Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Two phase biomass air-steam gasication model for !uidized


bed reactors: Part I—model development
Samy S. Sadakaa; ∗ , A.E. Ghalyb , M.A. Sabbahc
a Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Iowa State University, NSRIC, Ames, IA, 50011, USA
b Biological Engineering Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, B3J.2X4
c Desert Development Center, American University - Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

Received 29 April 1999; received in revised form 26 November 2001; accepted 16 January 2002

Abstract

A two-phase model capable of predicting the performance of !uidized bed biomass air-steam gasication reactor during
dynamic and steady state operations was developed based on the two phase theory of !uidization. Material and energy
balances were taken into consideration and the minimization of free energy technique was used to calculate the gas mole
fractions. The !uidized bed was divided into three zones (jetting, bubbling and slugging) and the mass and heat transfer
coe8cients were calculated for each zone in both bubble and emulsion phases. The model includes the hydrodynamics,
transport and thermodynamic properties of !uidized bed. The nite element method was used to solve the partial di9erential
equations. The input variables of the computer program included !uidization velocity, steam !ow rate and biomass to steam
ratio. The model is capable of predicting the bed temperature, gas mole fractions, higher heating value and production
rate. ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fluidization velocity; Air-steam; Gasication; Higher heating value; Model; Straw

1. Introduction

During the period 1991–1996, the world crop yields of sorghum, corn, rye, rice and wheat increased by
20.1%, 19.5%, 30.1%, 8.7% and 4.6%, respectively. Crop production will continue to increase to feed the
ever-increasing population of the world. The current world production of cereals is about 2:0 × 109 metric
tones [1]. This means that about 2:34 × 109 ton of straw are produced annually for which the market is
becoming rather limited [2]. Ghaly et al. [3] reported that wheat crop alone yields over 750 million ton of
straw of which 60 –80% can be utilized for energy through energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis,
combustion and gasication. Gasication is the process by which organic matter is converted to gas, tar and
char through thermal decomposition in a low oxygen environment, followed by secondary reactions of the
resulting volatiles [4]. The produced combustible char and tar can be burned with air to provide the necessary
energy for processing [5].

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +00-1-515-294-4330; fax: +00-1-515-294-4250.


E-mail address: sadaka@iastate.edu (S.S. Sadaka).

0961-9534/02/$ - see front matter ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S 0 9 6 1 - 9 5 3 4 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 2 3 - 5
440 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Nomenclature
 is a weighting coe8cient lying between 0 and 1, Z = iZ; t = kt
 is the volume fraction of the emulsion phase (dimensionless)
is the void fraction in the bed at minimum !uidization (dimensionless)

is the weight of straw in the reactor (kg)
b is the binary mixture density (kg m−3 )
b is the volume fraction of the bubble phase (dimensionless)
c is the sand density (kg m−3 )
cr is the char density (kg m−3 )
e is the volume fraction of the emulsion phase (dimensionless)
is the heat of formation of species i at 25 C (kJ kmol−1 )

Kf0 i
g is the density of the gas (kg m−3 )
KGfi 0
is the free energy of formation of compound i at temperature T (kJ kg−1 )
KH is the enthalpy of gas (kJ kmol−1 )
KH is the sensible heat of gaseous components in the bubbles (kJ kmol−1 )
KHie is the sensible heat of gaseous components in the emulsion (kJ kmol−1 )
is the heat of reaction j at 25 C (kJ kmole−1 )

KHrj0
KHrl is the heat of reaction (1) at reference temperature (298:15 K) (kJ kmol−1 )
ib is the gas density in the bubble phase (kg m−3 )
j is the jet gas density (kg m−3 )
k is the reaction latent energy (kJ kg−1 )
(kje )j is the volume interchange coe8cient (m3 m−3 (jet) s−1 )
mf is the bed voidage at minimum !uidization conditions (dimensionless)
s is the density of sand particles (kg m−3 )
KZ is the increment in axial direction (m)
 is the viscosity of the gas (kg m−1 s−1 )
i is the viscosity (N s m−2 )
A is the bed cross sectional area (m2 )
a1 -f1 are constants (dimensionless)
aik is the number of atoms of kth element present in each molecule of chemical species
(dimensionless)
Ar is Archimedes number (dimensionless)
Cbiomass is the weight of carbon in the straw (kg)
Cib is the concentration of ith species in the bubble phase (kmol m−3 )
Cie is the concentration of ith species in the emulsion phase kmol m−3 )
Cij is the concentration of ith species in the jet region (kmol m−3 )
Ci0 is the initial and inlet concentration of species i (kmol m−3 )
Cis is the concentration of ith species in the slugging region (kmol m−3 )
Cpb is the specic heat of the gas mixture in bubble phase (kJ kmol K −1 )
Cpe is the specic heat of the gas mixture in emulsion phase (kJ kmol K −1 )
Cpg is the mean heat capacity of the gas mixture (kJ kmol−1 K −1 )
Cpg; j is the heat capacity of the jet (kJ kmol−1 K −1 )
Cpj; i is the heat capacity of gas i (kJ kmol−1 K −1 )
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 441

Cps is the particle’s specic heat (kJ kg−1 K −1 )


Cs is the concentration of the char (kg char kg inter solids−1 )
d is the nozzle diameter (m)
db is the diameter of the binary mixture (m)
dbm is the maximum bubble diameter (m)
db0 is the initial bubble diameter (m)
dc is the diameter of alumina sand (m)
dcr is the diameter of char (m)
Dg is the gas di9usivity (m2 s−1 )
Dib is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the bubble phase (m2 s−1 )
Die is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the emulsion phase (m2 s−1 )
Dij is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the jet (m2 s−1 )
Dis is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the slugging phase (m2 s−1 )
dp is the bubble diameter (m)
dp is the mean particle diameter (m)
dpi is the mean diameter of particles related to the ith sieve in a sieve analysis (m)
dt is the bed diameter (m)
F is the global force vector
g is the acceleration of gravity, 9:807 (m s−2 )
H is the bed height (m)
Hbe is the heat interchange coe8cient between bubbles and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
HHV is the higher heating value of the gas (kJ m−3 )
hi is the internal heat transfer coe8cient (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )
hj is the heat transfer coe8cient between jet and emulsion phase (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )
h0 is the external heat transfer coe8cient (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )
hp is the heat transfer coe8cient (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )
(Hbc )b is the heat interchange coe8cient between bubble and cloud (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
(Hbc )s is the heat interchange coe8cient between slug and cloud (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
(Hbe )b is the heat interchange coe8cient between bubble and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
(Hbe )s is the heat interchange coe8cient between slug and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
(Hce )b is the heat interchange coe8cient between cloud and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
(Hce )s is the heat interchange coe8cient between cloud and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )
(Hje )j is the heat interchange coe8cient (kJ m−3 (jet) s−1 K −1 )
K is the global sti8ness matrix
Kbe is the volume interchange coe8cient between bubble and emulsion (m3 m−3 (bubble) s−1 )
kg is the thermal conductivity of the gas mixture (kJ m−1 s−1 K −1 )
Kgi is the gas thermal conductivity (MW m−1 K −1 )
kj is the mass transfer coe8cient between jet and emulsion phase (kg m−2 s−1 )
Kje is the gas interchange coe8cient between jet and emulsion phases (s−1 )
Kse is the gas interchange coe8cient between the slugs and emulsion phase (s−1 )
Lj is the jet penetration depth (m)
Lsb is the height at which transition from bubbling to slugging occurs (m)
lsb is the height at which transition from bubbling to slugging occurs (m)
m is the bed material mass (kg)
442 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Mg; j is the average molecular weight of the jet (kg kmol−1 )


n is the sieve number (dimensionless)
nC is the number of moles of carbon in straw (dimensionless)
nCH4 is the number of moles of methane (dimensionless)
nCO is the number of moles of CO (dimensionless)
nCO2 is the number of moles of CO2 (dimensionless)
nd is the number of nozzles (dimensionless)
nH is the number of moles of hydrogen in straw (dimensionless)
nH 2 is the number of moles of hydrogen (dimensionless)
nH 2 O is the number of moles of H2 O (dimensionless)
nN 2 is the number of moles of N2 (dimensionless)
nO is the number of moles of O2 in straw (dimensionless)
nO 2 is the number of moles of O2 (dimensionless)
ntot is the total number of moles (dimensionless)
Nu is Nusselt’s number (dimensionless)
P is the component partial pressure (kPa)
Pr is Prandetl’s number (dimensionless)
R is the universal gas constant (8:314 kJ kmol−1 K −1 )
Re is Reynold’s number (dimensionless)
ri is the internal radius of the bed (m)
Rib is the rate of generation of ith species in the bubble phase (kmol m−3 )
Rie is the rate of generation of ith species in the emulsion phase (kmol s−1 m−3 )
Rij is the rate of generation of ith species in the jet (kmol m−3 )
ris is the rate of generation of ith species in the bubble phase (kg m−3 s−1 )
Ris is the rate of generation of ith species in the slugging region (kmol s−1 m−3 )
Rl is the rate of reaction (kmol s−1 m−1 )
r0 is the external radius of the bed (m)
RR is the vector of residual equations
Rs is the rate of generation of ith species in the bubble phase (kg s−1 )
Rs is the fraction of carbon in the biomass converted into char (dimensionless)
t is the time (s)
T is the temperature (K)
TAR y is the tar yield weight (%)
Tb is the bubble temperature (K)
Tgi is the inlet gas temperature (K)
Ti0 is the initial and inlet temperature of species i (kmol m−3 )
Tr is the reference temperature (298:15 K)
Ts is the initial bed temperature (K)
Ts is the solid’s temperature (K)
U is the inlet gas velocity (m s−1 )
U is the jet nozzle velocity (m s−1 )
Ub is the rising velocity (m s−1 )
Uj is the jet rising velocity (m s−1 )
Umf is the minimum !uidization velocity of straw (m s−1 )
Us is the slugging rising velocity at (m s−1 )
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 443

Vij is the stoichiometric coe8cient of species i in reaction j, positive for product


W is the particle’ s weight per control volume (kg m−3 )
Win is the rate of char inlet to the reactor (kg s−1 )
Wout is the rate of char exiting from reactor (kg s−1 )
xi is the weight fraction of particles retained on the ith sieve (dimensionless)
yi is the mole fraction of component (number of moles of i=total number of moles)
yi is the mole fraction of the gases (dimensionless)
Z is the axial distance from the distributor (m)

Fluidized bed gasiers have been used for converting agricultural wastes into energy. The advantages of
!uidized bed reactors include: good gas solids contact, excellent heat transfer characteristics, better temper-
ature control, large heat storage capacity, good degree of turbulence and high volumetric capacity. Several
researchers studied the e9ects of operating and design parameters on the performance of !uidized bed gasi-
ers theoretically [6 –12]. The existing !uidized bed gasication models can be classied as thermodynamic
models, !ow regime models and transient models. However, most of these gasication models were reported
for coal gasication and those dealing with biomass gasication did not include the hydrodynamic parameters
which a9ect both the mass and heat interchange coe8cients between the bubble and emulsion phases [13].
Howard et al. [14] applied gasication modeling by focusing on the liquid production. In their model, they
did not include the hydrodynamics of the !uidized bed. Five kinetic parameters (water gas reaction, carbon
oxidation reaction, methane formation reaction, water gas shift reaction and methanation reaction) involving
in developing the model were evaluated by tting the model to the experimental data obtained. The model
predicted the oil and did not predict the gas composition. Furthermore, the variations of the assumptions of
gasication models are numerous and even contradicting. This makes the evaluation of these models very di8-
cult with limited experimental data. Very few attempts were found in the literature to simulate a self-sustained
gasication process and that includes the hydrodynamic, transport and thermodynamic properties.

2. Objectives

The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive two-phase dynamic nite element model capable of
describing the !uidized bed biomass gasication phenomenon. The model must be capable of predicting the
temperature distribution in the vertical direction of the bed, the concentration and distribution of each species
in the vertical direction of the bed in both the bubble and emulsion phases, the composition of the produced
gas, the heating value of the produced gas and the produced gas production rate.

3. Model development

3.1. Discretization of the Fluidized bed gasi8er

The proposed gasication dynamic model represents two stages: instantaneous devolatilization of straw and
combustion of the char at the bottom of the gasier and the gasication in the !uidized bed. Thus, a two-phase
representation of the !uidized bed incorporates the phenomena of jetting, bubbling, slugging and dynamic
mass and energy balances. Fig. 1 shows the !uidized bed domain divided into three regions: jet, bubbles and
slugs. The following assumptions were made regarding to the gas !ow divisions and the !ow patterns of gas
444 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Fig. 1. The !uidized bed gasier zones.

and solids:
(a) the !uidized bed consists of a dilute phase (jets, bubbles and=or slugs) and an emulsion phase,
(b) the emulsion phase is divided into an interstitial gas phase and a solid phase [15,16],
(c) mass and heat exchange take place between the dilute phase and interstitial gas and between the interstitial
gas and the solids,
(d) the !uidizing gas enters the bed through nozzles in a jet form. The jets degenerate into bubbles, which
rise through the bed and grow by coalescence with other bubbles to form slugs,
(e) slugging occurs if the bubble diameter becomes larger than one third of the reactor diameter, (Slugging
occurs in improper !uidization [17])
(f) the dilute gas and the interstitial gas are in plug !ow and the dilute gas is free of solids,
(g) the gas behaves ideally, and
(h) the produced gas consist of CO, CO2 , H2 , H2 O, CH4 and N2 .

3.2. Mass balance

A control volume (KV = A KZ) is xed in space in the !uidized bed gasier as shown in Fig. 2.
A mixture of i and other gases is !owing within the element (KV ). The species i may be produced
by a chemical reaction at a rate R. A mass balance can, therefore, be written in the following
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 445

Fig. 2. A control volume in the !uidized bed.

equation:
       
  net rate net rate net rate of mass rate of mass
rate of mass    of mass   exchange of species   generation 
 accumulation  =  of mass       
 of species i  +  of species i  +  i between bubble  +  of species i  :
of species i
by gas !ow by dispersion and emulsion by reaction
(1)

The rate of mass accumulation of species i (change of concentration) can be calculated in the control
volume in the bubble phase as follows:
@ ib
A KZ: (2)
@t
The input of species i by the gas !ow across the face at the axial distance Z can be described as follows:

A( ib Ub )Z |Z : (3)

The output of species i by the gas !ow across the face at the axial distance Z + KZ can be described as
follows:

A( ib Ub )Z |Z+KZ : (4)
446 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

The input of species i by dispersion across the face at the axial distance Z can be described as follows:
 
@ ib
Dib A : (5)
@Z Z

The output of species i by dispersion across the face at the axial distance Z + KZ can be described as
follows:
 
@ ib
Dib A : (6)
@Z Z+KZ

The rate of gas interchange between bubble and emulsion phases can be described as follows:

Kbe ( ib − ie )A KZ: (7)

The rate of production of species i by chemical reaction can be described as follows:

rib A KZ: (8)

By substituting each term (2) – (8) into Eq. (1), dividing by A. KZ and the number of moles=kg and then
taking the limits at Z → 0, the following equation can be obtained:
@Cib @2 Cib @
= Dib 2
− (Cib Ub ) + Kbe (Cib − Cie ) + Rib : (9)
@t @Z @Z
Fitzgerald [18] reported on his two-phase model of !uidization processes that a !uidized bed consists of a
continuous phase (emulsion phase) where particles are uniformly distributed in a supporting gas stream and
a discontinuous phase (dilute phase) consisting of gases only (no particles) in the form of bubbles, channels
and slugs. Flow and density within the emulsion phase are independently of supercial gas velocity.
Eq. (9) is valid for the three zones and can be rewritten for the jet region as follows:
@Cij @2 Cij @
= Dij 2
− (Cij Uj ) + Kje (Cij − Cie ) + Rij : (10)
@t @Z @Z
Similarly, the mass balance equation for the slugging region can be written as follows:
@Cis @2 Cis @
= Dis 2
− (Cis Us ) + Kse (Cis − Cie ) + Ris : (11)
@t @Z @Z
The bubble and emulsion phases assumed to be separated according to the two-phase theory of !uidization.
Therefore, the mass balance for the gas in the emulsion phase can be written as follows [8]:
@Cie @2 Cie Ue @Cie b Kbe
= Die 2
− + (Cib Ub ) + Kbe (Cib − Cie ) + Rie : (12)
@t @Z e @Z e

Eq. (12) has the same form in the jet, bubble and slugging regions. However, the only factor that changes
in these three regions is the gas interchange coe8cient value Kje , Kbe and Kse in the jet, bubbling and slugging
regions, respectively.
By using the same technique, the mass balance equation for the char can be written as follows:
@Cs

= Win − Wout + Rs : (13)
@t
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 447

3.2.1. The initial conditions


The initial conditions are as follows:
Cij = Ci0
Cib = Ci0
Cis = Ci0 at t = 0 and 0 6 Z 6 H: (14)
Cie = Ci0
Cs = 0

3.2.2. The boundary conditions


The boundary conditions are as follows:
@Cib
Cib − Dib = Ci0
@Z
at Z = 0 and t ¿ 0; (15)
@Cie
Cie − Dib = Ci0
@Z
Cib = Cij at Z = Lj and t  0; (16)

Cis = Cib at Z = Lsb and t  0; (17)

@Cib
=0
@Z
at Z = H and t  0: (18)
@Cie
=0
@Z
The ve species (CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and CH4 ) as well as the char were considered.

3.3. Energy balance

Energy balance was performed in the bubbling, emulsion and particle phases for each individual element
on the basis of material balance of the gas and solids.

3.3.1. The bubble phase


By taking the same control volume (Fig. 2) with the, the energy balance equation in the bubble phase can
be written as follows [10]:
         
rate of heat heat input by heat output net heat exchange heat generated
 accumulation   gas !ow   by gas !ow   between the   by reactions 
       ± 
 in the bubble  =  in the bubble  −  in the bubble  +  bubble and the   in the bubble  :
phase phase phase emulsion phase
(19)
The heat accumulation in bubble phase in the control volume can be described as follows.
7

@(Cib Cpb Tb )
A KZ : (20)
@t
i=1
448 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

The heat input by gas !ow can be calculated as follows:




7

AUb Cib KH : (21)

i=1 Z

The heat output by gas !ow can be calculated as follows:




7

AUb Cib KH : (22)

i=1 Z+KZ

The heat exchange between bubbles and emulsion phases can be described as follows:
A KZ(Hbe )(Te − Tb ): (23)
The heat generated by chemical reaction can be characterized as follows:
A KZ(Rl KHrl ): (24)
The entire total energy balance in the bubble phase within the control volume can be written by substituting
each term (20) – (24) in Eq. (19), dividing by A KZ and taking the limits at Z → 0 as follows:
7
@Cib Cpb Tb @

= (Ub Cib KHib ) + Hbe (Te − Tb ) + Rl KHrl : (25)


@t @Z
i=1

3.3.2. The interstitial gas phase


The same technique was used to describe the energy balance in the interstitial gas as follows:
 
      net heat exchange
rate of heat heat input heat output  
 accumulation  =  by gas !ow  −  by gas !ow  +  between bubble and 
 emulsion in 
in emulsion phase in emulsion phase in emulsion phase
control volume
   
heat exchange heat generated
+  between solid and gas  ±  by reactions : (26)
in emulsion phase in emulsion phase
The total energy balance in the control volume in the interstitial gas can be described by substituting each
term in Eq. (26), dividing by A KZ and taking the limits at Z → 0 as follows:
7
@ @

(Cie Cpe Te ) = (Ue Cie KHie ) + (1 − )(Hbe )(Tb − Te )


@t @Z
i=1
  4

2kg
+ (1 − )(1 − emf )as (Ts − Te ) + (1 − ) Rl KHrl0 : (27)
dp
i=1

3.3.3. The particle phase


The temperature distribution of the solids in the !uidized bed was obtained by taking the energy balance
around the bed as follows:
       
rate of heat enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy in
 accumulation  =  in by  −  out by  +  by chemical  − heat loss : (28)
to surroundings
in particles gases gases reaction
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 449

Similarly, the energy balance of the particles can be written from Eq. (28) as follows:
7 7
 
@Ts 1 @

0
=  Ub Cib KHib + Ue Cie KHie + Rl KHrl
@t W Cps @Z
i=1 i=1

4

 
T s − Te
+ (1 − ) Rl KHrl0 − : (29)
1=20ri he + ln r0 =ri =20r0 l + 1=20r0 h0
i=1

3.3.4. The initial conditions


The initial conditions are as follows:
Tj = Ti0
Tb = Ti0
at t = 0 and 0 6 Z 6 H: (30)
Ts = Ti0
Tie = Ti0

3.3.5. Boundary conditions


The boundary conditions are as follows:
Tj = Tgi
at Z = 0 and t ¿ 0; (31)
Te = Tgi

Tb = Tj at Z = Lj and t  0; (32)

Ts = Tb at Z = Lsb and t  0; (33)

@Tb
=0
@Z
at Z = H and t  0: (34)
@Te
=0
@Z

3.4. Tar formation

The chemical formula for tar is CHx Oy . The parameters (x; y) are temperature and heating rate dependent.
Instantaneous devolatilization of straw was visually observed by several researches in !uidized bed gasication
[12,19]. Ergudenler [20] found that extracting the tar increased the quality of the results in his model. From
tar yield studies of wheat straw, Corella et al. [21] found that the best empirical equation for the tar yield is
as follows:

TAR y = 3598:0 EXP−0:0029Ts : (35)

3.5. Fuel devolatilization

Devolatilization is a very complicated process and the distribution of products is particularly sensitive to the
rate of heating and the residence time in the reactor [22]. The products of pyrolysis are CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and
450 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

CH4 . The simplication of considering the reaction products to consist of only CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and CH4
has some experimental support from the pilot plant results [23,20,24]. The gases in their study did, however,
contain some C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 and tar in addition to CH4 , but considering these as CH4 did not change
the overall results. The simplied product gas compositions can be used as a rst approximation.
To estimate the composition of volatiles, 1 kg of straw releases (during devolatilization) atomic weights,
nO , nH and nC of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, respectively. Under the assumption that volatiles contain only
CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and CH4 , the elemental balances can be written as follows:

3.5.1. Oxygen balance

nCO + 2nCO2 + nH2 O = nO : (36)

3.5.2. Carbon balance

nCO + 2nCO2 + nCH4 = nC : (37)

3.5.3. Hydrogen balance

2nH2 O + 4nCH4 + 2nH2 = nH : (38)

The char is assumed to contain no hydrogen or oxygen, but only pure carbon. Thus, the following equation
can be written to describe the number of moles of carbon:
Cbiomass (1 − Rs )
nC = : (39)
12
For simplication, the following denition can be written for RCO and RCH :
nCO
RCO = ; (40)
nCO2
nCH4
RCH = : (41)
nH 2

Therefore, the number of moles resulting from the devolatilization of 1 kg straw could be determined.

3.6. Minimizing the free energy to calculate the gas compositions

The number of moles of CO2 , CO, H2 , H2 O, CH4 , O2 and char which enter into the system react together
while the nitrogen was assumed to be an inert gas. The total number of moles, which enter the gasier from
the straw volatiles and the gasifying agent, can be calculated as follows:

ntot = nCO2 + nCO + nH2 O + nH2

+ nCH4 + nO2 + nN2 : (42)

Smith and Van ness [25] derived the following equation to minimize the free energy:

KG0 + RT ln (yi P) + k aik = 0: (43)


k
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 451

Eq. (43) represents a simultaneous set of N + W equations in which N represents the number of produced
gas species while W represents the elemental balance equations. There are two reacting systems: the bubble
phase (which is a single gas phase containing CO2 , CO, H2 O, CH4 and N2 ), the emulsion phase (which
allows the existence of solid carbon phase) and the gaseous phase with all six gas species present. Nitrogen
is an inert gas and its reaction with O2 is neglected. The approach adapted by Bacon et al. [5] for solving
Eq. (43) is rst to linearize ln(yi P) by Taylor’s expansion followed by solving the linearized equations with
successive iteration. The solution can be written in the following linear form:

AX = B: (44)

4. Derivation of the model parameters

4.1. Fluidized bed hydrodynamics

4.1.1. Particle diameter and density


To minimize the complexities resulting from the non-uniform particle size distribution in the bed, the
average particle diameter is used to represent all particles in the reactor and can be calculated as follows:
1
dp = n : (45)
i xi =dpi
All the hydrodynamic parameters are based on the binary particle mixture of char particles and refractory
material. The mean diameter (db ) and density ( b ) of the particle mixture can be calculated using Eqs. (46)
and (47), respectively:
dc dcr (mc + mcr )
dp = (46)
dc mcr + dcr mc
and
dc dcr (mc + mcr )
b = : (47)
dc mcr = cr + dcr mc = c

4.1.2. Bed voidage at minimum =uidization velocity


Minimum !uidization voidage ( mf ) is assumed for the ring, into which some particles are pushed as they
enter the transitional segment from below and others fall back from above the bed surface. To predict the
minimum !uidization voidage, the following equation by Abrahamssen and Geldart [26] was used:

mf = 0:4025 + 603:7dp : (48)

4.1.3. Minimum =uidization velocity


The minimum !uidization velocity (Umf ) is the minimum velocity at which the bed moves from the xed
state to the !uidizing state. The Umf is a function of particle shape, size, density and !uidizing gas transport
properties. Several correlation’s have been developed for the estimation of Umf . To estimate the minimum
!uidization velocity of straw at minimum !uidization conditions, the equation developed by Botterill and
Bessant [27] was used:
 
 
Umf = [ (1135:7 + 0:0408Ar) − 33:7]: (49)
g d p
452 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

The Archimedes number was calculated as follows:


d3p g ( s − g )g
Ar = : (50)
2

4.1.4. Bubble velocity


The bubble velocity (Ub ) can be calculated using the equation developed by Davidson and Harison [28]:

Ub = U − Umf + 0:711 (gdb ): (51)
Bed hydrodynamics are related to the bubble diameter in the bubbling region. It was assumed that bubbles
are uniform in size at any cross section of the bed but grow by coalescence with other bubbles while rising
throughout the bed. Mori and Wen [29] proposed a semi-empirical correlation for bubble growth as follows:
 
0:3Z
dp = dbm − (dbm − dbo ) exp : (52)
dt
The terms dbm and dbo were calculated as follows:
dbm = 1:64[A(U − Umf )]0:4 ; (53)
 0:4
A(U − Umf )
dbo = 0:872 : (54)
nd

4.1.5. Slugging velocity


The bubble velocity in the slugging region and the slugging velocity in a continuously !uidized bed reactor
were calculated using the equation developed by Mori and Wen [29]:

Us = U − Umf + 0:35 (gdb ): (55)

4.1.6. Emulsion velocity


The emulsion phase gas velocity (Ue ) was calculated as follows [28]:
Umf
Ue = : (56)
(1 − )
The volume fraction of the bubble phase () was calculated as follows:
(U − Umf )
= : (57)
Ub

4.2. Jetting region

The gas discharge from the orices of a gas distributor takes the form of a jet.

4.2.1. Jet height


The correlation developed by Merry [30] gives reasonable predictions of jet penetration depth at high
temperature conditions. This correlation was used to predict the depth of the jetting zone and was written as
follows:
 0:3 2  
Lj g d U
= 5:2 1:3 −1 : (58)
d s d p d g
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 453

4.2.2. Mass transfer coe>cient in jet zone


Behie et al. [31] proposed the following simple model to describe the mass transfer between the jet and
the emulsion phase:
4kj
(kje )j = : (59)
d  j

4.2.3. Heat transfer coe>cient in jet zone


Behie et al. [32] simplied the following correlation to describe the heat transfer coe8cient between the
jet and the emulsion phase:
4hj
(Hje )j = : (60)
d

4.3. Bubbling region

The bubbling region begins after the jet height until the bubble diameter becomes one third the bed diameter.

4.3.1. Mass transfer coe>cient in bubble zone


The following empirical correlation was used to approximate the gas interchange coe8cient between the
bubble and the emulsion gas [33]:
0:11
(Kbe )b = : (61)
db

4.3.2. Heat transfer coe>cient in bubble zone


The following equations were used to predict the heat interchange coe8cient between the bubble and the
emulsion phases [34]:
Between bubble and cloud:
 
Umf CCpg 10:4(kg CCpg )0:5
(Hbc )b = 4:5 + : (62)
dp db1:25

Between cloud and emulsion:


 0:5
emf kg CCpg Ub
(Hce )b = 6:78 : (63)
d3b

Between bubble and emulsion:


1 1 1
= + : (64)
(Hbe )b (Hbc )b (Hce )b

4.4. Slugging region

4.4.1. Slugging height


The slugging region is the region, which starts after the bubbles become one-third of the bed diameter.
454 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

4.4.2. Mass interchange coe>cient in slugging zone


The gas interchange between the slug and the cloud-wake consists of additive bulk !ow and di9usion
transfer terms. Homeland and Davidson [35] gave the following expression for the gas interchange coe8cient:
 0:5  0:25 
1 16emf I Dg g
(Kbc )s = Umf + : (65)
dt m 1 + emf 0 dt

The term m and I are calculated as follows:


 0:5
H − L b − Lj H − L b − Lj
m= − 0:495 + 0:061; (66)
dt dt
 0:8625
H − L b − Lj
I = 0:379 : (67)
dt

Ragraman and Potter [36] derived the following expression for the gas interchange coe8cient between the
cloud-wake and emulsion phases and between slug and emulsion phases, respectively:
1−
(Kce )s = (0:35emf (gdt )0:5 − Umf ); (68)
TDdt 

1 1 1
= + : (69)
(Kbe )s (Kbc )s (Kce )s

4.4.3. Heat interchange coe>cient in slugging zone


The heat interchange coe8cient between slugging and emulsion phases can be calculated as follows [36]:
 0:5  0:5 
1 16emf I kg CCpg g
(Hbc )s = Umf CCpg + ; (70)
dt m 1 + emf 0 dt

1−
(Hce )s = (0:35emf (gdt )0:5 − Umf )CCpg ; (71)
TDdt 

1 1 1
= + : (72)
(Hbe )s (Hbc )s (Hce )s

4.5. Heat transfer between interstitial gas and solids

The resistance for mass transfer between the interstitial gas and the solid surface is included in the rate laws
for the heterogeneous reaction, which are expressed in terms of concentrations. The heat transfer coe8cient
can be obtained from a correlation proposed by Ranz and Marshall [37] as follows:

Nu = 2:0 + a(Pr)b (Re)c : (73)

Nusselt, Prandtl and Reynold’s numbers can be calculated as follows:


h p dp
Nu = ; (74)
kg
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 455

h p dp
Pr = ; (75)
kg

dp Ub
Re = : (76)


The overall heat transfer between particles and interstitial gas is calculated, by considering each particle to
be a sphere bathed in a stagnant !uid, as follows:
2:0kg
hp = : (77)
dp

4.6. Transport and thermodynamic properties

4.6.1. Viscosity of gases


Viscosity of reactor gases is polynomials in temperature and can be described by the following equation
[38]:

 = a1 + b1 T + c1 T 2 + d1 T 3 + e1 T 4 + f1 T 5 : (78)

The equation recommended by Toulkian et al. [39] for steam was used:

H2 O = [80:4 + 0:407(T − 273:15) × 10−7 ] 273 ¿ T ¿ 973(K): (79)

4.6.2. Viscosity of the gas mixture


The viscosity of the gas mixture can be calculated from the following equation:
7

ij = yi  i : (80)
i=1

4.6.3. Thermal conductivity of the gases


Toulkian et al. [40] correlated the thermal conductivity as follows:

Kgi = a2 + b2 T + c2 T 2 + d2 T 3 : (81)

4.6.4. Thermal conductivity of gas mixture


The thermal conductivity of the gas mixture can be calculated as follows:
7

Kij = yi Kgi : (82)


i=1

4.6.5. Heat capacity


Heat capacity data are used to correct the free energy (G 0 f), the heat of formation (H 0 f) and the enthalpy
of the gas mixture to the temperature of interest. In all calculations, gases or gas mixtures are assumed to be
ideal (the heat of mixing and the pressure e9ect on enthalpy are neglected). The Reference state is taken as
the element at a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 298 K. Thus, the mean heat capacity was dened by
456 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

the following formula given by Reid et al. [41]:


Cpj; i = a3 + b3 T + c3 T 2 + d3 T 3 : (83)

4.6.6. Heat capacity of the gas mixture


The heat capacity of the gas mixture can be calculated as follows [41]:
7

Cpg = yi Cpg; i : (84)


i=1

4.6.7. Heat of formation



The gaseous heat of formation at 25 C were taken from Reid and Prausnits [41]. The heat of reaction at

25 C was calculated from the heat of formation as follows:
N

KHrj0 = Vi Kfi0 : (85)


i=1

4.6.8. The higher heating value


The higher heating value of the produced gas can be calculated as follows [41]:
7

HHV = KHCi : (86)


i=1

5. Finite element approximation

The nite element method is a numerical procedure for obtaining solutions to many of the physical prob-
lems governed by di9erential or partial di9erential equations, which are encountered in engineering analyses.
It has two characteristics that distinguish it from other numerical procedures: (a) it utilizes an integral for-
mulation to generate a system of algebraic equations and (b) it uses continuous piecewise smooth functions
for approximating the unknown quantities [42]. By approximating the time derivative of Cj (t), the following
numerical representation at any interior node can be obtained [43]:
 
k+1 k k+1 k k+1 k+1 k k
1 Ci+1 − Ci+1 Cik+1 − Cik Ci−1 − Ci−1 Ci+1 − Ci−1 Ci+1 − Ci−1
+4 + +  + (1 − )
6 Kt Kt Kt 2 KZ 2 KZ

C k+1 − 2Cik+1 + Ci−1
k+1 k
Ci+1 − 2Cik + Ci−1
k
− Di  i+1 + (1 − ) + Kbe (Cibk − Ceik ) − Rl = 0: (87)
(KZ)2 (KZ)2

The set of equations is written symbolically as follows:


[RR] = [K][Y ] − [F] = [0]: (88)
The numerical solution of the model equations was carried out as follows:

5.1. Carbon dioxide

The nite element approximation for the carbon dioxide equations were written as follows:
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 457

5.1.1. In the bubble phase



k+1
1 C1bk+1 k
i+1 − C1bi+1 C1bk+1
i − C1b k
i C1b i−1 − C1b k
i−1
+4 +
6 Kt Kt Kt

C1bk+1 k+1
i+1 − C1bi−1 C1bki+1 − C1bki−1
+  + (1 − )
2 KZ 2 KZ

C1bk+1 k+1
i+1 − 2C1bi + C1bk+1
i−1 C1bki+1 − 2C1bki + C1bki−1
− Di  + (1 − )
(KZ)2 (KZ)2

+ Kbe (C1bkib − C1eik ) − Rl = 0: (89)

5.1.2. In the emulsion phase



k+1 k k+1 k
1 C1ei+1 − C1ei+1 C1eik+1 − C1eik C1ei−1 − C1ei−1
+4 +
6 Kt Kt Kt

k+1 k+1 k k
C1ei+1 − C1ei−1 C1ei+1 − C1ei−1
+  + (1 − )
2 KZ 2 KZ

k+1
C1ei+1 − 2C1eik+1 + C1ei−1
k+1 k
C1ei+1 − 2C1eik + C1ei−1
k
− Di  + (1 − )
(KZ)2 (KZ)2

+ Kbe (C1bkib − C1eik ) − Rl = 0: (90)

5.2. Temperature equations

Also, the nite element approximation for the temperature equations were written as follows:

5.2.1. Bubble temperature


The nite element approximation of the bubble temperature can be calculated as follows:

Cib Cpb Tbk+1 k
i+1 − Tbi+1 Tbk+1
i − Tbki Tbk+1 k
i−1 − Tbi−1
+4 +
6 Kt Kt Kt

Tbk+1 − Tbk+1 Tbk − Tbki−1
Ub Cib Cpb  i+1 i−1
+ (1 − ) i+1 + Hbe (Tbkib − Teik ) + Rl KHrl : (91)
2 KZ 2 KZ

5.2.2. Emulsion temperature


The nite element approximation of the emulsion temperature can be calculated as follows:

k+1 k k+1 k
Cie Cpe Tei+1 − Tei+1 Teik+1 − Teik Tei−1 − Tei−1
+4 +
6 Kt Kt Kt
458 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462


Tek+1 − Tei−1
k+1
Tek − Tei−1
k
= Ue Cie Cpe  i+1 + (1 − ) i+1
2 KZ 2 KZ
 
2kg
+ (1 − )Hbe (Tbkib − Teik ) + (1 − )(1 − emf )as
dp
4

×(Tsik − Tik ) + (1 − ) Rl KHrl : (92)


i=1

5.2.3. Solid temperature


The same technique was used to solve the partial di9erential equation of the solids temperature [19].

5.3. Stability

To be able to formulate stability criteria for the dynamic nite element model and for the related equations,
the following correlation was used [44]:
 
KZ 2
0:5Ub (KZ − Ub Kt) 6 D 6 0:5 − 0:5Ub2 Kt: (93)
Kt
The left-hand side inequality of this equation state that D must be non-negative. This observation was used
to dene an optimal grid system (a grid system which uses a layer thickness as large as possible without
becoming unstable). The increments in the vertical direction and in the time domain can be described by the
following equations:
4D
KZ = ; (94)
Ub
2D
Kt = : (95)
Ub2
These equations were used in the selection of time step and layer thickness for the model.

5.4. The computational algorithm

A dynamic computer simulation program was developed to simulate the performance of the biomass !uidized
bed gasier. The computer program is called Finite Element Analysis of Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasication
(FEAFBBG). The model consists of the main program and thirty subroutines. Calculations begin at the bottom
of the !uidized bed where the gas and the biomass enters. The computational algorithm is summarized in the
!ow chart given in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows the main program and the supporting subroutines. The computer
program is written in FORTRAN 77 for the HP UNIEX interactive computer. A detailed description of the
program and its organization is presented in Sadaka [19]. The program can be adapted to specic needs of
potential users.

6. Discussion and conclusions

The model developed in this study is a two-phase model based on the two-phase theory of !uidization. The
mass and energy balances were taken into consideration and the minimization of the free energy technique
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 459

Fig. 3. The computer simulation !ow chart.

was used to calculate the gas mole fractions at the devolatilization stage. The !uidized bed hydrodynamic
characteristics and the gas thermodynamic properties were also taken into consideration. The !uidized bed
was divided into three zones: jetting, bubbling and slugging. The mass and heat transfer coe8cients were
calculated for each zone in both bubble and emulsion phases. The nite element method was used to solve
460 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Fig. 4. The computer program organization.

the partial di9erential equations. The input variables of the computer program included: !uidization velocity,
steam !ow rate and biomass to steam ratio.
The !uidized bed gasier was divided into three zones (jet, bubbles and slug). Each zone was assumed to
contain solid free gas and an emulsion phase (gas mixed with solids) [18,28]. Slugs occurred in improper
!uidization. It was incorporated into the model to give wide range of predictions for all !uidization conditions.
Chang et al. [7] and Bacon et al. [5] used char gasication reactions to predict the gas compositions at the
exit of the gasier. Such reactions cannot represent the biomass gasication process due to its high volatile
content (70 –90%). Ergudenler et al. [17] and Buekens and Schoeters [13] visually observed the release
of volatile matter almost instantaneously, as soon as the biomass is introduced to the gasier. Neglecting
the hydrodynamic properties of the !uidization phenomenon would, therefore, decrease the model e8ciency
because the jet, bubble and slug heat and mass transfer coe8cients play very important roles in the gasication
results. Also, the transport and thermodynamic properties of the gas and its composition vary from place to
another. Therefore, the advantage of dealing with the hydrodynamic, transport and thermodynamic properties
is that the gas compositions can be predicted at a fairly good accuracy without the assumption that they are
constant throughout the bed. Although most of the conversion takes place in the dense bed, it is known that
char conversion continues in the freeboard region as well [19].
Desrosiers [45] reported that, no hydrocarbon other than CH4 is thermodynamically stable under gasication
conditions. Although C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 and other higher hydrocarbons (oil and tar) are produced in the
gasier, they are accepted as nonequilibrium products. Therefore, in this model, all the hydrocarbons were
considered as CH4 .
S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 461

The model developed in this study is unique in considering all the variables taking place in the !uidized
bed gasication. It is capable of predicting the bed temperature, gas mole fractions, gas higher heating value
and gas production rate. The model comprehends the biomass gasication in a self-sustainable system and
emphasizes the hydrodynamic, transport and thermodynamic properties of the gases in both the bubble and
emulsion phases. It is capable of predicting the gasier performance during dynamic operation as well as steady
state operation. Applying the minimization of free energy technique and using the nite element method to
solve the partial di9erential equations gave reasonable and stable solutions.

References

[1] FAO. Yearbook production 1992. Food and Agriculture Organization, vol. 46. FAO Basic Data Unit Statistics Dvison, Rome, Italy,
1997.
[2] Langille WH, Ghaly AE. Environmental impact of alternative utilization of cereal straw. ASAE paper no. 91-6008, Michigan,
St. Joseph, 1991.
[3] Ghaly AE, Al-Taweel AM, Hamdullaphur F, Ugwe I. Physical and chemical properties of cereal straws as related to thermochemical
conversion. In: Hogan EN, editor. Proceeding of the Seventh Bioenergy R&D Seminar. Ottawa, Ont., 1989. p. 655 – 61.
[4] Deglise X, Magne P. Pyrolysis and industrial of charcoal. In: Hall DO, Overend RP, editors. Biomass regenerable energy, 1987.
p. 221–35.
[5] Bacon DW, Downie J, Hsu JC, Peters JA. Modelling of !uidized bed wood gasiers. In: Overend RP, Milne TA, Mudge KL,
editors. Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion. London, UK: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1985. p. 717–32.
[6] Sundaresan S, Amundson N. Studies in char gasication-II: The Davidson–Harrison two phase model of !uidization Chemical
Engineering Science 1979;34:355–8.
[7] Chang CC, Fan LT, Walawender WP. Dynamic modelling of biomass gasication in a !uidized bed. American Institute of Chemical
Engineers Journal 1980;214:80–90.
[8] Raman KP, Walawender WP, Fan LT, Chang CC. Mathematical model for !uid bed gasication of biomass material. Application
to feedlot manures. Industrial Engineering Chemical Process Design and Development 1981;20:686–92.
[9] van den Aarsen FG, Beenackers AA, van Swaaij WP. Modelling of a !uidized bed wood gasier. In: Ostergaard VK, Sorensen A,
editors. Fluidization. New York: Engineering Foundation, 1986. p. 521–30.
[10] Ping-Chung R. Modelling a !uidized bed coal gasication reactor. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, North Carolina State University, North
Carolina, 1987.
[11] Sett A, Bhattacharya SC. Mathematical modelling of a !uidized bed charcoal gasier. Applied Energy 1988;30:161–86.
[12] Ergudenler A, Ghaly AE, Hamdullahpur F, Al-Taweel AM. Mathematical modeling of a !uidized bed gasier. Part I—model
development. Energy Source 1997;19:1065–84.
[13] Buekens AG, Schoeters JG. Modelling of biomass gasication. In: Overend RP, Milne TA, Mudge KL, editors. Fundamentals of
thermochemical biomass conversion. London, UK: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1985. p. 619–89.
[14] Howard JB, Stephens RH, Kosstrain H, Ahmed SM. Pilot scale conversion of mixed wastes to foul. Vol. I, project report To EPA,
W.W. Libertick, Project O8cer, 1979.
[15] Grace JR, Clift R. On the two phase theory of !uidization. Chemical Engineering Science 1974;29:327–34.
[16] Davidson JF, Harrison D, Darton RC, La Nauze RD. In: Lapidus L, Amundson NR, editors. Chemical reactor theory, a review.
New York: Prentice-Hall, 1979.
[17] Rowe PN, MacGillivray HJ, Cheesman DJ. Gas discharge from an orice into a gas !uidized bed. Transactions of the Institution
of Chemical Engineers 1979;57(3):194–9.
[18] Fitzgerald TJ. Coarse particle systems. In: Davidson JF, Clift R, Harrison D, editors. Fluidization. New York: Academic Press, 1985.
[19] Sadaka SS. Air steam gasication of wheat straw in a !uidized bed reactor. Unpublished Thesis, Egypt, Alexandria University, 1994.
[20] Ergudenler A. Gasication of wheat straw in a dual-distributor type !uidized bed reactor. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Technical
University of Nova Scotia, NS, Canada, 1993.
[21] Corella J, Herguido J, Gonzalez-Saiz J. Steam gasication of Biomass in !uidized bed-e9ect of the type of feedstock. In: Ferrero GL,
Maniatis K, Buekens A, Bridgwater AV, editors. Pyrolysis and gasications. London: Elsevier Applied Science, 1989. p. 618–23.
[22] Milne T. Pyrolysis—The thermal behaviour of biomass below 600◦ C. A survey of biomass gasication, 1979; vol. II.
SERI=TR-33-239 [Chapter 5].
[23] Black JW, Bircher KG, Chisholm KA. Fluidized bed gasication of solid wastes and biomass—The C.I.L. program. Symposium on
Thermal Conversion of Solid Waste and Biomass. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1979.
[24] Mansary KG. Gasication of rice husk in a !uidized bed reactor. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia,
Canada, 1998.
[25] Smith JM, Van Ness HC. Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1976. p. 426.
462 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

[26] Abrahamsen AR, Geldart D. Behaviour of gas-!uidized beds of ne powders part I. homogenous expansion. Powder Technology
1980;26:35–42.
[27] Botterill JS, Bessant DJ. The !ow properties of !uidized solids. Powder Technology 1976;14:131–7.
[28] Davidson JF, Harrison D. Fluidised particles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
[29] Mori S, Wen CY. Estimation of bubble diameter in gaseous !uidized beds. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal
1975;21(1):109–15.
[30] Merry JM. Penetration of vertical jets into !uidized beds. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal 1975;21(3):507–10.
[31] Behie LA, Bergougnou MA, Baker CG. Mass transfer from a grid jet in a large gas !uidized bed. In: Keairns DL, editor. Fluidization
technology, vol. I. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1976. p. 261–78.
[32] Behie LA, Bergougnou MA, Baker CG. Heat transfer from a grid jet in a large !uidized bed. Canadian Journal of Chemical
Engineers 1975;53(2):25–30.
[33] Wen CY, Fan LT. Heterogeneous models. In: Albright LF, Maddox RN, McKetta JJ, editors. Models for !ow systems and chemicals
reactors. Chemical processing and engineering, vol. 3. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1975.
[34] Kunii D, Levenspiel O. Fluidization Engineering. New York: Wiley, 1969.
[35] Homeland S, Davidson JF. Chemical conversion in a slugging !uidized bed. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers,
46T 1968:190–203.
[36] Ragraman J, Potter OE. Countercurrent backmixing model for slugging !uidized bed reactors. American Institute of Chemical
Engineers Journal 1978;24(4):698–704.
[37] Ranz WE, Marshall WR. Evaporation from drops, Part II. Chemical Engineering Progress 1952;48(4):173–80.
[38] Rohsnow MW, Hatenett JP. Handbook of heat transfer. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973.
[39] Toulkian YS, Saxena SC, Hestermans P. Thermophysical properties of matter, vol. II. Viscosity. New York: LFL=Plenum Press,
1970.
[40] Toulkian YS, Liley YS, Saxena SC. Thermophysical properties of matter, vol. III. Thermal conductivity. New York: LFL=Plenum
Press, 1970.
[41] Reid CR, Prausnits JM, Sherwood CK. The properties of gases and liquids. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.
[42] Segeriland LJ. Applied nite element analysis, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1984.
[43] Gray WG, Pinder GF. An analysis of the numerical solution of the transport equation. The American Geographical Union
1976;12(3):547–55.
[44] Genuchten MT, Wierenga PJ. Simulation of one dimensional solute transfer in porous media. Agricultural Experiments Station.
Bulletin No. 628 1974; 1– 40.
[45] Desrosiers R. Thermodynamics of gas-char reactions. In: Reed TB, editor. Biomass gasication—principles and technology. Park
Ridge, NJ: Noyes Data Corporation, 1981. p. 119–53.

Похожие интересы