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bed reactors: Part I—model development

Samy S. Sadakaa; ∗ , A.E. Ghalyb , M.A. Sabbahc

a Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department, Iowa State University, NSRIC, Ames, IA, 50011, USA

b Biological Engineering Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, B3J.2X4

c Desert Development Center, American University - Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

Received 29 April 1999; received in revised form 26 November 2001; accepted 16 January 2002

Abstract

A two-phase model capable of predicting the performance of !uidized bed biomass air-steam gasication reactor during

dynamic and steady state operations was developed based on the two phase theory of !uidization. Material and energy

balances were taken into consideration and the minimization of free energy technique was used to calculate the gas mole

fractions. The !uidized bed was divided into three zones (jetting, bubbling and slugging) and the mass and heat transfer

coe8cients were calculated for each zone in both bubble and emulsion phases. The model includes the hydrodynamics,

transport and thermodynamic properties of !uidized bed. The nite element method was used to solve the partial di9erential

equations. The input variables of the computer program included !uidization velocity, steam !ow rate and biomass to steam

ratio. The model is capable of predicting the bed temperature, gas mole fractions, higher heating value and production

rate. ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fluidization velocity; Air-steam; Gasication; Higher heating value; Model; Straw

1. Introduction

During the period 1991–1996, the world crop yields of sorghum, corn, rye, rice and wheat increased by

20.1%, 19.5%, 30.1%, 8.7% and 4.6%, respectively. Crop production will continue to increase to feed the

ever-increasing population of the world. The current world production of cereals is about 2:0 × 109 metric

tones [1]. This means that about 2:34 × 109 ton of straw are produced annually for which the market is

becoming rather limited [2]. Ghaly et al. [3] reported that wheat crop alone yields over 750 million ton of

straw of which 60 –80% can be utilized for energy through energy conversion processes such as pyrolysis,

combustion and gasication. Gasication is the process by which organic matter is converted to gas, tar and

char through thermal decomposition in a low oxygen environment, followed by secondary reactions of the

resulting volatiles [4]. The produced combustible char and tar can be burned with air to provide the necessary

energy for processing [5].

E-mail address: sadaka@iastate.edu (S.S. Sadaka).

0961-9534/02/$ - see front matter ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 6 1 - 9 5 3 4 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 2 3 - 5

440 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Nomenclature

is a weighting coe8cient lying between 0 and 1, Z = iZ; t = kt

is the volume fraction of the emulsion phase (dimensionless)

is the void fraction in the bed at minimum !uidization (dimensionless)

is the weight of straw in the reactor (kg)

b is the binary mixture density (kg m−3 )

b is the volume fraction of the bubble phase (dimensionless)

c is the sand density (kg m−3 )

cr is the char density (kg m−3 )

e is the volume fraction of the emulsion phase (dimensionless)

is the heat of formation of species i at 25 C (kJ kmol−1 )

◦

Kf0 i

g is the density of the gas (kg m−3 )

KGfi 0

is the free energy of formation of compound i at temperature T (kJ kg−1 )

KH is the enthalpy of gas (kJ kmol−1 )

KH is the sensible heat of gaseous components in the bubbles (kJ kmol−1 )

KHie is the sensible heat of gaseous components in the emulsion (kJ kmol−1 )

is the heat of reaction j at 25 C (kJ kmole−1 )

◦

KHrj0

KHrl is the heat of reaction (1) at reference temperature (298:15 K) (kJ kmol−1 )

ib is the gas density in the bubble phase (kg m−3 )

j is the jet gas density (kg m−3 )

k is the reaction latent energy (kJ kg−1 )

(kje )j is the volume interchange coe8cient (m3 m−3 (jet) s−1 )

mf is the bed voidage at minimum !uidization conditions (dimensionless)

s is the density of sand particles (kg m−3 )

KZ is the increment in axial direction (m)

is the viscosity of the gas (kg m−1 s−1 )

i is the viscosity (N s m−2 )

A is the bed cross sectional area (m2 )

a1 -f1 are constants (dimensionless)

aik is the number of atoms of kth element present in each molecule of chemical species

(dimensionless)

Ar is Archimedes number (dimensionless)

Cbiomass is the weight of carbon in the straw (kg)

Cib is the concentration of ith species in the bubble phase (kmol m−3 )

Cie is the concentration of ith species in the emulsion phase kmol m−3 )

Cij is the concentration of ith species in the jet region (kmol m−3 )

Ci0 is the initial and inlet concentration of species i (kmol m−3 )

Cis is the concentration of ith species in the slugging region (kmol m−3 )

Cpb is the specic heat of the gas mixture in bubble phase (kJ kmol K −1 )

Cpe is the specic heat of the gas mixture in emulsion phase (kJ kmol K −1 )

Cpg is the mean heat capacity of the gas mixture (kJ kmol−1 K −1 )

Cpg; j is the heat capacity of the jet (kJ kmol−1 K −1 )

Cpj; i is the heat capacity of gas i (kJ kmol−1 K −1 )

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 441

Cs is the concentration of the char (kg char kg inter solids−1 )

d is the nozzle diameter (m)

db is the diameter of the binary mixture (m)

dbm is the maximum bubble diameter (m)

db0 is the initial bubble diameter (m)

dc is the diameter of alumina sand (m)

dcr is the diameter of char (m)

Dg is the gas di9usivity (m2 s−1 )

Dib is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the bubble phase (m2 s−1 )

Die is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the emulsion phase (m2 s−1 )

Dij is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the jet (m2 s−1 )

Dis is the dispersion coe8cient of the ith species in the slugging phase (m2 s−1 )

dp is the bubble diameter (m)

dp is the mean particle diameter (m)

dpi is the mean diameter of particles related to the ith sieve in a sieve analysis (m)

dt is the bed diameter (m)

F is the global force vector

g is the acceleration of gravity, 9:807 (m s−2 )

H is the bed height (m)

Hbe is the heat interchange coe8cient between bubbles and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

HHV is the higher heating value of the gas (kJ m−3 )

hi is the internal heat transfer coe8cient (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )

hj is the heat transfer coe8cient between jet and emulsion phase (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )

h0 is the external heat transfer coe8cient (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )

hp is the heat transfer coe8cient (kJ m−2 s−1 K −1 )

(Hbc )b is the heat interchange coe8cient between bubble and cloud (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

(Hbc )s is the heat interchange coe8cient between slug and cloud (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

(Hbe )b is the heat interchange coe8cient between bubble and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

(Hbe )s is the heat interchange coe8cient between slug and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

(Hce )b is the heat interchange coe8cient between cloud and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

(Hce )s is the heat interchange coe8cient between cloud and emulsion (kJ m−3 s−1 K −1 )

(Hje )j is the heat interchange coe8cient (kJ m−3 (jet) s−1 K −1 )

K is the global sti8ness matrix

Kbe is the volume interchange coe8cient between bubble and emulsion (m3 m−3 (bubble) s−1 )

kg is the thermal conductivity of the gas mixture (kJ m−1 s−1 K −1 )

Kgi is the gas thermal conductivity (MW m−1 K −1 )

kj is the mass transfer coe8cient between jet and emulsion phase (kg m−2 s−1 )

Kje is the gas interchange coe8cient between jet and emulsion phases (s−1 )

Kse is the gas interchange coe8cient between the slugs and emulsion phase (s−1 )

Lj is the jet penetration depth (m)

Lsb is the height at which transition from bubbling to slugging occurs (m)

lsb is the height at which transition from bubbling to slugging occurs (m)

m is the bed material mass (kg)

442 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

n is the sieve number (dimensionless)

nC is the number of moles of carbon in straw (dimensionless)

nCH4 is the number of moles of methane (dimensionless)

nCO is the number of moles of CO (dimensionless)

nCO2 is the number of moles of CO2 (dimensionless)

nd is the number of nozzles (dimensionless)

nH is the number of moles of hydrogen in straw (dimensionless)

nH 2 is the number of moles of hydrogen (dimensionless)

nH 2 O is the number of moles of H2 O (dimensionless)

nN 2 is the number of moles of N2 (dimensionless)

nO is the number of moles of O2 in straw (dimensionless)

nO 2 is the number of moles of O2 (dimensionless)

ntot is the total number of moles (dimensionless)

Nu is Nusselt’s number (dimensionless)

P is the component partial pressure (kPa)

Pr is Prandetl’s number (dimensionless)

R is the universal gas constant (8:314 kJ kmol−1 K −1 )

Re is Reynold’s number (dimensionless)

ri is the internal radius of the bed (m)

Rib is the rate of generation of ith species in the bubble phase (kmol m−3 )

Rie is the rate of generation of ith species in the emulsion phase (kmol s−1 m−3 )

Rij is the rate of generation of ith species in the jet (kmol m−3 )

ris is the rate of generation of ith species in the bubble phase (kg m−3 s−1 )

Ris is the rate of generation of ith species in the slugging region (kmol s−1 m−3 )

Rl is the rate of reaction (kmol s−1 m−1 )

r0 is the external radius of the bed (m)

RR is the vector of residual equations

Rs is the rate of generation of ith species in the bubble phase (kg s−1 )

Rs is the fraction of carbon in the biomass converted into char (dimensionless)

t is the time (s)

T is the temperature (K)

TAR y is the tar yield weight (%)

Tb is the bubble temperature (K)

Tgi is the inlet gas temperature (K)

Ti0 is the initial and inlet temperature of species i (kmol m−3 )

Tr is the reference temperature (298:15 K)

Ts is the initial bed temperature (K)

Ts is the solid’s temperature (K)

U is the inlet gas velocity (m s−1 )

U is the jet nozzle velocity (m s−1 )

Ub is the rising velocity (m s−1 )

Uj is the jet rising velocity (m s−1 )

Umf is the minimum !uidization velocity of straw (m s−1 )

Us is the slugging rising velocity at (m s−1 )

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 443

W is the particle’ s weight per control volume (kg m−3 )

Win is the rate of char inlet to the reactor (kg s−1 )

Wout is the rate of char exiting from reactor (kg s−1 )

xi is the weight fraction of particles retained on the ith sieve (dimensionless)

yi is the mole fraction of component (number of moles of i=total number of moles)

yi is the mole fraction of the gases (dimensionless)

Z is the axial distance from the distributor (m)

Fluidized bed gasiers have been used for converting agricultural wastes into energy. The advantages of

!uidized bed reactors include: good gas solids contact, excellent heat transfer characteristics, better temper-

ature control, large heat storage capacity, good degree of turbulence and high volumetric capacity. Several

researchers studied the e9ects of operating and design parameters on the performance of !uidized bed gasi-

ers theoretically [6 –12]. The existing !uidized bed gasication models can be classied as thermodynamic

models, !ow regime models and transient models. However, most of these gasication models were reported

for coal gasication and those dealing with biomass gasication did not include the hydrodynamic parameters

which a9ect both the mass and heat interchange coe8cients between the bubble and emulsion phases [13].

Howard et al. [14] applied gasication modeling by focusing on the liquid production. In their model, they

did not include the hydrodynamics of the !uidized bed. Five kinetic parameters (water gas reaction, carbon

oxidation reaction, methane formation reaction, water gas shift reaction and methanation reaction) involving

in developing the model were evaluated by tting the model to the experimental data obtained. The model

predicted the oil and did not predict the gas composition. Furthermore, the variations of the assumptions of

gasication models are numerous and even contradicting. This makes the evaluation of these models very di8-

cult with limited experimental data. Very few attempts were found in the literature to simulate a self-sustained

gasication process and that includes the hydrodynamic, transport and thermodynamic properties.

2. Objectives

The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive two-phase dynamic nite element model capable of

describing the !uidized bed biomass gasication phenomenon. The model must be capable of predicting the

temperature distribution in the vertical direction of the bed, the concentration and distribution of each species

in the vertical direction of the bed in both the bubble and emulsion phases, the composition of the produced

gas, the heating value of the produced gas and the produced gas production rate.

3. Model development

The proposed gasication dynamic model represents two stages: instantaneous devolatilization of straw and

combustion of the char at the bottom of the gasier and the gasication in the !uidized bed. Thus, a two-phase

representation of the !uidized bed incorporates the phenomena of jetting, bubbling, slugging and dynamic

mass and energy balances. Fig. 1 shows the !uidized bed domain divided into three regions: jet, bubbles and

slugs. The following assumptions were made regarding to the gas !ow divisions and the !ow patterns of gas

444 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

and solids:

(a) the !uidized bed consists of a dilute phase (jets, bubbles and=or slugs) and an emulsion phase,

(b) the emulsion phase is divided into an interstitial gas phase and a solid phase [15,16],

(c) mass and heat exchange take place between the dilute phase and interstitial gas and between the interstitial

gas and the solids,

(d) the !uidizing gas enters the bed through nozzles in a jet form. The jets degenerate into bubbles, which

rise through the bed and grow by coalescence with other bubbles to form slugs,

(e) slugging occurs if the bubble diameter becomes larger than one third of the reactor diameter, (Slugging

occurs in improper !uidization [17])

(f) the dilute gas and the interstitial gas are in plug !ow and the dilute gas is free of solids,

(g) the gas behaves ideally, and

(h) the produced gas consist of CO, CO2 , H2 , H2 O, CH4 and N2 .

A control volume (KV = A KZ) is xed in space in the !uidized bed gasier as shown in Fig. 2.

A mixture of i and other gases is !owing within the element (KV ). The species i may be produced

by a chemical reaction at a rate R. A mass balance can, therefore, be written in the following

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 445

equation:

net rate net rate net rate of mass rate of mass

rate of mass of mass exchange of species generation

accumulation = of mass

of species i + of species i + i between bubble + of species i :

of species i

by gas !ow by dispersion and emulsion by reaction

(1)

The rate of mass accumulation of species i (change of concentration) can be calculated in the control

volume in the bubble phase as follows:

@ib

A KZ: (2)

@t

The input of species i by the gas !ow across the face at the axial distance Z can be described as follows:

A(ib Ub )Z |Z : (3)

The output of species i by the gas !ow across the face at the axial distance Z + KZ can be described as

follows:

A(ib Ub )Z |Z+KZ : (4)

446 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

The input of species i by dispersion across the face at the axial distance Z can be described as follows:

@ib

Dib A : (5)

@Z Z

The output of species i by dispersion across the face at the axial distance Z + KZ can be described as

follows:

@ib

Dib A : (6)

@Z Z+KZ

The rate of gas interchange between bubble and emulsion phases can be described as follows:

By substituting each term (2) – (8) into Eq. (1), dividing by A. KZ and the number of moles=kg and then

taking the limits at Z → 0, the following equation can be obtained:

@Cib @2 Cib @

= Dib 2

− (Cib Ub ) + Kbe (Cib − Cie ) + Rib : (9)

@t @Z @Z

Fitzgerald [18] reported on his two-phase model of !uidization processes that a !uidized bed consists of a

continuous phase (emulsion phase) where particles are uniformly distributed in a supporting gas stream and

a discontinuous phase (dilute phase) consisting of gases only (no particles) in the form of bubbles, channels

and slugs. Flow and density within the emulsion phase are independently of supercial gas velocity.

Eq. (9) is valid for the three zones and can be rewritten for the jet region as follows:

@Cij @2 Cij @

= Dij 2

− (Cij Uj ) + Kje (Cij − Cie ) + Rij : (10)

@t @Z @Z

Similarly, the mass balance equation for the slugging region can be written as follows:

@Cis @2 Cis @

= Dis 2

− (Cis Us ) + Kse (Cis − Cie ) + Ris : (11)

@t @Z @Z

The bubble and emulsion phases assumed to be separated according to the two-phase theory of !uidization.

Therefore, the mass balance for the gas in the emulsion phase can be written as follows [8]:

@Cie @2 Cie Ue @Cie b Kbe

= Die 2

− + (Cib Ub ) + Kbe (Cib − Cie ) + Rie : (12)

@t @Z e @Z e

Eq. (12) has the same form in the jet, bubble and slugging regions. However, the only factor that changes

in these three regions is the gas interchange coe8cient value Kje , Kbe and Kse in the jet, bubbling and slugging

regions, respectively.

By using the same technique, the mass balance equation for the char can be written as follows:

@Cs

= Win − Wout + Rs : (13)

@t

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 447

The initial conditions are as follows:

Cij = Ci0

Cib = Ci0

Cis = Ci0 at t = 0 and 0 6 Z 6 H: (14)

Cie = Ci0

Cs = 0

The boundary conditions are as follows:

@Cib

Cib − Dib = Ci0

@Z

at Z = 0 and t ¿ 0; (15)

@Cie

Cie − Dib = Ci0

@Z

Cib = Cij at Z = Lj and t 0; (16)

@Cib

=0

@Z

at Z = H and t 0: (18)

@Cie

=0

@Z

The ve species (CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and CH4 ) as well as the char were considered.

Energy balance was performed in the bubbling, emulsion and particle phases for each individual element

on the basis of material balance of the gas and solids.

By taking the same control volume (Fig. 2) with the, the energy balance equation in the bubble phase can

be written as follows [10]:

rate of heat heat input by heat output net heat exchange heat generated

accumulation gas !ow by gas !ow between the by reactions

±

in the bubble = in the bubble − in the bubble + bubble and the in the bubble :

phase phase phase emulsion phase

(19)

The heat accumulation in bubble phase in the control volume can be described as follows.

7

@(Cib Cpb Tb )

A KZ : (20)

@t

i=1

448 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

7

AUb Cib KH : (21)

i=1 Z

7

AUb Cib KH : (22)

i=1 Z+KZ

The heat exchange between bubbles and emulsion phases can be described as follows:

A KZ(Hbe )(Te − Tb ): (23)

The heat generated by chemical reaction can be characterized as follows:

A KZ(Rl KHrl ): (24)

The entire total energy balance in the bubble phase within the control volume can be written by substituting

each term (20) – (24) in Eq. (19), dividing by A KZ and taking the limits at Z → 0 as follows:

7

@Cib Cpb Tb @

@t @Z

i=1

The same technique was used to describe the energy balance in the interstitial gas as follows:

net heat exchange

rate of heat heat input heat output

accumulation = by gas !ow − by gas !ow + between bubble and

emulsion in

in emulsion phase in emulsion phase in emulsion phase

control volume

heat exchange heat generated

+ between solid and gas ± by reactions : (26)

in emulsion phase in emulsion phase

The total energy balance in the control volume in the interstitial gas can be described by substituting each

term in Eq. (26), dividing by A KZ and taking the limits at Z → 0 as follows:

7

@ @

@t @Z

i=1

4

2kg

+ (1 − )(1 − emf )as (Ts − Te ) + (1 − ) Rl KHrl0 : (27)

dp

i=1

The temperature distribution of the solids in the !uidized bed was obtained by taking the energy balance

around the bed as follows:

rate of heat enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy in

accumulation = in by − out by + by chemical − heat loss : (28)

to surroundings

in particles gases gases reaction

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 449

Similarly, the energy balance of the particles can be written from Eq. (28) as follows:

7 7

@Ts 1 @

0

= Ub Cib KHib + Ue Cie KHie + Rl KHrl

@t W Cps @Z

i=1 i=1

4

T s − Te

+ (1 − ) Rl KHrl0 − : (29)

1=20ri he + ln r0 =ri =20r0 l + 1=20r0 h0

i=1

The initial conditions are as follows:

Tj = Ti0

Tb = Ti0

at t = 0 and 0 6 Z 6 H: (30)

Ts = Ti0

Tie = Ti0

The boundary conditions are as follows:

Tj = Tgi

at Z = 0 and t ¿ 0; (31)

Te = Tgi

Tb = Tj at Z = Lj and t 0; (32)

@Tb

=0

@Z

at Z = H and t 0: (34)

@Te

=0

@Z

The chemical formula for tar is CHx Oy . The parameters (x; y) are temperature and heating rate dependent.

Instantaneous devolatilization of straw was visually observed by several researches in !uidized bed gasication

[12,19]. Ergudenler [20] found that extracting the tar increased the quality of the results in his model. From

tar yield studies of wheat straw, Corella et al. [21] found that the best empirical equation for the tar yield is

as follows:

Devolatilization is a very complicated process and the distribution of products is particularly sensitive to the

rate of heating and the residence time in the reactor [22]. The products of pyrolysis are CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and

450 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

CH4 . The simplication of considering the reaction products to consist of only CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and CH4

has some experimental support from the pilot plant results [23,20,24]. The gases in their study did, however,

contain some C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 and tar in addition to CH4 , but considering these as CH4 did not change

the overall results. The simplied product gas compositions can be used as a rst approximation.

To estimate the composition of volatiles, 1 kg of straw releases (during devolatilization) atomic weights,

nO , nH and nC of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon, respectively. Under the assumption that volatiles contain only

CO2 , CO, H2 O, H2 and CH4 , the elemental balances can be written as follows:

The char is assumed to contain no hydrogen or oxygen, but only pure carbon. Thus, the following equation

can be written to describe the number of moles of carbon:

Cbiomass (1 − Rs )

nC = : (39)

12

For simplication, the following denition can be written for RCO and RCH :

nCO

RCO = ; (40)

nCO2

nCH4

RCH = : (41)

nH 2

Therefore, the number of moles resulting from the devolatilization of 1 kg straw could be determined.

The number of moles of CO2 , CO, H2 , H2 O, CH4 , O2 and char which enter into the system react together

while the nitrogen was assumed to be an inert gas. The total number of moles, which enter the gasier from

the straw volatiles and the gasifying agent, can be calculated as follows:

Smith and Van ness [25] derived the following equation to minimize the free energy:

k

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 451

Eq. (43) represents a simultaneous set of N + W equations in which N represents the number of produced

gas species while W represents the elemental balance equations. There are two reacting systems: the bubble

phase (which is a single gas phase containing CO2 , CO, H2 O, CH4 and N2 ), the emulsion phase (which

allows the existence of solid carbon phase) and the gaseous phase with all six gas species present. Nitrogen

is an inert gas and its reaction with O2 is neglected. The approach adapted by Bacon et al. [5] for solving

Eq. (43) is rst to linearize ln(yi P) by Taylor’s expansion followed by solving the linearized equations with

successive iteration. The solution can be written in the following linear form:

AX = B: (44)

To minimize the complexities resulting from the non-uniform particle size distribution in the bed, the

average particle diameter is used to represent all particles in the reactor and can be calculated as follows:

1

dp = n : (45)

i xi =dpi

All the hydrodynamic parameters are based on the binary particle mixture of char particles and refractory

material. The mean diameter (db ) and density (b ) of the particle mixture can be calculated using Eqs. (46)

and (47), respectively:

dc dcr (mc + mcr )

dp = (46)

dc mcr + dcr mc

and

dc dcr (mc + mcr )

b = : (47)

dc mcr =cr + dcr mc =c

Minimum !uidization voidage ( mf ) is assumed for the ring, into which some particles are pushed as they

enter the transitional segment from below and others fall back from above the bed surface. To predict the

minimum !uidization voidage, the following equation by Abrahamssen and Geldart [26] was used:

The minimum !uidization velocity (Umf ) is the minimum velocity at which the bed moves from the xed

state to the !uidizing state. The Umf is a function of particle shape, size, density and !uidizing gas transport

properties. Several correlation’s have been developed for the estimation of Umf . To estimate the minimum

!uidization velocity of straw at minimum !uidization conditions, the equation developed by Botterill and

Bessant [27] was used:

Umf = [ (1135:7 + 0:0408Ar) − 33:7]: (49)

g d p

452 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

d3p g (s − g )g

Ar = : (50)

2

The bubble velocity (Ub ) can be calculated using the equation developed by Davidson and Harison [28]:

Ub = U − Umf + 0:711 (gdb ): (51)

Bed hydrodynamics are related to the bubble diameter in the bubbling region. It was assumed that bubbles

are uniform in size at any cross section of the bed but grow by coalescence with other bubbles while rising

throughout the bed. Mori and Wen [29] proposed a semi-empirical correlation for bubble growth as follows:

0:3Z

dp = dbm − (dbm − dbo ) exp : (52)

dt

The terms dbm and dbo were calculated as follows:

dbm = 1:64[A(U − Umf )]0:4 ; (53)

0:4

A(U − Umf )

dbo = 0:872 : (54)

nd

The bubble velocity in the slugging region and the slugging velocity in a continuously !uidized bed reactor

were calculated using the equation developed by Mori and Wen [29]:

Us = U − Umf + 0:35 (gdb ): (55)

The emulsion phase gas velocity (Ue ) was calculated as follows [28]:

Umf

Ue = : (56)

(1 − )

The volume fraction of the bubble phase () was calculated as follows:

(U − Umf )

= : (57)

Ub

The gas discharge from the orices of a gas distributor takes the form of a jet.

The correlation developed by Merry [30] gives reasonable predictions of jet penetration depth at high

temperature conditions. This correlation was used to predict the depth of the jetting zone and was written as

follows:

0:3 2

Lj g d U

= 5:2 1:3 −1 : (58)

d s d p d g

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 453

Behie et al. [31] proposed the following simple model to describe the mass transfer between the jet and

the emulsion phase:

4kj

(kje )j = : (59)

d j

Behie et al. [32] simplied the following correlation to describe the heat transfer coe8cient between the

jet and the emulsion phase:

4hj

(Hje )j = : (60)

d

The bubbling region begins after the jet height until the bubble diameter becomes one third the bed diameter.

The following empirical correlation was used to approximate the gas interchange coe8cient between the

bubble and the emulsion gas [33]:

0:11

(Kbe )b = : (61)

db

The following equations were used to predict the heat interchange coe8cient between the bubble and the

emulsion phases [34]:

Between bubble and cloud:

Umf CCpg 10:4(kg CCpg )0:5

(Hbc )b = 4:5 + : (62)

dp db1:25

0:5

emf kg CCpg Ub

(Hce )b = 6:78 : (63)

d3b

1 1 1

= + : (64)

(Hbe )b (Hbc )b (Hce )b

The slugging region is the region, which starts after the bubbles become one-third of the bed diameter.

454 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

The gas interchange between the slug and the cloud-wake consists of additive bulk !ow and di9usion

transfer terms. Homeland and Davidson [35] gave the following expression for the gas interchange coe8cient:

0:5 0:25

1 16emf I Dg g

(Kbc )s = Umf + : (65)

dt m 1 + emf 0 dt

0:5

H − L b − Lj H − L b − Lj

m= − 0:495 + 0:061; (66)

dt dt

0:8625

H − L b − Lj

I = 0:379 : (67)

dt

Ragraman and Potter [36] derived the following expression for the gas interchange coe8cient between the

cloud-wake and emulsion phases and between slug and emulsion phases, respectively:

1−

(Kce )s = (0:35emf (gdt )0:5 − Umf ); (68)

TDdt

1 1 1

= + : (69)

(Kbe )s (Kbc )s (Kce )s

The heat interchange coe8cient between slugging and emulsion phases can be calculated as follows [36]:

0:5 0:5

1 16emf I kg CCpg g

(Hbc )s = Umf CCpg + ; (70)

dt m 1 + emf 0 dt

1−

(Hce )s = (0:35emf (gdt )0:5 − Umf )CCpg ; (71)

TDdt

1 1 1

= + : (72)

(Hbe )s (Hbc )s (Hce )s

The resistance for mass transfer between the interstitial gas and the solid surface is included in the rate laws

for the heterogeneous reaction, which are expressed in terms of concentrations. The heat transfer coe8cient

can be obtained from a correlation proposed by Ranz and Marshall [37] as follows:

h p dp

Nu = ; (74)

kg

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 455

h p dp

Pr = ; (75)

kg

dp Ub

Re = : (76)

The overall heat transfer between particles and interstitial gas is calculated, by considering each particle to

be a sphere bathed in a stagnant !uid, as follows:

2:0kg

hp = : (77)

dp

Viscosity of reactor gases is polynomials in temperature and can be described by the following equation

[38]:

= a1 + b1 T + c1 T 2 + d1 T 3 + e1 T 4 + f1 T 5 : (78)

The equation recommended by Toulkian et al. [39] for steam was used:

The viscosity of the gas mixture can be calculated from the following equation:

7

ij = yi i : (80)

i=1

Toulkian et al. [40] correlated the thermal conductivity as follows:

Kgi = a2 + b2 T + c2 T 2 + d2 T 3 : (81)

The thermal conductivity of the gas mixture can be calculated as follows:

7

i=1

Heat capacity data are used to correct the free energy (G 0 f), the heat of formation (H 0 f) and the enthalpy

of the gas mixture to the temperature of interest. In all calculations, gases or gas mixtures are assumed to be

ideal (the heat of mixing and the pressure e9ect on enthalpy are neglected). The Reference state is taken as

the element at a pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 298 K. Thus, the mean heat capacity was dened by

456 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Cpj; i = a3 + b3 T + c3 T 2 + d3 T 3 : (83)

The heat capacity of the gas mixture can be calculated as follows [41]:

7

i=1

◦

The gaseous heat of formation at 25 C were taken from Reid and Prausnits [41]. The heat of reaction at

◦

25 C was calculated from the heat of formation as follows:

N

i=1

The higher heating value of the produced gas can be calculated as follows [41]:

7

i=1

The nite element method is a numerical procedure for obtaining solutions to many of the physical prob-

lems governed by di9erential or partial di9erential equations, which are encountered in engineering analyses.

It has two characteristics that distinguish it from other numerical procedures: (a) it utilizes an integral for-

mulation to generate a system of algebraic equations and (b) it uses continuous piecewise smooth functions

for approximating the unknown quantities [42]. By approximating the time derivative of Cj (t), the following

numerical representation at any interior node can be obtained [43]:

k+1 k k+1 k k+1 k+1 k k

1 Ci+1 − Ci+1 Cik+1 − Cik Ci−1 − Ci−1 Ci+1 − Ci−1 Ci+1 − Ci−1

+4 + + + (1 − )

6 Kt Kt Kt 2 KZ 2 KZ

C k+1 − 2Cik+1 + Ci−1

k+1 k

Ci+1 − 2Cik + Ci−1

k

− Di i+1 + (1 − ) + Kbe (Cibk − Ceik ) − Rl = 0: (87)

(KZ)2 (KZ)2

[RR] = [K][Y ] − [F] = [0]: (88)

The numerical solution of the model equations was carried out as follows:

The nite element approximation for the carbon dioxide equations were written as follows:

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 457

k+1

1 C1bk+1 k

i+1 − C1bi+1 C1bk+1

i − C1b k

i C1b i−1 − C1b k

i−1

+4 +

6 Kt Kt Kt

C1bk+1 k+1

i+1 − C1bi−1 C1bki+1 − C1bki−1

+ + (1 − )

2 KZ 2 KZ

C1bk+1 k+1

i+1 − 2C1bi + C1bk+1

i−1 C1bki+1 − 2C1bki + C1bki−1

− Di + (1 − )

(KZ)2 (KZ)2

k+1 k k+1 k

1 C1ei+1 − C1ei+1 C1eik+1 − C1eik C1ei−1 − C1ei−1

+4 +

6 Kt Kt Kt

k+1 k+1 k k

C1ei+1 − C1ei−1 C1ei+1 − C1ei−1

+ + (1 − )

2 KZ 2 KZ

k+1

C1ei+1 − 2C1eik+1 + C1ei−1

k+1 k

C1ei+1 − 2C1eik + C1ei−1

k

− Di + (1 − )

(KZ)2 (KZ)2

Also, the nite element approximation for the temperature equations were written as follows:

The nite element approximation of the bubble temperature can be calculated as follows:

Cib Cpb Tbk+1 k

i+1 − Tbi+1 Tbk+1

i − Tbki Tbk+1 k

i−1 − Tbi−1

+4 +

6 Kt Kt Kt

Tbk+1 − Tbk+1 Tbk − Tbki−1

Ub Cib Cpb i+1 i−1

+ (1 − ) i+1 + Hbe (Tbkib − Teik ) + Rl KHrl : (91)

2 KZ 2 KZ

The nite element approximation of the emulsion temperature can be calculated as follows:

k+1 k k+1 k

Cie Cpe Tei+1 − Tei+1 Teik+1 − Teik Tei−1 − Tei−1

+4 +

6 Kt Kt Kt

458 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

Tek+1 − Tei−1

k+1

Tek − Tei−1

k

= Ue Cie Cpe i+1 + (1 − ) i+1

2 KZ 2 KZ

2kg

+ (1 − )Hbe (Tbkib − Teik ) + (1 − )(1 − emf )as

dp

4

i=1

The same technique was used to solve the partial di9erential equation of the solids temperature [19].

5.3. Stability

To be able to formulate stability criteria for the dynamic nite element model and for the related equations,

the following correlation was used [44]:

KZ 2

0:5Ub (KZ − Ub Kt) 6 D 6 0:5 − 0:5Ub2 Kt: (93)

Kt

The left-hand side inequality of this equation state that D must be non-negative. This observation was used

to dene an optimal grid system (a grid system which uses a layer thickness as large as possible without

becoming unstable). The increments in the vertical direction and in the time domain can be described by the

following equations:

4D

KZ = ; (94)

Ub

2D

Kt = : (95)

Ub2

These equations were used in the selection of time step and layer thickness for the model.

A dynamic computer simulation program was developed to simulate the performance of the biomass !uidized

bed gasier. The computer program is called Finite Element Analysis of Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasication

(FEAFBBG). The model consists of the main program and thirty subroutines. Calculations begin at the bottom

of the !uidized bed where the gas and the biomass enters. The computational algorithm is summarized in the

!ow chart given in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows the main program and the supporting subroutines. The computer

program is written in FORTRAN 77 for the HP UNIEX interactive computer. A detailed description of the

program and its organization is presented in Sadaka [19]. The program can be adapted to specic needs of

potential users.

The model developed in this study is a two-phase model based on the two-phase theory of !uidization. The

mass and energy balances were taken into consideration and the minimization of the free energy technique

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 459

was used to calculate the gas mole fractions at the devolatilization stage. The !uidized bed hydrodynamic

characteristics and the gas thermodynamic properties were also taken into consideration. The !uidized bed

was divided into three zones: jetting, bubbling and slugging. The mass and heat transfer coe8cients were

calculated for each zone in both bubble and emulsion phases. The nite element method was used to solve

460 S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462

the partial di9erential equations. The input variables of the computer program included: !uidization velocity,

steam !ow rate and biomass to steam ratio.

The !uidized bed gasier was divided into three zones (jet, bubbles and slug). Each zone was assumed to

contain solid free gas and an emulsion phase (gas mixed with solids) [18,28]. Slugs occurred in improper

!uidization. It was incorporated into the model to give wide range of predictions for all !uidization conditions.

Chang et al. [7] and Bacon et al. [5] used char gasication reactions to predict the gas compositions at the

exit of the gasier. Such reactions cannot represent the biomass gasication process due to its high volatile

content (70 –90%). Ergudenler et al. [17] and Buekens and Schoeters [13] visually observed the release

of volatile matter almost instantaneously, as soon as the biomass is introduced to the gasier. Neglecting

the hydrodynamic properties of the !uidization phenomenon would, therefore, decrease the model e8ciency

because the jet, bubble and slug heat and mass transfer coe8cients play very important roles in the gasication

results. Also, the transport and thermodynamic properties of the gas and its composition vary from place to

another. Therefore, the advantage of dealing with the hydrodynamic, transport and thermodynamic properties

is that the gas compositions can be predicted at a fairly good accuracy without the assumption that they are

constant throughout the bed. Although most of the conversion takes place in the dense bed, it is known that

char conversion continues in the freeboard region as well [19].

Desrosiers [45] reported that, no hydrocarbon other than CH4 is thermodynamically stable under gasication

conditions. Although C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 and other higher hydrocarbons (oil and tar) are produced in the

gasier, they are accepted as nonequilibrium products. Therefore, in this model, all the hydrocarbons were

considered as CH4 .

S.S. Sadaka et al. / Biomass and Bioenergy 22 (2002) 439 – 462 461

The model developed in this study is unique in considering all the variables taking place in the !uidized

bed gasication. It is capable of predicting the bed temperature, gas mole fractions, gas higher heating value

and gas production rate. The model comprehends the biomass gasication in a self-sustainable system and

emphasizes the hydrodynamic, transport and thermodynamic properties of the gases in both the bubble and

emulsion phases. It is capable of predicting the gasier performance during dynamic operation as well as steady

state operation. Applying the minimization of free energy technique and using the nite element method to

solve the partial di9erential equations gave reasonable and stable solutions.

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