to be certain. Sediment disturbance and compaction It has been assumed that the area between the outer edge of the cofferdam and the Maximum extent of working area would be subject to disturbance and compaction. At Blackfriars this represents an area of approximately 1ha outside which would be affected by construction activities during the site establishment phase (Year 1 to Year 3). The jack up barge would be operated around the outside of the temporary cofferdam. Given the small area of intertidal habitat at this site, the habitat affected would be largely subtidal. The area in the vicinity of the barge grid/campshed is also likely to be affected by compaction and disturbance due to barge movements. At Blackfriars Bridge there would be a high volume of barge movements. Impacts on the intertidal and subtidal habitats are considered to be low negative, probable and temporary. Shading of the river The presence of approximately a 0.2ha temporary piled steel deck to facilitate processing/handling of excavated material and subsequently for offices/stores/workshops would result in temporary shading of the section of river which lies beneath. However, there is no intertidal habitat in this area and the subtidal habitat is considered to be relatively insensitive to shading. Furthermore, localised shading can provide shelter to fish from predators. Overall therefore the impact is considered to be negligible, certain and temporary. Channel constriction and change to hydrodynamic regime The temporary cofferdam would extend approximately 40m into the channel at its widest point. There would be temporary loss of the small remaining area of intertidal habitat and some change to the hydrodynamic regime in the vicinity of the cofferdam.

5.5.3

5.5.4

5.5.5

5.5.6

5.5.7

5.5.8

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

It is likely that the cofferdam and campsheds would impact on scour patterns while in place. Preliminary findings from the hydraulic modelling undertaken for the project indicate that there may be scour around the temporary cofferdam and the piles for the steel platform. These impacts will be assessed and reported in the ES. Waterborne noise and vibration There would be approximately 512m of sheet piling installed for the permanent and temporary cofferdam in addition to the piers for the temporary construction platform and relocated Millennium Pier which would also be piled. Piles would be driven using silent piling techniques, thus limiting the principal source of waterborne noise and vibration impacts. Further measures to limit noise and vibration impacts during the construction stage of the project have been incorporated into the CoCP. These are described in para. 5.2.3. There would be additional sources of noise and vibration, including activities associated with construction of the shaft itself and vehicle and barge movements, particularly on the temporary steel deck over the river. Although background levels of noise and vibration within the Thames Tideway are likely to be moderately high due to existing boat movements, and ground-propagated noise from transport systems, the proximity of the works to the river and their scale means that noise and vibration levels are likely to be elevated during construction. Noise and vibration have the potential to cause physical damage to fish, and disrupt behaviour. However, in this case, given the piling techniques proposed and the extent of the works relative to the width of the channel this is considered to be a low negative impact, probable and temporary. Spillage of light from construction compound into surrounding riverine habitats

5.5.10 5.5.11

5.5.12

5.5.13

Light spillage into the water column has the potential to cause disturbance to fish. This site would have extended working hours until 22.00hrs on weekdays during major concrete works, including diaphragm wall and base slab construction. Although details of the lighting arrangements for construction sites are yet to be finalised, it is reasonable to assume that flood lighting, or similar would be required in the vicinity of the shaft location. The extent of light spillage is anticipated to be limited, and it would be of relatively short duration especially during the summer months. The impact is therefore considered to be low negative, probable and temporary. Increase in suspended sediment loads Construction of the barge grid, relocated Millennium Pier, piling operations, and barge movements are likely to lead to localised increases in suspended sediment with the potential to affect local and downstream habitats. It is likely that the cofferdam and campsheds would impact on scour patterns while in place, which could cause the mobilisation of suspended solids into the river.

5.5.14

5.5.15

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

Background levels of suspended sediments in the Thames Tideway are relatively high, and increases associated with the project are unlikely to be significant except on a very localised basis. Impacts are considered to be low negative, probable and temporary. Measures and safeguards to minimise the risk of accidental releases of silty or contaminated discharges to the Thames Tideway are included in the Code of Construction Practice. No impacts from polluted discharges are anticipated provided with these control measures and safeguards in place. The impacts associated with the construction stage of the project are described and summarised in the table below. Vol 21 Table 5.5.1 Aquatic ecology impacts - construction Impact Loss of approximately 3600m of intertidal and subtidal habitat through the construction of temporary cofferdam and the placement of a temporary approximately 630m2 barge grid/campshed in the subtidal area outside the cofferdam. Disturbance and compaction of 1ha intertidal and subtidal sediments due to barge movements.
2

5.5.17

5.5.18

Magnitude Medium negative due to large area affected and long period for reestablishment. Temporary. Certain.

Low negative impact for intertidal and subtidal habitat due relatively limited extent. Temporary. Probable.

Shading of approximately 0.2ha of Negligible due to low sensitivity of intertidal and subtidal sediment from receptor. temporary working deck Temporary. Certain. Constriction of channel and change to hydrodynamic regime due to temporary structures in the intertidal and subtidal areas. Potential for increases in velocity which may interfere with fish movements. Waterborne noise and vibration arising from the installation of temporary and permanent sheet piles and other piles and subsequent removal of all temporary piling. This has potential to cause damage to fish and disrupt movements. Light spillage from construction compound into surrounding riverine To be assessed and reported in the ES.

Low negative due to proposed silent piling methods and control measures. Temporary. Probable.

Low negative due to duration of impact

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Impact habitats. Increase in suspended sediment loads due to construction activity, dredging, piling operations and barge movements. Potential for smothering of downstream habitats and reduced water quality.

Section 5: Ecology - aquatic Magnitude Temporary Probable Low negative due to lack of dredging and relatively high background levels of sediment. Temporary. Probable.

Construction Effects
5.5.19 The following section describes the effects of these impacts on aquatic ecology based on the significance criteria set out in Volume 5. Effects of the project may also be detectable at the whole Thames Tideway level. These effects are discussed in Volume 6: Project-wide. Habitats Loss of intertidal and subtidal habitat due to temporary landtake 5.5.20 The intrinsic value of the habitats (ie, the value of the habitat as an ecological feature in itself rather than simply in terms of the support it provides for fauna) in this area is considered to be relatively low, although they are considered to be of Metropolitan importance as part of the River Thames and Tidal Tributaries Site of Metropolitan Importance. Sediment is expected to naturally accrete following removal of the temporary cofferdam and granular fill material. However, the underlying sediment would remain compacted whilst any newly accreted material is likely to be unstable and prone to removal by scour. Recovery is therefore expected only in the medium (1-5 years) or long term (+5 years). The overall effect is considered to be moderate adverse. Disturbance and compaction of intertidal and subtidal habitat 5.5.22 There would be disturbance and compaction of approximately 1ha outside the cofferdam during the site establishment phase due to the presence of a jack up barge to install the temporary cofferdam. Habitats within this zone are expected to recover within the short term (less than 12 months) following site establishment. Coupled with the low intrinsic value of the habitats in this area the effect is considered to be minor adverse due to the low magnitude of the impact. Mammals Interference with the migrations of marine mammals within the Tideway 5.5.23 Noise, vibration and other construction activity has the potential to disturb mammals and deter them from passing the site. However, given the silent piling methods used, the duration of the period when piling would be

5.5.21

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taking place, and the controls on underwater noise-generating activities described in the CoCP (para. 5.2.3) this is considered to be a negligible effect. Fish Direct mortality of fish due to landtake, sediment disturbance and compaction 5.5.24 Although there is a risk of mortality of fish as the cofferdam is installed, and as a result of compaction of the sediments this is considered to be low since even juvenile fish would move away from the source of the impact. There would be a greater risk of mortality if fish eggs were present, but since the site is not considered to offer spawning habitat, this risk can be discounted. The effect is considered to be negligible due to the low risk of mortality. Loss of feeding, resting and nursery habitat for fish due to temporary landtake 5.5.25 The site is not considered to offer suitable spawning habitat for smelt, or any other fish species and given the very limited intertidal habitat, it is unlikely to provide significant feeding, resting or nursery habitat. Loss of habitat is considered to be a medium negative impact, but taking into account the poor quality of the habitat for fish the effect is considered to be minor adverse. Loss of feeding, resting and nursery habitat for fish due to sediment disturbance and compaction 5.5.26 The area which would be subject to disturbance and compaction outside the cofferdam lies primarily in the subtidal zone. It is unlikely to offer feeding, resting or nursery habitat for juvenile fish. Given that recovery is likely to occur within the short term (less than 12 months) the effect is thus considered to be negligible. Interference with the migratory movements of fish 5.5.27 Ordinarily the river channel should provide an uninterrupted route for juvenile fish migrations for species such as eel (Anguilla anguilla) glass eels or elvers, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), goby (eg Pomatoschitus spp.) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) as they move through the estuary. In general, encroachment of structures such as a cofferdam into the river channel may affect the river hydraulics, particularly at high discharges associated with heavy fluvial inputs or spring tides. Changes in water velocity caused by constriction of the hydraulic channel may hinder movements of fish against the tide, including their ability to withstand, or hold station in the flow. Constriction of the hydraulic channel, reduction of the intertidal zone and increased water velocities at project sites might cause some fish to be lost, for example by forcing them into deeper water with increased predation risk. Formation of eddy currents in the wake of

5.5.28

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structures may temporarily entrap fish and delay progress of migrations. Repeatedly delaying the successful daily migrations of fish past individual sites may also interfere with key life stage events such as spawning. 5.5.29 The river is heavily constricted by the existing river defences at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore, such that velocities are already likely to affect the ability of juvenile fish of some species from holding station against the tide. Further encroachment by structures into the river is likely to exacerbate this problem. The effects on fish migration of the Thames Tunnel structures, including at Blackfriars, are as yet unknown, and are being considered at a site specific and whole Thames Tideway level through the use of a predictive modelling technique (Volume 5). The assessment will be completed following this modelling exercise and will be reported in the Environmental Statement. Effects of waterborne noise and vibration on fish 5.5.31 The effects of waterborne noise and vibration on fish vary according to the proximity of the receptor to the source. Effects depend on distance from source, ranging from potential death at very close proximities, through injury, and behavioural disturbance with increasing distance from the source. The key source at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore is the driving of sheet piles for the cofferdam. This would be undertaken using a silent piling technique from a jack up barge, thus minimising the level of noise and vibration. Furthermore, a series of control measures relating to the timing and duration of piling operations have been included in the Code of Construction Practice. The site is not considered to support sensitive spawning habitat, and therefore there is only low receptor sensitivity, as no significant numbers of any fish species would be present for extended periods. The overall effect is negligible, and therefore not significant. Blanketing of feeding areas for fish and invertebrates and reduction in water column visibility due to suspended sediment 5.5.33 Although the Thames Tideway is a sedimentary environment with high levels of suspended solids, construction activities such as dredging, piling and barge movements have the potential to generate elevated levels of suspended sediment which may cause disorientation of fish, and interfere with the feeding mechanisms of certain invertebrates. No dredging would be undertaken at this site as part of the temporary works. Dredging associated with the re-located Millennium Pier is assessed under operational effects. Given the length and extent of cofferdam (approximately 246m of temporary cofferdam), there is the potential for resuspended sediments to affect juvenile fish migrations, particularly when considered along with the hydraulic effects described above. Adult fish are considered to be less likely to be affected as they are able to move away from the turbid water. Effects on juvenile fish are

5.5.30

5.5.32

5.5.34

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thus considered to be moderate adverse during the period in which piling is taking place, reducing to low adverse for the remainder of the construction period. Invertebrates Direct mortality of invertebrates due to temporary landtake, sediment disturbance and compaction 5.5.35 There would be direct mortality of invertebrates within sediments removed or covered by the cofferdam, and due to compaction and disturbance of sediment due the site establishment phase. The effect is considered to be minor adverse due to the low-medium value of the receptor. Loss of feeding habitat and burrowing for invertebrates due to temporary landtake 5.5.36 The area beneath the temporary cofferdam would also be lost as burrowing and feeding habitat for invertebrates during the entire construction period (5 years). The area would be subject to heavy compaction, and hence would be unavailable to burrowing invertebrates in the medium term (1-5 years) following removal of the cofferdam. However, the temporary structures may act like an artificial reef, providing new encrusting habitat for some invertebrate species. The overall effect is considered to be minor adverse, given the relatively limited loss of a burrowing and feeding resource, and the presence of possible new habitat provided by the temporary structures. Loss of feeding and burrowing habitat for invertebrates due to sediment disturbance and compaction 5.5.38 Although the subtidal zone was found to support a larger number of taxa than the intertidal, the temporary compaction and disturbance to the habitat for burrowing invertebrates is considered to be a negligible effect, given the reversibility of the effect. Temporary shading of intertidal and subtidal feeding habitat for invertebrates 5.5.39 The effect is considered to be negligible due to the poor quality of the feeding and resting habitat and low sensitivity of the subtidal habitat to the effects of shading. Blanketing of feeding areas for invertebrates and reduction in water column visibility due to suspended sediment 5.5.40 The risk of blanketing of invertebrate feeding habitats is considered to be low due to the nature of construction activities, and given the low value of the site for invertebrates the effect is considered to be negligible. Algae 5.5.41 Effects on algae will be assessed and reported in the ES once baseline data has been received.

5.5.37

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5.6
5.6.1

Operational assessment Operational impacts


The potential impacts arising from operation of the project are described below and summarised in Vol 21 Table 5.6.1. The definitions of the different magnitudes of impact referred to in this assessment are given in Volume 6. Permanent landtake due to the presence of the permanent CSO structure on the foreshore There would be approximately 3400m2 of permanent landtake (of which approximately 530m2 would be from the intertidal habitats close to Blackfriars Bridge) associated with cofferdam for the CSO works. The permanent structure would extend approximately 35m into the channel at its maximum extent. Permanent landtake is certain and is considered to be a medium negative impact. Permanent landtake through dredging for operation of the relocated Millennium Pier

5.6.2

There would be dredging of approximately 720m2 to enable boats to use the relocated Millennium Pier. This would result in a small loss of subtidal mudflat habitat. The subtidal mudflat in these pockets would therefore be at a slightly lower depth than is currently the case. However, the area and depth of dredge is small and this is therefore considered a low negative impact, despite being both certain and permanent (it is assumed that the dredged area would have to be maintained). Sediment mobilisation in the water column through dredging for operation of the relocated Millennium Pier

5.6.3

Dredging associated with the operation of the relocated Millennium Pier (to ensure that it can be used by boats) is likely to lead to localised increases in suspended sediment with the potential to affect local and downstream habitats. However, background levels of suspended sediments in the Thames Tideway are relatively high, and the amount of dredging required is small. Impacts are considered to be low negative, probable and temporary (since they would only occur when the dredge is taking place). Further measures and safeguards to minimise the risk of accidental releases of polluting discharges to the Thames Tideway are included in the Code of Construction Practice. No impacts from polluted discharges are anticipated provided these control measures and safeguards are adhered to. Shading of the river The creation of a new piled landing stage, pier/pedestrian ramp and pontoon for the Millennium Pier would create permanent shading over an area of approximately 542m2. However, the Millennium Pier is an existing feature so there would be no net increase in shading and there is relatively little intertidal habitat in the vicinity of Blackfriars Bridge and none of it consists of emergent vegetation (such as saltmarsh) that would be potentially very susceptible to shading. Most of the area covered by the

5.6.4

5.6.5

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landing stage and pontoon in the new location would be subtidal and thus subject to some degree of shading at all times. Further small amounts of localised shading could provide shelter to fish from predators. Overall therefore the impact is considered to be negligible, despite being both certain and permanent. Constriction of the channel due to permanent structures 5.6.6 The permanent structures would extend approximately 35m into the channel. Hydraulic modelling has shown that cofferdam would impact on scour patterns. It has yet to be determined whether there would be an increase in velocity or risk of eddy formation which may affect the fish movements passed the structure. Assessment of this impact is currently being undertaken, both for this site and cumulatively with other foreshore construction sites. The assessment will be undertaken following completion of modelling to predict the effects of foreshore structures on fish migration (Volume 5). Reduction in the volume of sewage effluent discharged from the CSO 5.6.8 Based on the base case (which includes permitted Thames Tideway sewage treatment works upgrades, and the Lee Tunnel scheme) discharges from the Fleet Main CSO are anticipated to increase to 571,200m3 by 2021. With the Thames Tunnel project in place discharges at Blackfriars Bridge are projected to reduce to. 36,800m3. The improvements would help to achieve water quality standards set under the Water Framework Directive in relation to dissolved oxygen and inorganic nitrogen. The magnitude of the impact is considered to be medium positive and to be probable and permanent. This is a provisional assessment and will be verified based on the outputs from water quality modelling currently being undertaken. Vol 21 Table 5.6.1 Aquatic ecology impacts - operation Impact Permanent landtake due to the presence of permanent structures on the foreshore Magnitude Medium negative impact due to loss of feeding and resting habitat for fish and invertebrates. Permanent. Certain. Low negative impact due to small area concerned. Permanent. Certain. Low negative impact due to small amount of dredging required. Temporary. Certain. Negligible impact. Permanent.

5.6.7

5.6.9

Dredging for operation of the relocated Millennium Pier

Sediment mobilisation during dredging to enable use of the Millennium Pier Shading from the relocated

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Impact Millennium Pier Constriction of the channel due to permanent structures Improvement of local water quality through CSO interception.

Section 5: Ecology - aquatic Magnitude Certain. To be assessed and reported in the in ES. Medium positive impact. Permanent. Probable.

Operational effects
5.6.10 The operational receptors and their value are identical to that of the construction receptors as described in Vol 21 Table 5.4.4, and are thus not reproduced here. The effects are described below for each receptor and summarised in Vol 21 Table 5.8.2. The way in which the magnitude and reversibility of each impact has been combined with the value of each receptor to determine the significance of the effect is set out in Volume 6, Section 2. Habitats Permanent loss of intertidal and subtidal habitats 5.6.11 There would be a permanent loss of approximately 3400m2 of mostly subtidal habitat. The intrinsic value of the habitats in this area is considered to be relatively low, although the habitats are designated Medium (Metropolitan) importance as part of the River Thames and Tidal Tributaries Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation. The effect is thus considered to be moderate adverse at Year 1 and Year 6 due to the magnitude of the impact (medium negative) and the value of the receptor (Medium). Mammals Increase in the number and/or change in the distribution of marine mammals 5.6.12 No changes are anticipated on marine mammals as a result of the water quality improvements associated with interception of a single CSO discharge. This is because they are a mobile receptor, and therefore able to move away from a point source discharge and they are relatively insensitive to the levels of pollution associated with a single source. Effects are considered negligible at Year 1 and Year 6. Fish Permanent loss of intertidal and subtidal feeding and resting habitat for fish due to landtake 5.6.13 The site is not considered to offer suitable spawning habitat for smelt, or any other fish species and given the limited intertidal habitat, it is unlikely provide significant feeding, resting or nursery habitat. Given the value of the fish receptor at this site (low-medium (Borough) value) the effect is considered to be minor adverse in Year 1 and Year 6.

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Blanketing of feeding areas for fish and reduction in water column visibility due to suspended sediment 5.6.14 Dredged sediment if suspended in the water column can have an adverse impact on fish. However, this is only likely to occur in watercourses that have a relatively low suspended sediment loading. The tidal River Thames has a high suspended sediment loading, such that the contribution from the small amount of dredging associated with operation of the relocated Millennium Pier would be negligible. The impact is considered to be low adverse, on a receptor of low-medium importance, leading to a negligible effect in both Year 1 and Year 6. Interference with migratory movements of fish 5.6.15 The effects of the permanent encroachments on juvenile fish migration will be assessed following a predictive modelling exercise and reported in the ES. Reduction in the occurrence of dissolved oxygen related fish mortalities 5.6.16 The microbial activity associated with untreated sewage effluent (BOD) causes a depletion in the levels of dissolved oxygen downstream of a discharge (see para. 5.6.8). This is often referred to as an oxygen sag. Oxygen sags are more common in the summer months when water temperatures are higher and oxygen is less soluble. Impacts on fish health occur when dissolved oxygen levels drop beneath 4mg/l, and significant mortalities begin to occur when levels drop beneath this threshold. Such dissolved oxygen events are currently relatively common in the Thames Tideway, particularly during the summer months when heavy storms follow periods of low flow and water temperatures are relatively high. Over the past 34 years, there have been at least 154 low dissolved oxygen events, in which fish mortalities have occurred, the last major event occurring in June 2011. This information will be updated for the ES. Interception of the most polluting CSOs in the Thames Tideway would improve sewerage system capacity and result in far fewer low dissolved oxygen events and therefore fewer mass fish mortalities. The exact change in the number of mass fish mortalities will be predicted using the Tideway Fish Risk Model and will be reported in the ES. Interception of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore CSO would contribute to this Thames Tideway wide improvement, but would also result in improvements in the local area. Given that the impact is considered to be medium beneficial, and the value of the receptors is low-medium (Borough) at this stage the effect is considered to be minor beneficial in Year 1 and Year 6. Improvements across the Thames Tideway as a whole may be significantly greater and are discussed in Volume 6 (Project-wide).

5.6.17

5.6.18

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Increase in the distribution of pollution sensitive fish species. 5.6.19 The Thames Tideway currently supports a small number of rare fish species such as salmon, sea trout, twaite shad and river lamprey. A number of factors limit the colonisation of habitats by these species, including salinity, substrate type and current, but pollution is known to be a significant factor in determining colonisation 13. Improving water and sediment quality would facilitate the spread of those pollution sensitive species which are currently being impeded by poor water and sediment quality. EA data and bespoke project surveys have indicated no records of rare fish species in the vicinity of Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore and habitat quality at this site is limited by confinement of the river channel between vertical river walls, which limits the extent of intertidal habitat and lead to increased current velocities. Given that the impact is considered to be medium beneficial, and the value of the receptors is low-medium (Borough), the effect is thus considered to be negligible in Year 1, and minor beneficial in Year 6. Invertebrates Permanent loss of intertidal and subtidal feeding and burrowing habitat for invertebrates due to landtake 5.6.21 The area beneath the permanent works would be lost as burrowing and feeding habitat for invertebrates. However, the structures may also act like an artificial reef, providing new encrusting habitat for some invertebrate species. The overall effect is considered to be minor adverse, given the relatively limited loss of a burrowing and feeding resource, and the presence of possible new habitat provided by the structure. Blanketing of feeding areas for invertebrates suspended sediment 5.6.22 No sensitive, filter feeding invertebrates have been recorded in the vicinity of the site, and given the high existing levels of sediment the effect of periodic dredging is considered to be negligible. Localised improvements in invertebrate diversity and abundance 5.6.23 As well as causing low dissolved oxygen events, untreated sewage effluent contains nutrients which cause enrichment of the water column and sediments in the river. Excessive nutrient enrichment causes phenomenon such as algal blooms, and is known as eutrophication. Such enrichment tends to favour a small number of pollution tolerant species at the expense of a wider range of pollution sensitive species. For example, certain species of Oligochaete worm are indicative of polluted conditions because they are able to tolerate the low dissolved oxygen conditions and multiply rapidly in the enriched sediments. By intercepting the CSO the source of sewage related nutrients would be reduced and the sediments in the vicinity of the outfall would begin to return to a more natural state. As nutrients reduce in concentration a

5.6.20

5.6.24

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wider range of invertebrate species would begin to colonise the sediments. However, at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore, and other sites in the mid Thames Tideway, salinity is likely to be the over-riding factor controlling the range of species present. Given that the impact is considered to be medium beneficial, and the value of the receptors is low the effect is considered to be negligible in Year 1 and minor beneficial Year 6. Increase in the distribution of pollution sensitive invertebrate species 5.6.25 The Thames Tideway currently supports a small number of rare invertebrate species, such as swollen spire snail and tentacled lagoon worm. A number of factors limit the colonisation of habitats by these species, including salinity, substrate type and current, but pollution is known to be a significant factor in determining. Improving water and sediment quality would facilitate the spread of those pollution sensitive species which are currently being impeded by poor water and sediment quality. EA data and bespoke project surveys have indicated one species of nationally rare (RDB) invertebrate (Acorophium lacustre) present in the vicinity of Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore but this is locally very common, and habitat quality at this site is limited by a number of factors including the confinement of the river channel between vertical river walls. Given that the impact is considered to be medium beneficial, and the value of the receptors is low (invertebrates), the effect is thus considered to be negligible in Year 1, and minor beneficial in Year 6. Algae 5.6.27 Algae will be reported in the ES once baseline data has been received.

5.6.26

5.7
5.7.1

Approach to mitigation
The approach to mitigation will be informed by the Mitigation and Compensation Hierarchy discussed with the Thames Tunnel EA Biodiversity Working Group as a systematic and transparent decisionmaking process. The hierarchy is sequential and seeks to avoid adverse environmental effects. The hierarchy of avoid effect, minimise, control, compensate and enhance will be strictly applied in this sequence. The Environmental Statement will describe how this hierarchy has been applied. The mitigation hierarchy is described in detail in Volume 5.

5.7.2

Mitigation of construction effects


5.7.3 5.7.4 All measures embedded in the draft CoCP of relevance to aquatic ecology can be found in para. 5.2.3. The areas of habitat affected by the temporary cofferdam are expected to recover following removal of the sheet piling and fill material. The need for any specific restoration measures will be considered and reported in the ES. A bespoke solution to facilitate the movement of fish around the temporary structures is currently being considered. The application of this mitigation

5.7.5

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feature and individual sites will be determined once the magnitude of the hydrodynamic impact has been determined and potential effects on fish migration determined. This will be determined using hydraulic modelling data, applied at both a site specific level and project-wide level. Details of the mitigation measure and its application will be reported in the ES.

Mitigation of operational effects


5.7.6 The permanent loss of intertidal foreshore is considered to be a moderate adverse effect. At this stage the footprint of the permanent structure has been minimised as far as possible to accommodate the necessary works therefore further mitigation is not possible at present. Consideration will be given to compensation as necessary in line with the mitigation hierarchy as discussed in Volume 5. This will be reported in the ES. If encroachment of the permanent structure were considered to result in a significant adverse effect on fish migration similar bespoke mitigation as described in para. 5.7.5 above will be applied to the permanent structure. This will be determined using hydraulic modelling data as described above and reported in the ES.

5.7.7

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5.8
Vol 21 Table 5.8.1 Aquatic ecology construction assessment Effect Moderate adverse Natural recovery anticipated. The need for site specific restoration measures will be investigated and reported in the ES. None viable None required None required Significance Mitigation Residual Significance To be reported in the ES.

Assessment summary

Construction

Receptor

Habitats

Loss of intertidal and subtidal habitat due to temporary landtake

Disturbance and compaction of intertidal and subtidal habitat Negligible Negligible

Minor adverse

Negligible Negligible Negligible

Mammals

Interference with the migrations of marine mammals within the Tideway.

Fish

Direct mortality of fish due to temporary landtake, and disturbance and compaction of sediment. Minor adverse

Loss of feeding, resting and nursery habitat for fish due to temporary landtake

Natural recovery anticipated. The need for site specific restoration measures will be investigated and reported in the ES. Negligible None required

To be reported in the ES.

Loss of feeding, resting and nursery habitat for fish due to sediment disturbance and

Negligible

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

Receptor

compaction To be determined and reported in ES

Interference with migratory movements of fish To be assessed due to partial blockage of the intertidal area in ES following by temporary structures, and barges. further investigation. Negligible None required Negligible

Direct mortality and/or disturbance to fish from waterborne noise and vibration leading to changes in behaviour and migratory patterns. Negligible None required

Blanketing of feeding areas for fish and invertebrates and reduction in water column visibility due to suspended sediment. Minor adverse None viable

Negligible.

Invertebrates

Direct mortality of invertebrates due to temporary landtake and disturbance and compaction of sediment. Minor adverse

Minor adverse

Loss of feeding/burrowing habitat for invertebrates due to landtake

Natural recovery anticipated. The need for site specific restoration measures will be investigated and reported in the ES. Negligible None required

To be reported in the ES.

Loss of feeding and burrowing habitat for invertebrates due to sediment disturbance and compaction

Negligible

Blanketing of feeding areas for invertebrates and reduction in water column visibility due to

Negligible

None required

Negligible

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

Receptor

suspended sediment. Negligible None required

Temporary shading of invertebrate habitat

Algae

To be assessed and reported in the ES

Operation
Vol 21 Table 5.8.2 Aquatic ecology operation assessment Significance Year 1 of operation Moderate adverse Negligible Negligible Moderate adverse Year 6 of operation No further mitigation possible None required To be assessed in the ES Negligible effect. Mitigation Residual significance

Receptor

Effect

Habitats

Permanent loss of designated intertidal and subtidal habitat

Mammals

Increase in the number and/or change in the distribution of marine mammals. Minor adverse Minor adverse

Fish

Permanent loss of intertidal and subtidal feeding and resting habitat for fish.

Site specific mitigation measures are being considered as part of an overall mitigation strategy and will be reported in the ES. Negligible None required

To be reported in ES

Blanketing of feeding areas for fish and reduction in water column visibility due to suspended

Negligible

Negligible

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Section 5: Ecology - aquatic

Receptor

Effect

sediment. To be assessed in ES following further investigation Minor beneficial Negligible. Minor adverse. Minor adverse. Minor beneficial None required Site specific mitigation measures are being considered as part of an overall mitigation strategy and will be reported in the ES. None required None required Minor beneficial None required To be assessed in ES following further investigation. To be determined and reported in ES

Interference with migratory movements of fish due to blockage of the intertidal area by permanent structures.

Reduction in the occurrence of low dissolved oxygen related fish mortalities.

Moderate beneficial.

Increase in the distribution of pollution sensitive fish species.

Moderate beneficial To be reported in ES

Invertebrates

Permanent loss of intertidal and subtidal feeding and burrowing habitat for invertebrates.

Blanketing of feeding areas for Negligible. invertebrates suspended sediment Negligible.

Negligible. Minor beneficial. Minor beneficial

Negligible. Minor beneficial

Localised improvements in invertebrate diversity and abundance. Negligible

Increase in the distribution of pollution sensitive invertebrate species.

None required

Minor beneficial

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Receptor

Effect

Algae

To be assessed and reported in the ES.

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5.9
5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3 5.9.4

Assessment completion
Algal data and complete assessment of effects on algae will be reported in the ES. Additional fish and invertebrate surveys were undertaken during spring 2011 and will be reported in the ES. Assessment of cumulative effects will be undertaken as part of the ES. Assessment of the hydrodynamic effects of the temporary and permanent structures on fish migratory movements will be undertaken. This will use a technique called Individual Based Modelling based on the existing hydraulic model. Following this, the need for and further refinement of the design of a bespoke solution to facilitate the movement of fish will be considered. The suite of qualitative improvements and off-site habitat creation opportunities available will also be identified. Following completion of the assessment, the mitigation approaches for aquatic ecology within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES.

5.9.5

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Section 6: Ecology - terrestrial

6 6.1
6.1.1

Ecology terrestrial Introduction


Terrestrial ecology was scoped out of the assessment for the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site at the scoping stage. Likely effects on aquatic ecology are reported in Section 5. Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. There were no site specific comments from consultees for this particular site relating to terrestrial ecology. No significant adverse effects on terrestrial ecology are anticipated for construction or operation as there are no notable species or habitats, or the potential for them to be present, on or adjacent to the site that could be affected by the project. In the unlikely event that sensitive receptors are found on site during construction, management measures in line with the Ecological Management Plan described within the draft CoCP will be implemented. Potential opportunities for enhancement measures across the whole project are being given consideration as part of the ongoing design process.

6.1.2

6.1.3

6.1.4

6.2
6.2.1

Baseline conditions
A Phase 1 Habitat Survey was undertaken on 9th December 2010 as part of scoping, which identified that habitat is limited to hardstanding and a line of semi-mature London plane trees Acer platanus x acerifolia, one of which would be removed during construction activities (Vol 21 Figure 6.2.1). This is unlikely to support any notable species. The trees are considered to be of no more than site (low) value. The area would be reinstated after completion of works in line with the draft CoCP (Volume 2: Proposed development). Vol 21 Figure 6.2.1 Terrestrial ecology Phase 1 habitat survey (see Volume 21 Figures document)

6.2.2

The River Thames and Tidal Tributaries SINC (Grade Mi) is included in the aquatic ecology assessment. There is no significant foreshore habitat for wintering birds on or immediately adjacent to the site. A narrow strip of foreshore is exposed at the lowest spring tide. This habitat is not considered to be significant for wintering birds.

SINC (Grade M) = Site of Nature Conservation Importance (Grade III of Metropolitan importance)

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7 7.1
7.1.1

Historic environment Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant effects on heritage assets at the Blackfriars Bridge foreshore site. These are aspects of the historic environment which are considered to be significant because of their historical, evidential, aesthetic or communal interest (these terms are defined in Volume 5). These might comprise below or above ground archaeological remains, buildings, structures, monuments or heritage landscapes within or around the site 14. This section should be read in conjunction with Volume 6, which sets the site in its broad topographic, geological, archaeological and historical context and discusses the project-wide landscape and topic themes in respect of the historic environment. These themes are touched upon briefly here where they are relevant to the site. The site comprises two separate areas which for the purpose of this report are defined as Site Area A (the western area) and Site Area B (the eastern area, to which the Millennium Pier will be relocated). Together they are collectively referred to as the site.

7.1.2

7.1.3

7.2
7.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to the historic environment are set out below.

Construction
7.2.2 Those aspects of specific relevance to the historic environment assessment, since they could lead to on heritage assets, are as follows: a. Enabling works include the erection of hoarding; relocation of the President ship; relocation of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier from Site Area A to Site Area B; closure, partial removal and subsequent reinstatement of the down ramp from Blackfriars Bridge, removal of part of the river wall parapet; construction of a temporary cofferdam, office and welfare facilities on pad foundations; dredging; dewatering wells; and the diversion of minor utilities. b. Main construction works entail the construction of a Combined Sewage Overflow (CSO) shaft; deep excavations for two overflow weir chambers; valve chambers, and connection culverts; and a new section of river wall. 7.2.3 Measures incorporated into the draft CoCP to reduce impacts on the historic environment include protective measures where appropriate such as temporary support, hoardings, barriers and screening around heritage assets within and adjacent to work sites, and advance planning of plant and working methods for use where heritage assets are close to work sites, or attached to structures within work sites. The CoCP also includes

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provisions for the contractor to prepare a site specific Heritage Management Plan.

Operation
7.2.4 The proposed operation of the infrastructure is described in Volume 3. The particular components that are relevant to the assessment, in terms of historic environment setting, comprise the permanent structures visible above ground, in particular the design of the modified river wall. The design and shape of the proposed river wall is relevant in terms of potential direct operational effects, arising from hydrological changes (scouring or deposition) and the possible impact on buried heritage assets within the foreshore and channel area.

7.2.5

7.3
7.3.1

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. There were no site specific comments from consultees for this particular site. It should also be noted that Volume 5 details the approach to the assessment of effects on the historic setting of heritage assets which it has been agreed, following the formal scoping process, will be covered in the assessment of construction and operational effects. This assessment will be completed for the ES.

7.3.2

Baseline
7.3.3 The baseline methodology follows that set out in Volume 5, with a key component being a desk based assessment, consulting a broad range of archaeological, documentary and cartographic sources, along with a site walkover survey. The results of geotechnical investigations, some of which were archaeologically monitored, have also been incorporated. The combined 250m buffer around Site Area A, and 150m buffer around Site Area B comprises the study area used for the assessment and is considered through professional judgement to be most appropriate to characterise the historic environment potential of the site, including potential for unknown buried heritage assets. Because of the number of designated assets within the wider site vicinity, these have been fully described and assessed within a smaller 100m radius study area. A summary outlining built assets within a remainder of the 250m radius and beyond has also been included; in order to describe the wider historic character, setting and significance of the site and its environs, which will be fully addressed in the ongoing EIA for inclusion in the ES. It should be noted that the study area for assessing effects on the setting of built heritage assets may be revised in the ongoing EIA since such effects are most likely to occur within the visual envelope of the site, which may differ from the study area defined for the purposes of this report.

7.3.4

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Construction
7.3.5 7.3.6 The construction phase methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. Any site specific variations are described below. Likely significant effects on the historic environment could arise throughout the construction phase from activities likely to remove, disturb or alter above ground or buried heritage assets, as a result of enabling or construction works. The methodology been informed by an understanding of the nature and extent of proposed ground disturbance, in relation to known or potential heritage assets. In terms of the base case (future baseline) for the assessment of construction effects, no physical changes are anticipated in the condition of above ground heritage assets. Changes to the base case from nonThames Tunnel developments could affect the setting of above ground heritage assets. Any such changes will be detailed for the final assessment, to inform the assessment of effects on the historic setting of heritage assets, and presented in the ES. In terms of buried heritage assets, the only aspect of the resource that is likely to change, without the project over the construction period, is the condition of the assets due to ongoing fluvial processes (scouring and sediment deposition) on the foreshore, along with other unrelated proposed development schemes, on land or within the river. The base case is predicted as accurately as is possible, to ensure the robustness of the subsequent assessment. Data on existing fluvial processes will be reviewed in the ongoing EIA and will be reflected in the base case presented in the ES.

7.3.7

7.3.8

7.3.9

Operation
7.3.10 7.3.11 7.3.12 The operational phase methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. Any site specific variations are described below. The operational phase assessment will be undertaken for Year 1 of operation. In terms of the base case (future baseline) for the assessment of operational effects, no physical changes are anticipated in the condition of above ground heritage assets. Changes to the base case from nonThames Tunnel developments could affect the setting of above ground heritage assets. Any such changes will be detailed for the final assessment, to inform the assessment of effects on the historic setting of heritage assets, and presented in the ES.

Assumptions and limitations


7.3.13 Volume 5: Methodology sets out the generic assumptions and limitations of the assessment. In summary, the main limitation is the nature of the archaeological resource (buried and not visible) and acknowledgement of the difficulty of attempting to predict the presence/extent, date, nature, survival and significance of possible, previously unrecorded, buried heritage assets, based on a desk based study and site visit. In particular,

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no intrusive archaeological investigation has been carried out on the site in the past and few investigations have been carried out in the study area around the site. 7.3.14 Notwithstanding this limitation, the assessment presented here is robust based on reasonably available information and conforms to the requirements of local and national guidance and planning policy (as detailed in Volume 5). Typically, appropriate standard archaeological prospection and evaluation techniques are utilised post-consent to reduce the uncertainties inherent in any desk based study as part of an overall EIA mitigation strategy (see Section 7.7 for the proposed mitigation for works at this site)

7.4
7.4.1

Baseline conditions
The following description of baseline conditions comprises seven subsections which set out: a. A description of historic environment features, with an introduction to the features map (which shows the location of known historic environment features within the study areas around the site areas A and B respectively) and the study area; b. A description of statutorily and locally designated assets within the site and its vicinity (ie, within a 100m-radius of the site) c. A description of the site location, topography and geology to set the context of the site

d. A summary of past archaeological investigation within the study area, providing an indication of how well the area is understood archaeologically e. A summary of the archaeological and historical background which sets out what is known about the site and its environs f. A statement of significance for above ground assets within and around the site, describing the features which contribute to their significance

g. A discussion of potential for buried heritage assets, taking account of factors affecting survival, and a statement of their potential significance 7.4.2 A site walkover survey was carried out by specialists on 24th March 2011. The light and weather conditions were bright and dry. The estimated low tide level was 97.5m ATD (above Tunnel Datum; the equivalent of 2.5m Ordnance Datum).The part of the Thames bank on which the site is located was not directly accessible due to scouring beneath Blackfriars Bridge, creating a waterlogged channel, preventing access to the site from the eastern side. The site was photographed and examined from the east side of Blackfriars Bridge, along the embankment and from the Millennium Pier. An extensive dump of concrete (bridge) scour protection blocks to the east of the site was noted, along with the remains of a cofferdam, aligned northeast to southwest, between the Millennium Pier and the Victoria Embankment wall (presumably used for the construction of the realigned river wall in the 1960s), and the remains of wooden piles adjacent

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to the embankment (presumably used for the construction of the original river wall in the 1860s).

Historic environment features


Vol 21 Figure 7.4.1 Historic environment - features map (see Volume 21 Figures document) 7.4.3 The historic environment features map (Vol 21 Figure 7.4.1) shows the location of known historic environment features within the study area around the site, compiled from the baseline sources set out in the topic specific methodology in Volume 5. These have been allocated a unique historic environment assessment reference number (HEA 1, 2, etc), which is listed in the gazetteer in Appendix A. Where there is a considerable number of listed buildings in the study area, only those within the vicinity of the site (ie, within a 100m-radius) are included on the map and in the gazetteer. The study area for assessing effects on the setting of heritage assets may be revised because setting effects are most likely to occur within the visual envelope of the site, which may differ from the study area defined for the purposes of this report.

7.4.4

Designated assets
National Statutory designations 7.4.5 Bazalgettes Embankment wall is a Grade II listed structure, (HEA 1A), although a section of the wall beside Blackfriars Bridge, constructed in the 1960s as part of the current pedestrian underpass, is unlisted. English Heritage digital data does not show the full extent of the structure covered by the listing (it is shown as a single point only); although it is likely that a part of the listed section extends into the western part of the site (see Section 7.6.3). The listing description of the river wall includes the cast iron lamp standards, the granite retaining wall, piers and stairs. Several of the listed iron lamp stands fall within the site footprint. The lamps on the unlisted section of the wall do not form part of the listing. The south abutment of the former Blackfriars Railway Bridge is a Grade II listed structure and outside the study area; however the cast iron columns or piers that transect the river and formerly supported the bridge, three sets of which are within the study area (HEA 41), do not appear to be covered in the listing, which specifies the south abutment only. Nevertheless they can be considered part of a group of assets that include the listed abutment, to which they relate. Baynards Castle (HEA 75) is a Scheduled Monument which includes a medieval enclosure castle which survives as buried archaeological remains beneath modern development. A number of listed buildings lie close to the site, fronting the embankment, c. 35m to the north. The site is situated c. 30m to the south of the Grade II listed Inner Temple Garden (HEA 16). Numerous other listed buildings are shown on the historic environment features map (Vol 21 Figure 7.4.1) and in the gazetteer (Appendix A). Listed assets within the study area, and where appropriate beyond this, are described in subsequent sections

7.4.6

7.4.7

7.4.8

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of Baseline conditions below, and in the Statement of Significance from para. 7.4.65. 7.4.9 The vessel President (HEA 1C), moored in the western edge of the site, is listed on the National Register of Historic Vessels and is also a member of the National Historic Fleet (Cert No. 494). Although the ship is not statutorily protected she is considered by National Historic Ships (a nondepartmental public body that advises the Secretary of State and other public bodies) as being of pre-eminent national or regional significance and is therefore included in the baseline 15. Local Authority designations 7.4.10 The site lies within the City of London, the entirety of which is designated as an archaeological priority area. It also lies within the southern boundary of the Whitefriars Conservation Area, characterised by a number of heritage assets within its boundaries, including the ancient confluence of the Thames and the Fleet, which was much wider than the current canalised Fleet, and had an important commercial use until the latter part of the 18th century. The Carmelite Friary (Whitefriars) and the Dominican Friary (Blackfriars) were established in the 13th century, as was Bridewell Palace, constructed by Henry VIII in the 16th century. The area is also characterised by the importance of the riverfront as a commercial area in the post-medieval period. Known burial grounds 7.4.11 There are no known burial grounds within the site. There are former burial grounds present within the study area, including Bridewell Burial Ground (HEA 24), c. 190m to the north and an associated secondary burial ground c. 160m to the northwest. A Saxon burial ground has been recorded beneath railway lines, c. 160m to the northeast of the site.

Site location, topography and geology


Site location 7.4.12 The site is located on the north bank of the River Thames, and includes the Victoria Embankment river wall which lies adjacent to the northern site boundary. The western part of Site Area A lies c. 150m to the east of Temple Pier; the eastern part beneath the northern approach to Blackfriars Bridge. The southern bank of the River Thames lays c. 150m to the south. Both Site Area A and Site Area B lie within the area of London developed in the later medieval period, immediately adjacent to the southern boundaries of the ancient parishes of Whitefriars, St. Bride, and Bridewell. Within Site Area A the eastern end of the largely submerged foreshore is currently occupied by the northern approach to Blackfriars Bridge. Underneath the bridgehead, opening out from the river wall, are outfall gates, constructed in the 1960s as part of the re-aligned river wall. These release water from the canalised subterranean River Fleet (HEA 1F), now the Fleet Main sewer. The Blackfriars Millennium Pier and an earlier ex-London Fire Brigade pump house structure are located on the foreshore in the middle of Site

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Area A. The President ship (HEA 1C) is permanently moored within the western part of the site. To the east, the piers which supported a former railway bridge remain standing across the Thames channel, c. 15m from the site, with the western side of the existing Blackfriars Railway Bridge lying c. 30m from the site. 7.4.15 Site Area B lies on an area of undeveloped foreshore and includes a section of the 1960s river wall within its north-western boundary. Topography 7.4.16 The site lies on the northern foreshore of the Thames with the majority of the foreshore within Site Area A submerged during high tide at c. 100.0m ATD. The foreshore extends beneath Blackfriars Bridge and lies above water level at low tide, at c. 100.0m ATD. Modern ground levels to the east of the site reflect the natural underlying slope down from Ludgate Hill (c. 400m to the northeast) down to the Thames, with the junction of New Bridge Street and Queen Victoria Street, c. 110.0m to the northwest of the site, at c. 107.6m ATD, sloping down to c. 104.6m ATD at Blackfriars Bridge. Ground levels on the Victoria Embankment, adjacent to Site Area A, slope upwards from c. 104.5m ATD to the west opposite Audit House, to c. 106.0m ATD opposite the Blackfriars Millennium Pier, before sloping down again towards Blackfriars Bridge. The rise in ground levels towards the Blackfriars Bridge approach (c. 109.0m ATD at the approach itself, adjacent to Blackfriars Passage) reflects artificial ground raising to accommodate the later 19th century subterranean Metropolitan District Railway line, which runs c. 30m to the north of the river wall, beneath the Victoria Embankment. The subway of the Victoria Embankment road (Blackfriars Underpass, constructed in the 1960s) runs above the railway line adjacent to Blackfriars Station and continues westwards along the Victoria Embankment (between the Embankment wall and the subterranean railway), with the road emerging from the underpass adjacent to the centre of the site. The underpass is located partially within the northeastern boundary of the site. Site Area A is situated at the confluence of the Fleet and Thames rivers, lying well within the northern part of the Thames floodplain, directly south and west of the mouth of the north-south aligned River Fleet. The projected mid-point of the confluence of these two rivers lies within the eastern boundary of the Site Area A (HEA 1F). Some sources consider the Fleet would have been c. 180m wide at its mouth 16. This will have included the western part of Site Area B, c. 120m to the east of the mid point of the confluence. For much of its past, the site lay within the Thames channel, c. 230m from the gravel terrace, until the gradual extension of the riverfront from the Roman period onwards, and particularly in the post-medieval period, to its present location. Geology 7.4.19 The site is mapped by the BGS as alluvium overlying bedrock geology of London Clay, with Taplow and Hackney gravel terraces capped by brickearth occurring on either side of the Fleet (British Geological Survey

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solid and drift geology, sheet 256), 250m to the north. Bathymetric data indicates the Thames is at its deepest at the northern side although the nature of the alluvial and gravel deposits overlying the London Clay here are complex. Other, now redundant, minor tributaries have flowed into the confluence area in the past, transporting sediments and dissecting the London Clay and/or gravels (British Geological Survey digital data). Borehole data indicates the alluvium can variably consist of sands, sandy clays, peats, and sands and gravels with ceramic building material (CBM), varying between 1.0m and 5.0m in thickness, below deposits of made ground. 7.4.20 No borehole data was available for the site itself, although surrounding borehole data allowed a transect to be constructed, encompassing the site. A deep channel cuts through the London Clay to 90.4m ATD, with gravels at 93.1m ATD (borehole UNH04BH7), approximately 100m north of the site. This channel is probably late Pleistocene, as organic bands within the lower sand deposits over the gravels have been dated to 11,100 BC (UNH04BH8). This very early date places these sands at the boundary of the warm Windermere interstadial and the cold Loch Lomond stadial at a time of climatic oscillation at the end of the last (Devensian) cold stage. This date correlates with the Late Upper Palaeolithic archaeological period and is very rare for this area of London. The gravels rise steeply southwards to a high point 30m north of Site Area A at c. 96.0m ATD (TQ38SW4407) before sloping back downward toward the river. Within the river itself, c. 35m to the south of Site Area A, only the London Clay survives, at c. 95.0m ATD (TQ38SW94). Should the gravels survive within the site it is estimated that they will lie at c. 95.5m ATD. Typically, late Pleistocene gravels are overlain by sands which become increasingly organic over the higher gravel area at c. 96.5m to 97.5m ATD (TQ38SW4406) c. 60m north of the site, indicative of river marginal environments or possibly soil horizons relating to the early prehistoric (Mesolithic). Although the floodplain environment was probably attractive for exploitation by hunter-gatherer groups, Mesolithic remains are not frequently recovered from this stretch of the Thames floodplain, although they are frequently encountered in the tributary valleys of the Middle and Lower Thames. Over the sands, gravels with occasional fragments of ceramic building material (tile), thought to relate to the Roman period, have been deposited with the tide at the Thames and mouth of the Fleet. In the Roman period, the river levels fluctuated, reaching a high of c. 101.0m ATD17. In the area of the site these fluctuations in river levels are likely to have led to scouring by the Fleet and consequent truncation of the underlying sands during the Roman period. This is likely to have removed later prehistoric levels typically found to exist at 100.0m ATD in similar environments, such as Thorney Island and Westminster 18. Following the steady increase in river levels since the Roman period, surviving later medieval and post-medieval remains (eg, boats and fishtraps, as well as palaeo-environmental evidence) may be present within the grey silty clay alluvium.

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The presence of made ground within the foreshore area of the site is expected to be minimal, other than under Blackfriars Bridge and to the east (the eastern half of the site) where there are concrete blocks. These were probably put there to stop the foreshore eroding below the level of the river wall footings and north bridge pier, caused by scouring eddies around the bridge piers.

Past archaeological investigations within the study area


7.4.25 No past archaeological investigations have been carried out on the site, although several have been carried out in the vicinity. The closest investigation to Site Area A was carried out in 1962 at Blackfriars Underpass, (HEA 2), adjacent to the northeastern corner of the site, which revealed part of the wreck of a Roman ship. Archaeological excavations, c. 4070m to the northeast of site, at Bridge House on Queen Victoria Street (HEA 3), and Unilever House on the Victoria Embankment (HEA 4), revealed extensive post-medieval dock and revetment remains. At 167 179 Queen Victoria Street (HEA 6), c. 80m to the northeast of the site, a medieval foreshore wall, stairs and moorings were discovered, along with evidence of reclamation and building in the post-medieval period. Medieval and post-medieval remains, including burials, were discovered at Blackfriars House, on New Bridge Street (HEA 7), c. 115m to the north of the site. Investigations c. 135165m to the north and northwest (HEA 8, 11, 13, 14 and 15) uncovered further evidence of medieval land reclamation and post-medieval building. An excavation carried out at the former City of London Boys School (HEA 12), c. 100m to the north of the site, revealed an extensive sequence of similar evidence, including medieval organic material. At 912 Bridewell Place, c. 180m to the north of the site (outside the study area, to the north), foundations of the 16thcentury Bridewell Palace were discovered. The closest investigation to Site Area B was carried out at 223225 Upper Thames Street, (HEA 61), c. 30m to the north-east, which revealed four periods of medieval and post-medieval east-west river frontages. Excavations at London Bridge Station (HEA 59), c. 70m to the north-west and the Mermaid Theatre (HEA 60), c. 70m to the north, revealed riverine deposits and revetment timbers and remains of the Roman and medieval riverside walls respectively. An excavation at Baynards Castle (HEA 62), c. 40m to the north-east of the site, revealed the foundations of the 15th century and Tudor castle, overlying earlier tenements and a public watergate. The results of these investigations allow for a good understanding of the environs of the site and reflect the historic character of the western part of the City of London as an area of settlement from the Roman period onwards, located adjacent to the western city wall of Londinium and incorporated into the boundary of the subsequently expanded medieval City. Understanding of the site in the prehistoric period is limited in comparison, due to a scarcity of known archaeological remains. The results of the investigations, along with other known sites and finds within the study area, are discussed by period, below.

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Archaeological and historical background of the site


7.4.29 The following section presents a chronological summary of the archaeological and historical background of the site, drawing on the information collated above. Prehistoric period (700,000 BCAD 43) 7.4.30 There are no known archaeological remains dating to this period within the site. It is likely that the site lay in an area which was largely submerged in much of the prehistoric period, although areas of higher ground may have included the site. The results of recent borehole samples taken from Unilever House (HEA 4), c. 70m to the north of the site, suggest that erosion caused by the Fleet and the Thames created a bank of higher land, c. 100m to the north of the site (an eyot) which may have been dry and suitable for settlement. The exact extent of this area of higher ground (subsequently buried beneath alluvium following rise in sea/river levels) is uncertain, but it is conceivable that it extended into the site. From within the Thames, a Neolithic hand-axe (HEA 19) and a Neolithic/Bronze Age hand-axe (HEA 18) were recovered c. 65m to the south of the Site Area A, and a Bronze Age spear, c. 85m to the southwest. The chance find of a Neolithic hand-axe was also made c. 100m to the north of Site Area B (HEA 63). It is possible that redeposited material may be recovered from within the Thames and Fleet alluvium on the site, representing activity on the shoreline during the Neolithic period, when river levels were lower than in later periods. It is also possible that ritual objects were deposited in the river at this location, as has been found elsewhere along the Thames. Roman period (AD 43410) 7.4.32 There are no known Roman remains within the site. In the mid-1st century it would have been submerged within the channel of the River Thames, c. 230m to the south of the riverbank at that time. Site Area A lay c. 80m to the southwest of the Roman city of Londinium, which lay on the eastern bank of the River Fleet, whilst Site Area B lay within its south-western boundary. By the late 1st century AD, revetments, quays, jetties and warehouses had been built along the waterfront in Londinium to the east. The process of reclaiming land from the river and establishing waterfront structures continued throughout the 2nd and into the 3rd century. This activity was concentrated within the walled town and there is currently no evidence of riverside construction further west, within the area of the site. The eastern end of Site Area A lies c. 20m to west of the Blackfriars Roman shipwreck at the Blackfriars Underpass (HEA 2), excavated in 19621963. The wreck was discovered within alluvial deposits, c. 20m to the south of the 1960s waterfront (c. 45m to the north of the existing foreshore edge), during the construction of the current river wall. The ship sank in the Thames, at the mouth of the Fleet, in the mid-2nd century. It was uncovered at c. 96.4m TD, at the base of the channel in the Roman period. River levels are believed to have fallen from c. 102.0m TD to 100.0m TD in the early Roman period and then to have risen again in the

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3rd or 4th century 19. The evidence for this is derived from a general reduction in TD heights of known successive Roman revetments. 7.4.34 Three previous investigations within the study area uncovered limited evidence of Roman activity to the north of the site, along what would have been the northern bank of the Thames. An excavation carried out in 1985 at 60 Victoria Embankment (HEA 12), c. 100m to the north of Site Area A, recorded alluvium containing eroded Roman tile and pottery fragments. In 1999, an evaluation at 1921 Tudor Street (HEA 15), c. 130m to the north of Site Area A, revealed residual fragments of Roman pottery within medieval reclamation deposits. An excavation at the Mermaid Theatre (HEA 60), c. 70m to the north of Site Area B, revealed the Roman riverside wall immediately to the east of Puddle Dock road, c. 75m to the north of the present river wall, indicating the extent of reclamation which has since taken place. Roman piles were also discovered at Baynards Castle (HEA 62), c. 40m to the north-east of the site, which are likely to be related to the construction of the Roman river wall. Roman to medieval flood defences (HEA 66) were recorded c. 90m to the north of the site. Roman law required the dead to be buried outside the city boundaries; burials adjacent to the western city wall have been discovered c. 300m to the north of the site, well inland from the river edge at that time. Evidence of milling on the gravel eyots of the east bank of the Fleet were identified c. 450m to the northeast of the site. Early medieval (Saxon) period (AD 4101066) 7.4.36 There are no known archaeological remains dating to the early medieval period within the site, which lay within the Thames, c. 200m to the south of the riverbank at that time. Following the withdrawal of the Roman army from England in the early 5th century AD, the Roman city was abandoned and the trading port of Lundenwic developed in the area now occupied by Aldwych, the Strand and Covent Garden, c. 1km to the west of the site 20. In the 9th century the former walled Roman city was reoccupied in response to devastating Viking raids. Although outside the settled areas, there is evidence of peripheral activity on the riverbank to the north of the site. The chance discoveries of a mid7th century gold coin and a 7th8th century knife (HEA 73), were made in 1848, c. 75m to the east of Site Area B. An early medieval pot (HEA 64) was also discovered c. 115m to the north of Site Area B. St. Brides Church, c. 300m to the north of Site Area A, is likely to be of Saxon foundation and certainly existed by the 11th century, when it probably acquired its parish. It was noted during a previous investigation of the Fleet Valley in 1988 (site code VAL88), that the eastern boundary of the parish followed the west bank of the Fleet, although north of Ludgate Hill, c. 425m to the north of the site, enclosed part of the east bank. This may have been due to two large gravel islands (eyots), discovered during the investigation, which formed a natural boundary in the 10th12th centuries.

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A Saxon burial ground was identified in the area of the railway, c. 135m to the northeast of Site Area A (outside the study area), whilst residual (outside the context in which it was originally deposited) pottery dating from the 10th to the mid-12th century, was uncovered during an evaluation at 1921 Tudor Street (HEA 15), c. 130m to the north of Site Area A. Later medieval period (AD 10661485) There are no known later medieval archaeological remains within the site itself, which lay within the River Thames some distance south of the riverfront. Throughout this period, the banks of the Thames were systematically drained and reclaimed, pushing the riverbank southwards, probably to a line c. 100m north of the present river wall. Reclamation also took place along the Fleet, and new waterfront structures were built. After the Norman Conquest in 1066, the defences of the city were rebuilt. Fortresses were established on the western city wall, at Baynards Castle (HEA 75), c. 30m to the northeast of Site Area B (established by 1087), and at Montfichets Tower, c. 100m to the northeast (established by 1136). The earliest surviving structural remains and layout of Baynards Castle dates to the 13th century but it was altered, partially re-built and enlarged several times. The remains, uncovered by partial excavation in 1984 and 1994, revealed that it was built on four wings around a central courtyard. The southernmost side originally fronted the river and remains of a series of 16th century projecting towers survive in this part of the castle. A riverside entrance in one of the small south towers is attested in literary sources. Surviving internal features include tiled flooring and the remains of a fireplace in the south wing. A bastion tower, part of a rebuilding programme initiated by Henry III in the 13th century, lies c. 150m to the northeast of the site (outside the study area). In 1276, the site of Baynards Castle (destroyed in 1213) was given to the Blackfriars (Dominicans) for a new religious precinct. A new castle was built to the east of Blackfriars shortly after. The earliest occupation within the vicinity, however, was by the Carmelite Friary (Whitefriars) complex, established in c. 1250, north of Tudor Street, c. 225m to the north of Site Area A. Most of the archaeological evidence in the study area is of extensive land reclamation of the Thames riverfront and Fleet valley. In 1157, Henry II granted the Order of the Knights Templars land on the banks of the Fleet. They reclaimed large tracts on both sides of the river, narrowing the mouth of the Fleet (HEA 1F). Excavations at Blackfriars House (HEA 7), c. 115m to the north of Site Area A, uncovered two parallel east-west timber revetments, possibly contemporary with the reclamation. At 13 Tudor Street (HEA 8), c. 140m to the north of Site Area A, medieval wooden revetments were uncovered at a depth of 97.0m TD. The north-south revetment was supported on oak piles at 1m intervals. At the crossing of a sewer tunnel from Kingscote Street to Tudor Street (HEA 11), c. 165m north of Site Area A, timber bases were discovered on piles, driven into natural gravel and also aligned north-south, suggesting a possible dock or inlet.

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During an excavation at the former City of London Boys School (HEA 12), c. 100m to the north of Site Area A, dump material dating to the 12th century, and a gravel bank, representing the Thames and Fleet confluence were discovered, along with a riverside wall of chalk built on the contemporary foreshore. A foundation trench for the wall was shored by a wattle fence. This reclamation activity extended the foreshore by c. 50m. Excavation at 912 Bridewell Place, c. 180m to the north of Site Area A (outside the study area), recorded large-scale reclamation on the west bank of the Fleet; timber revetments were constructed using boat timbers. An excavation carried out in 1985 at 167179 Queen Victoria Street (HEA 6), c. 80m to the northeast of Site Area A, at the confluence of the Thames and Fleet revealed a substantial 13th14th century, east-west aligned river wall, along the line of the medieval foreshore, along with dump deposits and stairs from the top of the wall to the foreshore. At the front of the wall beaches of compacted gravel had been laid and several mooring timbers were found. An excavation at the Mermaid Theatre (HEA 60), c. 70m to the north of Site Area B also revealed the timber baseplates for a front and back-braced timber revetment, forming a frontage onto the river, dated to c. 1240. During an evaluation at 1921 Tudor Street (HEA 15), c. 130m to the north of Site Area A, a stone river wall, documented as having been constructed in 1396, was uncovered, c. 135m to the north of the site, along with associated land reclamation deposits containing a large quantity of artefacts. Post-medieval period (AD 1485present) The site remained within the Thames channel in this period, although continued land reclamation increased advancement of the waterfront towards the site. Continued reclamation of the Fleet eventually led to its narrowing to a sewer which now flows beneath New Bridge Street, leading to Blackfriars Bridge. Five features of historic interest have been identified within the site (HEA 1A1F), including the Victoria Embankment (HEA 1A); a 19th century river wall designed by Joseph Bazalgette, lying adjacent to the northern boundary of the site; the 17th century canalised mouth of the River Fleet, now the Fleet Main sewer (HEA 1F), which lies beneath the northernmost arch of Blackfriars Bridge; and the vessel President (HEA 1C), an early 20th century warship. A number of artefacts and features dating to this period have also been discovered within the vicinity. The earliest substantial post-medieval structure built within the study area was Bridewell Palace (HEA 23), the southern boundary of which was located c. 115m to the north of Site Area A. This was constructed in c. 15151520 for Henry VIII, in the area to the west of the confluence of the Thames and the Fleet, south of St. Brides Church. The palace had a Long Gallery extending southwards, terminating in a wing running eastwest along the waterfront 21. The foundations of the northern wing of the palace were uncovered during an excavation in 1978 (outside the site c. 195m to the north), along with the approximate location of the palace river

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wall and later waterfronts. Foundations were also uncovered at 13 Tudor Street (HEA 8), c. 140m to the north of Site Area A. 7.4.50 The palace (HEA 23) is shown on the riverfront to the north of Site Area A on Braun and Hogenburgs map of 1572 (Appendix A), with the southern extent of the building directly on the waterfront. In 1556, the City had taken possession of the palace and it was converted into a prison, hospital and workrooms. The site is located within the Thames, c. 100m to the south of the riverbank. During an excavation at Unilever House (HEA 4), mid-16th century dumps were discovered, c. 90m to the north of Site Area A, and are thought to have been tipped onto the contemporary foreshore. An evaluation carried out at 1921 Tudor Street (HEA 15), c. 130m to the north of Site Area A, uncovered remains associated with the extension of the Carmelite precinct (Whitefriars), where medieval land reclamation deposits were covered by further post-medieval ground raising. A late 16th or early 17th century jug and a decorated plate were discovered within a timber-lined pit during an excavation at Blackfriars House (HEA 7), c. 115m to the north of Site Area A. Faithorne and Newcourts map of 1658 (Appendix A) shows both parts of the site within the Thames, c. 100m to the south of the waterfront at that time. There has been considerable development to the north and west of the site, with dense rows of houses and other buildings. The mouth of the Fleet is named Bridewell Dock, illustrating its commercial function. An excavation at Blackfriars House (HEA 7), c. 115m to the north of the Site Area A, uncovered successive post-medieval waterfronts with dumps of infill material. Early 17th century burials were also discovered, belonging to a secondary graveyard associated with St. Bridgets (Brides) main burial ground to the north. Ogilby and Morgans map of 1676 (Appendix A), produced during the reconstruction of the city following the Great Fire, is the first to give a relatively accurate scale, making it easier to estimate the location of the site in relation to the 17th century waterfront. The site lay within the Thames, c. 80100m to the south of the riverbank. A cluster of boats is shown at the mouth of the Fleet, called the New Canal, illustrating its continued commercial use. There is a contrast between the spaciously laid out commercial and residential buildings fronting the river and canal, and the tightly packed building plots to the north of the Temple and Bridewell. Most of the 16th century buildings were destroyed during the Great Fire of 1666 and many subsequently rebuilt. The map shows the former site of the southern galleries of Bridewell Palace replaced with wharf buildings and yards. Archaeological evidence for the fire was recorded during an excavation (HEA 12), c. 100m to the north of Site Area A, where a burnt horizon sealed earlier reclamation dumps and revetments. Post-1666 timber revetments and extensive timber piling revealed the construction of new quays here. Rocques map of 1746 (Appendix A) shows the site c. 80m to the south of the riverfront, illustrating the extent of the southward extension of the waterfront in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In contrast to earlier

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maps, the importance of the Fleet as a commercial route had clearly begun to decline. It had narrowed and was now named the Fleet Ditch. To the north of Fleet Bridge, it had begun to be built over, creating a new market area. The beginnings of industrialisation within the area are also shown, with a Glass House (HEA 26), c. 200m to the north of the Site Area A. This was constructed in c. 1680 and later became Powells (Whitefriars) Glass Company. It was one of numerous industries along the Fleet. 7.4.55 Horwoods map of 1799 (Appendix A) shows the site located in the River Thames, c. 50m to the south of the then riverfront. The original Blackfriars Bridge, built in 1760, had been constructed on the site of the current bridge, and the Thames/Fleet confluence (HEA 1F), as well as the Fleet itself, has been entirely built over, to create an approach over New Bridge Street. An evaluation carried out at Bridge House, 181 Queen Victoria Street (HEA 3), uncovered substantial structural remains, including foundations of Portland stone, associated with the 1760 bridge, or with Chatham Place, a contemporary square constructed to the north of the bridgehead. The original Blackfriars Bridge was largely demolished and replaced with the current structure in 1869. The London, Dover and Chatham Railway, running across the Thames, adjacent to the site, c. 15m to the east, was constructed in 1862 and removed in 1985. Its westernmost bridge piers (HEA 41) still survive and are Grade II listed. The Ordnance Survey (OS) 1st edition 25 scale map of 1875 (Appendix A) shows Site Area A in its present location, adjacent to the Victoria Embankment, with c. 10m of exposed foreshore at high tide. The embankment was constructed in 18651870 by Joseph Bazalgette as part of Londons sewage improvements (this project-wide theme is discussed in the route overview, Volume 6). Its construction necessitated building out onto the foreshore, from the 1865 to the current waterfront, an extension of c. 50m, as revealed during excavations at the former City of London Boys School (HEA 12). It is likely that that part of the Victoria Embankment wall (HEA 1A) which lies in the western part of Site Area A, is part of the original wall. In the eastern part of the site, modifications to the bridgehead were carried out to enable the construction of a subway. A tunnel was built for the Metropolitan District Railway within the embankment and roofed over to support the road and tramway shown on the map, adjacent to the river wall. The OS map also shows The City of London (Blackfriars) Gas Works (HEA 25), constructed at the beginning of the 19th-century occupying a large area c. 110m to the north of Site Area A. Site Area B continues to lie partially submerged and partially on the foreshore, c. 30m to the south of a row of wharfs. Immediately to the east of Site Area B, the GLHER records the remains of a post-medieval boat, of uncertain date and classification (HEA 68 and 69). The OS 2nd edition 25 scale map of 1896 (not reproduced) shows no changes to the site. In the northern part of the study area, the gas works had been replaced with the Dukes Theatre and the City of London Boys

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School (HEA 12). A number of Grade II listed buildings and other structures (HEA 3146) which front the Victoria Embankment or lie within the vicinity of the site were constructed immediately prior to the production of this map. 7.4.60 The OS 3rd edition 25 scale map of 1916 (Appendix A) shows Site Area A as still undeveloped other than a Fire Brigade Pier constructed on the foreshore. In 19071910, Blackfriars Bridge was widened to cope with increasing traffic. The widened bridge is shown on the map with a tramline running along its western side, leading from the Victoria Embankment. It is clear from the map that the street layout to the north of Site Area A had become much more formal and regularised in the late 19th/early 20th century in comparison to the early 19th and preceding centuries. Site Area B, by contrast, has changed little in the last 40 years, and continues to lie on the undeveloped foreshore, c. 30m to the south of a row of commercial docks and wharves. The OS 25 scale map of 1947 (Appendix A) shows a new pier structure in the eastern part of Site Area A, c. 10m to the west of the earlier Fire Brigade Pier, with a pump house and associated access ramps. This is likely to be the timber and iron jetty (HEA 1C), with associated hand crane (HEA 1D), listed on the GLHER as these do not appear to exist on earlier maps. The map shows a pier in the western part of the site, which was construction in the early 1920s and used as a mooring point for the President ship (HEA 1C). Site Area B remains unchanged. Later OS maps (not reproduced) show construction of an underpass and realigned river wall in the 1960s and the construction of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier in the centre of the site in 2000. The current site 7.4.63 The majority of the foreshore within the site currently lies unused, with the greater part of Site Area A usually submerged beneath the River Thames. The eastern end of Site Area A, on which the northern approach to Blackfriars Bridge is situated and Site Area B lies above water level at low tide. The Blackfriars Millennium Pier (a floating pontoon) and associated access steps, ramp and an earlier pump house structure are located in the centre of the site. During the site visit the truncated remains of round timbers (HEA 1B) were noted immediately adjacent to the Victoria Embankment river wall on an east-west alignment, (Appendix A), exposed at low tide. These are likely to be post medieval and related to the cofferdam used in the construction of Bazalgettes river wall.

7.4.61

7.4.62

7.4.64

Statement of significance: above ground heritage assets


Introduction 7.4.65 In accordance with national policy set out in PPS5, the following section provides a statement based on professional and expert judgement on the likely significance (which is a reflection of the value or importance) of heritage assets, derived from their perceived historical, evidential, aesthetic and communal value. These terms are defined in Volume 5.

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Section 7: Historic environment

Site Area A lies within the Whitefriars Conservation Area, a heritage asset of high significance. The Character Summary 22 states that the construction of the Victoria Embankment allowed the creation of the formal grid layout of streets to the north of the site in the 1880s, an unusual feature when compared to the customary evolutionary nature of street development in the capital. The layout originally provided for the chambers for the Temple, buildings for the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, the City of London School for Boys, a fire station, a railway hotel facing the River and Blackfriars Station, as well as printing and office accommodation for the newspaper and publishing industries. The buildings of the conservation area are principally late Victorian and Edwardian, with a consistency of scale. Buildings are constructed using traditional materials such as Portland and Bath limestone, brick and terracotta, which give the area a harmonious identity whilst retaining a human scale. The Victoria Embankment riverfront is described in the Conservation Area Appraisal 23 as one of Londons most distinctive boulevards, a popular promenade for visitors to London, with wide views across and along the Thames, riverside monuments, statues, decorated benches and lamp posts (Appendix A). The trees lining the thoroughfare also form an important component of the historic environment. These components, whether listed or not, have a shared group value, contributing in a positive way to the character of the area. The area has a cohesive nature, deriving from its heritage assets. The Victoria Embankment was designed by Bazalgette to provide underground railway routes, sewers and to enable a new layout of streets, all on land reclaimed from the north bank of the Thames. As well as providing practical infrastructure, his scheme also created a prestigious grand boulevard bolstered by prominent monumental architecture, gardens and open spaces. This constructed landscape has remained unaltered in essence, with the parks, monuments and grand buildings being maintained or added to complement the character of the area. The conservation area is considered to be an asset of high significance, derived from its evidential, historical, aesthetic and communal value. The site incorporates the Grade II listed river wall of Bazalgettes Victoria Embankment (HEA 1A; Appendix A). The listing description of the river wall includes the cast iron lamp standards, the granite retaining wall, piers and stairs. The exact extent of the designated section is uncertain, although it possibly extends into the western part of the site. English Heritage spatial data shows this linear asset as a single point, centred on national grid reference 531487 180803, within the site. The section of the wall running through the site appears to have survived the bombing of the Second World War intact and no damage is noted on the London County Councils Bomb Damage Map (London Topographical Society 2005). In the 1960s modifications were made to the bridgehead and river wall in the eastern part of the site to facilitate the construction of Blackfriars Underpass, and a new section of river wall to the east of Blackfriars Bridge was added, in keeping with the earlier design. The 1960s bridgehead modifications, commemorated with a plaque on the river wall dated July

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1965, enabled the construction of a subway to separate pedestrian and road traffic. The section of the wall within the eastern half of the site is thought not to be covered by the listing as it is part of the 1960s modification. The 1960s section of the wall is considered to be of medium asset significance. This is derived from its evidential and historical value in light of its association with the original, listed wall to the west. 7.4.68 The site incorporates the Grade II listed river wall of Bazalgettes Victoria Embankment (HEA 1A; Appendix A). The listing description of the river wall includes the cast iron lamp standards, the granite retaining wall, piers and stairs. The exact extent of the designated section is uncertain, although it possibly extends into the western part of the site. English Heritage spatial data shows this linear asset as a single point, centred on national grid reference 531487 180803, within the site. The section of the wall running through the site appears to have survived the bombing of the Second World War intact and no damage is noted on the London County Councils Bomb Damage Map (London Topographical Society 2005). In the 1960s modifications were made to the bridgehead and river wall in the eastern part of the site to facilitate the construction of Blackfriars Underpass, and a new section of river wall to the east of Blackfriars Bridge was added, in keeping with the earlier design. The 1960s bridgehead modifications, commemorated with a plaque on the river wall dated July 1965, enabled the construction of a subway to separate pedestrian and road traffic. The section of the wall within the eastern half of the site is thought not to be covered by the listing as it is part of the 1960s modification. The 1960s section of the wall is considered to be of medium asset significance. This is derived from its evidential and historical value in light of its association with the original, listed wall to the west. A 20th-century pump house building is situated at the eastern end of the Millennium Pier (HEA 20). This relates to the former river fire station on the site, active in the 1940s, and is a heritage asset of low significance, derived from the historical value. Although it is not listed, it is understood that it is currently being considered for listing by English Heritage. Blackfriars Bridge is Grade II Listed structure (HEA 31) and was opened in 1869 by Queen Victoria and built to designs by Thomas Cubitt to replace an earlier bridge on the same site. A rail bridge, also designed by Cubitt originally lay adjacent and to the east (see below). The road bridge was widened in 19071910. The carvings of marine life and water birds on the stone piers were by the sculptor John Birnie Philip (Appendix A). They show seawater birds on the eastern side, with fresh water birds on the west, symbolic of the site of Blackfriars as a tidal turning point. The bridge is a heritage asset of high significance. The site boundaries extend beneath the northern end of the bridge to include the northernmost abutment and stone pier. Within the boundaries of Site Area A, is moored the President ship (HEA 1C) (Appendix A). The ship, originally called HMS Saxifrage, was built in 1917 as an Anchusa or Flower class corvette of the Royal Navy, to function as a convoy protection ship against German U boats in the First World War, disguised as a merchant vessel. The President ship is listed

7.4.69

7.4.70

7.4.71

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on the National Register of Historic Vessels (Cert No. 494) and is a member of the National Historic Fleet. It has been moored at Victoria Embankment for over 80 years and has therefore been a familiar and constant presence on the river in this area. Although she is not statutorily protected, she is a heritage asset of high significance, derived from her evidential, communal and historical value. Within the study area 7.4.72 There are thirteen receptors within the 100m study radius for built heritage assets: a. A Grade II listed cattle trough (HEA 32), adjacent to the Inner Temple Garden, is located c. 20m to the north-west of Site Area A. b. Five Grade II listed gate piers (HEA 33) are located at the entrance to the Inner Temple Gardens, c. 25m to the north of Site Area A. c. The Grade II listed Hamilton House (HEA 34) on the Victoria Embankment dates to 1880 and lies c. 50m to the north of Site Area A. It is an ornamented, gabled house constructed of Portland Stone and lies adjacent to the Inner Temple Garden.

d. The Grade II listed Carmelite House (HEA 35), dated to the late 19th century, and is located c. 30m to the north of Site Area A, on the Victoria Embankment. e. 9 Carmelite Street (HEA 36) is a Grade II listed building, c. 30m to the north of Site Area A, dated to 18931894, which forms a group with Sion College (see below). The building is constructed in a Tudor Gothic style, as is Sion College. f. The Grade II listed Sion College (HEA 37), c. 25m to the north of Site Area A, was constructed in 1886 and forms a group with 9 Carmelite Street. The building is constructed of red brick with stone dressings in a Tudor Gothic style.

g. The main front block of the City of London School (HEA 38), c. 30m to the north of Site Area A. h. Unilever House (HEA 39) is a Grade II listed building, c. 30m to the north of Site Area A, constructed in 19301931 by Lomax-Simpson with Sir John Burnet, Tait and Lorne. It features a monumental quadrant-shaped faade which is listed along with the building. Although it is constructed on a modern steel frame, its faade is of Portland stone in a stripped Classical style. i. j. k. The Grade II listed state of Queen Victoria (HEA 40) at the approach to Blackfriars Bridge, is located c. 20m to the north of Site Area A. 1213 Kings Bench Walk (HEA 42) is a Grade II listed mid-19th century building located c. 70m to the north of Site Area A. The K2 Telephone Kiosk and Drinking Fountain (HEA 46) at the northern approach (eastern side) of Blackfriars Bridge, c. 45m to the north of Site Area A, date to 1927 and 1861 respectively. The telephone kiosk is of cast-iron, with a domed roof and crowns to its top

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panels. The fountain consists of a red granite bowl on a baluster base. 7.4.73 These Grade II listed structures, all of which are located within the Whitefriars Conservation Area, and contribute significantly to its overall historic character, are considered heritage assets of high significance due to their evidential, historical, aesthetic and communal values. The abutments to the former West Blackfriars and St. Pauls Rail Bridge (HEA 41) lie adjacent to the eastern boundary of Site Area A. They were constructed in 18621864, and whilst they are not listed, they are associated with the Grade II listed Blackfriars Bridge and are included for their group value. They are assets of high significance due to their evidential, historical, aesthetic and communal values. Between the 100m and 250m study radii (around Site Area A; there are no listed structures within the 150m study area around Site Area B) there are nine further Grade II, Grade II* and Grade I listed buildings. These are summarised below and are also included in the features map and gazetteer: a. The former Argus Printing Company (HEA 44) is a Grade II listed building c. 110m to the north of Site Area A. b. The former Guildhall School of Music (HEA 45) is a Grade II listed building, c. 110m to the north of Site Area A. c. The Grade II listed Paper Buildings (HEA 76) c. 110m to the northwest of the site.

7.4.74

7.4.75

d. 911 Kings Bench Walk (HEA 77) are Grade II listed and are located c. 110m to the north of Site Area A. e. 8 Kings Bench Walk (HEA 78) is Grade II* listed and is located c. 150m to the north of Site Area A. f. 7 Kings Bench Walk (HEA 79) is a Grade I listed building located c. 160m to the north of Site Area A.

g. Northcliffe House on Tudor Street (HEA 80) is a Grade II listed building located c. 180m to the north of Site Area A. h. 24 Tudor Street (HEA 81) is a Grade II listed building, located c. 180m to the north of Site Area A. i. j. 7.4.76 Blackfriars House at New Bridge Street (HEA 82) is Grade II listed and lies c. 120m to the north of Site Area A. The gateway to Tudor Street (HEA 84) is Grade II listed and lies c. 180m to the north of Site Area A.

These buildings are of high asset significance, with the exception of the Grade II* listed 8 King Benchs Walk and the Grade I listed 7 King Benchs Walk, which are of very high asset significance due to their historical, evidential, aesthetic and communal values. Beyond the study area there are several further above ground heritage assets. The Whitefriars Conservation Area within which the site lies is surrounded by others to the north (Fleet Street conservation area) and

7.4.77

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west (Temples conservation area). These conservation areas are considered to be of high significance. In addition, the Grade I listed St. Pauls Cathedral lies c. 350m to the north-east of Site Area B. This is an asset of very high significance.

Statement of significance: buried heritage assets on the site


Introduction 7.4.78 The following section discusses past impacts on the site which are likely to have compromised asset survival (generally from late 19th and 20th century developments, eg, building foundations or quarrying), identified primarily from historic maps, the site walkover survey, and information on the likely depth of deposits. In accordance with PPS5, this is followed by a statement on the likely potential and significance of buried heritage assets within the site, derived from current understanding of the baseline conditions, past impacts, and professional judgement. Archaeological survival potential 7.4.80 Archaeological survival potential across the site is generally likely to be high for post-medieval remains, but probably low to moderate for earlier periods, due to fluvial erosion. Scouring at the confluence of the Fleet with the Thames is likely. Thames Clippers using the Millennium Pier, and the proximity of Blackfriars Bridge and the outfall of the Fleet Main sewer, are likely to have caused some scour, and the presence of concrete blocks around the bridge, probably placed to reduce erosion, confirm this. Scouring has probably removed any alluvial deposits predating the postmedieval period from within the foreshore area of the site. There may be localised pockets of surviving alluvium, and earlier deposits, possibly within the western part of the site, at a depth of up to c. 0.04.5mbgl (95.5m ATD; the predicted level of natural gravels, if they survive). Early structural remains and boats may also have survived the erosion, as revealed by the discovery of the Roman ship to the east of the site (see above). Other than river scour, the construction of the existing and earlier Blackfriars Bridges in the eastern part of the site would have entailed considerable ground disturbance, truncating any archaeological remains locally. The earlier bridge (1760) probably had between four and ten deep timber piles to support its piers 24. The present bridge (1869) used deep iron caissons to support piers for five arches, the northernmost of which, with a width of c. 47.0m, is located within the site. The piles for both structures will have entirely removed archaeological remains within the pile footprints. There will have been considerable truncation for the foundations of the bridgehead behind the river wall. Cofferdams were used in the construction of the bridges, and probably dewatering, although the details are not known. This is likely to have damaged foreshore deposits. The Blackfriars Millennium Pier in the centre of the site has two main stabilising piles of c. 1.0m in diameter each at its river wall side. These will

7.4.79

7.4.81

7.4.82

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have removed any remains locally. The as-constructed drawings of the pier show that there are steel sheet piles on the shore-side of the pier and that the river bed in front of the piles has been dredged (below the pontoon). These temporary works are likely to have removed any archaeological remains within the area of the pier. 7.4.83 The site walkover survey identified the remains of what are assumed to be post-medieval wooden piles (HEA 1B), in the form of a single upright timber and two closely positioned round timbers, adjacent to the river wall in the centre of the northern boundary of the site. These may be the remains of the cofferdam used to construct the original embankment wall in the 1860s. It is probable that further piles are present. Although the piles are a past impact, they are also potentially of heritage interest. Asset potential and significance 7.4.84 The following statement of asset significance takes into account the levels of natural geology at the site and the level and nature of disturbance and truncation. Palaeo-environment 7.4.85 The site has a low potential to contain palaeoenvironmental remains. Although the site is located on alluvial sand, lying beneath the Thames at high tide and partially beneath it at low tide, fluvial scour is likely to have caused a high degree of erosion within the site and removed early palaeoenvironmental remains. Such remains, if present, would be of low or medium significance depending on their nature and degree of preservation. This would be derived from the evidential value of such remains. Prehistoric 7.4.86 The site has an uncertain, probably low potential to contain prehistoric remains. It is likely that the site lay in an area which was largely submerged in much of the prehistoric period, although it is possible that areas of higher ground, including a known eyot to the north, may have extended into the site. Rising water levels are likely to have led to scour by the Fleet however, and truncation of the alluvium/sand and any prehistoric remains within or beneath. Re-deposited finds, (ie, finds deposited outside of their original context), would be of low significance. In-situ remains (low probability) would potentially be of medium significance, depending on the nature, extent and preservation. This would be derived from the evidential value of surviving remains. Roman 7.4.87 The site has low to moderate potential to contain Roman remains. The site was located in the river channel, around 150m from the Roman riverbank, whilst the focus of riverfront activity lay to the northeast in the area of the city on the eastern side of the River Fleet. The find of a wrecked Roman ship discovered within alluvial deposits c. 20m to the east of the site at the mouth of the Fleet suggest a potential for remains related to the movement of barges and ships, particularly in the area of the Thames/Fleet confluence, including shipwrecks, shipbuilding materials or

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residual artefacts, which may survive on the site. Isolated artefacts and features would be of low or medium significance, depending on the nature and extent. A hulked boat like the one found to the east of the site would be of high significance, potentially very high if well preserved. Early medieval 7.4.88 The site has a low potential to contain early medieval remains. There are no known remains dating to this period within the site, which lay within the River Thames throughout this period, and the dry land to the north does not appear to have been settled. Remains associated with river use, such as fish traps (low probability) would be of low or medium significance, depending on the nature and extent of the remains. Isolated artefacts, such as the Saxon coin and knife discovered on the foreshore between Site Areas A and B would be of low or medium significance depending on the nature and extent of the remains. Later medieval 7.4.89 The site has a low potential to contain later medieval remains. The site lay within the Thames throughout the period. There is evidence of land reclamation along the banks of the Thames and Fleet to the north, and whilst this extended the line of the waterfront towards the site, it still lay some distance away. As the site lay at the confluence of the Fleet, with the Friary complex on the riverbank adjacent, it is likely that the area was busy in terms of river traffic, and it is possible that wrecked boats, jetty structures, or artefacts survive within the site. Isolated artefacts would be of low significance. A hulked vessel, if present (low probability), would be of high significance, potentially very high, if well preserved. The significance would be derived from the evidential and historical value of the remains. Post-medieval 7.4.90 The site has a high potential to contain post-medieval remains. In this period the waterfront began to advance towards the site more rapidly, particularly during the 18th and 19th centuries, when riverside wharfs, docks, piers, as well as the 18th century and the present Blackfriars bridges were constructed in the area of the site. Visible remains noted on the site walkover survey, are discussed above. It is possible that the remains of a wrecked boat, such as those discovered to the east of Site Area B, may survive within the site. Such remains would be of low or medium significance. Further, buried assets, if present, would be of low or medium significance, derived from the potential evidential and historical value of the remains.

Summary of asset significance


7.4.91 The table below provides a summary of the known or potential historic environment assets relevant to the proposed project. Vol 21 Table 7.4.1 Historical environment receptors Receptor (Asset) Asset type Significance (value)

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Receptor (Asset) Grade II listed Blackfriars bridge Whitefriars Conservation Area Grade II listed Bazalgette Victoria Embankment including lamp standards The President ship Unlisted 1960s modifications to river wall The Blackfriars Millennium Pier Unlisted 20th century pump house Various Grade I listed buildings Various Grade II* listed buildings Various Grade II listed buildings Low potential for palaeoenvironmental remains

Section 7: Historic environment Asset type Significance (value) High High High

Above ground / within the site Above ground / within the site Above ground / within the site

Above ground / within the site Above ground / within the site Above ground / within the site Above ground / within the site Above ground/outside the site Above ground/outside the site Above ground/outside the site Buried / within the site

High Medium

Low Low Very high Very high High Low or medium

Uncertain, possibly low Buried/ within the site potential for redeposited artefacts and/or in-situ remains Low to moderate potential for Roman redeposited artefacts and/or hulked boats Low potential for early medieval remains, including isolated artefacts and remains associated with river use (ie, fish traps etc) Buried / within the site

Low (for redeposited artefacts); medium (for in-situ remains) Low (redeposited artefacts); high or very high if well preserved (hulked boats) (unlikely) Low or medium

Buried / within the site

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Section 7: Historic environment Asset type Significance (value) Low (for redeposited artefacts); high or very high if well preserved (hulked vessel) (unlikely) Low or medium

Low potential for later Buried/ within the site medieval redeposited artefacts and/or hulked vessels

High potential for postmedieval remains on the foreshore and embankment comprising industrial remains, wharves, jetties, boat wreck remains, cofferdams and anchor points. Low potential for unknown unidentified remains (unknown asset significance)

Buried / within the site

Buried / within the site

Uncertain

7.5

Construction assessment Above ground heritage assets


Within the site

7.5.1

The parapet of the existing 1960s river wall would be locally demolished to facilitate access and a new river wall with a replacement parapet constructed along the line of the foreshore structure. The local demolition is likely to partly comprise a section of the Grade II listed river wall of Bazalgettes Victoria Embankment towards the western end of the site and some elements of the unlisted1960s modifications around Blackfriars Bridge in the eastern part of the site. Although the existing river wall (including any listed sections) outside the site will be protected, the foreshore structure and new river wall will permanently change the alignment of the Bazalgette embankment in this area. New raised walls are proposed in some parts of the site, along the original alignment, but the inclusion and precise appearance and extent of these structures is currently being considered and will be finalised for assessment within the ongoing EIA. Below ground remains associated with the Bazalgette or 1960s embankment may also be locally removed by the overflow weir chamber beneath the western approach ramp to Blackfriars Bridge; the lift pits to the east of Blackfriars Bridge; control cabinet; service diversions and foundations of welfare and office facilities, where these extend into the embankment. Of the lamps on the listed section of the wall three would be removed during construction and two reinstated at the end of the construction phase.

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These changes would constitute a medium impact on the Grade II listed Bazalgette embankment, an asset of high significance, reducing the asset significance locally to medium. This would result in a major adverse effect upon the asset during construction. It should be noted that the precise extent of the original and listed (as opposed to the unlisted 1960s) embankment is yet to be confirmed. These changes would constitute a medium impact on the unlisted 1960s embankment close to the Blackfriars Bridge underpass, an asset of medium significance, reducing the asset significance locally to low. This would result in a moderate adverse effect during construction. The unlisted, 20th century pump house, of low asset significance, would be demolished as part of the proposals. This comprises a high magnitude of impact during construction. It would reduce the significance of the asset to negligible and result in a minor adverse effect. The President ship would be moved approximately 100m upstream of its present location and there would be no physical impact upon the ship resulting from the proposals. Therefore the effect would be negligible. The Millennium Pier of low asset significance, would be moved from its current position in the centre of Site Area A, and reinstated in Site Area B. There would be no impact upon the pier during construction, thus resulting in a negligible effect. There would also be no physical impact upon the Grade II listed Blackfriars Bridge. Therefore the effect would be negligible. Within the study area The assessment of effects upon the historic setting of surrounding designated/protected heritage assets within the study area, including Blackfriars Bridge and Whitefriars Conservation Area, requires further consideration and will be completed for the ES. This assessment is distinct from the assessment of effects on townscape character areas presented in Section 11, as it is based on criteria specific to the historic environment. The study area for assessing setting effects on heritage assets may be revised because historic setting effects are most likely to occur within the visual envelope of the site, which may differ from the study area defined for the purposes of this report. The effects of other construction phase activities on particularly significant assets (ie, statutorily designated/protected features) on or adjacent to the site, will also be assessed in the ongoing EIA for presentation in the ES. Construction impacts which may affect the setting of such assets might include vibration from piling, dust and disturbance from the movement of heavy goods vehicles.

7.5.3

7.5.4

7.5.5

7.5.6

7.5.7

7.5.8

7.5.9

Buried heritage assets


7.5.10 The following section describes the effects predicted from the enabling and construction works. Where the construction works would take place in an area already affected by enabling works, the overall effect on the heritage resource from both phases of works is summarised Vol 21 Table 7.5.1, in order to ensure effects are not double-counted.

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The enabling works comprise those works necessary to prepare the site for construction. The predicted impact of each element of the works is set out below. The proposal and magnitude of impact are described initially, with the resulting effects on the various buried heritage assets discussed at the end of the section. A temporary cofferdam, along with a temporary working deck at its western end, would be constructed in Site Area A using temporary piling and made ground infill, to provide a stable platform. The piles would locally remove any archaeological remains within the footprint of each pile and if the piling layout is very dense, could potentially render any archaeological remains between the piles incomprehensible in terms of future archaeological investigation. In addition, if vibro-compacted piles are used, these could potentially damage archaeological remains located between individual piles through deformation of surrounding sediments. Up to c. 1.0m of the foreshore would be removed within the footprint of the temporary cofferdam to reduce the potential for settlement of the new embankment. Some ground disturbance is also assumed outside the footprint of the temporary cofferdam resulting from its construction. This would remove any archaeological remains (see para. 7.5.15), reducing the asset significance of those remains to negligible. This would constitute a high magnitude of impact for these assets. Dredging of the foreshore within Site Area B would be necessary around the proposed relocated Blackfriars Millennium Pier. It is assumed for the purposes of the assessment that this would extend to a maximum depth of 0.75m below existing foreshore surface and is likely to truncate the natural gravels and remove any archaeological remains present (see para. 7.5.15). This would constitute a high magnitude of impact for these assets. Dewatering within the cofferdams could potentially have a wider impact upon any organic remains in the vicinity which are not removed by the construction or enabling works. By changing their environment, dewatering could cause nearby organic remains to decay and reduce their significance to negligible. This would result in a high magnitude of impact. These construction works could have an impact upon various different types of archaeological assets within the site, and the environmental effect would depend upon the significance of the assets removed, as detailed below: a. There is a low potential for palaeoenvironmental remains of low or medium asset significance. Removal of such remains would reduce their significance to negligible and comprise a minor adverse effect. b. There is an uncertain, possibly low potential for redeposited prehistoric artefacts of low asset significance and for in-situ remains of medium asset significance. Removal of such remains would reduce their significance to negligible and comprise minor or moderate adverse effects respectively.

7.5.12

7.5.13

7.5.14

7.5.15

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There is a low to moderate potential for redeposited Roman artefacts of low asset significance and for hulked boats, potentially of high or, if well-preserved, of very high asset significance. The removal of such remains would reduce their significance to negligible and comprise minor or major adverse effects respectively.

d. There is a low potential for early medieval isolated artefacts and remains associated with river usage. Such remains would be of low to medium significance if present. Removal of such remains would reduce their significance to negligible and comprise a minor or moderate adverse effect. e. There is a low potential for later medieval redeposited artefacts of low asset significance, and for hulked vessels of high or, if well preserved, of very high asset significance. The removal of such remains (if present) would reduce their significance to negligible and comprise minor or major adverse effects respectively. f. There is a high potential for post-medieval remains on the foreshore and embankment comprising industrial remains, wharves, jetties, boat wreck remains, cofferdams and anchor points. These would be of low to medium asset significance and their removal by the one or more of the proposed works described above would reduce their significance to negligible and constitute a minor or moderate adverse environmental effect. There is a low potential for possible, previously unrecorded remains of unknown significance. This could be low to high, depending on the nature, date, extent and survival of the remains. Removal of such remains would result in a minor to major adverse effect, depending on asset significance.

g.

7.5.16

Where the office and welfare facilities are constructed on the temporary steel deck or within the footprint of the cofferdam on top of the made ground, they would have no impact on any archaeological remains. Construction works A foreshore structure would be located within the temporary cofferdam. Within the area of the foreshore structure, for the purposes of the assessment it is assumed that all alluvium would be removed to provide a solid foundation and prevent settling. This would remove the majority of any archaeological remains present within the footprint of these works, removing any remains within the alluvium and heavily truncating any surviving features cut into the underlying gravels. The significance of any assets affected would be reduced to negligible and would constitute a high magnitude of impact for these assets. This would remove or truncate any archaeological remains within the footprint of these works, which may have survived the enabling works cofferdam, reducing the significance of any such remains to negligible. This would constitute a high magnitude of impact for these assets. The effect would vary depending upon the significance of the assets removed. The affected assets and the resulting environmental effect are the same as those described for the temporary works above.

7.5.17

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Section 7: Historic environment

Depending on the depth of the overflow weir chamber, culverts and valve chambers, these works would potentially remove or truncate any surviving archaeological remains within their footprint which had not previously been removed by stripping of the foreshore during construction of the cofferdams. Bored piles would be used to support the overflow weir and valve chambers which would remove or truncate surviving archaeological remains. The significance of affected assets would be reduced to negligible, constituting a high magnitude of impact for these assets. The affected assets and the resulting environmental effect are the same as those described for the temporary works above. The CSO drop shaft and section of new river wall would remove any remaining archaeological remains within their footprints, which had not previously been removed by stripping of the foreshore during construction of the cofferdams. The significance of affected assets would be reduced to negligible, constituting a high magnitude of impact for these assets. The affected assets and the resulting environmental effect are the same as those described for the temporary works above. Piles would be used to support the toe of the existing embankment wall which would remove archaeological remains from within the footprint of the piles. The significance of affected assets would be reduced to negligible, constituting a high magnitude of impact for these assets. The affected assets and the resulting environmental effect are the same as those described for the temporary works above. The proposed new landing stage for the Blackfriars Millennium Pier within Site Area B would be constructed on stablising piles. The piles would locally remove any archaeological remains within the footprint of each pile. It is assumed that the piling layout will consist of two main stablising piles and will not be dense. This would constitute a low magnitude of impact for any affected assets. The affected assets and the resulting environmental effect are the same as those described for the temporary works above.

7.5.19

7.5.20

7.5.21

Significance of environmental effect


7.5.22 The table below summarises the magnitude of impact upon known and possible historic environment assets at the site (above ground and buried), during the construction phase, and the resulting environmental effect. This is the effect prior to the implementation of an agreed mitigation strategy. Vol 21 Table 7.5.1 Historical environment effects - construction Asset (resource) Impact (magnitude, and justification) Above ground heritage assets Grade II listed Blackfriars bridge (High asset significance) Negligible No physical changes to the Bridge are proposed Negligible Effect

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Asset (resource) Grade II listed Bazalgette Victoria Embankment including listed lamp stands (High asset significance)

Section 7: Historic environment Effect

Impact (magnitude, and justification) Medium Local demolition and reinstatement of the parapet wall along the line of the foreshore structure. Possible removal of below ground remains associated with the embankment where the overflow weir chamber is located. Removal of three lamp stands of which two would be reinstated at the end of construction. Negligible The ship would be moved to an alternative location Medium Localised demolition and reinstatement of the embankment wall where the overflow weir chamber is located Negligible The pier would be moved to an alternative location High Asset to be demolished

Major adverse

The President ship (High asset significance) Unlisted 1960s modifications to river wall (Medium asset significance) The Blackfriars Millennium Pier (Low asset significance) Unlisted 20th century pump house (currently unlisted but being considered for listing by English Heritage) (Low asset significance) Character and setting of above ground heritage assets in the vicinity of the site, including nearby listed buildings including

Negligible

Moderate adverse

Negligible

Minor adverse

To be assessed in the EIA

To be assessed in the EIA

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Impact (magnitude, and justification)

Buried heritage assets Low potential for palaeoenvironmental remains (Low or medium asset significance) High Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers and culverts. Asset significance reduced to negligible High Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers and culverts. Asset significance reduced to negligible Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers, culverts and ventilation structures. Asset significance reduced to negligible High Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers and culverts. Asset significance reduced to negligible Minor adverse (unlikely)

Uncertain, possibly low potential for redeposited artefacts (low asset significance) and/or in-situ remains (medium asset significance)

Minor adverse (redeposited artefacts); moderate adverse (in-situ remains) (unlikely)

Low to moderate potential for Roman redeposited artefacts (low asset significance) and/or hulked boats (high or, if well preserved, very high asset significance) Low potential for early medieval remains, including isolated artefacts and remains associated with river use (ie, fish traps etc) (Low or medium asset significance)

Minor adverse (redeposited artefacts); major adverse (hulked boats)

Minor or moderate adverse (unlikely)

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Asset (resource) Low potential for later medieval redeposited artefacts (low asset significance) and/or hulked vessels (high or, if well preserved, very high asset significance) High potential for post-medieval remains on the foreshore and embankment comprising industrial remains, wharves, jetties, cofferdams, boat wreck remains, and anchor points. (Low or medium asset significance) Low potential for unknown unidentified remains (unknown asset significance)

Section 7: Historic environment Effect

Impact (magnitude, and justification) High Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers and culverts. Asset significance reduced to negligible High Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers and culverts. Asset significance reduced to negligible High Assets removed by stripping of the foreshore, dredging, piling, excavation for CSO drop shaft, overflow weir chamber, valve chambers and culverts. Asset significance reduced to negligible

Minor or major adverse (unlikely)

Minor or moderate adverse

Minor to major adverse effect, depending on asset significance (unlikely)

7.6
7.6.1

Operational assessment Above ground heritage assets


The construction of the new permanent foreshore structure is likely to alter the wider historical appearance, character, and setting of the overall Embankment along this stretch of the river. The Whitefriars Conservation Area is an asset of high historical significance. The potential impact of the proposed works upon the setting, historic appreciation, character and integrity of it would be primarily aesthetic and so depends partly on the design configuration, finishes and materials proposed. This will be assessed and reported in the ES.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore 7.6.2

Section 7: Historic environment

The Grade II listed section of the Bazalgette Victoria Embankment, is an asset of high significance in the western part of the site. The effect of the change in setting of the entire listed wall, due to physical alterations to alignment of the embankment within the site, will be assessed and reported in the ES. The assessment of effects upon the setting of surrounding heritage assets within the study area requires further consideration and will be completed for the ES. This assessment is distinct from the assessment of effects on townscape character areas presented in Section 11, as it is based on criteria specific to the historic environment. It should be noted that the study area for assessing setting effects on heritage assets may be revised because setting effects are most likely to occur within the visual envelope of the site, which may differ from the study area defined for the purposes of this report.

Buried heritage assets


7.6.3 It is possible that as a result of the foreshore structure and new river walls, the fluvial regime of the river would change resulting in different scouring patterns. This could potentially result in erosion or deposition of the foreshore and channel areas. The predicted impact of the fluvial regime on any archaeological remains on the foreshore will be assessed following a review of hydrological modelling, currently being undertaken, along with a review of data on past dredging held by the Port of London Authority (any archaeological assets would have already been removed in areas of past capital dredging).This will be presented in the ES.

Significance of environmental effect


7.6.4 The table below summarises the historic environment assets at the site for which effects during the operational phase will be assessed through the ongoing EIA for presentation in the ES. Vol 21 Table 7.6.1 Historic environment effects -operation Asset (resource) Setting of Whitefriars Conservation Area (High asset significance) Impact (magnitude, and justification) Assessment underway. To be considered in the ES Effect (prior to mitigation) Assessment underway. To be considered in the ES Assessment underway. To be considered in the ES Assessment underway. To be considered in the

Setting of Grade II listed Assessment underway. Bazalgette Victoria To be considered in the Embankment ES (High asset significance) Setting of Grade II listed Assessment underway. Blackfriars bridge To be considered in the ES (High asset

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Asset (resource) significance) Setting of other listed buildings identified in the Statement of Significance

Section 7: Historic environment Impact (magnitude, and justification) ES Effect (prior to mitigation) To be considered in the ES

To be considered in the ES

7.7
7.7.1

Approach to mitigation Construction


All measures embedded in the draft CoCP of relevance to the historic environment are found in para. 7.2.3. Additional mitigation measures required are detailed below. Above ground heritage assets Removal and alteration of the fabric of the Bazalgette Grade II listed embankment wall (an asset of high significance) would require a programme of standing structure survey and recording prior to and during alteration, to English Heritage Level 3 standard 25. This would comprise an analytical record with additional archival and documentary research, and a written, photographic and drawn record, and would achieve preservation by record (through advancing understanding of asset significance). This would reduce the major adverse effect to negligible. The moderate adverse effect arising from the removal and alteration of the fabric of the 1960s river wall, an asset of medium significance, could be mitigated in a similar way, although it is considered that English Heritage Level 2 standard 26 would be appropriate. This would comprise a descriptive record, with additional archival and documentary research, and a brief written record and photographs, to achieve preservation by record. This would reduce the moderate adverse effect to negligible. The unlisted 20th century pump house would require a programme of standing structure survey and photographic recording, equivalent to Level 2 of the specifications, as set out in para. 7.7.3 above. This would reduce the minor adverse effect to negligible. Any mitigation which may be required for indirect effects on the setting of above ground heritage assets will be detailed in the ES, following consideration of the significance of these assets, their setting and the predicted effects. However, it is acknowledged that the scope for mitigation is likely to be limited, for example where effects on historic setting arise from the visible presence of construction machinery. Buried heritage assets Based on this assessment, no heritage assets of very high significance are anticipated that might merit a mitigation strategy of permanent preservation in situ. It is therefore considered that the adverse environmental effects of the proposed development could be successfully

7.7.2

7.7.3

7.7.4

7.7.5

7.7.6

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mitigated by a suitable programme of archaeological investigation before and/or during construction, to achieve preservation by record (through advancing understanding of asset significance). 7.7.7 The assessment presented here has identified potential effects on buried heritage assets resulting from ground works. Mitigation requirements would be informed by selective site based assessment. This could include a variety of techniques, such as geotechnical investigation, geoarchaeological deposit modelling, archaeological test pits and trial trenches. This evaluation would enable a more targeted and precise mitigation strategy to be developed for the site post-consent and in advance of construction. Subject to the findings of any subsequent field evaluation post-consent and prior to the start of construction, mitigation of the adverse effects upon archaeological remains within the site is likely to include the following: a. An archaeological watching brief during site preparation and construction to mitigate impacts arising from service diversions and foundations for offices and welfare on the landward side of the existing river wall. b. Archaeological survey and excavation of the foreshore, within the footprints of the proposed temporary cofferdam, permanent foreshore structure, campshed, proposed temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of proposed dredging, in order to mitigate the effects on the river side of the existing river wall. The precise approach to survey and excavation will depend on the detailed construction methodology. c. For works taking place below low water on the outside of the cofferdams (such as construction of the campshed and dredging), conventional archaeological investigation may not be feasible. In such an eventuality other techniques would be employed, such as monitoring and scanning the arisings of the shaft excavation.

7.7.8

7.7.9

Both evaluation and mitigation would be carried out in accordance with a scope of works (Written Scheme of Investigation (WSI)) , agreed with the statutory consultees prior to conducting any archaeological fieldwork prior to or during construction, to ensure that the scope and method of fieldwork are appropriate to satisfy requirements of the Development Consent Order.

Operation
Above ground heritage assets Within the site 7.7.10 The environmental effects as a result of any permanent changes to the visual appearance of the Grade II listed Bazalgette embankment river wall, and the character of the Whitefriars Conservation Area will be assessed in the ES. Any adverse effects could be reduced by careful design to ensure the new foreshore structure, upstanding walls and structures, appear in keeping with the surrounding Bazalgette embankment river wall and do not contribute to the erosion of the character of the conservation area. This could be undertaken through the use of traditional stone facing for the

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new river wall, rather than more modern materials and styles. It may also be appropriate to mark the line of the Bazalgette river wall, where maintaining the line of the wall as an upstanding feature is not feasible (ie, where access is required to the new cofferdam area for maintenance vehicles), in order to reflect the original 19th-century outline of the river in this area. Within the study area 7.7.11 Any mitigation which may be required for effects on above ground heritage assets will be detailed in the ES, following consideration of the significance of these assets, their setting and the predicted effects. Mitigation might, for example, include changes to the proposed finishing materials of above ground structures, such as cladding and ground treatments. Buried heritage assets 7.7.12 A possible operational effect upon archaeological remains has been identified, comprising possible change to the scouring patterns of the river and consequent impacts upon downstream archaeological remains. The precise impact on the fluvial regime and any archaeological remains cannot be predicted at present, but hydrological modelling could provide further information on any possible effects (if any). Any mitigation strategy would depend on the results of hydrological modelling, but could comprise a programme of archaeological excavation and recording (ie, preservation by record) of any archaeological remains likely to be affected.

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7.8
Vol 21 Table 7.8.1 Historic environment - construction assessment Significance of effect Above ground heritage assets Negligible Major adverse None required Negligible Mitigation Residual significance

Assessment summary

Construction

Asset (receptor)

Grade II listed Blackfriars bridge (High asset significance)

Grade II listed Bazalgette Victoria Embankment including lamp standards (High asset significance)

Standing structure recording Minor and photographic survey to an appropriate EH survey level, to form preservation by record. Protection of asset and reinstatement where practical. Negligible None required Negligible Negligible Negligible

The President ship (High asset significance) Negligible

Negligible

The Blackfriars Millennium Pier (Low asset significance)

Unlisted 1960s modifications to river Moderate adverse wall (Medium asset significance) Minor adverse

Unlisted 20th century pump house (currently unlisted but being considered for listing by English Heritage)

Standing structure recording and photographic survey to an appropriate English Negligible Heritage survey level, to form preservation by record.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Significance of effect Mitigation Residual significance

Section 7: Historic environment

Asset (receptor)

(Low asset significance) To be assessed in the ES To be determined in the ES To be assessed in the ES

Setting of above ground heritage assets in the vicinity of the site, including nearby listed buildings including Blackfriars Bridge Buried heritage assets Minor adverse (unlikely) Environmental sampling during archaeological investigation Archaeological investigation and recording of the area within the temporary cofferdam, campshed, proposed temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of dredging to form preservation by record Archaeological investigation and recording of the area within the temporary cofferdam, campshed, proposed temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of dredging to form preservation by record Archaeological investigation and recording of the area Negligible

Low potential for palaeoenvironmental remains (Low or medium asset significance) Minor or moderate adverse (unlikely)

Uncertain, possibly low potential for redeposited artefacts (low asset significance) and/or in-situ remains (medium asset significance)

Negligible

Low to moderate potential for Roman redeposited artefacts (low asset significance) and/or hulked boats (high or, if well preserved, very high asset significance)

Minor or major adverse

Negligible

Low potential for early medieval remains, including isolated artefacts

Moderate adverse (unlikely)

Negligible

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Significance of effect within the temporary cofferdam, campshed, proposed temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of dredging to form preservation by record Minor or major adverse (unlikely) Archaeological investigation and recording of the area within the temporary cofferdam, campshed, proposed temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of dredging to form preservation by record Archaeological investigation and recording of the area within the temporary cofferdam, campshed, proposed temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of dredging to form preservation by record Archaeological investigation and recording of any previously unrecorded remains, if present, within the area within the temporary cofferdam, campshed, proposed Negligible Mitigation Residual significance

Section 7: Historic environment

Asset (receptor)

and remains associated with river use (ie, fish traps etc) (Low or medium asset significance)

Low potential for later medieval redeposited artefacts (low asset significance) and/or hulked vessels (high or, if well preserved, very high asset significance)

High potential for post-medieval remains on the foreshore comprising industrial remains, wharves, jetties, boat wreck remains, cofferdams and anchor points. (Low or medium asset significance) Uncertain (unlikely)

Minor or moderate adverse

Negligible

Low potential for unknown unidentified remains (Unknown asset significance)

Negligible

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Significance of effect temporary steel deck, landing stage and area of dredging to form preservation by record. Mitigation Residual significance

Section 7: Historic environment

Asset (receptor)

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Operation
Vol 21 Table 7.8.2 Historic environment - operation assessment Significance of effect To be assessed in the ES To be assessed in the ES To be identified in the ES Choice of appropriate materials and landscaping to ensure new river wall is in keeping with the historical character of the river wall. To be identified in the ES To be assessed in the ES To be identified in the ES To be identified in the ES Mitigation Residual significance To be assessed in the ES To be assessed in the ES

Asset (receptor)

Whitefriars Conservation Area (High asset significance)

Grade II listed Bazalgette Victoria Embankment (High asset significance)

Setting of Grade II listed Blackfriars To be assessed in the ES Bridge (High asset significance) To be assessed in the ES

To be assessed in the ES

Setting of other listed buildings as described in the Statement of Significance

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7.9
7.9.1

Assessment completion
In terms of desk based sources, the following outstanding information will be collated for the EIA baseline: a. Port of London Authority (PLA) data on wrecks and obstructions within the River Thames channel and foreshore (these may be of an archaeological nature), along with any information on past dredging (which will have removed any heritage assets). The full extent and nature of the data held by the PLA (and an appropriate area for which data can be obtained) which might be additional to the UK Hydrographic Office data (already obtained) is currently under discussion with the PLA. b. The results of geoarchaeological monitoring of geotechnical boreholes (clarifying depth and nature of deposits) c. Information on existing hydrological regimes of the River Thames (establishing where there is existing scouring or deposition)

7.9.2

The following information will also inform the final assessment: a. Potential ground settlement at the site. Possible effects of ground settlement resulting from deep constructions within the site, other than the tunnel itself (this will be discussed in Volume 6: project-wide effects) will be considered EIA and reported in the ES b. Potential change to the hydrological regimes of the River Thames (increase in scour erosion or deposition).

7.9.3

The assessment of construction and operational effects upon the historic setting of surrounding designated/protected heritage assets within the study area requires further consideration and will be completed for the ES. This assessment is distinct from the assessment of effects on townscape character areas presented in Section 11, as it is based on criteria specific to the historic environment. The study area for assessing setting effects on heritage assets may be revised because historic setting effects are most likely to occur within the visual envelope of the site, which may differ from the study area defined for the purposes of this report. Assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES. Following completion of the assessment, the mitigation approaches for the historic environment within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES.

7.9.4

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Section 8: Land quality

8 8.1
8.1.1

Land Quality Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant land quality effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This section should be read in conjunction with Section 13 (Groundwater), Section 14 (Surface Water), Section 5 (Aquatic Ecology) and Section 6 (Terrestrial Ecology).

8.1.2

8.2
8.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to land quality are as follows: a. A temporary cofferdam would be constructed to enable construction of the permanent works. b. The proposed drop shaft at this site would be constructed to an invert level of approximately 51m below ground level (mbgl). As the base of the shaft is within the Lambeth Group strata, dewatering and/or ground treatment would be required.

8.2.2

Construction workers involved in intensive below ground works are high sensitivity receptors. Measures incorporated into the draft CoCP which aim to substantially reduce risks associated with construction activities include: a. the remediation of the site so it is fit for purpose (where required) b. the use of appropriate PPE as well as training and welfare for construction staff c. confined space working measures where applicable d. the employment of UXO specialist advice.

8.2.3

The CoCP includes measures to minimise the migration of dusts during construction activities. These include the use of wheel washing at site entrances, damping down during dry weather and covering and safe storage of potentially contaminating materials (if any).

8.3
8.3.1 8.3.2

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. There were no site specific comments from consultees for this particular site.

Construction and operation


8.3.3 The construction and operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore 8.3.4 There are no site specific variations for this site.

Section 8: Land quality

Assumptions and limitations


8.3.5 The assumptions and limitations associated with this study are presented in Volume 5. There are no site specific assumptions and limitations for the site.

8.4
8.4.1

Baseline conditions
Baseline conditions have been determined for the development confines and for a distance of up to 250m beyond (in order to take into account off site contamination sources and receptors). The baseline data was sourced from the Thames Tunnel Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database, including historic maps and environmental records, together with a walkover survey and stakeholder consultation. A full list of the data sets drawn upon in this assessment is presented in Volume 5 methodology.

8.4.2

Site walkover
8.4.3 8.4.4 8.4.5 A site walkover of the area in and around the site at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore was undertaken on 4th November 2010. No potential contamination sources were identified during the survey. The site walkover notes are provided in Appendix B.

Site history and surroundings summary and priority contaminants


8.4.6 The table below provides a summary of the site history, including potentially contaminative activities and principal contaminants of concern in and around the site. The table was produced following inspection of the historic mapping dating from the late 19th century to the present day held by the project, together with the site walkover in order to more fully understand the site and surrounding area. The locations of the sites are shown in Vol 21 Figure 8.4.1. Vol 21 Figure 8.4.1 Land quality contaminative land uses (see Volume 21 Figures document) Vol 21 Table 8.4.1 Land quality - contaminative land use summary Ref *Item Inferred date of operation Potentially contaminative substances associated with item

8.4.7

On-site None Off-site 1 Blackfriars national rail station and rail c1878present PAHs, heavy metals, phenols, sulphates, fuel oil, lubricating oil, greases, PCBs, solvents, asbestos, chlorinated aliphatic

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Section 8: Land quality Potentially contaminative substances associated with item hydrocarbons

bridge Located between site boundaries 2 City of London gas works (40m north) Gasometer (40m north west) Paper buildings (105m north) c1878c1896 c1878c1896 c1896c1965

Heavy metals, arsenic, Complex and free cyanide, sulphates, asbestos, phenol, PAHs

3 4

PCBs , dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenols, organosulfur compounds, various heavy metals (zinc, lead, chromium), cyanide Heavy metals, arsenic, asbestos, phenols, oil/fuels, hydrocarbons, PAHs, PCBs, sulphide, sulphate, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons Heavy metals, arsenic, asbestos, phenols, oil/fuels, hydrocarbons, PCBs, PAHs, sulphide, sulphate, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons PCBs, dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenols, organosulfur compounds, various heavy metals (zinc, lead, chromium), cyanide Silver; solvents; acids; waste oils; inks and dyes; photographic chemicals

Wharves and landing stages (northern and southern bank of River Thames. Puddle dock (10m north)

c1896c1962

c1896present

Printing works (155m north)

c1916

8 9

Glass works (180m north) Hospital (190m north) Printing works (140m north)

c1916 c19161951 c1951c1952

Heavy metals and metalloids, asbestos, oil/fuels, hydrocarbons Radioactive isotopes, pathogens, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins associated with incinerators PCBs, dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenols, organosulfur compounds, various heavy metals (zinc, lead, chromium), cyanide Silver; solvents; acids; waste oils; inks and dyes; photographic chemicals

10

11

Electrical substation

c1951-

Oils, PCBs

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Ref *Item Inferred date of operation c1990

Section 8: Land quality Potentially contaminative substances associated with item

(200m north)

The distances and directions are measured from a centre point between the two site boundaries

8.4.8 8.4.9

In summary, the historical mapping has identified no contaminative activities on site. The 250m search radius has identified pockets of historical industrial activities in the vicinity of the site that in the most cases have ceased. None of the sources nearby are considered to have significantly impacted upon the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. Geology and hydrogeology Data from British Geological Survey together with logs from boreholes excavated as part of previous investigations of the site indicate the geological succession summarised in the table below. Controlled waters (ie, surface water and groundwater) can potentially represent a pathway for the spread of mobile contaminants as well as being a sensitive environmental receptor. The EA Aquifer Designation maps have been used to classify the geological units according to their aquifer status which is also presented in the table below. The site is classified by the EA as not being within a source protection zone for groundwater that is extracted for potable supply. Vol 21 Table 8.4.2 Land quality - site geology and hydrogeology Approximate depth below river bed level (m) 0.0-2.0

8.4.10

8.4.11

8.4.12

Geological unit/ Strata Alluvium

Description Soft silty clay with occasional organic matter Medium dense to dense sand and gravel (predominantly quartz sand and flint gravel). Slightly silty and sandy clay Sand and shelly sandstone The Lower and

Hydrogeological classification Secondary A Superficial Aquifer Secondary A Superficial Aquifer

River Terrace Deposits

2.0-4.5

London Clay Harwich Formation

4.5-33.55 33.55-34.05

Unproductive strata Secondary A Bedrock Aquifer. The upper part

Lambeth Group (SU)

34.05-38.0

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Section 8: Land quality Approximate depth below river bed level (m) 38.00-41.55 41.55-43.35

Geological unit/ Strata

Description

Hydrogeological classification may be classified as Secondary A Bedrock Aquifer. The lower part (Upnor Formation), where it is in continuity with the Thanet Sand and Chalk, may be classified as a Principal Bedrock Aquifer

Lambeth Group (Upper Upper Mottled Beds Mottled Beds) comprise mottled or multicoloured, stiff or Lambeth Group very stiff fissured (Laminated Beds) clay, compact silt, Lambeth Group (Lower and dense or very Shelly Beds) dense sand Lambeth Group (Lower Upnor Formation is a Mottled Beds) fine grained glauconitic sand Lambeth Group (Upnor Formation-gravel) Lambeth Group (Upnor Formation) Thanet Sand Formation Generally dense glauconitic silty fine sand with occasional rounded flint gravel. The base of the Thanet Sand is marked by rounded flints known as the Bullhead Beds. Weak fine grained limestone with nodular and tabular flints.

43.35-46.35 46.35-48.30 48.30-51.50. 51.50-60.50

Principal Bedrock aquifer when in continuity with underlying Chalk

Chalk Group (Seaford Member)

60.5+

Principal Bedrock Aquifer

Unexploded ordnance 8.4.13 During World Wars I and II, the London area was subject to bombing. In some cases bombs failed to detonate on impact. During construction works unexploded ordnance or bombs (UXO) are sometimes encountered and are required to be made safe and disposed of. A desk based assessment for UXO threat was undertaken for ground investigation works at the proposed development site. The UXO assessment report reviews information sources such as the Ministry of Defence (MoD), Public Records Office and the Port of London Authority (PLA). The report establishes that the nearby areas suffered severe bomb damage during the 1940 to 1941 bombing campaign. Taking into account the findings of this study and the known extent of the proposed works, it was considered that there is a high threat from UXO at the site.

8.4.14

8.4.15

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Thames Tunnel ground investigation 8.4.16

Section 8: Land quality

The table below summarises the Thames Tunnel ground investigation data from boreholes located at or in the vicinity of the site, (borehole SR2047 (river) and SR1058 (land)). Vol 21 Figure 8.4.2 identifies the location of the boreholes in relation to the site at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore. Vol 21 Figure 8.4.2 Land quality proposed borehole locations (see Volume 21 Figures document)

8.4.17

Additional boreholes have been excavated in the vicinity of Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore and are illustrated on Vol 21 Figure 8.4.2 but are not considered relevant to the land quality assessment either due to their distance from the shaft location or because certain boreholes were excavated purely for geotechnical purposes. The results of the ground investigation have been compared against human health screening values and PLA Approved Sediment Quality Guidelines. Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) criteria are used for the shallow aquifer as it is in continuity with the tidal River Thames. Vol 21 Table 8.4.3 Land quality - GI for boreholes Borehole Soil contamination testing (human refs. health risk assessment) SR1058 No contaminants above human health screening values in one sample of River Terrace Deposits tested. Groundwater contamination testing No exceedances of EQS in one groundwater sample taken from standpipe within the Lambeth Group. N/A

8.4.18

SR2047

No exceedances of human health assessment criteria in the sample of River Terrace Deposits tested.

8.4.19

It can reasonably be expected that there would be some minor elevated carbon dioxide/methane associated with the organic rich horizons within the alluvial soils. Although this was not recorded in borehole SR2047 (which was drilled in the river), it may reasonably be expected in the vicinity of the foreshore site. At Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore, superficial sediment samples retrieved from borehole SR2047 were analysed for a suite of metal and PAH contaminants and the results compared against the Threshold Effect Levels (TEL) and Probable Effect Levels (PEL) to assess potential risk to aquatic life. The results of the analysis showed that a very slightly elevated arsenic concentration of 7.9mg/kg was recorded, slightly above the TEL for arsenic of 7.24 mg/kg.

8.4.20

8.4.21

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Section 8: Land quality

No results were recorded as having contaminant values above the PEL. Other environmental records Details of environmental records for the vicinity of the site held by the EA and other bodies were obtained from the Thames Tunnel GIS, which is partially sourced from Landmark Information Group. Significant records are discussed in further in paras. 8.4.26 - 8.4.28. The locations of the sites in the table below are shown on Vol 21 Figure 8.4.3. Vol 21 Figure 8.4.3 Land quality environmental records and waste sites (see Volume 21 Figures document) Vol 21 Table 8.4.4 Land quality - environmental records and waste Activity Licensed industrial activities Hazardous substance sites Pollution incidents to controlled water Landfill sites Industrial authorisations (IPPC, COMAH) Past potential contaminated uses On-site 0 0 0 Within 250m of site boundary 0 0 5 0 0 0 3

8.4.24

Waste treatment and disposal sites 0 0 0 0

8.4.25 8.4.26

There are no environmental records of potentially contaminating activities within the site boundary. Within a 250m radius of the site there are three past potential contaminative uses recorded. The first refers to the previous gas works to the north, the second to Blackfriars Station to the east and the third to industries on the southern bank of the river. Contaminants associated with these type of previous land use are identified in Vol 21 Table 8.4.1. There are also five recorded pollution incidents to controlled waters; these are likely to be from sewage materials entering the river as indicated in the local authority consultation below. Technical engagement Consultation with the City of London environmental health department was undertaken as part of the baseline data gathering and has identified the following: The study site itself and adjacent sites have not been identified for inspection or further review under the Citys Contaminated Land Strategy.

8.4.27

8.4.28

8.4.29

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Other than CSO spills, there have been pollution incidents within the 80m search area, the first in January 1997, where oil was spilled into the Thames and the other in 2001 where fire-fighting runoff was released into the Thames. The City of London holds a record of an environmental report at one site within 80m of the search area. In 2002 a report was prepared by Environ for a site at Puddle Dock. No mitigation was proposed due to the low risk from soil contamination.

8.4.31

8.5
8.5.1 8.5.2

Construction assessment
Assessment year: construction For land quality, the assessment is based on the likely baseline conditions which would be experienced in Year 1 of construction. It is not anticipated that land quality baseline conditions would alter significantly from those described above by the commencement of the construction.

Development of conceptual model


8.5.3 A key element of the preliminary risk assessment for land quality is the development of source-pathway-receptor conceptual model which aims to understand the presence and significance of potentially complete pollutant linkages. The methodology for undertaking this analysis is provided in Volume 5. The following section outlines the sources, pathways and receptors which are relevant to the land quality assessment at the site. Sources of contamination 8.5.6 8.5.7 The following sources of contamination have been identified: On site a. Naturally occurring sulphate within the London Clay Formation. b. Historic shallow contamination within foreshore sediments particularly with reference to low concentrations of arsenic. c. Potentially elevated land gas within the alluvium/River Terrace Deposits/Lambeth Group.

8.5.4 8.5.5

d. Possible unexploded ordnance. 8.5.8 Off site a. No viable contamination sources Pathways 8.5.9 The following pathways for contamination have been identified: a. human uptake through ground gas via migration through permeable strata and conduits b. horizontal and vertical migration of leachable contaminants via groundwater within the alluvium and River Terrace Deposits

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vertical migration of contaminants along preferential pathways created by excavation of diaphragm wall

d. mobilisation of contaminants in river water through disturbance of contaminated river bed sediments e. direct runoff into the River Thames f. direct contact of soils with construction materials g. gas migration through pipes/foundations and into structures h. accidental detonation of UXO during ground investigation or construction activities. Receptors 8.5.10 The following receptors for contamination have been identified: a. Construction workers b. Site end users (maintenance staff and public) c. Off site receptors - residents and workers d. Built environment e. Controlled waters - surface water f. 8.5.11 Controlled waters - groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers g. Aquatic ecology The sensitivity of the land quality receptors are defined in Vol 5 Table 7.4.2.

Construction assessment results


8.5.12 The following section discusses the potential impacts on receptors as a result of the existing land quality conditions at the site. Impacts and effects upon construction workers 8.5.13 Desk based information suggests that the soils at the site are unlikely to be significantly contaminated and thus are unlikely pose a risk to construction workers via direct contact pathways. There is however the potential for the build-up of asphyxiant or potentially explosive gases associated with confined space construction. Overall therefore the magnitude of the impact is likely to be negligible, giving a slight effect (not significant). Impacts and effects upon off-site receptors 8.5.15 The construction works may result in the creation of new pathways for contaminants to migrate to adjacent sites eg, via wind-borne dust during excavated material handling and storage. Whilst the sensitivity of adjacent residential sites is moderate to high the impact from this would be negligible giving a slight effect (not significant).

8.5.14

8.5.16

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High levels of certain contaminants, if contained within subsurface materials, can lead to impacts on the built environment (both existing and proposed), including chemical attack on buried concrete structures. Additionally detonation of potential unidentified buried UXO could represent a risk during construction. The built environment is a low sensitivity receptor and following the proposed design procedures such as site investigation, UXO surveys and remediation, the magnitude of impact is considered to be negligible, giving a negligible effect (not significant). Impacts and effects on controlled waters - groundwater Present information suggests that there is only a residual remnant of the Terrace gravel beneath the site - this represents the upper aquifer and is a moderate sensitivity receptor. The deeper Secondary Bedrock Aquifer in the Lambeth Group is also a moderate receptor although it is protected by the London Clay Formation. With no identified contamination sources at the site location and the groundwater in the deeper aquifer protected by the London Clay, the potential for mobilisation of pre-existing contamination into the aquifer during dewatering is low and thus the magnitude of impact to this aquifer is also considered to be low, resulting in a slight effect (not significant). For more detailed assessment of the effects to groundwater, and in particular the impacts and effects to the deep aquifer, reference should be made to Section 13. The construction impacts, receptors and effects relating to land quality are shown in the tables below. Vol 21 Table 8.5.1 Land quality impacts -construction Impact Health impacts on construction Workers Magnitude, and justification Negligible soils unlikely to be contaminated plus CoCP measures such as use of correct PPE, safety briefings and remediation of contaminated soils reduce impacts substantially.

8.5.18

8.5.19

8.5.20

8.5.21

Health impacts on off-site receptors- Negligible contaminated soils are residents and workers unlikely to be encountered additionally CoCP measures for dust suppression, correct storage of potentially contaminated materials, wheel washing at site entrance would substantially reduce impacts in the event of finding contamination. Damage to built Environment Existing Structures Negligible - CoCP measures such as UXO specialists employed to advise staff reduce impacts

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Section 8: Land quality Magnitude, and justification substantially. Negligible - measures such as input into concrete mix design reduce impacts.

Vol 21 Table 8.5.2 Land quality receptors - construction Receptor Construction Workers Off-Site Receptors residents and workers Built Environment - Existing Built Environment - Proposed Value/sensitivity and justification High intensive below ground construction Moderate to high residential properties very close Low infrastructure Low infrastructure

Vol 21 Table 8.5.3 Land quality effects - construction Effect Slight effect on Construction Workers Slight effect on Off-Site Receptors Negligible effect on Built Environment - Existing Negligible effect on Built Environment - Proposed Significance, and justification Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant

8.6
8.6.1

Operational assessment
Operational effects could include potential exposure to end users from contaminated soils and for the leakage of sewage from the shaft into the surrounding soils. Impacts and effects on future site users The future site users include maintenance workers who would be working on the site occasionally and members of the public who walk over the completed hardstanding above the shaft. These are low (eg, maintenance workers visiting the site occasionally and wearing personal protection equipment) to moderate sensitivity receptors (eg, members of the public). As the operational site is some distance above the foreshore, there is not considered to be any impacts to the public from pre-existing contamination in the completed development. There is some potential for maintenance personnel to be impacted by elevated ground gases arising from the tunnel in operation. However, the completed shaft is designed to have sophisticated gas and odour control measures.

8.6.2

8.6.3

8.6.4

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Shaft design (including secondary lining) would ensure that any outflow from the shaft is unlikely and that there is a negligible impact to the identified receptors giving a negligible effect (not significant). Impacts and effects upon built environment The principal impact relates to the potential for the degradation of new structures by attack from deleterious substances which may in turn reduce the integrity of the structure (and could promote leakage of sewage through the walls of the shaft). The built environment is a low sensitivity receptor and with the inclusion of the proposed design measures and soil remediation (as necessary), the impact of the effect is low giving a negligible effect overall (not significant). The operational impacts, receptors and effects relating to land quality are shown in the tables below. Vol 21 Table 8.6.1 Land quality impacts operation Impact Health impacts on site end users Magnitude, and justification Negligible design measures such as remediation of heavily contaminated soils and provision of capping layers as appropriate Negligible - design measures such as remediation of heavily contaminated soils and concrete mix design reduce risks substantially. Negligible - design measures such as remediation of heavily contaminated soils reduce risks substantially.

8.6.6

8.6.7

8.6.8

Damage to built environment proposed structures

Damage to built environment existing structures

Vol 21 Table 8.6.2 Land quality - receptors - operation Receptor Site end users Built environment - proposed Built environment - proposed Value/sensitivity and justification Low industrial/infrastructure end use Low industrial/infrastructure Low industrial/infrastructure

Vol 21 Table 8.6.3 Land quality effects - operation Effect Negligible effect on end users Slight effect on built environment Existing Slight effect on built environment Significance, and justification Not significant Not significant Not significant

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8.7
8.7.1

Approach to mitigation
Construction The assessment has not identified the need for further site specific mitigation measures during the construction phase. Operation The assessment has not identified the need for further site specific mitigation measures during the operational phase.

8.7.2

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8.8
Vol 21 Table 8.8.1 Land quality - construction assessment Significance Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Further mitigation not required Further mitigation not required Further mitigation not required Further mitigation not required Mitigation Residual significance No residual effects identified No residual effects identified No residual effects identified No residual effects identified

Assessment summary

Receptor Construction Workers

Effect Slight effect on Construction Workers

Off-Site Receptors residents and workers

Slight effect on Off-Site Receptors

Built Environment Existing

Negligible effect on Built Environment - Existing

Built Environment Proposed

Negligible effect on Built Environment - Proposed

Vol 21 Table 8.8.2 Land quality - operational assessment Significance Not significant Not significant Residual significance No residual effects identified No residual effects identified

Receptor Site End Users

Effect Negligible effect on End Users

Built Environment Proposed Not significant

Slight effect on Built Environment - Existing

Mitigation Further mitigation not required Further mitigation not required Further mitigation not required

Built Environment Proposed

Slight effect on Built Environment - Proposed

No residual effects identified

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8.9
8.9.1 8.9.2 8.9.3 8.9.4

Assessment completion
New data from site investigations (including new boreholes and foreshore samplings) will be reviewed and the baseline updated as required. Assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES. Following completion of the assessment the mitigation approaches for land quality within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES. Impacts on groundwater, surface water and aquatic ecology will be assessed and reported in the ES.

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9 9.1
9.1.1

Noise and vibration Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant noise and vibration effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This section includes an assessment of the following: a. Noise and vibration from the construction site activities b. Noise from construction traffic on roads outside the site c. Noise and vibration from the operation of the site.

9.1.2

9.1.3

The drive for the main tunnel connects directly into the shaft at this location, and the site would be used to receive and re-launch the tunnel boring machine (TBM). Noise and vibration from the tunnelling activities associated with the main tunnel are considered in (Volume 6).

9.2
9.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to noise and vibration are as follows.

Construction
9.2.2 Measures incorporated into the draft CoCP to reduce noise and vibration impacts include: a. careful selection of construction plant (conforming to the relevant SI), construction methods and programming b. equipment to be suitably sited so as to minimise noise impact on sensitive receptors c. use of site enclosures, and temporary stockpiles, where practicable and necessary, to provide acoustic screening

d. choice of routes and programming for the transportation of construction materials, excavated material and personnel to and from the site e. careful programming so that activities which may generate significant noise are planned with regard to local occupants and sensitive receptors. 9.2.3 9.2.4 It has been assumed for the purpose of this assessment that the hoarding height will be 2.8m at this location. Where the need for additional noise control measures (beyond standard best practicable means measures described in the CoCP) has been identified, these have not been assumed for the purposes of the assessment. Where that the assessment indicates that these are likely to be required, this information has been added to the section on mitigation. For the purposes of the noise and vibration assessment the construction activities have been grouped into the following stages of work:

9.2.5

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b. Foreshore works (construction of temporary cofferdam) c. Shaft sinking d. Interception and CSO works e. Completion work (including landscaping, and construction and fit-out of permanent facility). 9.2.6 9.2.7 The above ground works (stages a-c) have the potential to create airborne noise and vibration impacts. Some noise would be generated for stages d, and e, however as stage d would be mostly carried out below ground level, impacts from this stage are considered to be much lower. Stage e is likely to be much smaller in scale than the other stages considered here. Stages a, b, c and e have the potential to generate groundborne noise and vibration impacts, namely from vibratory compaction, breaking out and dynamic compaction. For stage b, Silent piling methods are assumed for the cofferdam construction, and for stage c, the diaphragm wall would be constructed by hydrofraise attachment. These are considered low noise and low vibration methods, and have not been quantitatively assessed as it is considered no significant effects would arise from these stages. Specific construction plant information for stages d and e (interception and landscaping respectively) are not available at this stage of the design so has not been assessed at this stage. However, these activities are assumed to be much smaller in scale than the rest of the works, would not involve heavy construction operations and the in the case of the CSO works, would in the main take place underground. In addition to the construction stages at the site, the choice of location for the foreshore works would mean that the vessel President and Blackfriars Millennium Pier would need to be relocated. It is proposed that Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be moved east of its current location, to the other side of Blackfriars Bridge. The vessel President would be temporarily moved west from its current location. The Phase 2 consultation transport strategy includes the import and the removal of the 90% of cofferdam fill material by river, with all other materials transported by road. The barges will be moored on campsheds alongside the temporary cofferdam wall at the site. The road transport route uses the strategic transport routes to move materials to and from the site. Estimated vehicle and barge movement numbers are presented in Section 3.3. The majority of the stages would be carried out during standard (core) hours as identified in Vol 21 Table 3.3.1. As such, only daytime working is considered at this location. The exception to this is the requirement for extended hours working which has been proposed for major concrete pours. This has not been quantitatively assessed as it is considered no significant effects would arise from these activities owing to the assumed short durations involved.

9.2.8

9.2.9

9.2.10

9.2.11

9.2.12

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Operation
9.2.13 The permanent installation would comprise ventilation equipment alongside electrical and control equipment. This equipment would be required to operate under various different scenarios dependent on the flows into and along the tunnel, with the potential to operate at any time of the day or night. The plant installed and the cascade events have the potential to create noise and vibration impacts.

9.3
9.3.1

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. There were no site specific comments from consultees for this particular site relating to noise and vibration.

Baseline
9.3.2 The baseline methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Construction
9.3.3 The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. Any site specific variations are described below. At this location, the construction stages have been assessed over the period of five years. For the activities associated with the relocation of the vessel President and Blackfriars Millennium Pier, construction plant information is not available at present. However, the works would be relatively low noise, and so a qualitative assessment has been undertaken at receptors near to the relocated sites. Baseline traffic data are not currently available, and therefore although peak traffic movements are known it is not possible to calculate the change in noise level that would arise at the identified receptor locations. A qualitative assessment has therefore been undertaken to consider the likelihood of a significant effect given current traffic levels and considering the proposed peak daily lorry movements.

9.3.4

9.3.5

Operation
9.3.6 The operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Assumptions and limitations


9.3.7 Noise-related environmental design measures have been assumed as defined in the CoCP. Those of relevance to noise and vibration are listed in Section 9.2 above. The assessment has been carried out based on the assumption that the noisiest two activities within any one stage could potentially occur onsite simultaneously for the duration of the stage. This is an extremely

9.3.8

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conservative approach, as the activities are unlikely to last the duration of any one stage. At the current level of construction planning, this is considered a reasonable assumption for the purposes of the assessment and would be refined as the construction methodology develops. 9.3.9 The assessment of construction traffic effects has been based on predicted numbers of construction traffic movements (presented in Section 3), using professional judgement at this stage. This assessment will be revisited and presented in the ES upon receipt of baseline traffic data. While it is considered that there is a possibility for noise and vibration effects arising from water cascading during tunnel filling events at receptors very close to drop shafts, it has not been possible to adequately assess this as part of this report. The likely noise and vibration emissions however be estimated as the cascade design develops and will be reported in the ES.

9.3.10

9.4
9.4.1

Baseline conditions
The following section reviews the setting and receptor characteristics of the site for the purposes of this assessment. The site is located on the northern embankment and foreshore of the River Thames, within the City of London. The site is bounded by the River Thames to the south and by Victoria Embankment road to the north. The buildings immediately surrounding the site are not residential. The nearest residences are on the upper floors of the buildings on Kings Bench Walk, to the northwest of site. These are directly screened from the site by buildings on Victoria Embankment. Immediately opposite the site across the River Thames are residences at River Court. These lie within the LB of Southwark. The residential properties selected for the noise and vibration assessment are identified in Vol 21 Table 9.4.1 below (and shown in plan view in Vol 21 Figure 9.4.1). These were selected as they are representative of the noise range of noise climates where sensitive receptors are situated around the site. The approximate numbers of properties affected at each location is indicated. Vol 21 Figure 9.4.1 Noise and vibration - residential receptors (see Volume 21 Figures document)

9.4.2

9.4.3 9.4.4

9.4.5 9.4.6 9.4.7

The table below also includes the other assessed non-residential noise sensitive receptors the vicinity of the development. The site is dominated by road traffic noise from Victoria Embankment, with some rail traffic noise from the mainline services to the east of the site. A baseline noise survey has been carried out around the site according to the baseline measurement methodology set out in Volume 5, Section 2. The specific details of this survey, such as the measurement times, locations measured results and local conditions, are described in Appendix C. The summarised noise level results are shown in the table below.

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Vol 21 Table 9.4.1 Noise and vibration - current noise levels Ref Receptor addresses Local authority Measured average daytime ambient noise level, dBLAeq, 771 771 Noise Survey Location

BB1 BB2

Kings Bench Walk

City of London

PCL1X Noise 2 PCL1X Noise 2

Hamilton City of London House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Sion College 60 and 100 Victoria Embankment The Mermaid Conference centre 1-87 River Court City of London City of London

BB3 BB4

731 731

PCL1X Noise 1 PCL1X Noise 1

BB5

City of London

771

PCL1X Noise 4

BB6
1

LB of Southwark

661

PCL1X Noise 3

Facade corrected level

9.4.8

Baseline traffic data collection is ongoing and is thus not documented in this report, and therefore although peak traffic movements are known it is not possible to calculate the quantitative change in noise level that would arise at the identified receptor locations. During the ambient noise surveys, a note was made of existing traffic levels at each survey location. Manual traffic counts could not be taken during the noise survey at locations north of the Thames because of the high volumes of traffic. For vibration, significance is not based on existing vibration levels but an absolute level, considered in combination with other value judgements. The site at present does not have appreciable levels of vibration. It is considered that the levels of vibration around the site are low at present, and they are unlikely to rise for any reason between the present time and the future baseline.

9.4.9

Receptor Sensitivity
9.4.10 The noise sensitive receptors have been assessed according to their sensitivity, according to the methodology outlined in Volume 5. The sensitivities of all assessed receptors are given in the table below. All residential properties have been regarded as having high sensitivity. The remaining assessed buildings are offices, which are considered to be of medium sensitivity.

9.4.11

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Vol 21 Table 9.4.2 Noise and vibration receptors Ref Receptor addresses Building Use Sensitivity No. of noise sensitive properties/ areas Residential Offices High Medium 10 4

BB1 BB2

7-13 Kings Bench Walk Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Sion College 60 and 100 Victoria Embankment The Mermaid conference centre 1-87 River Court

BB3 BB4

Offices Offices

Medium Medium

1 2

BB5 BB6 9.4.12

Conference centre Residential

Medium High

1 87

The criteria at residences for determining the significance of noise effects from construction sources are dependent upon the existing ambient noise levels. From the ambient noise levels measured during the baseline survey, the assessment category and assessment noise threshold levels for the receptors near the site are as shown in the table below. As described in the assessment methodology, this follows the ABC method for determining construction noise significance defined in BS5228:2009 27. Vol 21 Table 9.4.3 Noise and vibration assessment categories Ref Noise sensitive receptor Ambient noise level, rounded to nearest 5dBLAeq* 75 Assessment category* Significance criterion threshold level*, dBLAeq, 10hour 75 N/A**

BB1 BB2

7-13 Kings Bench Walk

C N/A**

Hamilton House and 75 40-50 Victoria Embankment Sion College 60 & 100 Victoria Embankment The Mermaid Conference centre 1-87 River Court 70 70 75 65

BB3 BB4 BB5 BB6

N/A** N/A** N/A** B

N/A** N/A** N/A** 70

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*From ABC method BS5228:2009 Code of practice for noise and vibration control on construction and open sites
**ABC method BS5228:2009 does not apply directly to non-residential receptors

9.5
9.5.1

Construction assessment Construction base and development cases


The construction noise base case for the assessment is expected to be as measured during the baseline noise surveys conducted in 2011. Where there is a variation in the conditions during the first year of construction, it is likely that the noise levels would increase very slightly compared to the measured data from 2011 (due to natural traffic growth), and as such, an assessment based on data from 2011 would be worst case. It is not considered that there are any other circumstances at this location that would cause the baseline noise levels at the receptor locations to change significantly between 2011 and the first year of construction. For vibration, it is considered that the levels of vibration around the site are low at present, and they are unlikely to change between the present time and the future base case. The development case is therefore assume to be the base case plus any additional noise and vibration sources associated with the construction phase.

9.5.2

9.5.3

Construction effects
9.5.4 Predictions of construction noise have been carried out based on information available to date as presented in Section 3. Noise measures incorporated in the CoCP have been assumed for the purposes of the assessment. Construction noise 9.5.5 The results of the assessment of construction noise are presented in Vol 21 Table 9.5.1 to Vol 21 Table 9.5.6. Kings Bench Walk 9.5.6 At these residences, the impact criterion threshold is not exceeded. This is likely to be because the residences are screened from the main worksite. Based on the BS5228 criterion this would not be considered a significant impact. Vol 21 Table 9.5.1 Noise impacts Kings Bench Walk- construction Receptor No. of noise Value/sensitivity sensitive properties 10 High Significance criterion th h ld Magnitude/ justification

Kings Bench Walk Activity Impact (noise level*,

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Section 9: Noise and vibration Excess above criterion, dBLAeq Approx. activity duration, months 8 2 13

Ground Floor Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking 9.5.7 55 44 53 75 75 75 -20 -31 -22

*Construction noise only

The temporary relocation of the vessel President to west of its present mooring would mean that Kings Bench Walk are likely to be subject to lower noise from patrons using the facilities, as the boat would be moored further away. The activities associated with bringing Chrysanthemum Pier into use for mooring the vessel President have not been assessed here as information is not yet available. Only the wooden dolphin structures in the river bed and steps on the embankment remain, their condition at present is uncertain therefore the extent of necessary works is unclear; however a full assessment would be carried out at the EIA stage, when more information becomes available. Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment It should be noted that the BS5228 ABC method does not apply directly to non-residential receptors; hence impact has been evaluated based on the absolute noise level and the predicted noise level relative to the ambient noise. At these offices the ambient noise level is not exceeded over the duration of the works, therefore no adverse impacts are predicted at these properties. Vol 21 Table 9.5.2 Noise impacts HH and 40-50 VE - construction Receptor No. of noise sensitive properties 4 Value/ sensitivity Medium Magnitude/ justification

9.5.8

9.5.9

Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Activity Impact (noise level*, dBLAeq) 60 Ambient baseline dBLAeq

Ground Level Enabling Works Foreshore 77 Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 8 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise

49

77

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Section 9: Noise and vibration No. of noise sensitive properties 4 Value/ sensitivity Medium Magnitude/ justification

Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Activity Impact (noise level*, dBLAeq) 58 Ambient baseline dBLAeq

Works Shaft Sinking 77

level over 2 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 13 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 8 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 2 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 13 months

Fifth floor** Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking 70 77

59

77

68

77

*Construction noise only **Assessment floor level is for a worst case scenario, which is not necessarily the highest floor level.

Sion College 9.5.10 At this receptor, there is an increase relative to ambient noise levels for the higher floors during enabling and shaft sinking works. This is due to the close proximity of the building to the worksite. It should be noted that the BS5228 ABC method does not apply directly to non-residential receptors; hence impact has been evaluated based on the absolute noise level and the predicted noise level relative to the ambient noise. The construction noise levels are well below ambient levels at the ground floor. However, the increased noise levels at upper floors could potentially cause disturbance. Vol 21 Table 9.5.3 Noise impacts Sion College - construction Receptor No. of noise sensitive properties 1 Value/ sensitivity Medium

Sion College

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Section 9: Noise and vibration Magnitude/ justification

Ground Level Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking 73 Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 8 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 2 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 13 months 3 dB increase relative to ambient baseline noise level over 8 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 2 months 1 dB increase relative to baseline ambient noise level over 13 months

55

73

64

73

Third floor** Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking 76 73

65

73

74

73

*Construction noise only **Assessment floor level is for a worst case scenario, which is not necessarily the highest floor level.

60 and 100 Victoria Embankment 9.5.11 The total noise levels at this location are the highest during the enabling works. At upper floors, there is no screening from the site, and noise levels here are higher. It should be noted that the BS5228 ABC method does not apply directly to non-residential receptors; hence impact has been evaluated based on the absolute noise level and the predicted noise level relative to the ambient noise. The increase above existing ambient noise levels at upper floors for enabling works is unlikely to cause excessive disturbance. Vol 21 Table 9.5.4 Noise impacts 60/100 Victoria Embankment construction Receptor No. of noise sensitive properties 2 Value/ sensitivity Medium

60 and 100 Victoria Embankment

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Section 9: Noise and vibration Magnitude/ justification

Ground Level Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking 73 Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 8 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 2 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 13 months 2 dB increase relative to ambient baseline noise level over 8 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 2 months Construction noise does not exceed baseline ambient noise level over 13 months

53

73

62

73

Third floor** Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking 75 73

63

73

72

73

*Construction noise only **Assessment floor level is for a worst case scenario, which is not necessarily the highest floor level.

The Mermaid conference centre 9.5.12 At this receptor, there is no increase relative to ambient noise levels for any activities. This is due to the large distance between the building and the site. Vol 21 Table 9.5.5 Noise impacts Mermaid CC - construction Receptor No. of noise sensitive properties 1 Ambient baseline dBLAeq Value/ sensitivity Low Magnitude/ justification

The Mermaid conference centre Activity Impact (noise level*, dBLAeq)

Ground Level

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Section 9: Noise and vibration No. of noise sensitive properties 1 Ambient baseline dBLAeq 77 77 77 Value/ sensitivity Low Magnitude/ justification

The Mermaid conference centre Activity Impact (noise level*, dBLAeq) 51 40 48

Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking

No increase in baseline noise levels No increase in baseline noise levels No increase in baseline noise levels

*Construction noise only

9.5.13

The works at the site would not generate impacts, however it is not possible to quantitatively assess the construction works associated with the relocation of Blackfriars Millennium pier as this information is not available for this report. This would need to be further addressed in the EIA, as more information becomes available. 1-87 River Court At these residences, the impact criterion threshold is not exceeded. This is likely to be due to the distance between the site and the residences. Based on the BS5228 criterion this would not be considered a significant impact. Vol 21 Table 9.5.6 Noise impacts 1-87 River Court - construction Receptor No. of noise sensitive properties 87 Impact (noise level*, dBLAeq) Significance criterion threshold level, dBLAeq Value/sensitivity

9.5.14

1-87 River Court Activity

High Magnitude/ justification Excess above criterion, dBLAeq -18 -29 -20 Approx. activity duration, months 3 6 27

Ground Floor Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking Eighth Floor** 52 41 50 70 70 70

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Section 9: Noise and vibration No. of noise sensitive properties 87 Significance criterion threshold level, dBLAeq Value/sensitivity

1-87 River Court Activity Impact (noise level*, dBLAeq)

High Magnitude/ justification Excess above criterion, dBLAeq -8 -19 -10 Approx. activity duration, months 3 6 27

Enabling Works Foreshore Works Shaft Sinking

62 51 60

70 70 70

*Construction noise only **Assessment floor level is for a worst case scenario, which is not necessarily the highest floor level.

Construction traffic 9.5.15 For construction traffic, noise from the barges would be of limited duration and would mostly consist of engine noise. It is therefore considered that the increase in noise level would create a slight impact. For road traffic, the routes around the site all carry heavy traffic flows. The noise impact associated with the small proportionate increase in lorry traffic is therefore likely to be low in magnitude. As discussed above this is a qualitative assessment made in the absence of traffic data and would be assessed in more detail and presented in the ES. Construction vibration 9.5.17 The assessment of construction vibration considers events which have the potential to result in damage to buildings or structures and human response to vibration separately using different parameters. The assessment of potential construction vibration impacts at adjacent buildings / structures has been assessed using the predicted Peak Particle Velocity (PPV), according to the criteria given in Volume 5. The results of the assessment of construction vibration are presented in the table below. Vol 21 Table 9.5.7 Vibration impacts at structures - construction Ref Receptor Impact (highest predicted PPV across all activities, mm/s) Value/ sensitivity Magnitude and justification

9.5.16

9.5.18

BB1

7-13 Kings Bench 0.4 Walk

High

No impact: Below threshold

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Section 9: Noise and vibration Value/ sensitivity Magnitude and justification

for potential cosmetic damage BB2 Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Sion College 0.4 Medium No impact: Below threshold for potential cosmetic damage No impact: Below threshold for potential cosmetic damage No impact: Below threshold for potential cosmetic damage No impact: Below threshold for potential cosmetic damage No impact: Below threshold for potential cosmetic damage

BB3

1.0

Medium

BB4

60 & 100 Victoria Embankment

0.8

Medium

BB5

The Mermaid Conference centre

0.4

Medium

BB6

1-87 River Court

0.7

High

9.5.19

The assessment predicts levels that are likely to be perceptible but unlikely to give rise to complaint at the identified receptors. At Sion College, the highest PPV is equal to the threshold of complaint at residences however the building use is less sensitive. The vibration levels are caused by vibratory compaction at the site. The vibration levels reported here are perceptible however they are well below the levels likely to cause building damage. The assessment of potential construction vibration impacts due to human response at neighbouring receptors has been assessed using the predicted estimated Vibration Dose Value (eVDV). The results from the assessment are presented in the table below.

9.5.20 9.5.21

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Vol 21 Table 9.5.8 Vibration - human response - construction Ref Receptor Impact (highest predicted VDV across all activities, m/s1.75) * Value/ sensitivity Magnitude and justification**

BB1

7-13 Kings Bench 0.03 Walk

High

No impact: Below Low Probability of Adverse Comment No impact: Below Low Probability of Adverse Comment No impact: Below Low Probability of Adverse Comment No impact: Below Low Probability of Adverse Comment No impact: Below Low Probability of Adverse Comment No impact: Below Low Probability of Adverse Comment

BB2

Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Sion College

0.08

Medium

BB3

0.26

Medium

BB4

60 & 100 Victoria Embankment

0.19

Medium

BB5

The Mermaid Conference centre

0.01

Medium

BB6

1-87 River Court

0.02

High

*Worst affected floor **Categorisation of magnitude as defined in Volume 5, Section 2

9.5.22

All of the predicted eVDV levels at each of the receptor locations fall below the Low Probability of Adverse Comment band, as described in Volume 5 Section 2. Furthermore, these predicted levels are based upon the worst case conditions that may arise during vibration intense activities within the site compound.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Summary of construction effects 9.5.23 9.5.24

Section 9: Noise and vibration

The table below outlines the significance of effects from all sources of noise and vibration based on the extent of impacts identified above. As described in the general methodology Volume 5 Section 2, the significance of noise effects is based on the predicted impact and other factors, ie, the construction noise level relative to the significance threshold, the numbers and types of receptors affected and the duration of impact. The significance of vibration effects is assessed on the magnitude of exposure relative to guidance thresholds for disturbance as well as other factors including the number of affected receptors and their uses. Vol 21 Table 9.5.9 Noise and vibration construction effects Ref BB1 BB2 BB3 BB4 BB5 BB6 Receptor 7-13 Kings Bench Walk Hamilton House and 4050 Victoria Embankment Sion College 60 and 100 Victoria Embankment The Mermaid conference centre 1-87 River Court Significance, and justification Noise Not Significant Not Significant Significant Not significant Not Significant Not Significant Vibration Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant Not Significant

9.5.25 9.5.26 9.5.27

The assessment identifies significant noise effects at Sion College. Based on the impacts assessed there are no significant effects predicted for construction traffic. There are no significant effects predicted from vibration

9.6
9.6.1

Operational assessment Operational base and development cases


As discussed in para. 9.5.1, there is likely to be only a small variation in baseline noise levels between the baseline survey and the future base case year. The noise levels measured in 2011 are likely to form the basis of a conservative assessment as road traffic noise levels would increase along with traffic increases. For vibration, no change is assumed between the present time and future base case. The operational development case is therefore assume to be the base case plus any additional noise and vibration sources associated with the operational phase.

9.6.2 9.6.3

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Operational effects Operational effects


9.6.4 Noise control measures would be included on all plant items as part of the design process to limit noise increases to within appropriate noise limits to avoid disturbance. These limits will help inform the ongoing design of the project, will be relative to the existing background noise levels at each receptor using the methodology in BS4142 (1997) 28 and will be established in negotiation with the local authority to ensure the limits proposed are acceptable and achievable. Discussions with the local authority are ongoing and will be presented in the ES. It is not possible to quantify the overall change in noise level until this process is complete. However, it is considered that it will be possible to control noise emissions to within appropriate noise limits defined by the local authority to prevent significant effects. The table below contains a summary of the assessment results for operational noise. Vol 21 Table 9.6.1 Airborne noise impacts - operation Ref Receptor Impact Value/ sensitivity High Magnitude and justification Change in ambient noise subject to local authority limits no adverse impact Change in ambient noise subject to local authority limits no adverse impact Change in ambient noise subject to local authority limits no adverse impact Change in ambient noise subject to local authority limits no adverse impact Change in

9.6.5

BB1

7-13 Kings Bench Noise level Walk controlled to prevent adverse impact as per BS4142 Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment Noise level controlled to prevent adverse impact as per BS4142 Noise level controlled to prevent adverse impact as per BS4142 Noise level controlled to prevent adverse impact as per BS4142 Noise level

BB2

Medium

BB3

Sion College

Medium

BB4

60 & 100 Victoria Embankment

Medium

BB5

The Mermaid

Medium

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Section 9: Noise and vibration Value/ sensitivity Magnitude and justification ambient noise subject to local authority limits no adverse impact Change in ambient noise subject to local authority limits no adverse impact

conference centre

controlled to prevent adverse impact as per BS4142 Noise level controlled to prevent adverse impact as per BS4142 High

BB6

1-87 River Court

9.6.6

During the design process, noise levels would be controlled to meet the limits currently being negotiated with the local authority to prevent adverse impact at sensitive receptors. Therefore, no impacts are identified at this location. As part of the operation of the tunnel, there would need to be routine but infrequent maintenance carried out at the site. This is described further in Section 3. A crane would be required for 10 yearly shaft inspections. This would be carried out during normal working hours, using equipment which is likely to increase ambient noise levels. Given the infrequency of this operation, it is considered that a significant noise effect would not occur. Routine inspections, lasting approximately half a day, would occur every six months and would not require heavy plant. As this would be carried out during the daytime with minimal noisy equipment operating over short periods of time, it is considered that further assessment of noise generated by this activity is not required. As no impacts have been identified from the operation of the site, no significant effects have been identified (as shown in the table below). Vol 21 Table 9.6.2 Noise and vibration - operational effects Receptor Significance, and justification Noise from surface site ventilation plant BB1 7-13 Kings Bench Walk Not significant Noise from maintenance operations Not significant Not significant

9.6.7

9.6.8

9.6.9

9.6.10

BB2 Hamilton House Not significant and 40-50 Victoria Embankment

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Significance, and justification Noise from surface site ventilation plant Noise from maintenance operations Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant

BB3 Sion College BB4 60 & 100 Victoria Embankment BB5 The Mermaid conference centre BB6 1-87 River Court 9.6.11

Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant

At this location, no significant effects are predicted at any of the receptors. This is subject to the equipment being specified with appropriate noise control measures to ensure that the targets in BS4142 are met as outlined in Volume 5, Section 2.

9.7
9.7.1 9.7.2

Approach to mitigation Construction


All measures embedded in the draft CoCP of relevance to noise and vibration are found in Section 9.2. Significant effects as a result of construction have been identified at a number of receptors. This is based on a worst case assessment where the two noisiest activities in any stage happen concurrently and over the entire duration of the stage. This is a conservative approach considered appropriate for the level of information provided for this report and will be refined once further information is available at the ES stage. The buildings affected are all more than two stories high, and close to the site, and as such the standard site hoarding only provides screening to the ground floor of the properties. For all properties with significant noise effects, the hoarding height would need to be extremely high to reduce the noise levels at these properties. It is likely that hoarding at a height to provide effective screening would not be practicable. All stages of works assessed as having the potential to give rise to likely significant effects (enabling works and shaft sinking) would require additional mitigation, if practicable, to supplement the best practicable means (BPM) environmental design measures assumed for all sites. The quantitative assessment has assumed only general BPM measures, as far as it is possible to incorporate these in the noise prediction exercise. These include site boundary screening, careful selection of modern construction plant, and positioning of equipment. To address significant effects, specific solutions will be developed as appropriate to provide additional mitigation targeted on those noise sources generating the highest noise levels at the relevant receptor. For example, within this more detailed mitigation design, the use of localised screens and customised enclosures around the item of plant or the

9.7.3

9.7.4

9.7.5

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process would be considered. For the purposes of this report and at this stage of the design, site specific additional mitigation beyond BPM measures has not been identified in the assessment. However, when the potential mitigation options for the illustrative project can be confirmed, this will be presented in the ES.

Operational
9.7.6 9.7.7 No significant effects as a result of the operation of the site have been identified; hence no additional mitigation is required at this location. It should be noted that operational plant for the ventilation of the tunnel would be designed to meet noise limits agreed with the local authority to avoid significant effects.

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9.8
Vol 21 Table 9.8.1 Noise and vibration construction assessment Significance Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant None required None required None required None required Mitigation Residual significance Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant

Assessment summary

Construction

Receptor

Effect

7-13 Kings Bench Walk

Noise

Vibration

Hamilton House Noise and 40-50 Vibration Victoria Embankment Significant Mitigation to be reported in the ES

Sion College

Noise

Potentially significant (subject to mitigation options) Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant

Vibration Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant None required None required None required None required None required None required

Not significant

None required

Noise

60 & 100 Victoria Embankment

Vibration

Noise

The Mermaid conference centre

Vibration

1-87 River Court

Noise

Vibration

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Operation
Vol 21 Table 9.8.2 Noise and vibration operational assessment Effect Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant None required None required None required None required None required None required None required None required None required Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant None required Not significant None required Not significant Not significant Significance Mitigation None required Residual significance

Receptor

7-13 Kings Bench Walk

Noise

Vibration

Noise

Hamilton House and 40-50 Victoria Embankment

Vibration

Sion College

Noise

Vibration

60 & 100 Victoria Embankment

Noise

Vibration

The Mermaid conference centre

Noise

Vibration

1-87 River Court

Noise

Vibration

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9.9
9.9.1

Assessment completion
The completion of the assessment to an appropriate level of detail is subject to further information on baseline and construction road traffic. When the transport analysis is complete this will be assessed and any effects identified in the ES. The level of detail of this site assessment to date reflects the available information on methods and programme. The next stage of the assessment work will be more detailed in profiling the variation in construction noise levels across the programmes of work and the range of receptors at each surface site. It has not been possible to adequately assess the potential for noise and vibration from water cascading down drop shafts during tunnel filling events. The likely noise and vibration emission will be estimated as the drop shaft develops and will be reported in the ES. As the illustrative construction methodology develops more indepth assessment work for the ES will allow more detailed mitigation design. Following the development of more refined mitigation design as described above, it will be possible to carry out a more detailed assessment of residual effects. The effectiveness of more specific mitigation measures will be fully assessed and reported in the ES. Assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES. Following completion of the assessment the mitigation approaches for noise and vibration within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES.

9.9.2

9.9.3

9.9.4 9.9.5

9.9.6 9.9.7

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Section 10: Socio-economics

10 10.1
10.1.1

Socio-economics Introduction
This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant socio-economic effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site.

10.2
10.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to socio-economics are as follows.

Construction
10.2.2 Measures incorporated into the draft CoCP to limit, and in some cases eliminate, significant adverse air quality, noise, vibration, and visual impacts could also reduce socio-economic impacts, particularly amenity impacts. See Section 4 Air Quality and Odour, Section 9 Noise and Vibration, and Section 11 Townscape and Visual within this Volume of the report for detail on the type of measures that may be employed. Construction of the temporary cofferdam would require the permanent relocation of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier and its mooring facilities to the east of Blackfriars Bridge. The business located on the pier would need to relocate. Minor works to accommodate the relocation of the pier would include a new landing just off the Thames Path and two new temporary pedestrian elevators to provide full access and egress to and from the pier. The vessel President would need to be temporarily relocated west to Chrysanthemum pier. Temporary closure of the part of the Thames Path taken over by the construction site would be required and a temporary diversion would be put in place. The westbound road ramp, which carries traffic from the Blackfriars Bridge/New Bridge Street/Queen Victoria Street intersection to Victoria Embankment, would partly demolished during the third phase of the construction program to facilitate the construction of the low level sewer interception. This would remove the ramp from use by traffic and also require the relocation of a specialist sports facility under the ramp. Both the construction related activities and traffic (including lorry and barge movements) could result in amenity or in combination effects being experienced by a range of sensitive receptors in proximity to the proposed activities.

10.2.3

10.2.4

10.2.5

10.2.6 10.2.7

10.2.8

10.2.9

Operation
10.2.10 It is likely that some above-ground structures would be required on the site in the operational phase, necessitating the extension of the existing river

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wall out into the River Thames and the creation of a new area of public amenity space at the same level as the existing Thames Path. 10.2.11 The Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be relocated to the east of Blackfriars Bridge during the construction process and where it would remain permanently.

10.3
10.3.1

Assessment methodology
Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. All consultee comments relevant to this site are presented in the table below. Vol 21 Table 10.3.1 Socio-economics stakeholder engagement Organisation City of London Comment With regard to Transport, stated that the EIA should include issues affecting the City Riverside Walkway Response Consideration of the impacts on the Thames Path, running along the riverside in this location, are included in the socioeconomic effects section

Baseline
10.3.2 The baseline methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Construction
10.3.3 The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. Any site specific variations are described below: a. The assessment years for socio-economic effects in terms of construction activity are estimated to cover approximately a five year period.

Operation
10.3.4 The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Assumptions and limitations


10.3.5 The following socio-economic assumptions and limitations apply to the findings presented within this report: a. Prior to summer survey data becoming available, preliminary observations of the Thames Path in this location indicate it to be very well used in the existing baseline situation and usage levels are likely to remain the same or increase under a construction base case

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scenario, and go on increasing under the operational base case scenario due to the increasing population of London. b. The President (a river hospitality venue business) is going to be relocated a short distance upstream to the empty Chrysanthemum Pier moorings but will relocate back to its current mooring after construction is complete. 10.3.6 Preliminary technical assessments of potential air quality, noise and vibration, and visual effects, and associated design and mitigation measures, have been undertaken by each of those topic areas (see Sections 4, 9 and 11 respectively). The socio-economic assessment has been informed by the preliminary findings of the assessments.

10.4
10.4.1

Baseline conditions
Thames Path The Thames Path runs immediately alongside the river wall in this location and is also marked as Pauls Walk along the north bank to the west and east of Blackfriars Bridge on certain maps of the local area. Starting from approximately 100m to the west of Blackfriars Bridge, the Thames Path splits into two with one part ramping up to Blackfriars Bridge to connect with pavements on the bridge and the other part continuing at river-bank level and continuing under Blackfriars Bridge to the east. The Thames Path is of good width and well maintained, although there is no planting of large established trees along the path further east than Temple Avenue. There are views across the River Thames to Sea Containers House and the OXO Tower. To the east of Blackfriars Bridge, there is an active construction project currently underway as part of the Thameslink programme on the railway bridge. However, neither the Thameslink programme website 29 nor the Walk London website 30 indicate that there are scheduled to be any closures of the Thames Path along the north bank during the Thameslink construction programme. Prior to summer survey data becoming available and, for the purposes of this assessment, preliminary observations of the Thames Path in this location indicate it to be well used due of its central London location and the high density of commercial development in the immediate vicinity. The path is likely to be well used, particularly by commuters in the morning and evening rush hours. The Thames Path in this location is also assumed to provide a facility for tourists and opportunities for tourism-oriented activities. The Thames Path in this location is likely to experience medium levels of tourism activity. Tourists accessing the River Thames and the paths along it tend to gravitate to the Thames Path on the South Bank and its string of attractions rather than walk along the northern bank. However, the section of the Thames Path in this location is nonetheless easily accessible to tourists from sites to the west and east including Temple and Blackfriars stations, Inner Temple Gardens and from the South Bank via the Blackfriars and Millennium Bridges.

10.4.2

10.4.3

10.4.4

10.4.5

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore 10.4.6

Section 10: Socio-economics

The main factor affecting the sensitivity of Thames Path users to access restrictions is the availability of other routes. The ability of users to access an alternative route to the Thames Path in this location is hampered by the presence of Blackfriars Bridge, with level changes and other physical features in the surrounding area restricting alternative route options. This means that access to alternative routes is more difficult in this location with a lack of short and easily navigable diversions. In considering the sensitivity of users to impacts which could cause loss of amenity; it is relevant to consider the duration of time that users are likely to spend in the vicinity of the site or using the diversion. Pedestrians using the Thames Path are only likely to be near the site for the time that it takes them to walk past (likely to a few minutes for most users). Therefore, the duration for which users are likely to experience amenity effects will be limited. Taking both considerations into account, it is deemed that users of the Thames Path in this location have a medium level of sensitivity to impacts that would cause a loss of access to the path or a loss of amenity. See Vol 21 Figure 10.4.1 for a baseline plan which indicates the features described in this section. Vol 21 Figure 10.4.1 Socio-economic context (see Volume 21 Figures document) Public amenity space (future) associated with the Thames Path

10.4.7

10.4.8

10.4.9

10.4.10 10.4.11

As set out in para. 10.6.3, an area of public amenity space would be created in the operational phase. In terms of the value of the new space and the consequent sensitivity of users, the availability (and subsequent adequacy or deficiency) of existing and future base case condition alternatives is a key factor to consider. The river in this location (ie, upstream to Waterloo Bridge and downstream to the Millennium Pedestrian Bridge) is flanked on both sides by public amenity areas associated with the Thames Path. However, in the immediate vicinity of the site, the Thames Path is mainly a thoroughfare with only limited opportunities for activities such as sitting and taking in views of the River Thames and its environs. As observed with regard to the Inner Temple Gardens, there are only a limited number of public open or amenity spaces accessible in the western portion of the City surrounding the site or on the south bank of the river directly opposite. Accordingly people using the Thames Path and others have relatively limited opportunities, in terms of public open and amenity spaces, for passive recreation available to them. Furthermore, access to public amenity space in such a busy and central part of London can often be at a premium and this is likely to continue to be the case in the operational phase base case year under consideration. This means that any increase in the availability of public amenity space is likely to be well used. Taking all of these factors into account, it is considered that users of central London riverside public amenity space

10.4.12

10.4.13

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and the Thames Path are likely to have a medium level of sensitivity to the creation of new public amenity space. Transport infrastructure Blackfriars Millennium Pier 10.4.14 The Blackfriars Millennium Pier provides for commuter peak hour passenger services to and from other destinations upstream and downstream. The Pier is owned and operated (along with seven other passenger piers on the River Thames) by London River Services Limited (LRS), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of TfL 31. The pier is served by: a. Thames Executive Charters which operates the Thames River Taxi services between Blackfriars and Putney (making calls at four other piers in between) on weekdays during morning and evening peaks32. b. Thames Clippers which operates a commuter river bus service between Embankment and North Greenwich/Woolwich Arsenal. Although Thames Clippers run a seven day a week service overall, the services only stop at Blackfriars from Monday to Friday during morning and evening peaks, and services are not offered to or from Blackfriars on weekends 33. 10.4.17 As such, regular commuter services provided by London River Taxi and Thames Clippers do not call at the pier outside of peak hours nor on weekends. The latest available data show that over 49,000 passengers used Blackfriars Pier in the 2008/09 financial year. The number of passengers appears to have risen relatively steadily from earlier in the decade. From this data, the pier appears to be quite well used during the morning and evening peaks when both Thames River Taxi and Thames Clipper services call at the pier34. However, the pier is evidently not well used at other times. It is also recognised as the only pier in the City of London which is used for public transport by Thames Clippers 35; although Tower Millennium Pier is located right on the boundary between the City of London and LB Tower Hamlets next to the Tower of London. The main factor affecting the sensitivity of users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier to a loss of access to the pier is their ability to adjust and still meet their travel needs by other means. The pier is located in the City within central London and as such the area has one of the highest concentrations of public transport services available within the metropolitan area 36. Hence, while people who currently rely on the pier to make regular commuting journeys may find it inconvenient to change to a different pier or use alternative mode of transport, it is assumed for the purposes of this preliminary assessment that most users would be able to access and travel by other transport options to get to their destinations. However, it is also assumed, given the pier is used almost exclusively in peak hour only, that commuters may find it difficult to switch to alternative modes without suffering delays or inconvenience to their regular commute. However, some modes of transport, such as underground or train, may be

10.4.15

10.4.16

10.4.18

10.4.19

10.4.20

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equally as quick for some commuters depending on their origin and destination. 10.4.21 Taking all factors into account, it is deemed that users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier, ie, commuters, have a low level of sensitivity to an impact that would cause a loss of access to the pier due to the availability of other modes of transport. See Vol 21 Figure 10.4.1 for a baseline plan which indicates the features identified above. Commercial Activity on Blackfriars Millennium Pier Pump House use by Crown River Cruises 10.4.23 Crown River Cruises operates river cruise services from an office situated at the old pump house on Blackfriars Millennium Pier. The office functions as the operational headquarters of the business. With regard to the sensitivity of Crown River Cruises; the most critical issue is their capacity to find alternative accommodation of a similar kind to the pump house (ie, accommodation available at a similar or lower cost to the business). It is understood that the business does not need to be located on the river. It is therefore likely that a range of alternative office locations in proximity to the river could potentially meet the needs of the business. In the City of London, where the site is located, it was estimated that around 10.4% of office floorspace was vacant at the end of 2009. 37 Taking account of the above, the sensitivity of Crown River Cruises to the loss of the Pump House office facility is considered to be low. Commercial Activity - The President (River Hospitality Venue Business) 10.4.26 The River Thames in this location is a working river and there is regular river traffic including commuter and recreational / leisure boats moving to and from piers located nearby at Westminster and the London Eye. In particular, The President a river hospitality venue business is a potentially affected resource. The President is a boat moored approximately 100m to the west of Blackfriars Pier and has several function rooms, function decks and bars. Rooms or decks can be hired for corporate functions and or private events. It also provides conference and leisure facilities and some offices for small businesses. It is likely that a proportion of The Presidents customers are corporate clients and organisations from the City of London and that it benefits from its position. The President, by virtue of its position moored on the River Thames, enjoys good views along the river. The main factor affecting the sensitivity of The President to the loss of the mooring, potentially incurring an economic loss, is the business ability to find an alternative viable river mooring that can enable it to continue to operate. However, the Chrysanthemum Pier offers a potential temporary mooring for The President for the duration of the works, a short distance to the west of its current position.

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The business sensitivity is also related to the degree to which it relies on its current location to attract custom. If they rely on pre-booked functions then they may be able to carry their customers with them to a new location and be less sensitive to losing access to their current mooring and position. However, this will be dependent on where the new location is and the willingness of their customer base to follow them to a new location. If they rely on passing trade (ie, people that walk past and decide to go there) then they may be more sensitive to a move especially if it moves them to a location that is not as conveniently located or which is not viewed as being as attractive by prospective customers. Taking all factors into account, it is deemed that the President has a medium level of sensitivity to impacts that could cause it to lose access to its current mooring position. Commercial/Economic Activity Office Accommodation There are several buildings with commercial / educational office accommodation to the north of the site on the northern side of Victoria Embankment. These include: Unilever House (Unilever HQ), Sion College (Kings College University) and Hamilton House (serviced offices). They are all located across the Victoria Embankment roadway and thus separated by six lanes of traffic from the site boundary. There is also a gradually increasing elevation caused by the ramp up to the Blackfriars Bridge from the lower level Embankment, which partially obscures the view between part of the site and Unilever House. During the scoping process, it was considered that there was little potential for the offices to experience any significant effects as a result of the proposed development. Accordingly, an assessment of the sensitivity of the offices or office workers has not been made. Specialist Sports Club A specialist sports facility is located below the down ramp a short distance to the west of Blackfriars Bridge. . With regard to the sensitivity of users of the facility; the most critical issue is users capacity to cope with any impacts that could result in a loss of the facility. The facility is understood to be heavily used by nine different clubs, partly as a consequence of other alternative facilities closing down in recent years. Alternative facilities are therefore becoming increasingly scarce. It is however understood that at least one of the nine clubs is using the facility temporarily while a new facility is constructed in the London Bridge/Bankside area. Once this new facility is constructed, it is understood that this club will relocate permanently. Planning permission has been approved for this new facility, and, if constructed, it could potentially serve as an alternative facility for the other clubs while the Thames Tunnel is under construction. The ability of other clubs to use the new facility would of course depend on whether they have similar requirements to those of the potential host. Discussions have not yet taken place in relation to their requirements or the capacity of the new facility.

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Although, it is could be less conveniently located for some users of the facility, the London Bridge/Bankside area is still relatively accessible to the City by a range of transport modes including by train (Blackfriars to London Bridge), underground (tube), bicycle and on foot. Taking account of the above factors, the sensitivity of the users of the range to any loss of the facility is considered to be medium. Public Open Space Inner Temple Garden Inner Temple Garden is situated approximately 50m to northwest of the site across the Victoria Embankment four-lane dual carriageway. The Garden is approximately 1.2ha in size and accordingly is classified as a small open space under The Mayors Public Open Space Hierarchy. The Garden is only open to the public on a limited basis. Opening hours change on a seasonal basis, but the garden normally accessible between 12.30pm and 3.00pm each weekday. The garden also occasionally holds formal open days allowing visitors access for the whole day 38. Inner Temple Garden forms the easternmost section of the Victoria Embankment Gardens area, which runs along the embankment fronting onto the road between Blackfriars Bridge and Westminster Bridge. Temple Gardens is the largest along the Embankment. Reconnaissance visits made in fair weather to the site have indicated that the Gardens are well used when they are open. The main users appeared to be a mix of office workers and tourists using the gardens for mainly passive recreation uses. Outside of these hours, the Garden is closed and so the numbers of people who can use the Garden is restricted accordingly. The Garden is of high quality in terms of its design and maintenance. Moreover, the gardens southern aspect allows for direct sunlight throughout most of the day, enhancing its value to users. However, the Garden is located adjacent to Victoria Embankment, a four lane road which runs alongside its southern boundary. Traffic running along this road can be heard, particularly from the southern part of the Garden closest to the roadway. With regard to the sensitivity of users of the Garden; the most critical issue is users capacity to cope with any impacts that could result in a loss of amenity. The Garden is quite large enabling scope to relocate internally within the garden if amenity impacts arise from one location. It is also already affected by existing noise impacts from the adjacent road. It is also one of few main open spaces accessible in the western portion of the City. Accordingly users would have few alternatives available to them of a similar scale, nature and quality as the Inner Temple Garden should their access to it or the utility and amenity they derive from using the gardens be curtailed. Taking account of these factors the sensitivity of the users of the Inner Temple Garden to any loss of amenity is deemed to be medium.

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A summary of receptors as described in the baseline and their sensitivity is provided in the table below. Vol 21 Table 10.4.1 Socio-economics receptors Receptor Users of public right of way the Thames Path Value/sensitivity and justification Medium The Thames Path is assumed to be relatively well used and the ability to find alternative routes is limited due to the physical layout of the path in relation to level changes in the local area. Medium despite the availability of some amenity space in association with the Thames Path on both sides of the river, other opportunities for passive recreation in the vicinity are limited and so users are likely to benefit from additional public amenity space. Low - Alternative modes of transport are likely to exist for the piers primary users commuters during weekday peak hour periods. Low Alternative office accommodation is likely to exist in locations suitable for the business ie, in proximity to the river. Medium Risk of economic loss if not able to replicate business model in a new location. However, there is an available alternative mooring close by offering similar characteristics to the current mooring. Medium Likely lack of alternative locations for users. One of the clubs using the facility will relocate to a new facility in the London Bridge/Bankside area once that is built, which could possibly also serve the other clubs although this is yet to be confirmed. Medium The garden is one of the largest public open spaces in the local area and there are few similar alternative spaces. Sensitivity is

Users of future public amenity space associated with the Thames Path and created as a result of the project

Users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier - commuters

Business located at Blackfriars Millennium Pier Crown River Cruises Existing business the President

Users of specialist sports facility

Users of public open space - Inner Temple Garden

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10.5

Construction assessment Construction base and development cases


Base case

10.5.1

For this site, the base case year is Year 1 of the construction works. This is the year when site establishment is proposed to commence and marks the start of the assessment period for socio-economic effects. The surrounding area is densely developed and is considered unlikely to change significantly leading up to the assessment period. Accordingly, it is assumed that the base case will remain largely the same as the site baseline conditions, ie, the socio economic conditions at the site would remain the same under a no development scenario. The exceptions to this in the base case, as currently known from available planning information, are the following: a. Blackfriars Station redevelopment works being undertaken as part of the Thameslink programme will be finished and Blackfriars Underground Station will be reopened from late 2011. Local roads/pavements will be redesigned and the station will include a separate station entrance on South Bank39. b. A hotel scheme may be completed and occupied at No.1 Puddle Dock (the developer may imminently sign a S106 to get planning permission for a redevelopment). Details are currently being awaited from City of London). c. Bridge House at 181 Queen Victoria Street may have been redeveloped to provide a total of 4,500sqm of office floorspace (planning permission was granted in 2005 but is reasonably likely to have lapsed).

10.5.2 10.5.3

10.5.4

10.5.5

It is assumed that the Blackfriars Millennium Pier would remain in its existing baseline position serving Thames Executive Charters and Thames Clippers. There may also be an increase in the number of people using Blackfriars Millennium Pier and the Thames Path, although growth is expected to be relatively modest and in proportion to the growth of the City. It is possible that the business operated from within the vessel President could change between the current time and the base case year (for example, a different type of events space might be offered). However, it is likely that the type of business activities currently in existence would be similar given their location. It is also possible that the boat, which is the only vessel moored at the site, could be relocated elsewhere and be

10.5.6

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replaced by another vessel(s) or other commercial activities. However, for the purposes of the assessment it is assumed that the existing baseline conditions would continue in the base case. Development cases 10.5.7 Under the development case, it is expected that the following changes to the baseline would occur: a. Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be relocated to the east, a short distance away from its current position to the other side of Blackfriars Bridge. In this position it is possible that the pier could be slightly closer (by approximately 10 to 30m or more) to the Blackfriars Railway Station. It is assumed that the services that currently use the pier would be able to continue to do so, and that service levels would not be affected. b. An office occupied by Crown River Cruises located on Blackfriars Millennium Pier would need to be demolished as it would not be possible to relocate the building with the pier. c. Two temporary pedestrian elevators would be constructed and maintained for the duration of the construction period on the east side of Blackfriars Bridge providing a fully accessible link between the Thames Path and the pavements on the approach to Blackfriars Bridge for Thames Path users, including users of the newly positioned pier. No significant diversion will be required for pedestrian access to the Blackfriars Millennium Pier and this side of the Thames Path.

d. The Thames Path would be closed between a point approximately opposite Temple Avenue and the eastern side of Blackfriars Bridge. A diversion would be put in place diverting users of the path along the north side of Victoria Embankment, past Unilever House and down the east side of the approach to Blackfriars Bridge. e. The vessel President would be moved a short distance upstream to the empty Chrysanthemum moorings. f. The specialist sports facility to the west of Blackfriars bridge would be likely to have to relocate for the duration of the construction phase (and possibly the permanent phase).

g. The westbound road ramp, which carries traffic from the Blackfriars Bridge/New Bridge Street/Queen Victoria Street intersection to Victoria Embankment, will be partly demolished during the third phase of the construction program, thereby removing the ramp from use by traffic. 10.5.8 Other than the above, it is assumed that the development case for other socio-economic conditions at the site would remain the same.

Construction effects
Temporary Loss of Social Infrastructure Thames Path 10.5.9 As set out under the development case, the project would require the temporary closure of the Thames Path and the creation of a diversionary route.

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The magnitude of the impact is influenced by several factors. As stated in the baseline, preliminary observations of the Thames Path at this location indicate it to be well used by pedestrians. The majority of users are likely to be commuters and central London workers; although nearby residents and tourists are also likely to be significant users of the path in this location. Accordingly, both a number of groups and a significant number of people would be likely to be affected by the closure and diversion. Due to the road layout and level changes at the intersection of Victoria Embankment, New Bridge Street and Blackfriars Bridge, the proposed diversion route for the Thames Path is relatively extensive. It will add up to as much as approximately 400m to a typical pedestrian journey in either direction along the Thames Path at this location. At an average walking speed of 4.8km per hour or 800m per 10 minutes the diversion is likely to add between four to five minutes to journey times. Including additional time waiting to cross roads and for users to comprehend, identify and navigate the alternative route, it is reasonable to assume that the overall delay to users would approach approximately 5 to 10 minutes. The diversion would also divert users away from the river and past a busy road junction. However, the diversion is relatively short and the quality of the paths and surrounding environment along the diversion route is still good even though it does not run along the riverfront. This assessment also assumes that the stairway between the Thames Path and Blackfriars Bridge (which have been temporarily removed during construction of the Thameslink works) would be in place and that the temporary elevators proposed to be constructed on the eastern side of Blackfriars Bridge between the lower level riverside Thames Path and the upper level Blackfriars Bridge pavements (where the Thames Path diversion would be routed) would also be part of the diversion route. This would help to ensure that the detour can be kept relatively short, is fully accessible for all users and is not overly inconvenient. In addition to the provision of the temporary elevators, it is assumed that environmental design and CoCP measures would ensure that a designated Thames Path detour would be clearly identified and sign posted for the duration of the works. Standard safety measures are also expected to be implemented in full. The closure is likely to last for the full duration of the construction programme and will therefore last for approximately five years, straddling the dividing point between being a medium or a long term effect. Despite the medium to long term nature of the impact, it would be fully reversible as it is intended that the Thames Path would be reinstated in full after the end of the construction works. On the basis of the above analysis, the magnitude of the impact arising from the diversion of the Thames Path is likely to be low. Given the low magnitude of impact and the medium sensitivity of users of the Thames Path, the effect on users of the Thames Path as a result of its temporarily closure and diversion during the construction work is deemed to be minor adverse.

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Relocation of Social Infrastructure Blackfriars Millennium Pier 10.5.17 As set out under the development case, Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be relocated in order to allow for the construction works. It is likely that the new location would be a position to the east of Blackfriars Bridge, and the assessment is based on this assumption. The magnitude of the impact is influenced by several factors. Firstly, and most importantly, is that the pier would be relocated only a short distance from its existing position and that this would enable the majority, if not all current users, to continue using the pier for their daily commute. While some users would find their journey to and from the pier lengthened; other passengers are likely to find their journey to and from the pier shortened. The number of people who therefore will lose access to the transport and commuting benefits provided by the pier due to the relocation are likely to be a very small proportion of the total number of existing users. This is also corroborated by the fact that the number of people using Blackfriars Millennium Pier is small in comparison with other transport infrastructure in the immediate area. For instance, while over 49,000 passengers used Blackfriars Pier in the 2008/09 financial year, the number of entries and exits by passengers at Blackfriars National Rail Station (not including the London Underground Station) in 2008/09 and 2009/10, the last two years for which data are available was over 12 million in each year 40. The environmental design features that are proposed to accompany the relocation of the pier, including the construction of temporary elevators to enable users to ascend from the disembarkation point on the Thames Path, would provide pier users with a fully accessible means of moving between the disembarkation point and the pavement network at Blackfriars Bridge level. However, the diversions to the Thames Path (Pauls Walk) that are in place during the construction period may add to journey length between the pier and their origin/destination point, and such effects would be eased again after the completion of construction and the reinstatement of the Thames Path. Overall, given the assumption stated above, the impact would be long term and permanent (with the exception of the temporary elevators and reinstated Thames Path). Taking account of the above factors, in particular the fact that the pier will be relocated only a short distance to the east of its existing location, it is considered that the magnitude of the impact is negligible. Taking account of the negligible magnitude of the impact and the medium sensitivity of users to the relocation of the Pier, it is assessed that there is likely to be a negligible effect on users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier. Relocation of Business on Blackfriars Millennium Pier Crown River Cruises 10.5.25 As set out under the development case, the office currently situated on Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be demolished and not reinstated, with

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the occupier, Crown River Cruises, requiring alternative premises to operate from. 10.5.26 10.5.27 The magnitude of the impact is influenced by several factors. In terms of duration and permanence, the impact would be likely to be permanent. As the business uses the office as an operational headquarters, with no sales element, it is considered that the business does not derive a particular commercial benefit from its current location on the pier. The extent of the spatial impact of relocation would therefore be limited to the physical inconvenience associated with moving to alternative premises. It is assumed that any reasonable costs incurred in the relocation would be met by the project through statutory compensation, at no cost to the business. At this stage, no alternative premises for the office to relocate to have been identified. On the basis of the above factors, it is assessed overall that the magnitude of impact on the business operator could be medium. Taking account of the low magnitude of the impact and the medium sensitivity of the business to relocation, it is assessed that there could be a negligible effect arising from the relocation of the business. It is stressed that this assessment is preliminary. If satisfactory business premises can be found, it is likely that the magnitude of the impact and therefore significance of the effect could reduce. Displacement of Commercial Business The President (river hospitality venue) 10.5.30 As set out under the development case, the vessel President would be likely to be moved approximately 100m upstream to the vacant Chrysanthemum Pier moorings during the construction works. This assessment is based on the assumption (stated in para. 10.3.5b) that this is the most likely outcome at this point in time. The magnitude of the impact is influenced by several factors. Assuming that the vessel President is able to be relocated to the Chrysanthemum moorings, the extent of the impact in terms of spatial dislocation will be contained and very limited. Whatever benefits that the business derives from being in its current location, in terms of its customer base and river side setting, would effectively be the same in the new location. Relocation to a position only a short distance away would also limit the costs of relocation; although for the purposes of this assessment it is assumed that any reasonable costs incurred in the relocation would be met by the project, at no cost to the business. In terms of duration the construction period would last five years, and the vessel President would have the option to return to its original location after the completion of construction works. Nevertheless, at five years, the duration means that the move would still constitute a long term impact (albeit only just as a period of time below five years would constitute a medium term impact).

10.5.28 10.5.29

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Taking account of the above factors, and assuming that the business can relocate to Chrysanthemum mooring, the magnitude of the impact arising from the displacement of the vessel President is likely to be negligible. Given the conclusions that the magnitude of the impact on the vessel President would be negligible and the medium sensitivity of the businesses to being displaced from its current mooring on the river in this location, it is assessed that there is likely to be a negligible effect on this moored business. Assuming that the effect on the vessel President is negligible, there would not be any subsequent indirect effects on employment or economic activity. Displacement of Sports Facility As set out under the development case, the specialist sports facility, to the west of Blackfriars Bridge, would be displaced from its current location due to the requirement to dismantle the Blackfriars Bridge to Victoria Embankment roadway down ramp underneath which they are situated. The result would be that users of the facility would be unable to use the facility for either part of, or the duration of the construction works (five years). It is currently unknown as to whether the facility could be reinstated, however the duration of the works would constitute a long term impact (a period of time below five years would constitute a medium term impact). It is assumed that any reasonable costs incurred in the relocation would be met by the project through statutory compensation, at no cost to the facility. At the present time, Thames Tunnel is in discussion with the operator of the facility, with potential alternative locations being explored. Given the consented planning permission in the London Bridge/Bankside area for an alternative facility, there may be potential for other clubs using this facility to relocate here. However the suitability of such an arrangement is not yet determined. Taking account of the above factors, the magnitude of the impact would be medium. Based on the medium magnitude of the impact and the medium sensitivity of users of the facility, it is considered that there would be a moderate adverse effect and therefore significant. Effects on Thames Path users amenity Air quality, noise and vibration, and visual impacts arising as a result of the proposed construction works and construction related traffic may potentially act individually or in combination with one another to reduce the environmental amenity experienced by users of the Thames Path in the vicinity of the proposed construction site. Preliminary findings of the assessments to examine the potential air quality, noise and vibration, and visual effects on Thames Path users at receptors surrounding the path have been considered. With respect to the proposed works at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore, the following preliminary

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findings of likely effect significance from these assessments are summarised below: a. No air quality or construction dust receptors were identified as requiring assessment at the project site in relation to users of the Thames Path. It is therefore assumed for the purpose of this assessment that it is not likely that there will be any significant effects from construction air quality and dust issues. b. No noise and vibration receptors were identified as requiring assessment at the project site in relation to users of the Thames Path. It is therefore assumed for the purpose of this assessment that it is not likely that there will be any significant effects from construction noise and vibration issues. c. Visual effects are likely to be major adverse at two of the three viewpoints identified and minor adverse at the other viewpoint for the duration of the construction period (viewpoints 2.1, 2.11 and 2.12 respectively).

10.5.44

For further information, refer to Section 4 Air Quality and Odour, Section 9 Noise and Vibration, and Section 11 Townscape and Visual within this volume. The impacts could last as long as five years. However, these impacts would be restricted in the main to daytime working hours at this site. Furthermore, they are also unlikely to occur continually over the working day, and may rise and fall in intensity as different activities of the construction process take place throughout the day. Similarly the nature of the construction activity/process being undertaken would determine whether the different types of impacts arise simultaneously, or whether only one or two impacts arise at any one time. Due to the length and layout of the Thames Path diversion during the construction works, the relative position of the construction site and the existence of the busy Victoria Embankment between the site and the majority of the likely diversion route, it is assumed at the present time that any adverse amenity impacts arising from the construction process are only likely to affect Thames Path users to a marginal degree both in terms of proximity to the source of any impacts and in terms of the duration that users will be exposed. Given the above factors, it is considered that the magnitude of amenity impacts overall in this location could be low. Taking account of the low magnitude of the potential impact and the medium sensitivity of Thames Path users to amenity effects, it is considered that the effect of the construction process on the amenity of Thames Path users could be minor adverse and therefore not significant. It is stressed that this is a preliminary and outline finding only at this stage. Effects on open space (Inner Temple Garden) users amenity Air quality, noise and vibration, and visual impacts arising as a result of the proposed construction works and construction related traffic may potentially act individually or in combination with one another to reduce the

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10.5.46

10.5.47 10.5.48

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environmental amenity experienced by users of Inner Temple Garden in the vicinity of the proposed construction site. 10.5.50 The preliminary findings of the assessments undertaken to examine the potential air quality, noise and vibration, and visual effects on Temple Garden users at receptors surrounding the garden have been considered. With respect to the proposed works at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore, the following preliminary findings are summarised below: a. No air quality or construction dust receptors were identified as requiring assessment at the project site in relation to users of Temple Gardens. It is therefore assumed for the purpose of this assessment that it is not likely that there will be any significant effects from construction air quality and dust issues. b. No noise and vibration receptors were identified as requiring assessment at the project site in relation to users of Temple Gardens. It is therefore assumed for the purpose of this assessment that it is not likely that there will be any significant effects from construction noise and vibration issues. c. Visual effects are likely to be minor adverse from viewpoint 2.13 looking southeast from within the gardens, for the duration of the construction period.

10.5.51

For further information, refer to Section 4 Air Quality and Odour, Section 9 Noise and Vibration, and Section 11 Townscape and Visual within this Volume of this report. Most of the other factors affecting the impact magnitude of the potential amenity impacts are the same as per those explained above with regard to impacts on the Thames Path (see previous sub-section). The exceptions generally relate to the relationship of the Inner Temple Garden to the proposed construction site. The garden is located across a busy and visually distracting road Victoria Embankment and is also physically and visually separated from the site by a distance of approximately 50m and by fencing and planting on the gardens southern perimeter. As such, in overall amenity terms, it is assumed that any adverse impacts would be minimised and users of the open space engaging in passive recreation pursuits within the garden would be less susceptible to the visual impact that was noted. Taking account of the above factors, and the likelihood that users of the garden are unlikely to be focused on the viewpoint for which adverse visual effects have been assessed, it is considered that the magnitude of amenity impacts overall in this location could be negligible. Taking account of the negligible magnitude of the potential impact and the medium sensitivity of Inner Temple Garden users it is considered that the effect of the construction process on the amenity of Inner Temple Garden is likely to be negligible and therefore not significant. This is a preliminary and outline finding only at this stage.

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The findings of the above preliminary assessments on potential construction phase socio-economic impacts and effects are summarised in the following table.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Vol 21 Table 10.5.1 Socio-economics - construction effects Magnitude Low The proposed diversion would add approximately 5 to 8 minutes to users travel time but it is assumed that environmental design and CoCP measures would minimise the inconvenience to users. Negligible The pier, although well used during weekdays, would relocate close to its current position and would be able to continue to serve users needs. Medium The impact would likely be longterm and not reversible. The business could still serve its customers from an alternative location without negative consequences. Reasonable costs of relocation would be met by the project through statutory compensation. Negligible Assuming the vessel President can relocate to a nearby mooring, the business is not likely to experience any significant changes. Significance Minor adverse not significant

Section 10: Socio-economics

Impact

Sensitivity

Temporary closure and diversion of Social Infrastructure a section of the Thames Path

Medium The Thames Path is assumed to be relatively well used and the ability to find alternative routes is limited due to the physical layout of the path in relation to level changes in the local area.

Relocation of Social Infrastructure Blackfriars Millennium Pier

Low - Alternative modes of transport are likely to exist for the piers primary users commuters during weekday peak hour periods.

Negligible not significant Minor adverse not significant

Relocation of the business on Blackfriars Millennium Pier Crown River Cruises

Low Alternative office accommodation is likely to exist in locations suitable for the business ie, in proximity to the river.

Displacement of business the vessel President

Negligible

Displacement of specialist sports facility

Medium Risk of economic loss if not able to replicate business model in a new location. However, there is an available alternative mooring close by offering similar characteristics to the current mooring. Medium Likely lack of alternative locations for users. One of the clubs using the facility will relocate to new accommodation which could possibly

Medium likely medium term effect with alternative locations still to be identified. One of the clubs using the facility will relocate to new accommodation in the London

Moderate adverse significant

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Section 10: Socio-economics

Impact

Sensitivity

Effects on Thames Path users amenity (outline findings)

Effects on open space (Inner Temple Garden) users amenity (outline findings)

serve the other clubs although this is yet to be confirmed. Medium the Thames Path is assumed to be relatively well used and the ability to find alternative routes is limited due to the physical layout of the path in relation to level changes in the local area. Medium the garden is one of the largest public open spaces in the local area and there are few similar alternative spaces. Sensitivity is however limited by its restrictive opening hours and its existing exposure to traffic noise. Negligible The position of the gardens relative to the source of the impacts means that the there is little potential for amenity impacts to adversely affect Inner Temple Garden users.

Negligible

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10.6

Operational assessment Operational base and development cases


Base case

10.6.1 10.6.2

The base case year for the operational phase is assumed to be Year 1 of operation. On the basis of available planning information, it is assumed that the base case would be the same as per the base case set out for the construction phase in Section 10.5. Development case Under the development case, it is expected that the following changes to the baseline would occur: a. The existing river wall would be extended out approximately 30 to 40minto the foreshore and River Thames to create a new area of hardstanding. The extension would enable the installation of permanent infrastructure required to allow for servicing and maintenance of the Thames Tunnel once construction work is complete and this infrastructure would form part of the permanent physical environment. These works would extend the public amenity space that is currently provided in tandem with the Thames Path. It would provide seating, landscaped amenity space and a viewpoint which would allow for views over the River Thames towards the South Bank to Sea Containers House and the Oxo Tower, and further along in either direction to the Tate Modern and London Eye. b. Although discussions are still occurring with the City of London, it is assumed for the basis of this report that the Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be likely to remain in its relocated position to the east of Blackfriars Bridge. A new area of hardstanding will be created in order to avoid disruption of the Thames Path flow by potential queues of pier users. The pedestrian ramp as well as the floating pontoon of the new pier will be similar to the existing.

10.6.3

10.6.4

Other than the above, it is assumed that the development case for other socio-economic conditions at the site would remain the same.

Operational effects
Permanent Gain of Public Amenity Space 10.6.5 As set out under the development case, the river wall would be extended out in the foreshore to allow for the installation of project related infrastructure and resulting in the permanent provision of an increased area of public amenity space. The magnitude of the impact is related to the size of the physical extent of the new area, the number of people that would be likely to benefit and value of the amenity space in its current context and location. The proposed project would see an extension of the river wall, and new public amenity space extend approximately 30 to 40m into the river

10.6.6

10.6.7

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foreshore at the furthest point on the west before tapering back towards the existing river wall along a stretch of more than 240m. This will create an additional public amenity space of approximately 0.4ha in association with the existing Thames Path. This would equate in size to a full size pocket park under the Mayors Public Open Space Hierarchy. Accordingly, it would be likely to serve a catchment area of up to 400m for local residents and employees, although given its position on the river and the Thames Path in central London it is likely to draw usage from a wider catchment area. 10.6.8 The proposed extension of the river wall and creation of new public amenity space alongside the Thames Path would be permanent and create additional opportunities for passive recreation and an increased level of amenity along this section of the Thames Path, with the potential for new seating areas and a new viewpoint over the River Thames. Given the high numbers of people that use this section of the Thames Path, the new space is likely to offer additional benefit to a large number of users, including City workers, residents and domestic and international tourists. In terms of the value of the new space to users, to the river in this location (ie, downstream of Blackfriars Bridge and upstream of Westminster Bridge) is flanked by public amenity areas associated with the Thames Path. However, this space functions primarily as part of the Thames Path and there are limited opportunities for sitting or resting along the path. As a result, the potential provision of a seating area would add to the functionality of the space. A further relevant consideration is the fact that access to public amenity space in such a busy and central part of London is at a premium. The largest nearby piece of open space that provides for passive recreation opportunities is at Inner Temple Gardens, although access is restricted to within the times of its limited opening hours. With no large increases in public open space anticipated under the base case, the relative paucity of open space is likely to continue in the operational phase base case year under consideration. This means that any new public amenity space is likely to be well used. As such it will provide a valuable new public amenity area and social resource Taking account of the permanent nature, size, the type and number of users that are likely to benefit and the location and context of the new space, it is considered that the impact magnitude would be medium. Taking account of the medium magnitude of the impact and the medium sensitivity of users of public open amenity space in the area (see para. 10.4.45 with regard to the lack of open space in the surrounding area), it is considered that the new public amenity space is likely to have a long term moderate beneficial effect and is therefore significant. Relocation of Social Infrastructure Blackfriars Millennium Pier 10.6.13 Given the nature of the impacts considered in Section 10.5 with regard to the relocation of Blackfriars Millennium Pier, the assessment of impact magnitude and effect significance would be the same if the pier remained

10.6.9

10.6.10

10.6.11

10.6.12

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in this new position after the completion of construction activities. Accordingly, no further consideration of the impacts or effects is required. 10.6.14 If however, the pier were to move back to its baseline position; then there would be no change with regard to the base case requiring assessment. Summary 10.6.15 The findings of the above preliminary assessments on potential operational phase socio-economic impacts and effects are summarised in the table below. Vol 7 Table 10.6.1 Socio-economics operational effects Impact Permanent gain of public amenity space Sensitivity Medium despite the availability of some amenity space in association with the Thames Path on both sides of the river, other opportunities for passive recreation in the vicinity are limited and so users are likely to benefit from additional public amenity space. Low alternative modes of transport are likely to exist for the piers primary users commuters during weekday peak hour periods. Magnitude Medium Would permanently provide 0.4ha of public amenity space in an area where there is a general lack of public amenity space. Likely to be of benefit to a high number of users. Significance Moderate beneficial significant

Relocation of social infrastructure Blackfriars Millennium Pier

Negligible The pier, although well used during weekdays, would permanently relocate close to its current position and would be able to continue to serve users needs.

Negligible

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10.7

Approach to mitigation Construction

10.7.1

The above assessment has arrived at a preliminary finding that there is a potential for a moderate adverse effect to arise in relation to displacement of the specialist sports facility. As per the significance criteria, moderate adverse impacts constitute significant effects. There is a continuing opportunity for further consideration of the potential for employing any viable additional measures to minimise the potential for a significant effect to occur.

10.7.2

Operation
10.7.3 The preliminary findings of the assessment have found that there are not likely to be any significant adverse effects (that is major or moderate effects) in the operational phase at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore requiring additional mitigation.

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10.8
Vol 21 Table 10.8.1 Socio-economics construction assessment Significance Minor adverse not significant Negligible not significant Minor adverse not significant None required None required None required Mitigation Residual significance No change

Assessment summary

Receptor

Effect

Effect on users from temporary closure and diversion of a section of the Thames Path Effect on users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier

No change

Users of public right of way the Thames Path Users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier Business located at the Blackfriars Millennium Pier Crown River Cruises Negligible not significant Moderate adverse significant None required Potential relocation assistance measures and possibly financial compensation None required

Relocation of Business on Blackfriars Millennium Pier Crown River Cruises

No change

Existing business the vessel President Users of specialist sports facility

Effect on The President river hospitality venue business Displacement of sports specialist facility

No change Minor adverse not significant

Users of public right of way the Thames Path

Minor adverse not significant

No change

Users of public open space - Inner Temple Garden

Amenity (individual or in combination) effects on Thames Path users amenity (outline assessment) Amenity (individual or in combination) effects on open space (Inner Temple Garden) users amenity (outline assessment)

Negligible not significant

None required

No change

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Vol 21 Table 10.8.2 Socio economics operational assessment Effect Moderate beneficial Negligible effect not significant None required None required No change No change Permanent gain of public amenity space Effect on users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier Significance Mitigation Residual significance

Section 10: Socio-economics

Receptor

Users of future public amenity space associated with the Thames Path Users of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier

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10.9
10.9.1

Assessment completion
The following assessments would likely be updated, assuming additional data, as specified, becomes available: a. The assessment regarding the construction phase re-routing of the Thames Path and the operation phase gain of public amenity space on the Thames Path assuming pedestrian usage data for the Thames Path becomes available.

10.9.2

Pending the results of assessments by other EIA topics, it is likely that updates to the baseline data and results of the indicative individual and in combination assessments will be made for the following: a. Amenity effects on Thames Path users b. Amenity effects on open space users within the Inner Temple Garden.

10.9.3

Given that this assessment has identified a significant adverse effect, following the identification of required mitigation measures, a reassessment of the potential residual effects after mitigation would be undertaken using the same approach as has been set out above in Section 10.3. Assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES. Following completion of the assessment the mitigation approaches for socio economics within the project, if applicable, will be finalised and reported in the ES.

10.9.4 10.9.5

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11 11.1
11.1.1

Townscape and visual Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant effects on townscape and visual receptors at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. The assessment describes the current conditions found within the area the nature and pattern of buildings, streets, open space and vegetation and their interrelationships within the built environment, and the changes that would be introduced as a result of the proposed development. The assessment also identifies mitigation measures where appropriate. Townscape and visual assessments are made up of two separate, although linked, procedures; the townscape baseline and its analysis contribute to the baseline for visual amenity. Each section of the assessment is structured so that townscape aspects are described first, followed by visual.

11.1.2

11.2
11.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to the townscape and visual assessment are as follows.

Construction
11.2.2 The peak construction phase for this topic relates to the time when the shaft is being constructed, involving the presence of cranes at the site and the export of material by road. For this site, this equates to Year 3 of construction, within a total construction period of approximately five years. Similar effects would arise during the secondary tunnel lining, which would occur during Year 5 of construction. The site would be typically under construction during standard working hours only. However, some activities, such as the diaphragm wall works, are likely to require extended standard working hours. The specific construction activities which may give rise to effects on townscape character, tranquillity and visual receptors are: a. vehicular construction access to the site off Victoria Embankment and Blackfriars Underpass b. establishment hoardings around the boundary of the construction site c. removal of listed light columns and a stretch of the listed river wall d. use of cranes during shaft sinking and secondary lining of the tunnel e. use of a piling rig during construction of the cofferdam, encroaching into the river f. provision of welfare facilities g. lighting of the site when required.

11.2.3

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Measures incorporated into the draft CoCP to reduce townscape and visual impacts include appropriate protection of listed structures and use of appropriate capped and directional lighting when required.

Operation
11.2.5 The particular components that are of importance to this topic include the design of the river wall and public realm, and the design and siting of the ventilation columns.

11.3
11.3.1 11.3.2

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. In addition to the formal scoping process, the City of London, LB of Southwark, LB of Lambeth, City of Westminster and English Heritage have been consulted on the detailed scope of this topic, including the number and location of viewpoints. The LB of Lambeth have confirmed acceptance of the proposed viewpoints. The City of Westminster requested an additional viewpoint from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge, which has been included in the visual assessment. English Heritage have confirmed acceptance of the proposed viewpoints.

Baseline
11.3.3 The assessment area, defined using the standard methodology provided in Volume 6, is indicated by the extents of the drawing frame on Vol 21 Figure 11.5.1 to Vol 21 Figure 11.5.6. The scale of the assessment area has been set by the maximum extent of the ZTV, excepting those locations upstream of the site where the visibility is in reality obscured by Waterloo Bridge, and those locations downstream of the site where the visibility is in reality obscured by Southwark Bridge. The methodology for establishing the townscape and visual baseline follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. With specific reference to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site, baseline information has been gathered through a review of: a. The Unitary Development Plans (UDP) for the City of London, City of Westminster, LB of Southwark and LB of Lambeth b. Whitefriars, Fleet Street, Chancery Lane and Temples Conservation Area Character Summaries, produced by the City of London; c. Temples Conservation Area: Management Strategy, produced by the City of London

11.3.4 11.3.5

d. Union Street and Kings Bench Conservation Area Appraisals, produced by the LB of Southwark e. Mitre Road and Ufford Street, Lower Marsh, South Bank, Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area Statements, produced by the LB of Lambeth

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Savoy and Strand Conservation Area General Information Leaflets, produced by the City of Westminster

Construction
11.3.6 The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. Any site specific variations are described below. With reference to the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site, the peak construction phase for this topic would be in Year 3 of construction, when the shaft would be under construction, cranes would be present at the site and material would be being taken away by river. This has therefore been used as the assessment year for townscape and visual effects. The intensity of construction activities would be similar during Year 5 of construction, during the secondary lining of the tunnel, involving import of materials by road. It should be noted that the assessment includes both parts of the site: the main construction area and the area of the relocated pier. For the purposes of the construction phase assessment, it is assumed that the redevelopment of Blackfriars Station would be complete, while two major developments immediately east of the station would be under construction, including: a. A mixed use scheme, potentially including a hotel, at 1 Puddle Dock b. An extension of commercial office space at 181 Queen Victoria Street.

11.3.7

11.3.8 11.3.9

Operation
11.3.10 The operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. Any site specific variations are described below. The operational phase visual assessment for this site will be supported through the preparation of three verifiable photomontages from recreational receptors surrounding the site (shown on Vol 21 Figure 11.5.6). These will be produced and presented in the ES. It should be noted that the assessment includes both parts of the site: the main operational area and the area of the relocated pier. The operational phase assessment has been undertaken for Year 1 of operation and Year 15 of operation. For the purposes of the Year 1 assessment, it is assumed the developments described in para. 11.3.9 are completed and occupied. Further work will be undertaken for the ES to identify any potential change in the base case for Year 15 of operation.

11.3.11

11.3.12 11.3.13

Assumptions and limitations


11.3.14 Assumptions made on the base case for the construction and operational phase assessments are described in para. 11.3.9. These assumptions are based on known planning applications and planning policy within the assessment area, interpreted using professional judgement to understand

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what the base case may be in Year 3 of construction and Year 1 of operation without the project (ie, the do nothing scenario). 11.3.15 11.3.16 Assumptions will be made in the ES regarding what the base case may be in Year 15 of operation without the project. The preliminary assessment of operational effects is based on the engineering design of the proposed development. The assessment recognises that the project is committed to high quality design, and this forms the basis of the preliminary assessment of likely significant effects presented here. The details of the project design and landscaping, to be provided for the planning submission, will inform the assessment of operational effects in Year 1 and Year 15 which will be presented in the ES.

11.4
11.4.1

Baseline conditions Townscape baseline


The proposed development is located partially on Victoria Embankment and partially within the River Thames. The surrounding townscape is a mix of historic and modern commercial, administrative and residential premises. Physical elements The physical elements of the townscape in the assessment area are described below. Topography The site is located on a relatively flat plateau along Victoria Embankment. To the east, the Thames Path drops to pass under Blackfriars Bridge, while the road rises on a ramp to connect with it. To the north, the ground rises away from the river. Land use In the vicinity of the site, the north bank of the river is predominantly characterised by commercial and administrative uses, with some leisure and retail further from the river. St Pauls Cathedral is located approximately 500m north east of the site. On the South Bank of the river, land use is dominated by cultural, leisure and tourism related uses, including Tate Modern art gallery, Shakespeares Globe theatre, the Royal National Theatre and Royal Festival Hall. Some high rise office and residential units are located directly opposite the site, including the Oxo Tower, with smaller residential properties further away from the river. Development patterns and scale Vol 21 Figure 11.4.1 illustrates the pattern and scale of development within the assessment area and also indicates building heights. Within the assessment area, the north bank of the river is characterised by dense blocks of buildings with large footprints and heights of up to approximately 40m. Buildings are typically orientated towards the river and streets are generally narrow and laid out in a grid formation parallel with the river. West of Blackfriars Bridge, Victoria Embankment provides a

11.4.2

11.4.3

11.4.4

11.4.5 11.4.6

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wide vehicular and pedestrian route alongside the river. East of Blackfriars Bridge, buildings have typically been constructed close to the river, resulting in the Thames Path being generally narrow and in places diverted inland. Vol 21 Figure 11.4.1 Townscape and visual development pattern and scale (see Volume 21 Figures document) 11.4.7 On the South Bank of the river, opposite the site, buildings are arranged in a more informal layout. The majority of buildings are small scale and less than three storeys in height. The South Bank is however characterised by intermittent tall landmark buildings in excess of 50m, including Tate Modern art gallery (approximately 500m south east), the Oxo Tower (300m south) and the Shell Building (1km south west). The majority of the southern bank is characterised by a wide pedestrian route along the river Vegetation patterns and extents 11.4.8 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.2 illustrates the pattern and extent of vegetation, including tree cover, within the assessment area. Vol 21 Figure 11.4.2 Townscape and visual vegetation pattern and extent (see Volume 21 Figures document) 11.4.9 Street trees are fairly uncommon within the assessment area both to the north and south of the river. West of the site, Victoria Embankment is characterised by mature London plane trees, with an avenue of trees running as far as Temple Gardens, approximately 300m northwest of the site. Smaller trees are present along the South Bank, including a small group in front of Tate Modern art gallery. The number of public open spaces within the assessment area is limited, and typically characterised by open grass and infrequent scattered trees. Most of the vegetation within the assessment area on both sides of the river is contained within private and semi-private spaces, particularly within housing estates, internal courtyards and private rear gardens to the south of the river. The majority of mature trees within the City of London are protected by Tree Preservation Orders (TPOs), and trees on both sides of the river are protected by Conservation Area status. Vegetation is not a key component of the general character of the area, apart from the avenue along Victoria Embankment, which continues further west beyond the assessment area. Open space distribution and type 11.4.13 Vol 21 Figure 11.5.3 illustrates the distribution of different open space types within the assessment area, indicating all relevant statutory, nonstatutory and local plan designations.

11.4.10

11.4.11

11.4.12

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Vol 21 Figure 11.4.3 Townscape and visual open space distribution and type (see Volume 21 Figures document) 11.4.14 The majority of open spaces within the assessment area are private or semi-private, associated with residential or commercial premises. Public open spaces are limited to a series of gardens and pedestrian routes close to the river and a series of spaces around St Pauls Cathedral. These are described in more detail in the table below. The City of London has designated the majority of public and private open spaces as Soft Open Space in the Unitary Development Plan (UDP). Similarly, the LB of Southwark has designated a number of spaces as Borough Open Land, and the LB of Lambeth has designated spaces as either Parks or Other public open spaces. Jubilee Gardens to the south west of the site is designated as Metropolitan Open Land (MOL). Vol 21 Table 11.4.1 Townscape and visual - open space type and distribution Open space Distance from site Character summary Formally designed public gardens with well maintained vegetation, including formal grass areas, trees, shrubs and seasonal flower beds. The gardens also contain several notable statues and landmarks. Designated as Soft Open Space in the City of Londons UDP. Private gardens with some public access, characterised by wide open lawns, informal trees and herbaceous borders. Designated as Soft Open Space in the City of Londons UDP. An area of formal lawns to the east of the cathedral, with informal tree planting, a network of paths and seating. North of the cathedral, the space is characterised by a large hard surfaced plaza. Designated as Soft Open Space in the City of Londons UDP. Public gardens close to St Pauls Cathedral comprising a formal lawn area surrounding by a clipped hedge, a fountain, paths and seating. Designated as Soft Open Space in the City of Londons UDP. Public gardens close to St Pauls Cathedral comprising a formal triangular lawn with informal tree planting. Designated as Soft Open Space in the City of

11.4.15

Victoria 450m W Embankment (north of Gardens river)

The Temple Garden

300m NW (north of river) 500m NE (north of river)

St Pauls Cathedral Churchyard and Gardens

Festival Gardens

650m NE (north of river)

New Change Gardens

700m NE (north of river)

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Section 11: Townscape and visual Character summary Londons UDP.

Jubilee Gardens

Wide open grassed public space with sparsely scattered trees, dominated by the London Eye. Designated as Metropolitan Open Land and as a Park in the LB of Lambeths UDP. Predominantly paved linear pedestrian corridor on the South Bank of the river, with double avenues of small trees. Characterised by large numbers of visitors associated with leisure and retail uses along the river frontage. Partially designated as an Other public open space in the LB of Lambeths UDP. Public gardens characterised by areas of lawn and informal tree and shrub planting. Designated as a Park in the LB of Lambeths UDP. Public open space situated in front of Tate Modern art gallery, characterised by formally laid out trees, paved areas and grass, located around the approach to the Millennium Bridge.

South Bank

Gabriels Wharf Gardens Tate Modern

300m SW (south of river) 350m SE (south of river)

Transport routes 11.4.16 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.4 illustrates the transport network within the assessment area, including cycleway and Thames Path. Vol 21 Figure 11.4.4 Townscape and visual transport network (see Volume 21 Figures document) 11.4.17 The site is located immediately adjacent to Victoria Embankment and Blackfriars Bridge, and is characterised by high levels of traffic. Other strategic, heavily trafficked routes in the assessment area include Waterloo Bridge to the west, the A3200 to the south and the A300 to the east. The majority of other streets are fairly narrow and characterised by varied levels of both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The Thames Path runs along both banks of the river, although the route is much wider and dedicated to pedestrians on the South Bank. The townscape south of the river is heavily dissected by rail corridors connecting Blackfriars railway station with south London, and Waterloo East railway station with southeast London. Site character assessment 11.4.20 The main site is located within Whitefriars Conservation Area in the City of London, immediately west and underneath the Grade II listed Blackfriars Bridge. The main site is located partially on a stretch of pavement along

11.4.18 11.4.19

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Victoria Embankment and partially within the River Thames. The Blackfriars Millennium Pier is located within the site boundary. 11.4.21 Within the main site boundary, the western stretch of river wall is Grade II listed, while the eastern stretch is not listed and was rebuilt during the construction of the approach ramp to Blackfriars Bridge (1960s). Lamp standards across the frontage are also Grade II listed. At the western end of the main site, trees in the Victoria Embankment avenue are protected by TPOs. The components of the site are described in more detail in the table below. The foreshore is generally not exposed at low tide in most of the site boundary area. The main site is located within the London View Management Framework (LVMF). This identifies protected linear viewing corridors from Westminster Pier (8A.1) and King Henry VIIIs Mound, Richmond (9A.1) to St Pauls Cathedral. Vol 21 Table 11.4.2 Townscape and visual site components ID 01 Component Blackfriars Millennium Pier Description Modern floating river bus pier, constructed in 2000, extending approximately 15m into the river. To the eastern end of the pier there is a small two storey structure located in the river. Granite clad river wall constructed by Bazalgette between 1865 and 1870. The wall has regularly spaced stanchions and sits at flood defence level, approximately 1m higher than the pavement level Condition Good condition

11.4.22 11.4.23

02

Grade II listed river wall

Good condition

03

Reconstructed At the point when the vehicular ramp river wall rises from Victoria Embankment to Blackfriars Bridge, the river wall was reconstructed to the same style as the original listed wall. The wall sits higher than flood defence level. Grade II listed lamp standards (sturgeon lamp columns) Mature trees 13 ornamental cast iron lamp standards positioned on the regularly spaced stanchions in the river wall.

Good condition

04

Good condition

05

Mature London plane trees, protected by TPOs forming the end of a long avenue along Victoria Embankment.

Good condition (to be confirmed

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Section 11: Townscape and visual Description Condition following tree survey) Relatively poor condition Good condition

06

Thames Path

Sandstone paved pavement alongside the river wall and Victoria Embankment road. This recreational ship is moored within the site, beyond the pier to the west.

07 11.4.24

HMS President

The condition of the townscape within the main site is generally good, with limited potential for enhancement. However, the potential for townscape enhancement of the public realm along Victoria Embankment is high. The main sites location close to the interchange of Victoria Embankment and Blackfriars Bridge, dominated by heavy traffic, means the site has limited tranquillity. The river is also heavily used, further reducing levels of tranquillity. The main site is located within a nationally significant historical and cultural stretch of the River Thames, experienced by large numbers of people and located within two protected viewing corridors towards St Pauls Cathedral. Although the character of the site is locally common within the assessment area, it is nationally valued as part of the wider character of the River Thames. Due to the generally good condition and national significance of the sites character, the site has a high sensitivity to change. At night, the site is illuminated, although not strongly, by the lamp standards along the Thames Path, and is also affected by light spill from the adjacent roads, buildings and Blackfriars Bridge. However, the river beyond the existing flood defence is generally characterised by low levels of light. Therefore, the sensitivity of this site to additional lighting is medium. Works associated with the proposed relocation of the Millennium Pier would be confined to a separate working area east of the Grade II Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. This site is located partially on a stretch of the Thames Path and partially within the River Thames, with no townscape components of note. The foreshore is generally not exposed at low tide in most of the site boundary area. The condition of the townscape within the pier site is generally good, with limited potential for enhancement. The pier sites location is in proximity with the White Lion Hill road and Blackfriars railway bridge, which means the site has limited tranquillity. The river is also heavily used, further reducing levels of tranquillity. The pier site is located within a nationally significant historical and cultural stretch of the River Thames, experienced by large numbers of people.

11.4.25

11.4.26

11.4.27 11.4.28

11.4.29

11.4.30 11.4.31 11.4.32

11.4.33

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Although the character of the site is locally common within the assessment area, it is nationally valued as part of the wider character of the River Thames. 11.4.34 11.4.35 Due to the generally good condition and national significance of the sites character, the site has a high sensitivity to change. At night, the site is illuminated, although not strongly, by the lamp standards along the Thames Path, and is also affected by light spill from the adjacent roads, and buildings. However, the river beyond the existing flood defence is generally characterised by low levels of light. Therefore, the sensitivity of this site to additional lighting is medium. Townscape character assessment 11.4.36 The Townscape Character Areas surrounding the site are identified on Vol 21 Figure 11.4.5. Townscape character areas are ordered beginning to the north of the site and continuing around the site in a clockwise direction. Each area is described below. Vol 21 Figure 11.4.5 Townscape and visual townscape character areas (see Volume 21 Figures document) River Thames Central London Reach 11.4.37 This reach of the River Thames extends from Waterloo Bridge in the west towards the west of the site to the Tower of London in the east, beyond the assessment area of this site. The reach is characterised by dense commercial and tourism related development along both banks, much of which reflects the strong heritage of central London. Within the assessment area, the river is crossed by Waterloo Bridge (road), Blackfriars Bridge (road), Blackfriars Bridge (rail) and the Millennium Bridge (pedestrian). The river itself is characterised by numerous jetties and permanent moorings beyond the historic stone river wall. The north bank of the river has little or no foreshore, while the southern bank has a relatively wide area of foreshore exposed at low tide. The overall character is largely urban, with very little planting along the banks of the rivers, with the exception of a mature line of London plane trees along part of Victoria Embankment, west of the site. The jetties, river wall and bridges are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by the intensity of activity on the river, which is used by commercial and industrial boats, river taxis and pleasure craft. This reach is an internationally valued stretch of the river, experienced by large numbers of people, including tourists, with particular attention given to St Pauls Cathedral and Tate Modern art gallery, which form key components of the character areas setting. Due to the good condition and international value of the townscape, this character area has a high sensitivity to change.

11.4.38

11.4.39 11.4.40

11.4.41

11.4.42

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At night, the area receives relatively high levels of light spill from river traffic, piers, jetties, permanent moorings, street lighting and from buildings, including aesthetic lighting of faades. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach

11.4.44

This reach of the River Thames extends from Westminster Bridge to the west of the site (beyond the assessment area of this site) to Waterloo Bridge, also to the west of the site. The reach is characterised by dense commercial, administrative and tourism related development along both banks, much of which reflects the strong heritage of central London, interspersed by two large open spaces: Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens. The reach is also dominated by the mature avenue of London plane trees along the northern bank, which run along Victoria Embankment. Within the assessment area, the river is crossed by Waterloo Bridge (road). The river itself is characterised by numerous jetties and permanent moorings beyond the historic stone river wall. The London Eye lies just beyond the assessment area. The north bank of the river has little or no foreshore, while the southern bank has a relatively narrow stretch of foreshore exposed at low tide. The overall character is largely urban, moderated slightly by the formal tree planting along Victoria Embankment, and also within Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens. The jetties, river wall and bridges are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by the density of activity on the river, used by commercial and industrial boats, river taxis and pleasure craft. This reach is an internationally valued stretch of the river, experienced by large numbers of people, including tourists visiting attractions such as the London Eye and the Houses of Parliament (in the neighbouring character reach of the river), which form key components of the character areas setting. Due to the good condition and international value of the townscape, this character area has a high sensitivity to change. At night, the area receives relatively high levels of light spill from river traffic, piers, jetties, permanent moorings, street lighting, the London Eye and from buildings, including decorative lighting of faades. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Whitefriars Conservation Area This area comprises Whitefriars Conservation Area (designated by the City of London) and an area of similar character to the north of the conservation area. The area is characterised by large scale Victorian and Edwardian commercial and administrative premises set out on a formal grid pattern established in 1880. The majority of buildings are four to five storeys in height, with the river frontage framed by a strong frontage of five

11.4.45

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to six storey buildings. The character area is bordered to the east and south by busy roads. 11.4.52 11.4.53 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by the commercial land use, presence of high levels of vehicular traffic and lack of street trees or other vegetation. The character area is located within a nationally significant historical and cultural stretch of the River Thames, experienced by large numbers of people and located within a protected viewing corridor towards St Pauls Cathedral. Although the character of the site is locally common within the assessment area, it is nationally valued as part of the wider character of the River Thames. Due to the good condition of the townscape and its national value, this character area has a high sensitivity to change. At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, particularly along the river frontage, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area 11.4.57 This area broadly comprises Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Areas (designated by the City of London). The area is predominantly characterised by commercial offices set out on a medieval pattern of narrow streets, alleys and courtyards, either side of Fleet Street, the main east-west route inland from Victoria Embankment. The character area comprises a wide variety of building styles, most of which are of a consistent scale, around five to six storeys in height. The pattern of development means the character area is largely inward looking. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Despite the presence of Fleet Street dissecting the area, the townscape has moderate levels of tranquillity due to the narrow streets and introspective nature of the area. The area is regionally valued by virtue of its character being a distinctive and relatively rare component of the historic City of London, experienced by large numbers of people. Therefore, despite the introspective nature of the built environment, due to the regional value attributed to the townscape, this character area has a high sensitivity to change. At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, particularly along Fleet Street, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low.

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St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area 11.4.63 This character area is defined by St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area (designated by the City of London). The area is dominated by the landmark St Pauls Cathedral, sited on top of Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the City of London. The cathedral is surrounded by a mix of green and paved public realm. To the west of the cathedral, the area is characterised by small scale office and retail units aligned along narrow streets in an informal layout. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by high levels of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, a lack of street trees and the commercial land uses. The character of this area, dominated by St Pauls Cathedral, is internationally valued as one of the best known landmarks on Londons skyline. Due to the good townscape condition and internationally valued character, this area has a high sensitivity to change At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. City of London Mixed Use 11.4.69 This character area comprises Bow Lane Conservation Area (designated by the City of London) and the surrounding area, similar in character. The area comprises a number of large scale buildings up to seven storeys high, tightly spaced along narrow streets and with little open space. Public realm within the area is typically characterised by hard surfaces and minimal vegetation. The mix of building styles present a relatively incoherent river frontage, with the majority of buildings located immediately adjacent to a narrow river walkway. The Millennium Bridge provides a strong axis that cuts through the character area, leading to St Pauls Cathedral. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by high levels of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, a lack of street trees and the commercial land uses. The townscape of the character area is valued at the Borough level, by virtue of the Conservation Area designation. Due to the good condition and Borough value of the townscape, this area has a high sensitivity to change. At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low.

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This area comprises Bankside and Bear Gardens Conservation Areas, including Tate Modern art gallery and Shakespeares Globe theatre. The area is characterised by cultural, leisure and tourism related uses along the wide pedestrian frontage of the River Thames. The Millennium Bridge connects this area to the north of the river and St Pauls Cathedral. Tate Modern art gallery is a Grade II listed building. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by high levels of pedestrian activity, although this is partially moderated by the presence of green open spaces and numerous street trees. The character of this area, dominated by Tate Modern art gallery, is nationally valued as a component of Londons skyline, experienced by large numbers of people. Due to the good condition and national value of the townscape, this area has a high sensitivity to change. At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Southwark Mixed Use This area is characterised by mixed use development predominantly comprising commercial units interspersed with some residential premises. The townscape is dissected by Blackfriars Road, Southwark Street and the railway line connecting Blackfriars railway station with south London. Buildings typically range in height from five to 14 storeys, with newly built office blocks set amongst the smaller grain of residential areas. The river frontage is characterised by a mix of commercial and residential blocks, set behind the wide pedestrian-only Jubilee Walkway following the river. The Oxo Tower and Sea Containers House provide two notable landmarks within the character area, directly opposite the site. The area is undergoing extensive regeneration. The pattern of development means the character of this area is largely inward looking. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by the lack of open spaces and vegetation, and high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity. The majority of the area has fairly limited amenity value, although the townscape of the river frontage is valued at the regional scale by virtue of the landmarks that provide a backdrop to the River Thames. Due to the high levels of tranquillity and heightened value of the character area, this character area has a high sensitivity to change. Therefore, despite the introspective nature of the built environment, due to the good condition and regional level value of the townscape, the area has a high sensitivity to change.

11.4.76 11.4.77

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At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area This area comprises Thrale Street Conservation Area and Union Street Conservation Area (both designated by the LB of Southwark). The area is characterised by mixed land uses including commercial and industrial units, residential blocks and some leisure uses including hotels. Larger blocks have been replacing the historic grid layout of small residential terraces, although these remain in part. The character is heavily influenced by Southwark Street, Southwark Bridge Road and the railway line connecting Waterloo East railway station with southeast London, which dissects the two conservation areas. The pattern of development means the character of this area is largely inward looking. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Tranquillity within the area is limited by the lack of open spaces and vegetation, and high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity. The area is valued at the Borough level by virtue of the Conservation Area designations. Therefore, despite the introspective nature of the built environment, due to the good condition and Borough level value of the townscape, the area has a high sensitivity to change. At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Nelson Square Residential This area predominantly comprises a series of residential blocks (approximately eight storeys high) clustered around a central green open space, Nelson Square. A newly built commercial block has been constructed at the northern end of the character area. The area is bordered to the north by the railway line running east from Waterloo East railway station, to the east by the railway line running south from Blackfriars railway station, and to the west by Blackfriars Road. The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. Despite the character area being framed on three sides by busy roads and railways, the residential development is orientated so as to create a relatively tranquil core to the area, around Nelson Square. The area has moderate levels of tranquillity. The area is likely to be locally valued by residents within the character area, particularly with reference to the green outlook provided by Nelson Square.

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Due to the largely introspective nature of the development, moderate tranquillity and local value this character area has a medium sensitivity to change. At night the street lighting and light spill from residential properties provides a low lit setting. The sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is high. The Cut Mixed Use

11.4.99

11.4.100 This character area comprises mixed use development in the vicinity of The Cut, a major east-west route passing through the area. The character area also incorporates: a. Kings Bench Conservation Area b. Mitre Road and Ufford Street Conservation Area c. Lower Marsh Conservation Area. 11.4.101 The majority of the area is characterised by three storey residential terraces, orientated along narrow streets, although there are also larger residential blocks (up to approximately eight storeys), infrastructure uses including a bus depot, commercial premises clustered along The Cut and Baylis Road and leisure uses including the Old Vic Theatre (Grade II listed), Young Vic Theatre and National Theatre Studio (Grade II listed). The area is bound to the north by the railway line running east from Waterloo East railway station. The pattern of development is largely inward looking. 11.4.102 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. 11.4.103 Tranquillity within the area is limited by the lack of open spaces and vegetation, and high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity. 11.4.104 The area is likely to be locally valued by virtue of the facilities and amenities provided, particularly along The Cut. Most of the area is also valued at the Borough level by virtue of the Conservation Area designations and number of listed buildings. 11.4.105 Therefore, despite the heightened value of the majority of the area, the limited tranquillity and introspective pattern of development means this character area has a medium sensitivity to change. 11.4.106 At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Waterloo Commercial 11.4.107 This area is characterised by two 22 storey office towers set amongst lower buildings with commercial uses at the ground floor. The area is bordered to the west and north by London Waterloo and Waterloo East railway stations, and the railway line running to east London. 11.4.108 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally fairly poorly maintained. The overall townscape condition is poor.

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11.4.109 Tranquillity within the area is limited by the lack of open spaces and vegetation, high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity and the presence of the railway line to the north. 11.4.110 The area has limited townscape value by virtue of the poor condition of the public realm and the commercial land use. 11.4.111 Due to the poor condition and limited value of the area, this character area has a low sensitivity to change. 11.4.112 At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings including London Waterloo railway station, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. London Waterloo railway station 11.4.113 This area comprises the large London Waterloo railway station building and the commercial streets which surround the terminus. Waterloo Road to the east and York Road to the north are characterised by high levels of traffic. The station is an iconic London building, but the character of the area is entirely introspective. 11.4.114 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally fairly poorly maintained. The overall townscape condition is poor. 11.4.115 Tranquillity within the area is limited by the lack of open spaces and vegetation, high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity and the nature of the land use. 11.4.116 The area has limited townscape value by virtue of the poor condition of the public realm and the presence of transport infrastructure related land use. However, London Waterloo terminus is valued as one of Londons iconic buildings. 11.4.117 Due to the poor condition and limited value of the area, this character area has a low sensitivity to change. 11.4.118 At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings including London Waterloo railway station, providing a fairly brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. South Bank Conservation Area 11.4.119 This area predominantly comprises South Bank Conservation Area. The area is characterised by large areas of public realm along the river frontage, including Jubilee Gardens, designated as Metropolitan Open Land. The area is dominated by cultural, leisure and tourism related land uses, including Royal Festival Hall (Grade I listed) and the Royal National Theatre (Grade II listed). Building footprints are typically large, and there are a number of tall buildings, including the Shell Building, regarded as an important element of Londons skyline, set behind the London Eye. The townscape is dissected by Waterloo Bridge, a busy main road, and a railway line connecting Waterloo East with Charing Cross on the opposite side of the river. Further away from the river, there are some residential blocks within the character area. Development is typically orientated

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towards the river, and heavily influenced by the character of the river and the northern bank. 11.4.120 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. 11.4.121 Tranquillity within the area is limited by the high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity, the level of activity on the river and the frequency of trains passing through the area. 11.4.122 The character of this area, dominated by iconic buildings forming part of Londons skyline, is internationally valued, experienced by large numbers of people. 11.4.123 Due to the good condition and international value of the townscape, the area has a high sensitivity to change. 11.4.124 At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. There are also high levels of decorative lighting of facades, further contributing to the brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area 11.4.125 This area predominantly comprises Waterloo Conservation Area and Roupell Street Conservation Area. The area is characterised by 19th and 20th century residential terraces set amongst some larger estates up to four storeys high (including Peabody Estate and Stamford Street Estate). There are also commercial premises clustered around Waterloo Road and Stamford Street, and industrial units adjacent to the railway line to the south of the character area. The majority of open spaces within the area are private or semi-private, comprising residential back gardens and the grounds of the larger estates. In the south west of the area lies St Johns church, which is set within a public open park. The area is bordered to the south by the railway line connecting Waterloo East railway station with east London, and to the west by Waterloo Bridge and Road. The pattern of development means the character of this area is largely inward looking. 11.4.126 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. 11.4.127 Despite the presence of busy roads and railways on the periphery of this character area, there are moderate levels of tranquillity given the residential nature and the absence of excessive levels of traffic and pedestrian movement. 11.4.128 The area is valued at Borough level by virtue of the Conservation Area designations. 11.4.129 Therefore, despite the introspective nature of the development pattern, due to the good condition, moderate level of tranquillity and Borough level value of the townscape, the area has a high sensitivity to change. 11.4.130 At night the street lighting and light spill from residential properties provides a low lit setting. The sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is high.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Victoria Embankment Administrative

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11.4.131 This area is part of a wider area dominated by administrative and institutional uses along Victoria Embankment. Within the assessment area for Blackfriars Bridge, this character area comprises Savoy Conservation Area and Strand Conservation Area. The buildings in the area are characterised by a mix of building styles and periods, including buildings dating from the early 19th century, late Victorian, Edwardian and early 20th century periods. Along Kingsway and Aldwych buildings are typically around seven storeys high. Buildings fronting onto the Strand are typically between four and six storeys high. 11.4.132 The area is further characterised by the level change from the Strand to the river, created in part by the construction of Victoria Embankment. The area is dissected east-west by The Strand and Victoria Embankment, both heavily trafficked routes. Somerset House (Grade I listed) and the Royal Courts of Justice (Grade I listed) are key components of the areas character. Main vehicular and pedestrian routes throughout the area are characterised by mature tree planting, most notably the mature avenue of London planes along Victoria Embankment. 11.4.133 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. 11.4.134 Tranquillity within the area is limited by the high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity and the level of activity on the river. 11.4.135 The character area is located within a nationally significant historical and cultural stretch of the River Thames, experienced by large numbers of people. Although the character of the site is locally common within the assessment area, it is nationally valued as part of the wider character of the River Thames and London. 11.4.136 Due to the good condition, and national value of the townscape, the area has a high sensitivity to change. 11.4.137 At night the area is lit directly by street lighting and indirectly from buildings, providing a fairly brightly lit character. There are also high levels of decorative lighting of facades, further contributing to the brightly lit character. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. Temples Conservation Area 11.4.138 This area comprises Temples Conservation Area (designated by City of London). The area is characterised by the Inner and Middle Temple gardens (Grade II listed), which are enclosed to the north, east and west by large Victorian buildings, and bordered by Victoria Embankment and the River Thames to the south. The Temple gardens are the largest private green space in the City and provide a green setting to the surrounding buildings. Victoria Embankment in this location is characterised by a mature avenue of London plane trees, which continues further to the west. The majority of the public realm is characterised by high quality paving. The area is dominated by administrative and commercial uses.

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11.4.139 The buildings and public realm within the area are generally very well maintained. The overall townscape condition is good. 11.4.140 Tranquillity within the area is limited by the high levels of pedestrian and vehicular activity and the level of activity on the river. 11.4.141 The combination of green open space and high quality buildings is unique to the City of London and rare within the wider area. The character area is located within a nationally significant historical and cultural stretch of the River Thames, experienced by large numbers of people. The area is nationally valued as part of the wider character of the River Thames and London. 11.4.142 Due to the good condition, and national value of the townscape, the area has a high sensitivity to change. 11.4.143 At night the area is partially lit by street lighting and some light spill from buildings. However, the Temple Gardens, which dominate the overall character, remain largely unlit. Therefore, the sensitivity of this area to additional lighting is low. 11.4.144 The sensitivity to change of the townscape character areas is summarised in the table below. Vol 21 Table 11.4.3 Townscape character areas Townscape character area The main site The pier site River Thames Central London Reach River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach Whitefriars Conservation Area Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area City of London Mixed Use Tate Modern Southwark Mixed Use Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area Nelson Square Residential The Cut Mixed Use Waterloo Commercial London Waterloo Railway Station South Bank Conservation Area Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area Sensitivity High High High High High High High High High High High Medium Medium Low Low High High

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Townscape character area Victoria Embankment Administrative Temples Conservation Area

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Visual baseline
11.4.145 Vol 21 Figure 11.4.6 indicates the location of viewpoints reference below, including indicating the location of the London View Management Framework (LVMF) Linear Views that the site falls within. All Linear Views, residential and recreational receptors have a high sensitivity to change. Employment receptors have a low sensitivity to change. Appendix D contains illustrative winter photographs from selected viewpoints (the ES will include winter and summer photos for each character area and viewpoint). Vol 21 Figure 11.4.6 Townscape and visual viewpoint locations (see Volume 21 Figures document) London View Management Framework Linear Views Linear View 8A.1 Westminster Pier to St Pauls Cathedral 11.4.146 This linear view designated in the London View Management Framework (July 2007) passes through the eastern half of the site and has a high sensitivity to change. 11.4.147 The distant view towards St Pauls Cathedral is glimpsed between the London Eye and the Royal Festival Hall. The site is located below the frame of view, screened by intervening low height buildings and structures. Linear View 9A.1 King Henry VIIIs Mound, Richmond to St Pauls Cathedral 11.4.148 This linear view designated in the London View Management Framework (July 2007) passes through the site and has a high sensitivity to change. 11.4.149 The far distant view towards St Pauls Cathedral is framed by an avenue of trees in Richmond Park. The site is located below the frame of view, screened by intervening low height buildings and structures. Residential 11.4.150 Residential receptors have a high sensitivity to change, as attention is often focused on the townscape surrounding the property rather than on another focused activity (as would be the case in predominantly employment or industrial areas). The visual baseline in respect of residential receptors (represented by a series of viewpoints, agreed with consultees) is described below. Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank 11.4.151 This viewpoint is representative of the view from residential properties adjacent to the Thames Path on the South Bank of the River Thames. The view is characterised by a wide panorama over the river, dominated by the mature avenue of London plane trees along Victoria Embankment to the west, the historic Victorian and Edwardian building faades directly

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across the river and Blackfriars Bridge to the east. Blackfriars Millennium Pier forms a dominant component in the view towards the site. Otherwise, views of the site are unobstructed, particularly from upper storeys. Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank 11.4.152 This viewpoint is representative of the view from residential properties between Hopton Street and the South Bank Jubilee Walkway. The view is dominated by the Blackfriars rail corridor and Blackfriars Bridge to the west and a wide open panorama over the River Thames to the east. The background of the view is characterised by commercial buildings on the north bank of the river. Views towards the site are largely obstructed by the Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. The existing river wall and Blackfriars Millennium Pier at the site can be glimpsed through the bridge arches. Recreational 11.4.153 Recreational receptors (apart from those engaged in active sports) generally have a high sensitivity to change, as attention is focused on enjoyment of the townscape. Tourists engaged in activities whereby attention is focused on the surrounding townscape also have a high sensitivity to change. The visual baseline in respect of recreational receptors, including tourists, is discussed below. Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge 11.4.154 This viewpoint is recorded as a River Prospect in the LVMF (Blackfriars Bridge viewing location 14A.1) and is representative of the view pedestrians experience while crossing Blackfriars Bridge. The view is characterised by a linear view down the River Thames towards Waterloo Bridge in the background. To the south, the view is framed by the Sea Containers House, Oxo Tower and, in the distance, The London Eye and Shell Building (Grade II listed). To the north, the view is framed by the Victorian and Edwardian building faades directly behind the site, and the sweep of Victoria Embankment with the mature avenue of London plane trees. Blackfriars Millennium Pier forms a dominant component in the foreground of the view. Views of the site are unobstructed from this location. Viewpoint 2.2: View west from the Millennium Bridge 11.4.155 This viewpoint is in the same location as a River Prospect in the LVMF (Millennium Bridge viewing location 13A.1), although the focus of the designated view is St Pauls Cathedral. The viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians walking across the Millennium Bridge. The view is dominated by Blackfriars railway bridge to the west, framed by Tate Modern art gallery to the south and commercial premises to the north. The existing river wall and Millennium Pier at the site can be intermittently glimpsed through the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge

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Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern 11.4.156 This viewpoint is representative of the view for recreational users of South Bank Jubilee Walkway in front of Tate Modern art gallery. The view is characterised by a wide panorama of the River Thames, foreshortened by Blackfriars railway bridge to the west of the view. The background of the view is characterised by commercial buildings on the north bank of the river. The view towards the site is largely obstructed by the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge, although the view of the proposed pier relocation would be unobstructed. Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House 11.4.157 This viewpoint is representative of the view for recreational users of South Bank Jubilee Walkway in front of Sea Container House. The view is characterised by a wide panorama of the River Thames, foreshortened by Blackfriars Bridge to the east of the view. The view is dominated by the Victorian and Edwardian building faades behind the site. Further to the west, the view is characterised by the mature avenue of London plane trees along Victoria Embankment. Blackfriars Millennium Pier forms a dominant component in the foreground of the view. Views of the site are unobstructed from this location. Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens 11.4.158 This viewpoint is representative of the view for recreational users of Gabriels Wharf Gardens on the South Bank of the river. The view is characterised by mature tree planting within the open space, filtering views towards the river and the northern bank. Views through to the river are characterised by the mature avenue of London plane trees along Victoria Embankment, permanent moorings and Blackfriars Millennium Pier, set in front of the Victorian and Edwardian building faades. Views towards the site are largely filtered by the mature tree planting within Gabriels Wharf Gardens. Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform 11.4.159 This viewpoint is recorded as a River Prospect in the LVMF (The South Bank: Gabriels Wharf viewing platform, viewing location 16B.2). This viewpoint is representative of the view for recreational users of Gabriels Wharf viewing platform along the South Bank Jubilee Walkway. The view is characterised by a wide panorama of the River Thames, from Waterloo Bridge in the west to Blackfriars Bridge in the east. The view is dominated by the character of the northern bank, defined by the mature avenue of London plane trees along Victoria Embankment to the west and the Victorian and Edwardian building faades to the east. Blackfriars Millennium Pier forms a dominant component in the middle ground of the view. St Pauls Cathedral forms the dominant component of the background of the view. Views of the site are unobstructed from this location.

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Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge 11.4.160 This viewpoint is recorded as a River Prospect in the LVMF (Waterloo Bridge: downstream, viewing location 15B.2). This viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians crossing Waterloo Bridge. The view is characterised by a linear view down the river towards Blackfriars Bridge to the east. The view is framed to the south by the Royal Festival Hall, Oxo Tower and Tate Modern art gallery in the background, and to the north by Somerset House and the avenue of mature London plane trees lining Victoria Embankment. Views of the site are largely unobstructed from this location, aside from permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge 11.4.161 This viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians crossing Waterloo Bridge, towards the northern end of the bridge. The view is characterised by a linear view down the river towards Blackfriars Bridge to the east. The view is framed to the south by the Royal Festival Hall, Oxo Tower and Tate Modern art gallery in the background, and to the north by Somerset House and the avenue of mature London plane trees lining Victoria Embankment. Views of the site are largely unobstructed from this location, aside from permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace 11.4.162 This viewpoint is recorded as a Local View in the City of Westminsters UDP. This viewpoint is representative of the view for recreational users of the terrace in front of Somerset House. The view is dominated by the avenue of mature London plane trees along Victoria Embankment, which largely obscures views towards the site. Blackfriars Bridge and Tate Modern art gallery are visible in the background of the view. Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place 11.4.163 This viewpoint is recorded as a Local View in the City of Westminsters UDP. This viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians using the Thames Path along Victoria Embankment. The view is focused along Victoria Embankment, characterised by the road and avenue of mature London plane trees along its length. Landmarks on the opposite bank of the river (including the Oxo Tower and Sea Containers House) and Blackfriars Bridge form the background to the view, partially screened by the mature tree cover and permanent moorings along the river. The site is partially visible through this tree cover. Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane 11.4.164 This viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians using the Thames Path along Victoria Embankment. The view is focused along Victoria Embankment, characterised by the road and avenue of mature London plane trees along its length. Landmarks on the opposite bank of the river (including the Oxo Tower and Sea Containers House) and Blackfriars Bridge form the background to the view, partially screened by

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the mature tree cover and permanent moorings along the river. The site is partially visible through this tree cover. Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Garden 11.4.165 This viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians using the Thames Path along Victoria Embankment. The view is focused along Victoria Embankment, characterised by the road and avenue of mature London plane trees along its length. Landmarks on the opposite bank of the river (including the Oxo Tower and Sea Containers House) and Blackfriars Bridge form the background to the view, partially screened by the mature tree cover and permanent moorings along the river. The site is partially visible through this tree cover. Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Garden 11.4.166 This viewpoint is recorded as a Local View in the City of Londons UDP. This viewpoint is representative of the view for recreational users of Inner Temple Gardens. The view is dominated by mature tree planting within the gardens, which filters views towards Victoria Embankment, the river and the site. Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street 11.4.167 This viewpoint is representative of the view for pedestrians at the junction of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street. The view is a linear view down Carmelite Street which slopes down towards the River Thames. The view is enclosed by commercial buildings along both sides of Carmelite Street. The background of the view is dominated by Sea Containers House on the opposite bank of the river, immediately behind the site. Employment and other institutions 11.4.168 People at work are the least sensitive receptors, as their attention is likely to be focused on their work activity. These receptors have a low sensitivity to change. Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment 11.4.169 This viewpoint is representative of the view for people working in the offices along Victoria Embankment immediately north of the site. The view is dominated by Blackfriars Bridge to the east and a clear panorama of the river to the west. The background of the view is dominated by landmark buildings including the Oxo Tower and Sea Containers House. Views of the site are largely unobstructed from this location, aside from vehicles along Victoria Embankment and the ramp connecting Victoria Embankment and Blackfriars Bridge. 11.4.170 The sensitivity to change of the viewpoints is summarised in the table below.

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Vol 21 Table 11.4.4 Visual viewpoints Viewpoint Residential Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank High Sensitivity

Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along High Hopton Street on the opposite river bank Recreational Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge Viewpoint 2.2: View west from Millennium Bridge Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge Viewpoint 2.8: View east from northern end of Waterloo Bridge Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street Employment and other institutions Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment Low High High High High High High High High High High High High High

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11.5
11.5.1

Construction assessment
Any effects during the construction phase would be temporary, although medium term due to the scale and necessary phasing of the proposed development. However, the proposed phasing of the development would result in intense periods of activity within relatively quieter phases.

Construction phase site assessment


11.5.2 Direct effects on the townscape of the main site would arise from partial removal of the river wall, removal of lamp standards, erection of site hoardings, relocation of the Millennium Pier and construction activity associated with the construction of the cofferdam, piled deck, shaft and ventilation equipment, and secondary lining of the tunnel. The effects on specific components of the main site are described below: Vol 21 Table 11.5.1 Townscape site component effects - construction ID 01 Component Blackfriars Millennium Pier Grade II listed river wall Effects During construction, the pier would be relocated to the east of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge To facilitate access onto the site from Victoria Embankment, the upstand of the river wall (above pavement level) would require removal. In addition, the temporary cofferdam forming the site would be keyed into the existing structure to ensure the resilience of the defences is retained during the works. To facilitate access onto the site from Victoria Embankment, the upstand of the river wall (above pavement level) would require removal. In addition, the temporary cofferdam forming the site would be keyed into the existing structure to ensure the resilience of the defences is retained during the works. 13 lamp standards would require removal and careful storage during construction. Of the lamps on the listed section of the wall three would be removed during construction and two reinstated at the end of the construction phase. Existing trees towards the edge of the site would be protected in line with BS5837 Trees in relation to construction Recommendations (to be confirmed following the completion of a tree survey). One mature London Plan tree at the west of the site will require removal to facilitate construction. During construction, the Thames Path would be

02

03

Reconstructed river wall

04

Lamp standards

05

Mature trees

06

Thames Path

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Section 11: Townscape and visual diverted to the opposite side of Victoria Embankment. The existing paving would be removed for the duration of construction.

11.5.3

T h 07 e

HMS President

The ship would be relocated one pier down west of the site.

The magnitude of change to the main site during the construction period is considered to be high due to the clearance required to form the construction site, including formation of the cofferdam in the river, and the level of activity during construction. 11.5.4 Although the existing main site has low levels of tranquillity, the magnitude of change to tranquillity here is considered to be high due to introduction of construction vehicles, plant equipment and high levels of activity in the river corridor. The high magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the main site to change, means the effect of the proposed construction activity on the townscape resource of the site would be of major adverse significance. Direct effects on the townscape of the pier site would arise from removal of lamp standards, erection of site hoardings and construction activity associated with the relocation of the pier. The magnitude of change to the pier site during the construction period is judged to be low due to the relatively low level of construction involved. The existing pier site has low levels of tranquillity, and the magnitude of change to tranquillity here is judged to be low arising from the construction activities. The low magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the site to change, means the effect of the proposed construction activity on the townscape resource of the pier site would be of minor adverse significance. Construction phase townscape assessment River Thames Central London Reach 11.5.10 The proposed site is within this reach of the river, introducing high levels of construction activity within a part of the river currently only affected by the Blackfriars Millennium Pier. The construction activity would be set in front of the existing faades of Victorian and Edwardian buildings, adversely affecting the strong linear stretch of the river defined by Victoria Embankment along the northern bank. Between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, the reach would become dominated by construction activity associated with the site, including river based transport. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be high. Although the area has low levels of tranquillity at present, the introduction of construction activity, including piling, demolition and river based deliveries and exports means the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be high.

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Given the high magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on the River Thames Central London Reach would be of major adverse significance. River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach

11.5.13

The proposed site is approximately 750m east of this reach of the river, separated by Waterloo Bridge. Construction activity would take place within the wider setting of this character area, largely screened by the presence of Waterloo Bridge and set against the context of the ongoing nature of construction activities along this stretch of the river, including at present the redevelopment of Blackfriars Station. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. The area has low levels of tranquillity at present, which would be largely unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The low magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the effect of the proposed construction activity on the River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach would be of minor adverse significance. Whitefriars Conservation Area The proposed site is set directly south of this character area, segregating the area from the River Thames. The setting of premises (Grade II listed) fronting Victoria Embankment would be affected by the presence of construction activity, traffic and cranes, particularly towards the western end of the character area, close to the proposed shaft location. The setting of the character area would be dominated by construction hoardings and intermittent construction traffic, rather than the existing open setting across the river. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be high. Although the area has low levels of tranquillity at present, the introduction of construction activity, including piling, demolition and road and river based deliveries and exports means the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be high. Given the high magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on Whitefriars Conservation Area would be of major adverse significance. Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction traffic. Construction activity is not likely to alter the setting of the area significantly. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible.

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The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which is likely to be largely unchanged due to the careful routing of construction traffic. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area. St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area The proposed site forms part of the local setting of this character area, beyond the generally low rise built form between the river and St Pauls Cathedral. Construction activity would affect the riverward setting of the character area, approximately 400m south west of St Pauls Cathedral. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be medium. The low levels of tranquillity in the character area at present would be largely unaffected by construction activities at the site, particularly when set against the wider levels of construction and activity in the local area. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. Given the medium magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area would be of moderate adverse significance. City of London Mixed Use The proposed site forms part of the riverside setting of this character area. Construction activity would affect the riverward setting of the character area, although the main construction site would be screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. The majority of the areas setting would remain largely unchanged, aside from construction activities associated with the relocation of Millennium Pier. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be medium. Although the area has low levels of tranquillity at present, the introduction of construction activity, including piling, demolition and road and river based deliveries and exports through and in close proximity to the area, means the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be medium. Given the medium magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on City of London Mixed Use would be of moderate adverse significance. Tate Modern The proposed site forms part of the wider riverside setting of this character area. Construction activity would affect the riverward setting of the character area, although the main construction site would be screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. The majority of the areas setting would remain largely unchanged, aside from construction

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activities associated with the relocation of Millennium Pier. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. 11.5.29 The low levels of tranquillity in the character area at present would be largely unaffected by construction activities at the site, particularly when set against the wider levels of construction and activity in the local area. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. Given the low magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on Tate Modern would be of minor adverse significance. Southwark Mixed Use 11.5.31 The proposed site forms a direct part of the riverside setting of this character area, despite the area being largely introspective. Construction activity would affect the riverward setting of this character area. Construction associated with the relocation of Millennium Pier would also affect the setting to the west of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be medium. The low levels of tranquillity in the character area at present would be largely unaffected by construction activities at the site, particularly when set against the wider levels of construction and activity in the local area. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. Given the medium magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on Southwark Mixed Use would be of moderate adverse significance. Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area 11.5.34 The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction activity. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which would be unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area. Nelson Square Residential 11.5.37 The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction activity. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible.

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The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which would be unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the medium sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on Nelson Square Residential. The Cut Mixed Use The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction activity. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which would be unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the medium sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on The Cut Mixed Use. Waterloo Commercial The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction activity. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which would be unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change and low sensitivity of this character area means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on Waterloo Commercial. London Waterloo Railway Station The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction activity. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which would be unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change and low sensitivity of this character area means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on London Waterloo Railway Station.

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The proposed site forms part of the riverside setting of this character area. Construction activity would affect the riverward setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be medium. The low levels of tranquillity in the character area at present would be largely unaffected by construction activities at the site. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. Given the medium magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on South Bank Conservation Area would be of moderate adverse significance. Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area The proposed site does not form part of the setting for this character area, which is largely introspective and unlikely to be indirectly affected by construction activity. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The area has moderate levels of tranquillity at present, which would be unchanged. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed construction activity would give rise to a negligible effect on Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area. Victoria Embankment Administrative The proposed site forms part of the wider riverside setting of this character area. Construction activity would affect a small proportion of the riverward setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. The low levels of tranquillity in the character area at present would be largely unaffected by construction activities at the site. Therefore, the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be negligible. Given the low magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on Victoria Embankment Administrative would be of minor adverse significance. Temples Conservation Area The proposed site forms part of the immediate riverside setting of this character area. Construction activity would affect the riverward setting of this character area. The presence of site hoardings and road based construction traffic would also affect the immediate setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be high. Although the area has low levels of tranquillity at present, the introduction of construction activity, including piling, demolition and road and river

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based deliveries and exports means the magnitude of change to tranquillity is considered to be high. 11.5.60 Given the high magnitude of change and the high sensitivity of this character area to a change in setting, the effect of the proposed construction activity on Temples Conservation Area would be of major adverse significance. The assessment of townscape effects during construction is summarised in the table below. Vol 21 Table 11.5.2 Visual effects - construction Townscape character area The main site The pier site River Thames Central London Reach River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach Whitefriars Conservation Area Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area City of London Mixed Use Tate Modern Southwark Mixed Use Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area Nelson Square Residential The Cut Mixed Use Waterloo Commercial London Waterloo Railway Station South Bank Conservation Area Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area Victoria Embankment Administrative Sensitivity Magnitude Effect High High High High High Low High Low Major adverse Minor adverse Major adverse Minor adverse

11.5.61

High High High High High High High Medium Medium Low Low High High High

High Negligible Medium Medium Low Medium Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Medium Negligible Low

Major adverse Negligible Moderate adverse Moderate adverse Minor adverse Moderate adverse Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Moderate adverse Negligible Minor adverse

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Section 11: Townscape and visual Sensitivity Magnitude Effect High High High High Major adverse Major adverse

Construction phase townscape assessment night time effects 11.5.62 There are likely to be limited effects on night time character due to the proposed limit of 12 hour working at the site, with occasional extended standard working hours to facilitate construction of the diaphragm walls. However, this would mean that there would be some lighting of the site in the early morning and evening during winter. Effects on night time character will be further defined in the ES. Construction phase visual assessment London View Management Framework Linear Views Linear View 8A.1 Westminster Pier to St Pauls Cathedral 11.5.63 During construction, cranes at the site would be outside of the linear viewing corridor. Other construction activity at the site would be obscured by the intervening low height buildings and structures. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this Linear View is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the proposed construction phase would give rise to a negligible effect on this Linear View. Linear View 9A.1 King Henry VIIIs Mound, Richmond to St Pauls Cathedral 11.5.65 During construction, cranes at the site would be intermittently visible in the background of the view, set partially in front of St Pauls Cathedral. Other construction activity at the site would be obscured by the intervening low height buildings and structures. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this Linear View is considered to be low. The low magnitude of change, assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of minor adverse significance. Residential Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank 11.5.67 Views from residences towards the site would be affected during construction. Views from ground level would be characterised by the cofferdam forming the site encroaching into the river, hoardings, the piling rig, crane and other construction plant, and river transport associated with the export of material. During construction, views of the Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment would be partially screened. From higher levels, there would be direct views of construction activity within the site working boundary. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view across the river.

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The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance. Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank

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Views from residences towards the site would be affected during construction. Works associated with the relocation of the Millennium Pier would be highly visible on the opposite river bank. The main site working area, cranes, piling rig and other construction plant would be intermittently visible through the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. River transport associated with the export of material would also be visible. The magnitude of change on this view would be medium due to the visibility of construction activity, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge which would obstruct views of parts of the site. The medium magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of moderate adverse significance. Recreational Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge

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Views from this location would be affected during construction. Due to the elevated location of the viewpoint on Blackfriars Bridge, construction activity within the site would be clearly visible beyond the hoardings at the site boundary. Construction plant, including the crane and piling rig, would partially obscure views to the Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment, and would be visible in the linear view along the river towards Waterloo Bridge. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view up the river and of Victoria Embankment. The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.2: View west from the Millennium Bridge Views from this location towards the site would be affected during construction. Works associated with the relocation of the Millennium Pier would be highly visible on the north bank of the river. The main site working area, cranes, piling rig and other construction plant would be intermittently visible through the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. River transport associated with the export of material would also be visible. The magnitude of change on this view would be medium due to the visibility of construction activity, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge which would obstruct views of parts of the site. The medium magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of moderate adverse significance.

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Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern 11.5.75 Views from this location towards the site would be affected during construction. Works associated with the relocation of the Millennium Pier would be highly visible on the north bank of the river. The main site working area, cranes, piling rig and other construction plant would be intermittently visible through the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. River transport associated with the export of material would also be visible. The magnitude of change on this view would be medium due to the visibility of construction activity, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge which would obstruct views of parts of the site. The medium magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of moderate adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House 11.5.77 Views from this location would be affected during construction. Views would be characterised by the cofferdam forming the site encroaching into the river, hoardings, the piling rig, crane and other construction plant, and river transport associated with the export of material. During construction, views of the Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment would be partially screened. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view across the river. The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens 11.5.79 Views from this location would be partially affected during construction. The view of the construction site would be partially filtered by mature trees within Gabriels Wharf Gardens and also partially blocked by the Oxo Tower. Works associated with the construction, including the site cofferdam, crane, piling rig, other construction plant and river transport, would form a component of the background of the view. The magnitude of change on this view would be low, due to the visibility of construction activity being largely screened by foreground vegetation and buildings. The low magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform 11.5.81 Views from this location would be affected during construction. Views would be characterised by the cofferdam forming the site encroaching into the river, hoardings, the piling rig, crane and other construction plant, and river transport associated with the export of material. During construction, views of the Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria

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Embankment would be partially screened. Views towards St Pauls Cathedral, the focus of the viewpoint, would also be intermittently blocked by crane activity during construction. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view across the river and towards St Pauls Cathedral. 11.5.82 The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge 11.5.83 Views from this location would be affected during construction. Views down the river would be characterised by the cofferdam forming the site encroaching into the river, hoardings, the piling rig, crane and other construction plant, and river transport associated with the export of material. During construction, views of the Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment would be partially screened. Views towards St Pauls Cathedral, the focus of the viewpoint, would also be intermittently blocked by the crane during construction. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view across the river and towards St Pauls Cathedral. The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge 11.5.85 Views from this location would be affected during construction. Views down the river would be characterised by the cofferdam forming the site encroaching into the river, hoardings, the piling rig, crane and other construction plant, and river transport associated with the export of material. Views towards St Pauls Cathedral, the focus of the viewpoint, would also be intermittently blocked by the crane during construction. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view across the river and towards St Pauls Cathedral. The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace 11.5.87 Views from this location down the river would be partially affected during construction. Construction activity (including the crane, piling rig and river transport) and the site cofferdam would be visible as an element of the middle ground of the view, set in front of Blackfriars Bridge. The view of the site would be partially filtered by the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. Most of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered, apart

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from the presence of construction phase river transport. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be low. 11.5.88 The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place 11.5.89 Views from this location down the river would be partially affected during construction. Construction activity (including the crane, piling rig and river transport) and the site cofferdam would be visible as an element of the middle ground of the view, set in front of Blackfriars Bridge. The view of the site would be partially filtered by the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. The majority of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered, apart from the presence of construction phase river transport. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane 11.5.91 Views from this location down the river would be partially affected during construction. Construction activity (including the crane, piling rig and river transport) and the site cofferdam would be visible as an element of the middle ground of the view, set in front of Blackfriars Bridge. The view of the site would be partially filtered by the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. The majority of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered, apart from the presence of construction phase river transport. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens 11.5.93 Views from this location would be affected during construction. The site hoardings, road and river based transport, the crane and other construction plant would form a dominant component of the foreground of the view. Although the panoramic view across the river from this location would only be partially affected, views along Victoria Embankment (which are the most likely to be experienced by pedestrians walking along the path) would become dominated by construction activity at the site. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be high. The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of major adverse significance.

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Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens 11.5.95 Views from this location would be partially affected during construction. The view of the construction site would be partially filtered by mature trees within the Inner Temple Gardens and also partially blocked by buildings to the east of the open space. Works associated with the construction, including the site cofferdam, crane, piling rig, other construction plant and river transport, would form a component of the middle ground of the view. The magnitude of change on this view would be low, due to the visibility of construction activity being largely screened by foreground vegetation and buildings. The low magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street 11.5.97 Views from this location down to the River Thames would be affected during construction by site hoardings and intermittently by construction activity including the crane, piling rig, other construction plant and road based construction traffic. Site hoardings would largely obscure the visibility of the river (which is the key focus of the view) and partially obscure views to the southern bank. However, the foreground of the view would remain unaltered. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this view would be medium. The medium magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of moderate adverse significance. Employment and other institutions Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment 11.5.99 Views for workers towards the site from this location would be affected during construction. Views from ground level would be dominated by the site hoardings, the piling rig, crane and other construction plant, and road based transport. During construction, views of the river, Blackfriars Bridge and the opposite river bank would be partially obscured. From higher levels, there would be direct views of construction activity within the site working boundary. The magnitude of change on this view would be high due to the visibility of construction activity and the change to the existing valued view across the river.

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11.5.100 The high magnitude of change assessed alongside the low sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed construction phase would be of moderate adverse significance. 11.5.101 The assessment of visual effects during construction is summarised in the table below.

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Vol 21 Table 11.5.3 Visual effects - construction Viewpoint Designated Views London View Management Linear View 8A.1 London View Management Linear View 9A.1 Residential Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank Recreational Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge Viewpoint 2.2: View west from Millennium Bridge Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place High High High High Medium Medium Major adverse Moderate adverse Moderate adverse Major adverse High High Major adverse High High Negligible Low Negligible Minor adverse Sensitivity Magnitude Effect

High

Medium

Moderate adverse

High

High

High High

Low High

Minor adverse Major adverse

High High

High High

Major adverse Major adverse

High High

Low Low

Minor adverse Minor adverse

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Viewpoint Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens

Section 11: Townscape and visual Sensitivity Magnitude Effect High Low Minor adverse

High

High

Major adverse

High

Low Medium

Minor adverse Moderate adverse

Viewpoint 2.14: View south from High the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street Employment and other institutions Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment Low

High

Moderate adverse

11.6
11.6.1 11.6.2

Operational assessment Operational assessment results Year 1 of operation


The operational assessment below describes effects during daylight hours. The operational project would have little activity associated with it, aside from infrequent maintenance visits. Therefore, for all townscape character areas it is considered that the proposed development would have a negligible effect on tranquillity. Operational effects on the site and surrounding character areas are discussed further below. Operational phase site assessment Year 1 of operation The proposed development would have a direct and permanent effect on the townscape resource of the main site. The permanent works layout would result in a new linear public realm along Victoria Embankment protruding into the river by up to 32m. The above ground structures, including the ventilation column and electrical kiosk, would introduce built elements into an area currently devoid of structures, aside from the Blackfriars Millennium Pier. The land based area of the construction site would be returned to its original condition at completion. It is likely that the works would result in an improvement to the public realm underneath Blackfriars Bridge. The effects on specific components of the site are described below. Vol 21 Table 11.6.1 Townscape and visual site effects (Year 1 operation) ID 01 Component Blackfriars Effects The pier would be permanently relocated in the

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge ID Component Millennium Pier Grade II listed river wall

Section 11: Townscape and visual Effects position adopted during construction, east of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. Sections of the listed river wall below ground level would be preserved behind the new flood defences. The majority of the upstand above flood defence level would be restored after construction, aside from stretches to facilitate vehicular access onto the foreshore structure and to allow interception of the low level sewer underneath Victoria Embankment. It is anticipated that material not reinstated would be used in the design of the new public realm or river wall. Sections of the reconstructed river wall below ground level would be preserved behind the new flood defences. The majority of the upstand above flood defence level would be restored after construction, aside from stretches to facilitate vehicular access onto the foreshore structure and to allow interception of the low level sewer underneath Victoria Embankment. It is anticipated that material not reinstated would be used in the design of the new public realm or river wall. Of the three lamps on the listed section of the wall removed during construction, two would be reinstated at the end of the construction phase. All trees within the site would be retained, with the exception of one tree to be removed at the western edge of the site The Thames Path would be reinstated to the riverside location and resurfaced as part of the wider enhancement to the public realm. The ship would be located back in her original position.

02

03

Reconstructed river wall

04

Lamp standards

05

Mature trees

06

Thames Path

07 11.6.4

HMS President

The magnitude of change and significance of effect on the main site would be dependent on the design and finish of the public realm, river wall and above ground structures. The magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. The proposed development would have a direct and permanent effect on the townscape resource of the pier site. The permanent works layout would result in a new pier. The new structures, including new area of hardstanding, a pedestrian ramp, and a floating pontoon would introduce

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built elements into an area currently devoid of structures. The land based area of the construction site would be returned to its original condition at completion. It is likely that the works would result in an improvement to the public realm. 11.6.7 The magnitude of change is likely to be low. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Operational phase townscape assessment Year 1 of operation River Thames Central London Reach 11.6.8 The proposed development would result in the strong link this reach of the river has with Victoria Embankment being eroded slightly, through the introduction of a large scale feature extending into the river. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach 11.6.10 The proposed development would result in changes to the wider riverward setting of this character area, due to the permanent encroachment resulting from the shaft construction and interception works. The proposed works in front of the existing river wall, and introduction of built elements in the currently undeveloped river channel would give rise to adverse effects on the setting of this character area. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from negligible to low. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible to minor adverse effect on the River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach. Whitefriars Conservation Area 11.6.12 The proposed development would result in this character area being further segregated from the River Thames by virtue of the permanent encroachment resulting from the shaft construction and interception works. This would particularly affect the setting of Grade II listed premises fronting onto Victoria Embankment. The magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area 11.6.14 The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible.

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The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area. St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area Due to the low height of the proposed above ground structures, the proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area. City of London Mixed Use The proposed development would result in relatively small changes to the riverward character of this area, through the introduction of new built elements and public realm, including the relocated Millennium Pier. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from negligible to low. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible to minor adverse effect on City of London Mixed Use. Tate Modern The proposed development would result in relatively small changes to the riverward character of this area, namely through the relocation of the Millennium Pier. The wider setting would be slightly affected by the permanent foreshore structure housing the shaft and interception works. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. The low magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the effect of the proposed development on Tate Modern would be of minor adverse significance. Southwark Mixed Use The proposed development would result in changes to the wider riverward setting of this character area, due to the permanent encroachment resulting from the shaft construction and interception works. The proposed works in front of the existing river wall, and introduction of built elements in the currently undeveloped river channel would give rise to adverse effects on the setting of this character area. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible.

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The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area. Nelson Square Residential The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the medium sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on Nelson Square Residential. The Cut Mixed Use The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the medium sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on The Cut Mixed Use. Waterloo Commercial The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the low sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on Waterloo Commercial. London Waterloo Railway Station The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the low sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on London Waterloo Railway Station. South Bank Conservation Area The proposed development would result in changes to the wider riverward setting of this character area, due to the permanent encroachment resulting from the shaft construction and interception works. The proposed works in front of the existing river wall, and introduction of built elements in the currently undeveloped river channel would give rise to adverse effects on the setting of this character area. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance.

11.6.26 11.6.27

11.6.28 11.6.29

11.6.30 11.6.31

11.6.32 11.6.33

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Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area 11.6.36 11.6.37 The proposed development is not likely to alter the setting of this character area. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of this character area, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area. Victoria Embankment Administrative 11.6.38 The proposed development would result in changes to the wider riverward setting of this character area, due to the permanent encroachment resulting from the shaft construction and interception works. The proposed works in front of the existing river wall, and introduction of built elements in the currently undeveloped river channel would give rise to adverse effects on the setting of this character area. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Temples Conservation Area 11.6.40 The proposed development would result in this character area being further segregated from the River Thames by virtue of the permanent encroachment resulting from the shaft construction and interception works. This would particularly affect the setting of Grade II listed premises fronting onto Victoria Embankment. Depending on the final design of the project (particularly the river wall), the magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the character area means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. The assessment of townscape effects during Year 1 of operation is summarised in the table below. Vol 21 Table 11.6.2 Townscape effects operation, Year 1 Townscape character area The main site The pier site River Thames Central London Reach River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach Whitefriars Conservation Area Sensitivity Magnitude Effect High High High High Low to medium Low Low to medium Negligible to low Low to Minor to moderate adverse Minor adverse Minor to moderate adverse Negligible to minor adverse Minor to

11.6.39

11.6.41

11.6.42

High

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Townscape character area Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area City of London Mixed Use Tate Modern Southwark Mixed Use Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area Nelson Square Residential The Cut Mixed Use Waterloo Commercial London Waterloo Railway Station South Bank Conservation Area Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area Victoria Embankment Administrative Temples Conservation Area

Section 11: Townscape and visual Sensitivity Magnitude Effect medium High High High High High High Medium Medium Low Low High High High High Negligible Negligible Negligible to low Low Low to medium Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Low to medium Negligible Low to medium Low to medium moderate adverse Negligible Negligible Negligible to minor adverse Minor adverse Minor to moderate adverse Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Minor to moderate adverse Negligible Minor to moderate adverse Minor to moderate adverse

Operational phase townscape assessment Year 1 of operation night time effects 11.6.43 It is likely that the operational project would have no substantial lighting requirements over and above street lighting which would be in keeping with the existing townscape. Therefore, for all townscape character areas it is considered that the proposed development would have a negligible effect on night time character. Operational phase visual assessment Year 1 of operation London View Management Framework Linear Views Linear View 8A.1 Westminster Pier to St Pauls Cathedral 11.6.44 The above ground structures at the site are low in height and would therefore be obscured by the intervening buildings and infrastructure. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this Linear View is considered to be negligible.

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The negligible magnitude of change, assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on this Linear View. Linear View 9A.1 King Henry VIIIs Mound, Richmond to St Pauls Cathedral

11.6.46

The above ground structures at the site are low in height and would therefore be obscured by the intervening buildings and infrastructure. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this Linear View is considered to be negligible. The negligible magnitude of change, assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the proposed development would give rise to a negligible effect on this Linear View. Residential Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank

11.6.47

11.6.48

Views from residences towards the site would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would form indistinct components of the view in front of the existing Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment. Depending on the design, the new river wall would be likely to be the most visible component of the final design of the site. The magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank

11.6.49

11.6.50

Views from residences towards the site would be largely obscured by the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge, although the new river wall and above ground structures would be intermittently visible. The relocated Millennium Pier would be visible as a fairly indistinct component of the wider river view, and one that is congruous with river use. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Recreational Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge

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11.6.52

Views from this location would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would be likely to form dominant components in the frame of view, set in front of Victoria Embankment. Due to the elevated position of the viewpoint, above the level of the site, the design of the public realm would be likely to form the most visible component of the site.

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The magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.2: View west from the Millennium Bridge Views from this location would be largely obscured by the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge, although the new river wall and above ground structures would be intermittently visible. The relocated Millennium Pier would be visible as a fairly indistinct component of the wider river view, and one that is congruous with river use. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern

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11.6.56

Views from this location would be largely obscured by the arches of Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge, although the new river wall and above ground structures would be intermittently visible. The relocated Millennium Pier would be visible as a fairly indistinct component of the wider river view, and one that is congruous with river use. Therefore, the magnitude of change is considered to be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House

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11.6.58

Views from this location would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would be likely to form fairly indistinct components of the view in front of the existing Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment. Depending on the design the new river wall would be likely to be the most visible component of the final design of the site. The magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens Views from this location would be filtered by mature trees within Gabriels Wharf Gardens and also partially blocked by the Oxo Tower. The new river wall and above ground structures would form fairly indistinct components in the background of the view. The magnitude of change on this view would be low, due to the visibility of the site being largely screened by foreground vegetation and buildings.

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The low magnitude of change, when assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform Views from this location would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would be likely to form fairly indistinct components of the view in front of the existing Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment. Depending on the design, the new river wall would be likely to be the most visible component of the final design of the site. The magnitude of change is likely to range from low to medium. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the effect of the proposed development would be of minor to moderate adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge Views from this location would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would be likely to form fairly indistinct components of the view in front of the existing Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment. Depending on the design, the new river wall would be likely to be the most visible component of the final design of the site. The magnitude of change is likely to range from negligible to low. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the proposed development would give rise to negligible to minor adverse effects on this viewpoint. Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge Views from this location would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would be likely to form fairly indistinct components of the view down the river, partially filtered by permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. Depending on the design, the new river wall would be likely to be the most visible component of the final design of the site. The magnitude of change is likely to range from negligible to low. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the proposed development would give rise to negligible to minor adverse effects on this viewpoint. Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace Views from this location would be partially filtered by the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. The majority of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered. The new river wall and above ground structures would form a fairly indistinct component of the wider river view, beyond the trees and moorings. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be low.

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The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place

11.6.70

Views from this location would be partially filtered by the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. The majority of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered. The new river wall and above ground structures would form a fairly indistinct component of the wider river view, beyond the trees and moorings. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane

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11.6.72

Views from this location would be partially filtered by the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. The majority of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered. The new river wall and above ground structures would form a fairly indistinct component of the wider river view, beyond the trees and moorings. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be low. The low magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens

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11.6.74

Views from this location would be affected by the design of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm. The new structures would be likely to form fairly indistinct components of the view in front of the existing Victorian and Edwardian building faades along Victoria Embankment. Depending on the design, the new river wall would be likely to be the most visible component of the final design of the site. The magnitude of change is likely to range from negligible to low. Assessing this alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the proposed development would give rise to negligible to minor adverse effects on this viewpoint. Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens Views from this location would be almost entirely obscured by mature trees within the Inner Temple Gardens and buildings to the east of the open space. the avenue of mature London plane trees and permanent moorings along Victoria Embankment. The majority of the view of the river and opposite river bank would be largely unaltered. The new river wall

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and above ground structures would form a fairly indistinct component of the eastern extent of the river view. The magnitude of change on this view would therefore be negligible. 11.6.77 The negligible magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor, means the proposed development would give rise to negligible effects on this viewpoint. Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street 11.6.78 Views from this location down to the River Thames would be affected by the permanent encroachment into the river created by the siting of shaft and interception works. The restoration of components characteristic of the existing view, including the river wall and listed lamp standards would partially minimise the change to the visual resource. The river would remain visible beyond the encroachment, potentially partially blocked by above ground structures. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this view would be medium. The medium magnitude of change assessed alongside the high sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of moderate adverse significance. Employment and other institutions Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment 11.6.80 Views for workers towards the site from this location would be affected by the permanent encroachment into the river created by the siting of the shaft and interception works. Views from ground level would be partially unchanged by the restoration of components characteristic of the existing view, including the river wall and listed lamp standards. The river would remain visible beyond the encroachment, although partially blocked in places by the above ground structures. From higher levels, there would be more direct views of the new public realm, although still set within the context of the restored historic river wall line and the river itself. Therefore, the magnitude of change on this view would be medium. The medium magnitude of change assessed alongside the low sensitivity of the receptor means the visual effect of the proposed development would be of minor adverse significance. The assessment of visual effects during Year 1 of operation is summarised in the table below. Vol 21 Table 11.6.3 Visual effects operation, Year 1 Viewpoint Designated Views London View Management - Linear View 8A.1 London View High Negligible Negligible Sensitivity Magnitude Effect

11.6.79

11.6.81

11.6.82

High

Negligible

Negligible

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Viewpoint Management Linear View 9A.1 Residential Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank Recreational Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge Viewpoint 2.2: View west from Millennium Bridge High High Sensitivity

Section 11: Townscape and visual Magnitude Effect

Low to medium

Minor to moderate adverse

High

Low

Minor adverse

Low to medium Low

Minor to moderate adverse Minor adverse

High

Viewpoint 2.3: View High north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House High

Low

Minor adverse

Low to medium

Minor to moderate adverse

Viewpoint 2.5: View High north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens Viewpoint 2.6: View High north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform Viewpoint 2.7: View High north east from Waterloo Bridge Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace High

Low

Minor adverse

Low to medium Negligible to low Negligible to low Low

Minor to moderate adverse Negligible to minor adverse Negligible to minor adverse Minor adverse

High

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Viewpoint Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street Employment and other institutions Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment Low Sensitivity High

Section 11: Townscape and visual Magnitude Low Effect Minor adverse

High

Low

Minor adverse

High

Negligible to low

Negligible to minor adverse

High

Negligible

Negligible

High

Medium

Moderate adverse

Medium

Minor adverse

Operational assessment results Year 15 of operation


11.6.83 Townscape and visual effects arising from the proposed development, 15 years after completion may be altered by growth of vegetation established as part of the project, growth of vegetation in the wider assessment area or changes in the base case arising from redevelopment in the vicinity of the site. These may contribute to further reducing adverse effects on the surrounding townscape and visual receptors. This is to be defined further as part of the ongoing design development and will be reflected in the final assessment presented in the ES.

11.7
11.7.1

Approach to mitigation Construction


Mitigation measures during the construction phase have been incorporated as far as possible into the CoCP. In addition, a process of iterative design and assessment has been employed to reduce adverse effects arising during construction. Significant adverse effects arising during construction cannot be further mitigated because the scale of construction activities, primarily the height of cranes, and also construction

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deliveries, would obstruct views and adversely alter the townscape character. Therefore no further mitigation measures are proposed.

Operation
11.7.2 A process of iterative design and assessment has been employed to reduce adverse effects during operation, which will continue through the ongoing EIA. Operational effects depend heavily on the architectural and landscape design of built elements, public realm and river wall, which form part of the project design. Therefore no additional mitigation is proposed.

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11.8
Vol 21 Table 11.8.1 Townscape assessment summary- construction Description of effect Change to character due to site clearance, construction of the site cofferdam and intensity of construction activity. Change to character due to site clearance, and construction of the pier. Change to setting due to construction activity and river transport. Marginal change to setting due to construction activity, partially screened by Waterloo Bridge. Change to setting due to site hoardings, construction activity, traffic and cranes. No significant change in setting. Change to setting due to construction activity. Minor adverse Major adverse Negligible Moderate adverse Moderate adverse Major adverse Minor adverse Not required No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible Not required No mitigation possible No mitigation possible Major adverse No further mitigation possible Significance of effect Mitigation Significance of residual effect Major adverse

Assessment summary

Receptor

The main site

The pier site

Minor adverse Major adverse

River Thames Central London Reach

River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach

Minor adverse

Whitefriars Conservation Area

Major adverse

Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area

Negligible Moderate adverse Moderate adverse

St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area

City of London Mixed Use

Change to setting due to construction activity.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Description of effect Marginal change to setting due to construction activity and river transport, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge. Change to setting due to construction activity and river transport. No significant change in setting. No significant change in setting. No significant change in setting. No significant change in setting. No significant change in setting. Negligible Negligible Negligible Moderate adverse Negligible Minor adverse Major Negligible Negligible Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required No mitigation possible Not required No mitigation possible No Moderate adverse No mitigation possible Moderate adverse Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Moderate adverse Negligible Minor adverse Minor adverse No mitigation possible Minor adverse Significance of effect Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Tate Modern

Southwark Mixed Use

Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area

Nelson Square Residential

The Cut Mixed Use

Waterloo Commercial

London Waterloo Railway Station

South Bank Conservation Area Change to setting due to construction activity.

Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area

No significant change in setting. Marginal change to setting due to construction activity. Change to setting due to construction activity.

Victoria Embankment Administrative

Temples Conservation Area

Major adverse

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Description of effect adverse mitigation possible Significance of effect Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Vol 21 Table 11.8.2 Visual assessment summary - construction Significance of effect Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Receptor

Description of effect

Designated Views Negligible Minor adverse Not required No mitigation possible No mitigation possible Moderate adverse No mitigation possible Negligible Minor adverse

London View Management Linear View 8A.1 London View Management

No significant effects.

Background visibility of cranes.

Linear View 9A.1

Residential Major adverse Major adverse

Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge.

Moderate adverse

Recreational Major adverse No mitigation possible Major adverse

Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Significance of effect Moderate adverse Moderate adverse Major adverse Minor adverse Major adverse Major adverse Major adverse Minor adverse Minor adverse No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation No mitigation possible Moderate adverse Major adverse No mitigation possible Moderate adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

Viewpoint 2.2: View west from Millennium Bridge

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge.

Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by Blackfriars Bridge and Blackfriars railway bridge.

Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by intervening buildings and planting.

Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

Major adverse

Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

Major adverse

Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

Major adverse

Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset House River Terrace

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by mature trees and permanent river moorings.

Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by

Minor adverse

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Significance of effect possible Minor adverse Major adverse No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible No mitigation possible Minor adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

opposite Temple Place

mature trees and permanent river moorings.

Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by mature trees and permanent river moorings.

Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens Minor adverse Moderate adverse

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport.

Major adverse

Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens

Visibility of site cofferdam, construction activity, cranes and river transport, partially screened by intervening buildings and planting.

Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street

Visibility of site hoardings, construction activity, cranes and road-based transport.

Moderate adverse

Employment and other institutions Moderate adverse No mitigation possible Moderate adverse

Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment

Visibility of site hoardings, construction activity, cranes and road-based transport.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Vol 21 Table 11.8.3 Townscape assessment summary - operational Significance of effect Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA Not required Minor to moderate adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

The main site

Change in character through the Minor to introduction of new public realm and above moderate ground structures in an area previously part adverse of the river. Minor adverse

The pier site

Change in character through new public realm and the introduction of the pier structures. Minor to moderate adverse As above As above

Minor adverse

River Thames Central London Reach

Change to setting through the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river.

Minor to moderate adverse Negligible to minor adverse

River Thames Victoria Embankment Gardens and Jubilee Gardens Reach Minor to moderate adverse Negligible

Slight change to setting through the Negligible to introduction of new public realm and above minor adverse ground structures in an area previously part of the river.

Whitefriars Conservation Area

Change to setting through the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river.

As above

Minor to moderate adverse Not required Negligible

Fleet Street and Chancery Lane Conservation Area

No significant effects.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Significance of effect Negligible Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA As above Not required Negligible Negligible to minor adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

St Pauls Cathedral Conservation Area

No significant effects.

City of London Mixed Use

Slight change to setting through the Negligible to relocation of the Millennium Pier, the minor adverse introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river.

Tate Modern

Slight change to setting through the Minor adverse relocation of the Millennium Pier, the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river. Minor to moderate adverse

Minor adverse

Southwark Mixed Use

Change to setting through the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river. Negligible

Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA Not required

Minor to moderate adverse

Thrale Street and Union Street Conservation Area

No significant effects.

Negligible

Nelson Square Residential

No significant effects.

Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

Not required Not required Not required Not required

Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

The Cut Mixed Use

No significant effects.

Waterloo Commercial

No significant effects.

London Waterloo

No significant effects.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Significance of effect Minor to moderate adverse Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA Not required Minor to moderate adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

Railway Station

South Bank Conservation Area

Change to setting through the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river. Negligible

Waterloo and Roupell Street Conservation Area Minor to moderate adverse

No significant effects.

Negligible

Victoria Embankment Administrative

Change to setting through the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river. Minor to moderate adverse

Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA

Minor to moderate adverse

Temples Conservation Area

Change to setting through the introduction of new public realm and above ground structures in an area previously part of the river.

Minor to moderate adverse

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Vol 21 Table 11.8.4 Visual assessment summary - operational Significance of effect Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

Designated Views Negligible Not required Negligible

No visibility.

London View Management - Linear View 8A.1 London View Management Negligible Not required

No visibility.

Negligible

Linear View 9A.1 Minor to moderate adverse Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA As above Minor to moderate adverse

Residential

Viewpoint 1.1: View north from residences on the opposite river bank Minor adverse

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

Viewpoint 1.2: View north west from residences along Hopton Street on the opposite river bank Minor to moderate adverse Minor adverse

Intermittent visibility of the new river wall and above ground structures. Visibility of the relocated Millennium Pier.

Minor adverse

Recreational As above Minor to moderate adverse As above Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.1: View north west from Blackfriars Bridge

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

Viewpoint 2.2: View west from Millennium

Intermittent visibility of the new river wall and above ground structures.

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Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

Bridge Minor adverse As above

Visibility of the relocated Millennium Pier. Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.3: View north west from the South Bank outside Tate Modern Minor to moderate adverse Minor adverse As above As above

Intermittent visibility of the new river wall and above ground structures. Visibility of the relocated Millennium Pier.

Viewpoint 2.4: View north from the South Bank outside Sea Container House

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

Minor to moderate adverse Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.5: View north east from Gabriels Wharf Gardens Minor to moderate adverse Negligible to minor adverse Negligible to minor adverse Minor As above

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm, largely screened by intervening buildings and planting.

Viewpoint 2.6: View north east from Gabriels Wharf viewing platform

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

Minor to moderate adverse As above Negligible to minor adverse As above Negligible to minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.7: View north east from Waterloo Bridge

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

Viewpoint 2.8: View east from the northern end of Waterloo Bridge

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm, partially filtered by permanent moorings.

Viewpoint 2.9: View east from Somerset

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm,

As above

Minor adverse

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Significance of effect adverse Minor adverse As above Minor adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

House River Terrace

largely filtered by intervening tree planting and permanent moorings.

Viewpoint 2.10: View east from the Thames Path opposite Temple Place Minor adverse As above

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm, largely filtered by intervening tree planting and permanent moorings.

Viewpoint 2.11: View east from the Thames Path opposite Milford Lane Negligible to minor adverse

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm, largely filtered by intervening tree planting and permanent moorings.

Minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.12: View east from the Thames Path opposite Inner Temple Gardens Negligible Not required

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm, largely filtered by intervening tree planting and permanent moorings.

Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA

Negligible to minor adverse

Viewpoint 2.13: View south east from the Inner Temple Gardens Moderate adverse

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm, largely screened by intervening buildings and planting.

Negligible

Viewpoint 2.14: View south from the corner of Tudor Street and Carmelite Street

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA

Moderate adverse

Employment and other institutions

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Significance of effect Minor adverse Ongoing design work will reduce effects as far as possible, which will be reflected in the final project subject to EIA Minor adverse Mitigation Significance of residual effect

Section 11: Townscape and visual

Receptor

Description of effect

Viewpoint 4.1: View south from the office buildings along Victoria Embankment

Visibility of the new river wall, above ground structures and public realm.

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11.9
11.9.1

Assessment completion
The baseline data collection is complete for this site, aside from establishing a baseline for the night time character of the assessment area. The ES will include the summer baseline for each of the character areas and viewpoints. It will also include winter and summer photos for each character area and viewpoint. The study area for the assessment will be reviewed for the ES, based on the findings of this report. It may be appropriate to reduce the study area to focus the assessment on likely significant effects. Further work will be undertaken to establish a base case for the Year 15 operational assessment, using professional judgement aligned with future developments. The construction and operational assessments will be completed, including an assessment against the night time baseline. Three verifiable photomontages will be produced for the ES, in the locations indicated on Vol 21 Figure 11.4.6. Ongoing work will be undertaken throughout the assessment process to identify design measures to minimise adverse effects arising from the proposed project in operation. Where possible, these will be embedded in the proposed development. Details of the project design and landscaping will be provided for the planning submission. Further work will be undertaken for the ES to establish the effects of the proposed development after the architectural and landscape design has been fully worked up. This will inform the assessment of operational effects in Year 1 and Year 15. Residual effects remaining after mitigation measures will be identified and recorded. Assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES.

11.9.2

11.9.3

11.9.4 11.9.5 11.9.6

11.9.7

11.9.8 11.9.9

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12 12.1
12.1.1 12.1.2

Transport Introduction
This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant transport effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. The site has the potential to affect transport in the following ways: a. Effects on pedestrian routes. b. Effects on cycle routes. c. Effects on bus routes and patronage. d. Effects on London Underground and National Rail services. e. Effects on river services and patronage. f. Effects on car and coach parking. g. Effects on highway layout, operation and capacity.

12.1.3 12.1.4

Each of these effects is considered within the assessment for both construction and operational phases of the project. This section details the site-specific findings for Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. As detailed in Volume 5, the assessment also comprises assessment at Borough (sub-area) and project-wide levels preliminary findings of the assessments are contained in Volume 6. More detailed analysis of all three levels of assessment (site-specific, Borough level and project-wide) will be presented in the ES. This assessment provides a commentary on the anticipated transport effects of the project. When baseline data collection and analysis is complete a full quantitative transport assessment will be carried out. The assessment and mitigation text contained within this section is therefore based on professional judgement using available information at the time of writing.

12.1.5

12.2
12.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to transport are as follows.

Construction
12.2.2 Construction details for the site relevant to the construction transport assessment are summarised in the table below.

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Vol 21 Table 12.2.1 Transport - site construction traffic details Description Assumed peak period of construction lorry movements Assumed average peak construction lorry vehicle movements Types of lorry requiring access Assumption Year 2 of construction 70 movements per day (35 lorries) Plant deliveries Concrete lorries Rebar lorries Pipe/Track/Oils lorries
Note: a movement represents a one way trip.

12.2.3

Vehicle movements would take place during the typical day shift of ten hours on weekdays (08:00 to 18:00) and five hours on Saturdays (08:00 to 13:00) with up to one hour before and after these hours for mobilisation of staff. Mobilisation may include: loading; unloading; and arrival and departure of workforce and staff at site and movement to and from the place of work. During construction it is assumed that cofferdam fill would be transported by barge, with all other material being transported by road. Lorry routing during construction phases Construction vehicles are expected to use the Transport for London Road Network (TLRN) to access this site. During phases 1 and 2, all vehicles would come through the signal junction to the north of the site via Blackfriars Road (A201) or Queen Victoria Street and access the site via the westbound Blackfriars Bridge exit slip road. Access to the site for construction vehicles would not be possible directly from Victoria Embankment (A3211 via Upper Thames Street) during these phases. Phase 3 does not utilise the same construction access point as there are construction works that prevent access from the westbound Blackfriars Bridge exit slip road. This phase requires some temporary road narrowing westbound on the exit from Blackfriars Underpass to facilitate safe exit of construction vehicles onto Victoria Embankment. Vol 21 Figure 12.2.1 indicates the construction traffic routes for Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Site. Construction routes are being discussed with Transport for London and the Local Highway Authority (LHA). Vol 21 Figure 12.2.1 Transport - construction traffic routes (see Volume 21 Figures document)

12.2.4

12.2.5 12.2.6

12.2.7

12.2.8

12.2.9

The histogram in Vol 21 Figure 12.2.2 and Vol 21 Figure 12.2.3 show that peak activity at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore would occur in Year 2 of

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Section 12: Transport

construction. This peak is earlier than the overall project-wide construction peak activity year of 2019.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Vol 21 Figure 12.2.2 Transport - construction lorry profile

Section 12: Transport

Note: Figure shows indicative volumes and movements based upon assumed timings for the works. It is not a schedule and remains subject to change.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Vol 21 Figure 12.2.3 Transport - construction barge profile

Section 12: Transport

Note: Figure shows indicative volumes and movements based upon assumed timings for the works. It is not a schedule and remains subject to change.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Construction workers 12.2.10

Section 12: Transport

The construction site is expected to require a maximum workforce of approximately 70 people at any one time. The number and type of workers is shown in the table below. Vol 21 Table 12.2.2 Transport - construction worker numbers Contractor Staff 08:00-18:00 30 Labour 08:00-18:00 30 Client Staff 08:00-18:00 10

12.2.11

It is difficult to predict with certainty the direction that workers would arrive/depart to and from the site. Staff could potentially be based in the local area or in the wider Greater London area and therefore are unlikely to have the same trip attraction to primary routes as construction lorries. The method of distribution of worker trips on the transport networks, including the public transport services, is to be agreed with the Local Highway Authority (LHA) and Transport for London (TfL). Code of construction practice Measures incorporated into the CoCP to reduce transport impacts include measures in relation to lorry management and control such as specific vehicle routes to sites and holding areas for construction vehicles. They also include provision for management plans in relation to construction worker journeys to and from the site. The implementation of these measures has been assumed for the assessment of construction effects. Operation The site would be accessed from Victoria Embankment during the operational phase. The access for maintenance vehicles would be via the westbound slip road from the Blackfriars Road (A201) junction. Vehicles would enter the site using a left in, left out arrangement. Operational access would typically be expected to be required on a three to six monthly cycle. This would require access for a transit van and operatives and occasionally a larger construction vehicle. Additionally there would be more significant maintenance visits every ten years which would require access to enable two cranes to be brought to the site, which may require temporary suspension of on-street parking in the vicinity of the site.

12.2.12

12.2.13

12.2.14

12.2.15

12.2.16

12.2.17

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12.3
12.3.1

Assessment methodology Scoping and engagement


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. All consultee comments relevant to this site are presented in the table below. It is noted that it was reported in the Scoping Report that operational traffic effects were scoped out of the EIA. However, while the environmental effects associated with transport for the operational phase are not expected to be significant or adverse, the Transport Assessment which will accompany the ES as part of the application, will examine the operational phase in order to satisfy the relevant stakeholders that technical issues have been addressed (for example, those associated with access for maintenance activities). As this also allows conclusions in relation to environmental effects to be drawn, these have been included in this report for completeness. Vol 21 Table 12.3.1 Transport - stakeholder engagement Organisation City of London Comment Baseline assessment ensure it picks up the correct highway and station layout to ensure that all transport effects are measured from the correct baseline The delivery of all construction materials and removal of construction waste at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore should be from the River Thames without consideration of financial constraints. The EIA should include issues affecting the City Riverside Walkway, during both the construction and operational phases and the difficulties it would present in achieving access. The permanent relocation of the riverboat pier should be explored including the means of achieving pedestrian access to the Riverside Walk, the Response Continue with City of London and TfL liaison to ensure that all proposed developments and other appropriate changes to the transport network are considered The assessment addresses a logistics strategy using both river and road transport together with sensitivity analysis of variations in this strategy.

12.3.2

City of London

City of London

Assessment of the impact on pedestrian routes during construction and operation already forms part of the transport topic methodology.

City of London

Assessment of relocation of the pier, whether temporary or permanent, is envisaged as part of the work necessary for this site (Blackfriars Bridge

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Organisation Comment adjacent footways and the transport interchange. Transport for London General vehicle diversion routes may be appropriate via Stamford Street / Southwark Street. Limited use likely of Westminster Bridge. Coach parking should be relocated to a suitable location Strategic modelling will be necessary to test the feasibility of all the options considered.

Section 12: Transport Response Foreshore).

Assessment of potential vehicle diversion routes will be considered as part of the transport methodology.

Transport for London Transport for London

This will be identified as part of the Transport Assessment. Assessment strategic routes will be considered as part of the transport methodology.

Baseline
12.3.3 The baseline methodology follows the standard methodology described in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Construction
12.3.4 The construction phase methodology follows the standard methodology described in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Operation
12.3.5 The operational phase methodology follows the standard methodology described in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Assumptions and limitations


12.3.6 12.3.7 The assumptions and limitations made for the assessment are as listed in Volume 5. Site specific assumptions for the site are as follows: a. The Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be permanently relocated to the east of Blackfriars Bridge from the start of construction at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore. b. Works to enhance Blackfriars Station will be complete prior to the start of construction at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore. c. The current Blackfriars Bridge junction is the temporary arrangement whilst Blackfriars station redevelopment is carried out. At present it is not known what the final layout is likely to be; therefore, the assessment has been based on the current alignment.

12.3.8

The preliminary assessment findings reported in this report are qualitative and based on professional judgement.

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12.4
12.4.1

Baseline conditions
The site is located on the foreshore of the River Thames, adjacent to Blackfriars Bridge within the City of London. To the west of the bridge is the main construction area. To the east of the bridge is a further works area to accommodate the relocation of the Blackfriars Millennium Pier. Vol 21 Figure 12.4.1 shows the Transport Site Plan. Vol 21 Figure 12.4.1 Transport local site plan (see Volume 21 Figures document)

12.4.2

The following sub-sections describe the baseline conditions of the site in relation to pedestrians, public transport and highways. Sensitive receptors in the vicinity of the site are also identified.

Pedestrian routes
12.4.3 The main pedestrian routes within the vicinity of the site are located on Victoria Embankment (A3211). The footways along either side of Victoria Embankment (A3211) are wide, greater than 2m, and have viewing / rest points located along the routes. This footway is part of the Thames Path network. There is a pedestrian underpass that leads directly from Victoria Embankment and enables connection to the adjacent streets and Blackfriars station from the Millennium Pier. A pedestrian crossing is located on Victoria Embankment (A3211) opposite the site at the Temple Avenue junction. Additional pedestrian crossings are located at the higher level at the junction of Victoria Embankment with New Bridge Street (A201) / Blackfriars Bridge (A201) / Upper Thames Street (A3211) / Bridge Street (A302).

12.4.4

12.4.5

Cycle routes
12.4.6 The main cycle route within the area is National Cycle Network Route 4 (on road) which routes through central London along Chelsea Embankment (A3212), Lambeth Bridge, Lambeth Palace Road, Belvedere Road and Upper Ground, Southwark Street (A3200), and Southwark Bridge Road (A300) which is on the opposite bank of the river to the site. There is a Barclays Cycle Hire docking station on Victoria Embankment near to the site opposite Blackfriars Millennium Pier. In addition, there are Barclays Cycle Hire docking stations in the vicinity of the site on Milroy Walk, Poured Lines, Bouverie Street, and Milford Lane.

12.4.7

Bus routes
12.4.8 The site is designated as having a Public Transport Accessibility Level (PTAL) of 6b. This indicates that the public transport provision is excellent in the vicinity of the site. There are 14 bus routes in the vicinity of the site; 4, 11, 15, 17, 23, 26, 45, 63, 76, 100, 172, 381, 388, and RV1 Bus stops within the area are located on Blackfriars Bridge (A201), New Bridge Street (A201), Queen Victoria Street, Victoria Embankment

12.4.9 12.4.10

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(A3211), Blackfriars Road (A201), Southwark Street (A3200), Stamford Street (A3200), Fleet Street, and Ludgate Hill. Vol 21 Figure 12.4.1 indicates the location of these bus stops and the destinations and frequency of the routes are detailed in the table below. Vol 21 Table 12.4.1 Transport - bus service frequencies Route number Distance from site (metres) and location of bus stop 498m (Ludgate Hill) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 266m (New Bridge Street A201) 266m (New Bridge Street A201) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 266m (New Bridge Street A201) 498m (Ludgate Hill) 545m (Southwark St Railway Bridge A3200) 229m (Blackfriars Station) 545m (Southwark St Railway Bridge A3200) AM peak (07:0010:00) (buses per hour) 5-8 5-8 6-10 8-10 8-12 5-9 6-10 8-15 7-12 7-12 5-6 4-9 5-9 5-7

Origin - destination

4 11 15 17 23 26 45 63 76 100 172 381 388 RV1

Waterloo Station to/from Archway Station Liverpool Street to/from Fulham Town Hall Blackwall to/from Oxford Circus London Bridge Station to/from Archway Station Liverpool Street to/from Westbourne Park Waterloo to/from Hackney Wick Clapham Park to/from Kings Cross Kings Cross to/from Honor Oak Waterloo to/from Tottenham St Georges Town Hall to/from Newington Causeway St Pauls to/from Brockley Rise County Hall to/from Beckham Bus Station Embankment to/from Hackney Wick Tower Gateway to/from Covent Garden

London Underground and National Rail stations


12.4.11 Temple Underground Station, which lies on the Circle and District Lines, is located approximately 800m to the west of the site. The Circle Line trains servicing this stop travel west to Edgware Road and east to Hammersmith. The District Line trains servicing Temple Underground Station travel west to Ealing Broadway, south to Richmond, east to Tower Hill, and north-east to Upminster. In the AM and PM peaks, the frequency of the Circle Line trains is approximately 812 minutes in each direction. The frequency of the District Line trains in the AM and PM peaks is approximately 26 minutes in each direction.

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The closest National Rail stations are Blackfriars to the north-east and City Thameslink to the north. Blackfriars is approximately 150m away from the site and City Thameslink is approximately 500m from the site. While currently closed for modification (due to reopen in early 2012), Blackfriars Station provides access to First Capital Connect and Southeastern train operators and provides services to Sevenoaks, St Albans, Sutton, Brighton, Bedford, Luton, and Kentish Town. In the AM peak there are approximately 29 services (15 southbound and 14 northbound). In the PM peak there are approximately 25 services (13 southbound and 12 northbound). City Thameslink Station provides access to the First Capital Connect train operator. In the AM peak there are approximately 28 services (14 southbound and 14 northbound). In the PM peak there are approximately 26 trains (13 southbound and 13 northbound), The location of the London Underground and National Rail services in the proximity to the site can be seen in Vol 21 Figure 12.4.1.

12.4.14

12.4.15

12.4.16

River services
12.4.17 The site encompasses the existing Blackfriars Millennium Pier. The pier is served by boats operating as part of the Thames Clipper and Thames Taxi services. Thames Clipper services run on weekdays and start at 06:49 running until 22:58, with a frequency of approximately 30 minutes. The Thames Taxi service runs only in the AM and PM weekday peak periods only.

12.4.18 12.4.19

Parking
12.4.20 Coach parking is provided on the westbound slip road from the northern end of Blackfriars Bridge. The parking bays can accommodate three coaches and are limited to a maximum stay of 20 minutes, free of charge. There is additional coach parking provided on Temple Place. This comprises two bays that allow parking from 08:00 to 23:59 seven days a week. These bays are metered bays that allow a maximum stay of two hours. The charged hours are 08:30 to 18:30 Monday to Friday and 08:30 to 13.30 on Saturdays. No on-street car parking is available in the vicinity of the site on Victoria Embankment (A3211) due to Red Route restrictions. The nearest on-street car parking is on Temple Avenue, Carmelite Street, John Carpenter Street and Tallis Street which are located opposite the site. In total, there are seven disabled parking bays on Temple Avenue, John Carpenter Street and Tallis Street which are restricted to stays of four hours Monday to Friday, along with some motorcycle parking. A further total of 27 pay and display bays are located on Temple Avenue, Carmelite Street and John Carpenter Street.

12.4.21

12.4.22 12.4.23

12.4.24

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Highway network
12.4.25 12.4.26 The Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site is located on Victoria Embankment (A3211), immediately to the west of the Blackfriars Road (A201) junction. Victoria Embankment (A3211) forms part of the TLRN and is a wide twolane eastbound/westbound carriageway with a 30mph speed limit and is suitable for lorries and long vehicles. Victoria Embankment links to New Bridge Street (A201), Blackfriars Bridge (A201) and Upper Thames Street (A3211) in the east, and Bridge Street (A302) and Westminster Bridge Road (A302) in the west. Blackfriars Bridge (A201) to the south of the junction with Victoria Embankment (A3211) is part of the Strategic Road Network. The bridge has one lane and a bus lane both northbound and southbound. Queen Victoria Street is located to the east of the junction with Victoria Embankment (A3211), New Bridge Street and Blackfriars Bridge (A201). The single carriageway has one lane eastbound and westbound. It separates into two lanes on the approach to the junction. Queen Victoria Street leads to Victoria Embankment and Blackfriars Bridge (A201) on the TLRN to the north and east of the site respectively.

12.4.27

12.4.28

12.4.29

Survey data
Description of surveys 12.4.30 Baseline survey data were collected in May and July 2011 to establish the existing transport movements in the area. Manual and automated traffic surveys were undertaken to establish specific traffic, pedestrian and cycle movements including turning volumes, queue lengths, saturation flows, degree of saturation and traffic signal timings. The following junction surveys were undertaken in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site to understand highway operation in the area: a. A3211 Victoria Embankment / Temple Avenue b. A201 Farringdon Street / Ludgate Hill / A201 New Bridge Street / Fleet Street c. A3200 Southwark Street / A201 Blackfriars Road d. A4 The Strand / A301 Aldwych e. A4 The Strand / A301 Lancaster Place f. 12.4.32 A3211 Victoria Embankment / Savoy Street Automatic Traffic Counters (ATCs) were placed at the following locations to obtain data on traffic flows: a. Three ATCs between the junction of Victoria Embankment / Temple Avenue and Victoria Embankment / Blackfriars Bridge 12.4.33 Pedestrian and cycle surveys were undertaken in the vicinity of the site in the following locations:

12.4.31

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a. Thames Path to the west of Blackfriars Bridge b. Thames Path Pauls Walk. 12.4.34 A parking survey was undertaken in the roads surrounding the site to establish occupancy of on-street parking spaces on the following roads: a. A3211 Victoria Embankment b. Temple Avenue c. Bouverie Street d. Pleydell Street e. Lombard Lane f. Temple Lane g. Tudor Street h. Whitefriars Street i. j. k. l. Tallis Street Camelite Street John Carpenter Street Hutton Street

m. Primrose Hill n. Kingscote Street o. Bride Lane p. Dorset Rise q. Salisbury Court r. 12.4.35 Bridewell Place. Results of surveys Data from the field surveys were being processed at the time of writing and will be reported fully in the ES.

Data from third party sources


12.4.36 Data in relation to traffic flows at the Blackfriars Bridge junction, together with accident data and public transport service and patronage information, were being sourced from TfL and will be reported in full in the ES.

Transport receptors and sensitivity


12.4.37 The receptors and their sensitivities in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site are summarised in the table below. The transport receptor sensitivity is defined as high, medium or low using the criteria detailed in Volume 5. As the assessment undertaken for this report is judgement based (rather than being based on quantitative analysis), it has not been possible to identify the effects at individual receptors. A commentary is however provided on the effects upon individual receptor groups; namely

12.4.38

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pedestrians and cyclists in the local area and users/operators of the local bus services, rail network, river services, parking and local highway network. A full assessment will be provided in the ES. Vol 21 Table 12.4.2 Transport receptors Value/sensitivity and justification High Receptor Residents on Victoria Embankment and Lower Thames Street. Pedestrians using the Thames Path and underpass on the Victoria Embankment. Cyclists using the slip road access onto Victoria Embankment Emergency vehicles requiring access to Victoria Embankment from Blackfriars Bridge Road. Business and workplace occupiers on Victoria Embankment and Lower Thames Street. Private vehicles, including private hire coaches, users in the area using the construction routes Public transport users (passengers) using bus, taxi, river and rail services travelling along the construction routes. Public transport users (passengers) using bus, taxi, river and rail services travelling to, from and through the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore area. Private vehicles, including private hire coaches, users in the area using the local highways or parking.

Medium

Low

12.5
12.5.1

Construction assessment
At this stage in the assessment process a qualitative assessment has been undertaken based on discussions with TfL and the LHAs, knowledge of the transport networks and their operational characteristics in the vicinity of each site and knowledge of the construction programme, duration and levels of construction activity. These elements have been considered in the context of the range of receptors present in each location and the significance criteria identified. Professional judgement has been applied to determine qualitatively the likely effects and their significance in each location being assessed. The Transport Assessment will include full quantitative and qualitative analysis and the transport effects reported in the ES will be based on that detailed analysis.

12.5.2

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Construction base and development cases


Assessment year 12.5.3 As described in Volume 5, 2019 has been used as the construction assessment year for all sites, as agreed with TfL, to enable a networkwide assessment. The peak period for vehicle trips to the site is predicted to be in Year 2 of construction which will be the assessment year for local network assessment and will be contained in the ES. For this report the assessment is undertaken for the network-wide 2019 assessment year. Assessment area 12.5.6 The assessment area for the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site includes the site access onto the westbound slip road from Blackfriars Bridge junction on to Victoria Embankment. It also includes the junctions with Lower Thames Street, New Bridge Street and Temple Avenue. The extent of the area includes the transport interchanges such as Blackfriars Station, Millennium Pier, and includes the Thames Path and other key local pedestrian routes. Construction base case 12.5.7 The construction base case takes into account traffic growth and proposed developments within the local area by 2019. This includes the developments described in para. 3.4.1, namely: a. Blackfriars Station b. No. 1 Puddle Dock c. 12.5.8 Bridge House The following sub-sections detail what is assumed to change between the baseline and base case scenarios with respect to the different transport aspects considered. Pedestrian routes 12.5.9 Pedestrian routes are anticipated to change slightly from baseline conditions. The base case will consider pedestrian routes affected by the redesign of Blackfriars Station, including the effects of the separate station entrance on the South Bank. Cycle routes 12.5.10 Cycle routes are not anticipated to change from baseline conditions and therefore the base case assumes the same cycle routes as set out in Section 12.4. Bus routes and patronage 12.5.11 Bus routes are not anticipated to change from baseline conditions and therefore are assumed to be the same in the base case. Bus patronage is anticipated to increase, the effect of which will be detailed in the Transport Assessment.

12.5.4

12.5.5

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London Underground and National Rail patronage 12.5.12 London Underground operations will differ from baseline conditions as District and Circle line trains will be stopping at Blackfriars London Underground Station by 2019. London Underground patronage is anticipated to increase, the effect of which will be detailed in the Transport Assessment. National Rail services are anticipated to change from baseline conditions and those changes will be detailed in the Transport Assessment. River services and patronage 12.5.14 River services for the base case are assumed to be the same as baseline conditions. River Services patronage is anticipated to increase, the effect of which will be detailed in the Transport Assessment. Parking 12.5.15 12.5.16 Coach parking provision is not anticipated to change from baseline conditions. Car parking is not provided at the location of the site and so is not envisaged to be affected. Parking in the wider area is also expected to be the same in the baseline and base case scenarios. Highway operation 12.5.17 Population growth and development in the wider area will result in an increase in traffic on the surrounding highway network. As a result of this increase, it is anticipated that traffic flows may be slightly heavier and congestion slightly increased over current levels, though this will depend on a range of factors. Highway capacity analysis 12.5.18 Baseline traffic flows (from the junction surveys) will be used and forecasting carried out to understand the capacity on the highway network in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site in 2019 without the Thames Tunnel project. The scope of this analysis is being agreed with the City of London and TfL. The full assessment of the highway operation and capacity analysis will be undertaken in the ES. Construction development case 12.5.19 The construction development case comprises the base case plus construction activities associated with the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This section addresses the changes that would arise as a result of the Thames Tunnel construction activities at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. Construction vehicle movements 12.5.21 The table below presents the total vehicle movements (both construction lorry movements and construction worker movements) expected to be generated by the site during local daily peak traffic periods (based on the current construction programme). The table also shows the AM and PM

12.5.13

12.5.20

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vehicle movements (construction worker vehicle movements and construction lorry movements) within this local daily peak period. These are based on the peak months of construction activity at this site. 12.5.22 These movements are based on the assumption that cofferdam fill material would be transported to and from the site by barge and that all other movements of materials would be undertaken by road. It also assumes that construction vehicle movements would be limited to daytime working hours only (8am-6pm). Vol 21 Table 12.5.1 Transport forecast construction vehicle movements Vehicle movements per time period Vehicle type Construction vehicle movements 10%* Worker vehicle movements Total Total Daily 70 7am-8am 0 8am-9am 7 5pm-6pm 7 6pm7pm 0

22 92

11 11

0 7

0 7

11 11

* As explained in Volume 5, it has been assumed that a maximum of 10% of daily construction vehicle movements associated with materials would take place in each of the peak hours.

12.5.23

The peak of lorry movements at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site would occur during the initial shaft construction and shaft sinking work. At the highest point the average peak vehicle activity (including worker vehicle movements) would be around 92 movements per day. At other times in the construction period, vehicle flows would be lower than this average peak figure. Modal split The PTAL for the site is 6b which indicates excellent public transport accessibility. There is no parking available on surrounding roads due to Red Route restrictions and it is unlikely that parking would be provided on site for the workforce. However, it is assumed that some travel to site or between sites is required (for maintenance, client supervision, etc) therefore it has been assumed that 20% of staff and 10% of labour could drive to the site. Workers who are unable to drive to the site would use other modes. Information regarding the travel arrangements of these workers would be included in the CoCP, Construction Management Plan and Workplace Travel Plan documents for the site (to be submitted as part of the application). Pedestrian routes During construction the Thames Path (footway along Victoria Embankment) would be diverted along the northern footway of Victoria

12.5.24

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Embankment. This would be agreed with City of London and Transport for London. Cycling routes 12.5.26 The existing cycle routes within the area are not segregated and therefore it is assumed they would not be disrupted as a result of the construction works. However, there would be an approximately six to nine month period when the Victoria Embankment (A3211) slip road would be closed to all vehicles except for construction traffic. Cyclists on the Thames Path are anticipated to continue to use Victoria Embankment (A3211) and where they are not integrated with traffic, to use the Thames Path diversion. Bus routes and patronage 12.5.28 The effect of construction on public transport may result in the diversion of bus routes or relocation/closure of stops. London Underground and National Rail patronage 12.5.29 It is anticipated that staff and labourers would also use London Underground and National Rail services to arrive at the site. The resulting additional passenger trips in the AM and PM peaks will be detailed in the Transport Assessment. River services and patronage 12.5.30 The existing Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be relocated prior to the commencement of the works at this site, with the intention of minimising any subsequent disruption to the current Thames Clipper and River Taxi services that are provided. The Pier would be relocated immediately east of Blackfriars Bridge. Parking 12.5.31 12.5.32 There is no car parking in the vicinity of the site. No public parking would be impacted on by the construction site development The existing coach parking spaces on the westbound slip road would be removed to accommodate the construction traffic. Highway layout 12.5.33 Modification to the existing highway junction layouts may be required to facilitate construction traffic accessing and leaving the site. Highway operation 12.5.34 Phases 1 and 2 do not require the westbound slip road to Victoria Embankment to be closed to non construction vehicles. It is likely this would require provision of an alternative route for general traffic and the nature and potential effects of this are discussed in para. 12.5.36 onwards. Phase 3 would additionally affect the capacity of Victoria Embankment with construction vehicles requiring access to the site directly from the Victoria Embankment and not at Blackfriars Bridge. Traffic management would be required to enable lorries to turn into and out of the site and this

12.5.27

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is likely to be in the form of a segregated lane. This would narrow the existing carriageway width to a single lane in the westbound direction.

Construction effects
12.5.36 This section summarises the preliminary findings of the assessment undertaken for the 2019 assessment year based on professional judgement. A more detailed assessment will be presented in the ES. Pedestrian routes 12.5.37 The existing Thames Path route would be disrupted for the duration of the works at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. Access to Blackfriars Station from the west would need to be via the subway access outside Unilever House at the junction of New Bridge Street (A201) and Watergate. Diverting pedestrians to the northern footway would result in an increase in the walking distance and time for pedestrians. In addition it would require pedestrians to use stair or lift access to Blackfriars Bridge (A201) and use additional pedestrian crossings points. Therefore, it is expected that the effect on pedestrian routes would be moderate adverse. Cycle routes 12.5.39 Though not an official route, cyclists would be unable to use the Victoria Embankment slip road for a period of approximately six to nine months when it is used for construction works and construction traffic access only. The diversions to cycle routes would increase in journey times, therefore it is expected that the effect on cycle routes would be minor adverse. Bus routes and patronage 12.5.41 12.5.42 The routing for the majority of bus services in the area would be impacted by the construction works at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. It is anticipated that a proportion of labourers and staff would be using public transport to access the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site during construction. Taking account of the effect of traffic management arrangements on bus operations and general delays to traffic in the area, it is expected that the effect on bus routes and patronage would be moderate adverse. London Underground and National Rail and patronage 12.5.44 The London Underground services at Temple or Mansion House are not likely to be impacted by the construction works at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. No impact is expected at Blackfriars or City Thameslink National Rail stations either. It is anticipated that a proportion of site staff and labourers would use London Underground and National Rail services to arrive on site during the working day. It is expected that the effect on London Underground and National Rail services would be negligible.

12.5.38

12.5.40

12.5.43

12.5.45

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The majority of cofferdam fill material to and from the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site would be transported by river, involving access to the site by barge for comparatively short periods towards the start and end of construction works. In addition Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be permanently relocated to the other side of Blackfriars Bridge to facilitate construction. Safe routes and signage would be provided to this new pier location. It is anticipated that staff and labourers would use Thames Clipper and River Taxi services to arrive on site. The new location of Blackfriars Millennium Pier and potential effects of transporting material by barge may result in a change in the scheduled river service timetable and the relocated pier may mean that some passengers would have to walk further to access river services. It is expected that the effect on river services and operations would be minor adverse. Parking No existing public on-street car parking would be affected but the works would require the removal and reprovision of two coach parking bays. A potential increase in journey times may arise from reproviding the coach parking in a different location and changes to walking routes for passengers. It is expected that the effect on parking, specifically on coach parking would be minor adverse. Highway layout All phases of the works would require diversion routes to be in place for general traffic. Potential diversion routes are being discussed with TfL and the City of London and their possible effects. The junction layout may require further modification to facilitate construction vehicle access and address the closure of the westbound slip road. Additionally, temporary traffic management would be required on Victoria Embankment to create a left turning lane into the site for construction traffic. Diversion routes would therefore be necessary for phase 3 works. These would seek to minimise traffic rerouting on other inappropriate routes. Potential diversion routes and their possible effects are being discussed with TfL and the City of London. The pedestrian and traffic management arrangements that would be necessary to facilitate construction would lead to changes in walking routes and vehicle movements. Therefore it is expected that the effect on the highway layout would be moderate adverse. Highway operation The majority of construction vehicles would be routing from the south of the site, across Blackfriars Bridge (A201) to make a left turn onto the westbound Victoria Embankment (A3211) slip road. Construction vehicles would access the site via a left turn in and left turn out arrangement.

12.5.48 12.5.49

12.5.50 12.5.51

12.5.52

12.5.53

12.5.54

12.5.55

12.5.56

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For the majority of the construction period, the slip road would accommodate both construction traffic and general traffic. For a period of approximately six to nine months the westbound Victoria Embankment (A3211) slip road would be closed to all general traffic. Due to the overall increase in vehicles using the westbound Victoria Embankment (A3211) slip road and the need for road closures and diversions during the construction works, it is expected that the effect on highway operation would be moderate adverse. Diversion routes would be agreed with the authorities with diversionary signage and advance warnings to drivers provided. Highway capacity analysis Highway capacity effects at this location would occur as a result of construction traffic movements and the nature of the physical highway alterations necessary for construction works to take place. Construction vehicle movements associated with this site are however comparatively low in the context of the levels of traffic already using this part of the network. Construction vehicles are therefore considered unlikely to affect highway capacity to any significant degree. The restrictions and/or temporary closures of lanes to general traffic would result in this traffic diverting onto other routes in the area, altering journey times and flows in other locations. Overall it is expected that the effect on highway capacity would be moderate adverse. Significance of effects The significance of the transport effects described above has been determined as part of the ongoing assessment and analysis. With regard to the application of the IEMA criteria detailed in Volume 5, this is based on professional judgement for the purposes of the assessment. During construction, the number of heavy goods vehicle movements would be moderate. The nature of the construction site layout at this location is considered likely to result in a moderate adverse effect on road network operation and delay. Effects on pedestrian and cyclist amenity and safety are expected to be minor adverse.

12.5.58

12.5.59

12.5.60

12.5.61

12.5.62

12.5.63

12.6
12.6.1

Operational assessment
This section summarises the preliminary findings of the assessment based on professional judgement. The results summarised below will be presented in more detail in the ES. A qualitative approach to the assessment is appropriate due to the transport activity during the operational phase being very low. These elements have been considered in the context of the range of receptors present in each location and the significance criteria identified. Professional judgement has been applied to determine qualitatively the likely effects and their significance in each location being assessed. The transport effects reported in the ES will be based on more detailed information and qualitative analysis where this is appropriate.

12.6.2

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Operational base and development cases


Assessment year 12.6.3 As outlined in Volume 5 the operational assessment year is Year 1 of operation which is the year in which the Thames Tunnel would become operational. As transport activity associated with the operational phase is very low, there is no requirement to assess any other year beyond that date. Assessment area 12.6.4 The assessment area for the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site is the same as for the construction assessment outlined in para. 12.5.6. Operational base case 12.6.5 12.6.6 12.6.7 The operational base case takes into account traffic growth and new developments within the local area by Year 1 of operation. The proposed developments in the vicinity of the site that have been included in the base case are the same as set out in para. 12.5.7. The following sub-sections detail what is assumed to change between the baseline and base case scenario with respect to the different transport aspects considered. Pedestrian routes 12.6.8 Pedestrian routes are anticipated to change from baseline conditions. The base case assumes the Thames Path is reopened along the foreshore and the connection to Blackfriars Station is in place. Pedestrian connections via the existing underpass to Blackfriars Station are anticipated to be modified with a pedestrian crossing across Lower Thames Street replacing the existing walkway. Cycle routes 12.6.10 Cycle routes are not anticipated to change from baseline conditions and therefore the base case assumes the same cycle routes as set out in Section 12.4. Bus routes and patronage 12.6.11 Bus routes are not anticipated to change from baseline conditions and therefore are assumed to be the same in the base case. Bus patronage is anticipated to increase between 2011 (baseline) and Year 1 of operation and the assessment will be detailed further in the Transport Assessment. London Underground and National Rail patronage 12.6.12 London Underground routes are assumed to be the same as baseline conditions as no changes are anticipated. It is anticipated that London Underground patronage will increase between 2011 and Year 1 of operation and the assessment will be detailed further in the Transport Assessment. National Rail routes are likely to change from baseline conditions as a result of the completion of Blackfriars Station and the upgrade of

12.6.9

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Thameslink services. Information is being sourced on these issues at the time of writing. 12.6.14 It is anticipated that National Rail patronage will increase between the baseline and Year 1 of operation. River services and patronage 12.6.15 River services are assumed to be the same as baseline conditions as no changes are anticipated. It is anticipated that River services patronage will increase between 2011 and Year 1 of operation and the assessment will be detailed further in the Transport Assessment. Parking 12.6.16 12.6.17 Parking is not anticipated to change from the baseline conditions. Highway layout The highway layout is not anticipated to change from the baseline conditions. Highway operation 12.6.18 Population growth and development in the local area will result in an increase of traffic on the highway network. As a result of this increase it is anticipated that traffic volumes may be heavier and queues longer, affecting the operation of the network. Highway capacity analysis 12.6.19 Baseline traffic flows (from junction surveys) are being used and forecasting carried out to understand the capacity on the highway network in the vicinity of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site in Year 1 of operation without the Thames Tunnel project. The scope of this analysis is being agreed with City of London and Transport for London and will be reported in the ES. Operational development case 12.6.20 The operational development case for the site includes any permanent changes in the vicinity of Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site as a result of the Thames Tunnel project and takes into consideration the occasional maintenance activities required at the site. Trip generation 12.6.21 For routine three or six monthly inspections and equipment maintenance, vehicular access would be required for light commercial vehicles. In most cases this would be typically a transit van. On occasion there may be a consequent need for small flatbed vehicles with lifting cranes, for example to remove plant from the site. During 10 yearly inspections, sites for placing two mobile cranes would be required. The cranes would facilitate lowering and recovery of tunnel inspection vehicles and to provide duty/standby access for personnel.

12.6.22

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Section 12: Transport

It is anticipated that all trips during the operational phase would be using transit van or large construction vehicles. No trips would be made by public transport, walking or cycling due to the nature of maintenance requiring equipment that can only be transported by vehicles. Pedestrian routes Pedestrian routes along the Victoria Embankment would be reinstated following completion of construction work at the site. The site would create a larger area for pedestrians to view the river from and provide additional amenity space. Cycle routes Cycle routes within the area would be maintained and would not be impacted during the operational phase. Bus routes and patronage There is no change to bus routes in the operational phase and it is not anticipated that operational staff journeys would be made by bus. London Underground and National Rail patronage No change is expected to any London Underground or Network Rail services in the operational phase. Operational staff journeys are not expected to be made by rail. River services and patronage The Blackfriars Millennium Pier would be retained in the new location to the east of Blackfriars Bridge, which therefore represents a change from the operational base case. However, no change is expected to the level of river services at the Pier in the operational phase. Parking When large maintenance vehicles are required at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site, temporary coach parking bay suspension may be required to accommodate vehicle movements. Highway layout The existing highway layout would be modified on the Victoria Embankment to enable access to the foreshore site by maintenance vehicles. The site would be accessed via the westbound slip road. For routine maintenance and three to six monthly inspections, vehicular access would be required for light commercial vehicles, typically a transit van. On occasion there may be the need for a larger construction vehicles to access the site. For the ten year inspections access and sufficient space would be required for two cranes on site

12.6.24 12.6.25

12.6.26

12.6.27

12.6.28

12.6.29

12.6.30

12.6.31

12.6.32 12.6.33

12.6.34

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Section 12: Transport

Occasional maintenance vehicle visits would be undertaken using the new access formed for this purpose. When larger vehicles are required to access the site, there may be some temporary, short-term delay to other road users.

Operational effects
12.6.37 This section summarises the preliminary findings of the operational assessment undertaken for the Year 1 of operation assessment year Pedestrian routes 12.6.38 Following the construction phase, the walkway on the southern side of Victoria Embankment (A3211) would be improved to provide more capacity for pedestrians. Therefore, it is considered that pedestrians would benefit from an improved public realm at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site during the operational phase and there would be a minor beneficial effect on pedestrian routes in the area and footways adjacent to the site. Cycle routes 12.6.39 As a result of the occasional maintenance trips anticipated at Blackfriars Foreshore during the operational phase, there would be a negligible effect on cycle routes in the area and on the roads surrounding the site. Bus routes and patronage 12.6.40 As a result of the occasional maintenance trips anticipated at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore during the operational phase, there would be a negligible effect on bus routes and patronage. London Underground and National Rail and patronage 12.6.41 London Underground and National Rail services would not be affected by the occasional maintenance trips anticipated at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore during the operational phase. River services and patronage 12.6.42 As a result of the relocation of Blackfriars Millennium Pier to the east of Blackfriars Bridge, and the associated change in walking distances for passengers, it is anticipated that in the operational phase, there would be a minor adverse effect on river services and users. Parking 12.6.43 As a result of the occasional maintenance trips anticipated at Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore during the operational phase, there may be a need for temporary coach parking bay suspension in order to accommodate the vehicle movements (which would be re-provided where demand requires). This is deemed to be a negligible effect.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Highway layout 12.6.44

Section 12: Transport

During operational phase the base case highway layout would be restored, with the construction access retained, resulting in a negligible effect. Highway operation During the operational phase there may be some delay to road users when large maintenance vehicles are required at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site, however this is likely to be highly infrequent, and the effect is therefore deemed to be negligible based on professional judgement. Highway capacity analysis It is considered that the effect on highway capacity in the operational phase would be negligible. Significance of effects The significance of the transport effects described above has been determined as part of the ongoing assessment and analysis. With regard to the application of the IEMA criteria detailed in Volume 5, this is based on professional judgement for the purposes of the assessment. During the operational phase there would be very occasional vehicle trips to and from the site for maintenance activities but these would have a negligible effect on the surrounding transport networks (in terms of delay and safety) and pedestrian/cyclists.

12.6.45

12.6.46

12.6.47

12.6.48

12.7
12.7.1 12.7.2

Approach to mitigation Construction


Measures contained in the draft CoCP of relevance to transport are summarised in para. 12.2.15 The project has been designed to limit the effects on the transport networks as far as possible and many measures have been included directly in the design of the project. Any mitigation which is required is detailed below. Pedestrian routes At this location, mitigation measures during the construction phase are likely to be required to provide safe crossing points for pedestrians along diversion routes. Cycle routes Mitigation measures would include the provision of safe crossing points along diversion routes for cyclists. Bus routes Mitigation may need to include measures to ensure that bus service frequencies are maintained.

12.7.3

12.7.4

12.7.5

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Section 12: Transport

No mitigation measures are likely to be required for underground or rail services. River services Assuming that safe routes and appropriate signage are provided to the relocated Blackfriars Millennium Pier, no mitigation would be required. Parking Mitigation would be required to re-provide two coach parking bays where possible. Highway layout No mitigation measures are likely to be required for highway layout. Highway operation On the basis that diversion routes are appropriate signed with advance warnings to drivers, no mitigation would be required. Highway capacity Mitigation in relation to highway capacity would depend on the diversion routes selected. If necessary, mitigation would be provided on these diversion routes to minimise the effects on highway capacity. The nature of this mitigation will be discussed and agreed with TfL and the relevant LHAs.

12.7.7

12.7.8

12.7.9 12.7.10

12.7.11

Operation
Pedestrian routes 12.7.12 Footways would be returned to their original routes for operation. As a result, no mitigation is required for the operational phase. Cycle routes 12.7.13 Cycle routes would not be significantly affected by the operation of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site, and no mitigation would be required. Bus routes 12.7.14 Bus services and patronage would not be significantly affected by the operation of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site and therefore no mitigation is required. London Underground and National Rail 12.7.15 London Underground and National Rail services would not be affected by the operation of the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site therefore no mitigation is required. River services 12.7.16 The Blackfriars Millennium Pier would remain in its new location east of Blackfriars Bridge. Assuming that safe pedestrian routes and appropriate wayfinding signage is provided, no mitigation would be required.

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Parking 12.7.17

Section 12: Transport

Assuming that temporarily suspended coach parking bays are relocated where required, no mitigation would be required. Highway layout The highway layout would not be affected by the operation of Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. As a result no mitigation is required for the operational phase. Highway operation The number of trips associated with Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore during the operational phase would be very low and infrequent and for maintenance purposes only. No mitigation is deemed to be required. Highway capacity As a result the local highway network would not experience a significant detrimental effect from the operational proposals, there would be no requirement for mitigation for highway capacity effects in the operational phase.

12.7.18

12.7.19

12.7.20

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12.8
Vol 21 Table 12.8.1 Transport - summary of construction assessment Effect Loss of footway Local diversions Local diversions Delay to journey time. Diversion of bus routes. Some additional patronage from construction workers. Some additional patronage from construction workers. Minor adverse Negligible None required Moderate adverse Measures to ensure bus service frequency Minor adverse Safe crossing points along diversion routes. Moderate adverse Safe crossing points along diversion routes. Significance Mitigation Residual significance Moderate adverse

Assessment summary

Receptor

Pedestrians in the local area

Cyclists in the local area

Minor adverse Minor adverse

Bus users and operators

Rail users and operators

Negligible

River users and operators

None required

Minor adverse

Some additional patronage from construction workers. Change in location of pier (safe routes and wayfinding signage to be provided). Loss of on-street coach parking (to be reprovided). Minor adverse

Parking users

None required

Minor adverse

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Section12: Transport

Receptor

All road users Moderate adverse Movement of large construction vehicles Diversion routes Highway layout changes including junction modifications. Delay to journey time. Highway capacity mitigation to be discussed and agreed with the LHAs and TfL.

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Vol 21 Table 12.8.2 Transport - summary of operational assessment Effect Negligible Negligible Negligible Minor adverse Negligible None required None required None required None required Occasional maintenance trips. No effect. Occasional maintenance trips. Increase in pedestrian realm and amenity space on Victoria Embankment adjacent to river. Occasional maintenance trips. Minor beneficial None required Significance Mitigation Residual significance Minor beneficial

Receptor

Pedestrians in the local area

Cyclists in the local area

Negligible Negligible Negligible Minor adverse

Bus users and operators

Rail users and operators

River users and operators

Parking users

None required

Negligible

All road users

Change in location of pier (safe routes and wayfinding signage to be provided). Occasional suspension of onstreet coach parking in the immediate vicinity of the site during maintenance (to be relocated where possible) Occasional delay to road users when large maintenance vehicles accessing site. Negligible

None required

Negligible

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12.9
12.9.1

Assessment completion
In addition to the baseline survey data collected and data obtained from Transport for London (strategic model data and additional ATC and junction count data), there is a need for additional data to supplement the data set. The baseline data collection was in the process of being collated at the time of writing. When baseline data collection (including data from third party sources) and analysis is complete a full transport assessment will be carried out. This will include a detailed analysis of all three levels of assessment (sitespecific, Borough level and project-wide) and will include an assessment of cumulative and in combination effects. The scope of analysis will be agreed with TfL and the LHA and will include the identification of effects at individual receptors. This full assessment will be reported in the ES (and Transport Assessment). Following completion of the assessment the mitigation approaches for transport within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES and Transport Assessment.

12.9.2

12.9.3

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Section13: Water resources groundwater

13 13.1
13.1.1

Water resources groundwater Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant groundwater effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. The Scoping Report identified that in the absence of appropriate measures within the design, there is potential for effects on groundwater resources from both construction and operational phases at the site. This preliminary assessment identifies these measures in order to assess the effects (if any) on groundwater resources that might then require mitigation.

13.1.2

13.2
13.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to groundwater are as follows. Construction The main infrastructure at the site would include: a. The main working area is to the west of the site. A second site to the east of the railway bridge would include the relocated pontoon, presently lying to the west of the road bridge. b. A 24m diameter drop shaft, to approximately 53m deep (with an invert level of 51.28mATD, excluding a 5m thick base slab once constructed) would be constructed at the western end of the working area. The shaft would have a secondary lining. An interception chamber to the northern Low Level Sewer No.1 and a connection culvert between the existing CSO close by the road bridge, in the western area, and.

13.2.2

c.

d. Two connection culverts to the drop shaft approximately 200m long and the other approximately 130m in length, both up to 11m deep. 13.2.3 The proposed methods of construction for the various elements of the site are summarised in the table below. Also contained in this table are approximate time-scales and depths. Vol 21 Table 13.2.1 Groundwater - methods of construction Design Element Drop Shaft (DS) Overflow Weir Chambers and Method of Construction Diaphragm wall and dewatering Construction Periods <1 year Construction Depth Deep

Sheet piles

1-2 years

Shallow

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Section13: Water resources groundwater Construction Periods Construction Depth

Note: In terms of construction depth - Shallow (means <10m) and Deep (.>10m). New pontoon would involve minimal sub-surface work.

13.2.4

The depth of drop shaft means that it would extend down into strata (base of the Lambeth Group/top of Thanet Sand - see Appendix E), which are expected to contain significant quantities of groundwater. To prevent potential heave at the base of the shaft, around 8 dewatering wells would be drilled into the Chalk of the lower aquifer around the outside periphery of the diaphragm walled shaft and pumped to lower the pressure. The depressurisation of the Chalk may be most effectively achieved by dewatering of the Chalk beneath. The duration of pumping would be determined by ground conditions but is likely to be of the order of the order of up to one year; the time to build and excavate the shaft. As part of the environmental design, dewatering amounts would be minimised where practicable. Depending on ground conditions found by the further GI work to be undertaken, consideration may be given to deepening the diaphragm walls by between 6-8m (from the current design depth of approximately 10m below the base slab level of 46.3mATD ie, 36.3mATD). The break into/out of the drop shaft for the tunnel boring machine in the main tunnel is expected to require ground treatment around the base of the drop shaft. The dimensions of the block around the shaft would be approximately 10m by 10m by 15m, and on either side of the shaft. All grouts to be used would be subject to EA approval. Operation During operation the presence of below ground structures could interfere with any shallow groundwater movements and potentially act as a barrier to flow locally around the site. If it occurs, the build up of groundwater can cause problems of groundwater flooding.

13.2.5

13.2.6

13.2.7

13.3
13.3.1 13.3.2

Assessment methodology Scoping and consultation


Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. There were no site specific comments from consultees for this particular site. Construction The construction phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

13.3.3 13.3.4

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Operation 13.3.5 13.3.6 13.3.7 13.3.8

Section13: Water resources groundwater

The operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site. Assumptions and limitations At this stage, all assessments are based on a qualitative approach only. The list of receptors is based on the best available information from the Environment Agency on abstractions (both licensed and GSHP schemes).

13.4
13.4.1

Baseline conditions
The CSO drop shaft would pass through made ground, Alluvium, River Terrace Deposits, London Clay, Harwich Formation and the Lambeth Group as summarise in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.4.1 Groundwater - anticipated ground conditions/hydrogeology Formation Superficial Deposits/Made Ground River Terrace Deposits London Clay B A3ii A3i A2 Harwich Formation Lambeth Group Sand Unit UMB LtB/LSB LMB UPN (Gv) UPN Thanet Sand Seaford Chalk Top elevation mATD 100.00 98.00 Depth (m) 0.00 2.00 Thickness (m) 2.00 2.50 Upper aquifer Hydrogeology

Perched water

95.50 91.90 80.35 77.35 66.45

4.50 8.10 19.65 22.65 33.55

3.60 11.55 3.00 10.60 0.50

Aquiclude

Aquitard / aquifer

65.95 62.00 58.45 56.65 53.65 51.70 48.50 39.50

34.05 38.00 41.55 43.35 46.35 48.30 51.50 60.50

3.95 3.55 1.80 3.00 1.95 3.20 9.00 Not proven

Aquitards/ aquifers

Lower aquifer

USBUpper Shelly Beds; UMBUpper Mottled Beds; LtBLaminated Beds

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LSB-Lower Shelly Beds; LMB-Lower Mottled Beds; UPN (Gv)-Upnor Formation (Gravel); UPN-Upnor Formation

13.4.2

The shaft would be founded within the Upnor Beds - the lower part of the Lambeth Group - and be constructed by the installation of a diaphragm wall around the shaft and with dewatering outside the periphery of the diaphragm wall. The River Terrace Deposits or upper aquifer is classified as a secondary A aquifer ii. The thickness is approximately 2.5m at the site. The base slab of the shaft would extend down into the Thanet Sands. The Thanet Sands and the Upnor Beds (the lower unit of the Lambeth Group) are known as the Basal Sands and are in hydraulic continuity with the Chalk aquifer beneath London. The Basal Sands (Upnor Formation and Thanet Sands), form a secondary A aquifer, and the Chalk, forming a principal aquiferiii, have hydraulic connectivity. Together these aquifers are referred to as the lower aquifer. Water level monitoring the piezometric heads in the lower aquifer are at about 60mATD as recorded in the Chalk borehole on site. The Thanet Sand which is normally in hydraulic continuity with the Chalk, shows much higher heads which seems anomalous. The Lambeth Group has a higher head than the Chalk and also shows an apparent daily cyclic fluctuation that could reflect a tidal loading of the aquifer. The London Clay Formation and Alluvium have water levels of about 98 and 100mATD respectively. The monitoring of heads in the Chalk is consistent with records obtained from the EA monitoring borehole network in the Chalk locally In terms of local receptors, there are two Chalk abstractions at a distance of 0.4km, one lying to the northwest and one to the south. The use of these licences is for Industrial, Commercial and Public Services. The nearest Source Protection Zone (SPZ) lies at a distance of approximately 3km away to the southwest. This is not in direction of the expected ground flow direction beneath the site, which is towards the west. There is one unlicensed abstraction from the Chalk to the north of the site, at distance of 0.4km. This unlicensed source is for 2,153m3/annum and for a purpose undefined. The nearest Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) scheme lies 0.15km to the east. Currently this is only a proposed scheme by London Underground (Appendix E). The nearest licensed GSHP scheme is to the northeast at a distance of 0.3km and which abstracts from the confined Chalk.

13.4.3 13.4.4

13.4.5

13.4.6

13.4.7

13.4.8

13.4.9

Secondary Aquifers are either permeable strata capable of supporting local supplies or low permeability strata with localised features such as fissures. The term Secondary Aquifer replaces the previously used name of Minor Aquifer. iii A Principal Aquifer is a geological strata that exhibits high intergranular and/or fracture permeability. This strata has the ability to support water supply and/or river base flow on a strategic scale. Principal Aquifers equate in most cases to aquifers previously referred to as Major Aquifers.

ii

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore 13.4.10 13.4.11

Section13: Water resources groundwater

There are no other environmental designations relevant to groundwater in the vicinity of the site. Land quality assessment data set shows no exceedances of any parameters tested. There is limited groundwater quality data available from nearby to the site. There is limited information on groundwater flooding incidents in the vicinity of the site, Further details on the baseline conditions at the site are provided in Appendix E.

13.4.12 13.4.13

Receptor summary
13.4.14 Groundwater receptors which could be affected during construction or operation are summarised in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.4.2 Groundwater receptors Receptor Groundwater Body Upper Aquifer Groundwater Body Lower Aquifer Construction Operation Comment Penetrated by shaft and overflow weir chamber Shaft into Upnor Beds and base slab into Thanet Sand Chalk abstractions, nearest 400m to the south and northwest 400m to northwest One active source at 300m and one proposed source at 150m

Abstractions Licensed Abstractions Unlicensed

GSHP Schemes

13.5
13.5.1

Construction assessment
The drop shaft (including diaphragm walls) would extend down into Thanet Sand which is in hydraulic continuity with the Chalk beneath. Major dewatering would be required from outside the perimeter of the diaphragm wall as the shaft is deepened. Ground treatment is expected to be needed for creation of the base slab and for acceptance of tunnel boring machine. A potential effect could arise as a result of the sheet piles to be installed to enable construction of the interceptor chambers which may in turn create

13.5.2

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Section13: Water resources groundwater

a physical obstruction to flow in the upper aquifer for a period of up to two years. This could cause a rise in groundwater level up gradient and fall down gradient and consequent change in groundwater storage and flood risk. 13.5.3 The site is not within an area identified as having saline intrusion in the lower aquifer so brackish water is not expected to be abstracted during dewatering. Water and tunnel excavated material from tunnelling activities would be disposed of in accordance with good practice and the CoCP. On the basis of monitoring at the site there is no known significant groundwater or soil contamination so the spread of pollution as a result of the works creating a linkage, or as a result of dewatering, is not anticipated. Activities involving grout would only use products that are acceptable to the EA and would be covered by the CoCP to minimise the risk of pollution. Impact magnitude 13.5.6 The upper aquifer is quite thick (up to a maximum of 2.5 m). The magnitude of any impact is assessed as minor eg a slight rise in groundwater levels may take place on the upstream/southwest side of the structure, although this is not expected to be substantial considering the close proximity of the River Thames to the site. In the case of the physical obstruction to flow in the upper aquifer, the magnitude of the impact on groundwater levels is currently expected to be minor ie, a slight rise in groundwater levels may take place on the upstream/ northern side of the structure. The magnitude of the impact from dewatering would be reduced by virtue of the diaphragm wall which would extend down into the Thanet Sand Formation. Major dewatering and depressurisation is likely from the central part of Lambeth Group. The lower part of the Lambeth Group is known to be in hydraulic connection with the lower aquifer (Upnor Formation, Thanet Sands and Chalk). The magnitude of impact from depressurisation is assessed as moderate (to be updated once results of dewatering assessment has been completed see Appendix E). There are two nearby licensed abstraction sources from the Chalk. There is also a Chalk source used for a GSHP scheme nearby. As the Thanet Sand forms part of the lower aquifer, the magnitude of impact is assessed as moderate on these Chalk sources (subject to further assessment). There is no contamination identified in the near surface. The magnitude of impact is assessed as negligible. The lower aquifer is not at risk of pollution migrating down to this layer as construction would not reach down into the lower aquifer. Since the Chalk (as an environmental receptor) is of high value, the depressurisation and dewatering impact magnitude would have to be minimised to reduce the effect on the aquifer. The impact magnitude is considered in the context of the London Groundwater Licensing Policy (EA, 2006)41.

13.5.4

13.5.5

13.5.7

13.5.8

13.5.9

13.5.10

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Section13: Water resources groundwater

The balance between recharge and abstraction from the Chalk aquifer in London formed part of the groundwater resource assessment of the London Catchment Abstraction Management Strategy (CAMS), (EA, 2006). The Thames Tunnel falls within groundwater management unit 7 (GWMU7 Confined Chalk) which was classed as over licensed. The London Groundwater Licensing Policy (EA, 2006) was produced to restrict further abstraction in areas approaching their sustainable limit. This policy was incorporated into the London CAMS licensing policy which identified areas where further licences are restricted. The site falls within the Central and South London area (see Appendix E). Over this section the policy states that new consumptive licences are restricted to less than 0.2 Ml/d annual average, subject to the local assessment being favourable and no other new abstractions in the Battersea area. However, the policy states that, every application would be assessed on its own merits, be subject to a detailed local hydrogeological assessment and require the submission of the necessary supporting justification and reports for a decision to be made on an individual scheme. The detailed assessment would take into account the following. A preliminary assessment is completed below: Has there been any long-term (several years) downward trend in the groundwater level in the vicinity of the application? a. Preliminary response: The hydrograph in Appendix E for an EA observation borehole close to the site shows the groundwater level increased from 1986 to 2000; displayed a downward trend from 2000 to 2004 and started to rise again in 2009.

13.5.12

13.5.13

13.5.14 13.5.15

13.5.16

The groundwater level in relation to the base of the London Clay. If the groundwater level is near the base of the London Clay, then the EA would be unlikely to grant the abstraction licence. The EA would use discretion if there is a significant thickness of the Lambeth Group below the London Clay, but the aim is to manage abstraction to keep groundwater levels above the Thanet Sands. a. Preliminary response: The EA data confirms that groundwater levels in measured in the Chalk by the EA have risen from about 20mATD in the early 1970s to 65mATD in 2000, declining to about 57mATD since 2000. This correspondes with levels rising from within the Seaford Chalk in the late 1960s to a level corresonding with the lower units of the London Clay by 2000. The present position corresponds with a level within the upper Lambeth Group. Whilst there would be a need to depressurise the upper units of the lower aquifer, with dewatering the Upnor Beds and the top of the Thanet Sands.

13.5.17

Any recent abstraction development in the same area. If groundwater levels have not yet responded to a recent change in abstraction, the EA may not grant further licences in that area. a. Preliminary findings: No recent developments are known. Other proposals in the area that have been refused for water resource reasons in the last five years.

13.5.18

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a. Preliminary response: No refusals known. 13.5.19 Proximity of the proposal to an existing or proposed Artificial Recharge Scheme (ARS). Artificial Recharge scheme proposals would be treated as a special case as they involve the management of groundwater levels to provide additional resource to the scheme operator. a. Preliminary response: No known ARS in the vicinity. 13.5.20 On the basis of this preliminary findings of the assessment it is concluded that further evaluation of the impact of a temporary dewatering of the Upnor Beds and upper part of the Thanet Beds is required on the resource availability and water quality of the lower aquifer. As the dewatering would be within the lower aquifer, the impact is expected to be moderate or major. This assessment relates to the regional resource and is considered to be of less significance than the potential impact on current groundwater users. In the case of the physical obstruction to flow in the upper aquifer, the magnitude of the impact on groundwater levels is currently expected to be minor ie a slight rise in groundwater levels may take place on the upstream/ south-western side of the structure. The impacts are mitigated by cutting down the diaphragm wall and sheets piles. Where necessary the pile can be perforated through at a low level to allow through flow and prevent a build up of groundwater levels. The drawdown and therefore the magnitude of impact on existing groundwater users as a result of dewatering have yet to be quantified. Once modelling is complete, as described in Volume 5, the impact on can be quantified. There is no contamination (known about at present) at the site in the upper aquifer (see Appendix E) so the magnitude of any impact associated with groundwater quality in the upper aquifer is negligible. The impacts on groundwater quality within the lower aquifer are expected to be negligible if the groundwater levels are kept above the top of the Thanet Sands. However, if the water table is drawn below this level, moderate impacts may be expected. A summary of the likely magnitude of impact from different causes are shown in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.5.1 Groundwater impacts - construction Impact Physical obstruction to flow in the upper aquifer and resultant rise in groundwater level Creation of pathway for pollution (both aquifers) Depressurisation of Lambeth Group by dewatering of the Upnor Beds, Thanet Beds and Chalk, potentially Magnitude Minor, water levels within 2m of ground surface. Negligible; no known groundwater or soil contamination Moderate or Major, base slab of shaft down through Upnor Beds and into Thanet Sands, both in hydraulic

13.5.21

13.5.22

13.5.23

13.5.24

13.5.25

13.5.26

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Section13: Water resources groundwater Magnitude connection to the Chalk. Negligible if the groundwater levels are kept above the top of the Thanet Sands. Moderate if water levels drawn below this level. Minor, grouting mainly in the base of Lambeth Group ie not within the Thanet Sand and Chalk.

Grouting around the base of drop shaft causing a deterioration in Chalk water quality during the grouting process

Pollution through use of grout or Negligible; CoCP to identify other ground treatment or water and acceptable materials and practices excavated material from tunnelling activities Receptor sensitivity 13.5.27 In terms of receptors, the upper aquifer is a secondary aquifer and is categorised in Volume 5 as being of medium importance. The lower aquifer, contains a principal aquifer (the Chalk) and hence is classed as being of high importance. The abstractions from the Chalk, mainly for industrial, commercial and public service use are also of high importance. A summary of the above is given in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.5.2 Groundwater resources receptors - construction Receptor Upper Aquifer Lower Aquifer Chalk abstractions Value/sensitivity Medium importance, secondary aquifer High importance, principal aquifer High importance, sources used for industrial, commercial and public services.

Significance of effects 13.5.28 A summary of significance of the effects is shown in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.5.3 Groundwater significance of effects construction Effect Change in groundwater storage and flood risk as a result of physical obstruction in upper aquifer Lowering of groundwater levels in the lower aquifer from depressurisation of Lambeth Group, Significance Negligible effect

Moderate adverse effect as a result of dewatering within a source protection zone

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Volume 21: Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore Effect possibly result of dewatering the Chalk Deterioration in groundwater quality in the upper aquifer caused by creation of a pollution pathway upper aquifer Deterioration in groundwater quality in the lower aquifer caused by creation of a pollution pathway lower aquifer Effect on groundwater quality from induced groundwater movement as a dewatering -lower aquifer

Section13: Water resources groundwater Significance

Negligible effect due to known groundwater pollution

Minor adverse due to known groundwater pollution

Minor adverse if water table remains above top of Thanet Sands; Major adverse if water table drawn below this level.

Lowering of groundwater levels in the Chalk from dewatering - lower aquifer Deterioration in water quality in the Chalk from grouting

Major adverse

Moderate adverse

Note: Given the structure of the generic significance of effects matrix, the very high value of the lower aquifer means that effects are always at least minor adverse.

13.6
13.6.1

Operational effects
The base case and operational development case are derived from current baseline conditions as described in Section 13.4 and the supporting appendix. The possible future change from current baseline conditions is taken into account by considering a range of groundwater levels in the assessments. The Water Framework Directive commits EU member states to achieve good qualitative and quantitative status of all water bodies (including marine waters up to kilometre from shore) by 2015. The Directive defines 'surface water status' as the general expression of the status of a body of surface water, determined by the poorer of its ecological status and its chemical status. Thus, to achieve 'good surface water status' both the ecological status and the chemical status of a surface water body need to be at least 'good'.

13.6.2

Operational assessment results


13.6.3 In order to ensure that no build up of groundwater takes place around the underground structures, the sheet pile walls to be put in around the culverts would be cut down. If necessary, the piles can be perforated at a low level to allow through flow and prevent a build up of groundwater

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levels. The impact of groundwater build-up is considered to be of negligible magnitude resulting in a negligible effect. 13.6.4 In terms of seepage out of the shaft into the upper aquifer, given that the shaft would be full on only relatively few occasions, the magnitude of impact is expected to be negligible. The shafts would also have a secondary lining to minimise the risk to the upper aquifer. The magnitude of seepage out of the shaft into the lower aquifer is assessed as negligible as there would generally be higher heads outside the shaft than within it. The secondary lining of the shaft would also minimise the risk to lower aquifer. Seepage into the shaft would be prevented by the double lining, this should ensure that this risk is fully minimised over the asset life. No other operational effects are envisaged. Summary of impacts 13.6.8 A summary of the receptor and their likely magnitude of effect from different causes are shown in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.6.1 Groundwater impacts and magnitudes during operation Impact Physical obstruction to flow in the upper aquifer and resultant rise in groundwater level Physical obstruction to flow in the lower aquifer and resultant rise in groundwater level Seepage out of the shaft affecting groundwater quality (both aquifers) Seepage into the shaft affecting groundwater resource Receptor sensitivity 13.6.9 In terms of receptors, the upper aquifer is a secondary aquifer and is categorised in Volume 5 as being of medium importance. The lower aquifer (Thanet Sand and Chalk) is a principal aquifer and hence of high importance. The table below summarises the above. Vol 21 Table 13.6.2 Groundwater - receptor values/sensitivities construction Receptor Upper Aquifer Lower Aquifer Value/sensitivity Medium importance, secondary aquifer High importance, principal aquifer Magnitude Negligible; sheet piles cut down.

13.6.5

13.6.6 13.6.7

Negligible, the shaft would only extend a short distance into the top of the Thanet Sand Formation. Negligible, design of shaft would include a secondary lining Negligible, design of shaft would include a secondary lining

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Section13: Water resources groundwater Value/sensitivity High importance, sources used for industrial, commercial and public services.

Significance of effects 13.6.10 A summary of significance of the effects is shown in the table below. Vol 21 Table 13.6.3 Groundwater significance of effects - operation Effect Change in groundwater storage and flood risk as a result of physical obstruction in upper aquifer Change in groundwater storage and flood risk as a result of physical obstruction in lower aquifer Deterioration in water quality in the upper aquifer from seepage out of the shaft upper aquifer Deterioration in water quality in the lower aquifer/Chalk abstractions from seepage out lower aquifer Significance Negligible effect due to negligible impact and medium value receptor Minor adverse effect arises from negligible impact on a high value receptor Negligible effect due to negligible impact and medium value receptor Minor adverse effect arises from negligible impact on a high value receptor

13.7
13.7.1

Approach to mitigation
The project has a large number of environmental design elements already included in the design. Groundwater monitoring is proposed during construction and operation as discussed in Section 6. The following section contains the extra mitigation measures to be taken to address the impacts identified within the assessment. Provided that no contamination is identified in the upper aquifer, no mitigation would be required. Further quantification of impacts is required to determine whether mitigation is needed. Construction The dewatering of the lower aquifer could also take place from within the diaphragm wall, in order to reduce drawdown effects in the surrounding area. The need for this approach would be informed by ongoing assessment work and reported in the ES. To mitigate the effects on local Chalk abstractions it is proposed to use a similar approach to that outlined above. Provided that no contamination is identified in the upper aquifer, no mitigation would be required (in respect of this issue). Minimise of ground treatment within the lower aquifer, if necessary adapt treatment techniques (depending on the results of GI).

13.7.2 13.7.3

13.7.4

13.7.5 13.7.6 13.7.7

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Section13: Water resources groundwater

Further quantification of impacts is required to determine whether mitigation is needed. Operational No effects are identified on the upper aquifer in the operational assessment and therefore no mitigation is required. Regular groundwater level monitoring to observe effects at the nearby Chalk abstraction sources.

13.7.9 13.7.10

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13.8
Significance Negligible effect None required Mitigation Residual Significance

Assessment summary

Vol 21 Table 13.8.1 Groundwater summary of construction assessment

Receptor

Effect

Upper aquifer Negligible effect None required

Change in groundwater storage and flood risk as a result of physical obstruction in upper aquifer

Negligible effect

Upper aquifer

Deterioration in groundwater quality caused by creation of a pathway

Negligible effect

Lower aquifer

Deterioration in groundwater quality caused by creation of a pathway

Minor adverse

Further assessment for ES

To be determined

Lower aquifer

Groundwater quality deterioration Minor adverse if water table from induced groundwater movement remains above top of Thanet as a dewatering (lower aquifer) Sands; Major adverse if water table drawn below this level.

Further assessment for ES

To be determined

Lower aquifer

Lowering of groundwater levels in the Major adverse Chalk resulting from dewatering

Dewater from within the Diaphragm wall. Apply ground treatment to minimise effect outside Diaphragm wall Moderate adverse Adapt ground treatment

Moderate adverse

Lower

Deterioration in water quality in the

Minor adverse

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aquifer

Chalk from grouting

Vol 21 Table 13.8.2 Groundwater summary of operation assessment Effect Negligible effect Minor adverse Negligible effect Minor adverse Negligible effect, design of shaft includes double lining Minor adverse, design of shaft includes double lining None required Further assessment for ES No mitigation proposed at this point Further assessment for ES None required Significance Mitigation Residual Significance Negligible effect To be determined Negligible effect To be determined Negligible effect

Receptor

Upper aquifer

Lower aquifer

Change in groundwater levels

Upper aquifer

Lower aquifer

Deterioration in water quality in the Chalk from seepage out

Upper aquifer

Seepage into shaft affecting groundwater resources

Lower aquifer/Chalk abstractions

Further mitigation to be investigated for ES

To be determined

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13.9
13.9.1

Assessment completion
The ES will include quantitative calculations on the amount of dewatering and the effects on the Lower Aquifer/Chalk abstractions. The approach to be used will be based on theoretical drawdown estimates. The ES will also include consideration of cumulative effects from the project. Assessment of cumulative and in combination effects will be undertaken and reported in the ES. Following completion of the assessment the mitigation approaches for groundwater within the project will be finalised and reported in the ES.

13.9.2 13.9.3 13.9.4

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14 14.1
14.1.1

Water resources surface water Introduction


This section presents the preliminary findings of the assessment of the likely significant surface water effects at the Blackfriars Bridge Foreshore site. This assessment: a. identifies the existing water resources baseline conditions; b. identifies the future base case conditions against which the project should be assessed; c. identifies both the beneficial and adverse effects of the project during construction and operation and assess the significance of the effects; and

d. identifies any residual effects with respect to surface water resources potentially affected by the project, both during construction and operation. 14.1.2 Groundwater resources are assessed separately in Section 13. Similarly land quality is addressed in Section 8. A Level 1 Flood Risk Assessment (FRA) has been carried out separately and is included in Section 15. In addition, it should be noted that this assessment only covers the effects of the work at the Blackfriars Bridge Site. The project-wide effects on the Thames Tideway, particularly the water quality improvements anticipated from the project are assessed separately in Volume 6.

14.1.3

14.2
14.2.1

Proposed development
The proposed development is described in Section 3 of this volume. The elements of the proposed development relevant to surface water resources are described in the following sections. The Code of Construction Practice (CoCP) includes a number of measures that are important in protecting water quality and these are referred to as appropriate. Construction The site is located within the River Thames foreshore, which means that some of the proposed working area would be within the river channel. The base of the shaft is within the Lambeth Group and so dewatering and/or ground treatment would be required. Disposal of dewatering effluent can have an effect on surface water resources. See the water resources Groundwater Resources section (Section 13) for further details on the dewatering requirements. Construction controls To prevent pollution from leaks or spillages, contaminating substances would be stored in leakproof containers, with secondary containment equal to 110% of the volume of the container, in a safe and secure building or compound. Areas for transfer of contaminating substances, including refuelling, oiling and greasing, would be similarly protected and activities will take place above drip trays or on an impermeable surface

14.2.2

14.2.3

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with sealed drainage or oil interceptor. All wash down of vehicles (including wheel washing) and equipment will take place in designated areas and washwater will be prevented from passing untreated into drains or holding areas prior to pumping. These measures will be detailed in the CoCP (a summary of which is appended to volume 3). 14.2.4 The CoCP would be adhered to at all times and good construction techniques followed to ensure protection against pollution incidents. In addition, relevant EA guidance would be followed, including the following: a. General Guide to the Prevention of Pollution: PPG 1 b. Works and maintenance in or near water: PPG 5 c. PPG 6 Pollution prevention guidance for working at construction and demolition sites

d. Vehicle washing and cleaning: PPG 13 e. Dewatering of Underground Ducts and Chambers: PPG 20 f. Incident Response Planning: PPG 21 g. Storage and handling of drums and intermediate bulk containers (IBCs): PPG 26. 14.2.5 14.2.6 Appropriate maintenance of barges, vehicles and plant will also minimise pollution during construction. Suitable spill kits would be provided and positioned in vulnerable areas and staff would be trained in their use and a record should be kept of all pollution incidents or near-misses, to ensure appropriate action is taken and lessons are learned from incidents. Regular toolbox talks would be held to raise staff awareness of pollution prevention and share lessons learned from any recorded incidents. There would be written procedures in place for dealing with spillages and pollution (the Pollution Incident Control Plan or PICP). The PICP would contain the following as a minimum: a. guidance on the storage and use of hazardous materials with the aim of preventing and containing spills and releases b. guidelines on the degrees of containment which take account of the nature of the materials and the sensitivity of the environment c. procedures to be adopted in the event of a pollution incident, to contain and limit any adverse effects

d. procedures and appropriate information required in the event of any incident such as a spillage or release of a potentially hazardous material e. systems for notifying appropriate emergency services, the Environment Agency and other relevant authorities, Thames Water and the Contractor's personnel f. arrangements for notifying appropriate statutory bodies and local authorities of pollution incidents where required to by legislation.

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The operation of the tunnel would allow interception of flows which would otherwise discharge at Blackfriars Bridge. There would therefore be a reduction in the frequency, duration and volume of spills from the Fleet Main CSO. The site would also allow the northern Low Level Sewer No.1 to be connected to the Tunnel, relieving discharges at other locations.

14.3
14.3.1

Assessment methodology
The construction/operational phase assessment methodology follows the standard methodology provided in Volume 5. There are no site specific variations for this site.

Scoping and engagement


14.3.2 Volume 4 documents the scoping and technical engagement process which has been undertaken. There were no site specific comments relating to surface water resources from consultees for this particul