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----------------------Branches Of Geography Earth In Universe Structure Of The Atmosphere Physiographic Of India Ocean And Oceanography


Authored by: NISHA DOLAS

A Greek scholars Eratosthenes is considered to have been the first to use the term geography. According to Hartshorne, geography is concerned with providing accurate, orderly and rational description and interpretation of variable character of earth surface. Three essential characteristics of geographical work, acc to Haggett 1. Emphasis on location, cartography (making maps) is an imp tools 2. Emphasis on society- land relations, environmental effects on humans, changes of environment brought about by human intervention 3. Regional analysis, involving identification of regions, analysis of their internal morphology Regional Geography- a region at different scales a continent, a country, a local area is studied in all its geographical aspects. Systematic Geography- in the other aspect, any particular theme or element of the system is chosen, say climate and analyzed systematically6 over the earth surface or a large part of it -with the idea of identifying the general law of its prevalence over the globe.

The two approaches are complementary.



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY: concerned with natural features such as

land, water and climate, these features are and in relationship with one another as well as with human activities. Subdivided into I. Geomorphology- concerned with landforms, their distribution and origin : studies the relationship between landforms and human activities II. Climatology : making of weather and climate, changes in climate nd how climate is affected by human activity III. Hydrology :earths water- ocean, rivers, glaciers IV. IV. Oceanography: study of ocean ,study of shape, depth and distribution of ocean, life forms, ecology and currents, besides the legal status of ocean V. V. Soil geography: deals with kinds of soils, their evolution and Distribution

HUMAN GEOGRAPHY: concerned with the earth features created by

human action in the course of contriving to build and improve habitats to live in comfort and security. Subfields of human geomorphology I. Cultural Geography: deals with the location and diffusion of beliefs, customs and other cultural traits. II. Social Geography: close to cultural Geography, examines relationship among groups of people III. Economic geography: deals with the location and distribution of economic activities IV. Population geography: concerned with pattern of population and the reasons for a change in those patterns. V. urban geography: concerned with cities and other urban areas examining the imp of location; study the distribution of various groups within a city


VI. Political geography: concerned with relations between independent states, frontiers, boundaries, problems of political instability, pattern of voting and regional planning VII. Historical Geography: concerned with the geography forces that have caused the changes VIII. Anthrogeography: distribution of human communities on earth in relation to their geographical environment IX. Agricultural Geography: studies the development of different kinds of farms and farming systems in particular areas and compares them with the farms and farming systems of other areas Other two imp branches

MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY: study of earths shape and size, of

time zones and of the motion of earth

CARTOGRAPHY: study of maps and charts, responsible for geodetic and

topographical surveys and the preparation of maps on certain selected scales



Earth, the planet on which we live, is the third planet outward from the sun, lying with its satellite between Venus and Mars. The earth is an oblate spheroid; taking into account an 18-metre rise at the North Pole and a 26 metre metre 26-metre depression at the South Pole, it may be called pear shaped. It is fifth in order of e pear-shaped. size among the nine planets.


Age: At least 4.5 billion years Motion: Rotation (spinning motion around an imaginary line connecting the North and South Pole) once every 23hours, 56 minutes. 4.09seconds. revolution (motion around the sun) once every 365days 6hours, 9minutes, 9.54 seconds. Size: polar diameters (distance through the Earth from North Pole to South Pole) 12713.54 kms. Equatorial diameter (distance through the earth at the equator) 12756.32kms. Polar circumference (distance around the earth through Poles) 40008.00kms. Equatorial circumference (distance around the earth along the equator) 40075.16kms Area: Total surface area 509,700,000square kms. Land area approximately 148,400,000 square kms, about 29per cent of total surface area. Water area approximately 361,300,000 square kms, about 71 per cent of total surface area. Mass: 5.882____ tonnes Mean density: 5.517 Surface features: Highest Land- Mount Everest, 8848 metres above sea level. Lowest Land- shore of Dead Sea, about 399 metres below the sea level Ocean depths: Deepest part of ocean area of the Marina Trench in Pacific Ocean southwest of Guam, 11033 metres below surface. Average ocean depth 3730 metres. Temperature: Highest more than 99 %of the atmosphere is less than 80 kms above the earths surface, but particles of the atmosphere are 1600 kms above the surface. Regions of atmosphere troposphere (up to 10or 16 kms above surface ); stratosphere( from about 48 to about 80kms); thermosphere( from 80kms into outer space) Chemical make-up of atmosphere about 78 % nitrogen, 21 % oxygen, 1 % argon, and small amounts of other gases. Chemical make-up of earths crust( in per cent of the crusts weight) : oxygen 46.6; silicon 27.7; aluminum 8.1; iron 5.0; calcium 3.6; sodium 2.8; magnesium 2.0; and other elements totaling 1.6



Layer Chemical composition Physical property

Crust or Lithosphere SIAL( silica and alumina) I. Outer or upper sedimentary and part granitic rocks Silica Silica II. Inner or outer part Mantle or Mesosphere Partly SIMA( silica and I. Inner or magnesium) basic rocks silicate layer II. Transitional zone of mixed metal and silicates Core or Barysphere I. Outer metallic core II. Inner metallic core Wholly SIMA( ultra-basic rocks ) NIFE nickel (NI)and iron(Fe) Barysphere (heavy metallic rocks )

Solid Partly molten Some properties of a solid and some like those of plastic material

Liquid or in plastic state



Principal layers Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decrease with altitude. From highest to lowest, these layers are: Exosphere The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. Here the particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of km without colliding with one another. Since the particles rarely collide, the atmosphere no longer behaves like a fluid. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate into and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind. The exosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. Thermosphere Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause bup to the thermopause then is constant with height. The temperature of this layer can rise to 1,500 C (2,730 F), though the gas molecules are so far apart that temperature in the usual sense is not well defined. The International Space Station orbits in this layer, between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi). The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350800 km (220500 mi; 1,100,0002,600,000 ft). Mesosphere The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 8085 km (5053 mi; 260,000 280,000 ft). It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. The mesopause, the temperature minimum that marks the top of the mesosphere, is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around 100 C (148.0 F; 173.1 K). Stratosphere The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi; 170,000 ft). Temperature increases with height, which restricts turbulence and mixing. The stratopause, which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere, typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 160,000 to 180,000 ft). The pressure here is 1/1000th sea level.


Troposphere The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator, with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word "", trope, meaning turn or overturn). The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of the atmosphere. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties. ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. In this layer ozone concentrations are about 2 to 8 parts per million, which is much higher than in the lower atmosphere but still very small compared to the main components of the atmosphere. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 1535 km (9.322 mi; 49,000110,000 ft), though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere.
The The

ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation, stretches from 50 to 1,000 km (31 to 620 mi; 160,000 to 3,300,000 ft) and typically overlaps both the exosphere and the thermosphere. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because it influences, for example, radio propagation on the Earth. It is responsible for auroras. homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed. In the homosphere the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence.[3] The homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. Above the turbopause at about 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft) (essentially corresponding to the mesopause), the composition varies with altitude. This is because the distance that particles can move without colliding with one another is large compared with the size of motions that cause mixing. This allows the gases to stratify by molecular weight, with the heavier ones such as oxygen and nitrogen present only near the bottom of the heterosphere. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen, the lightest element.



planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is nearest the undary Earth's surface and is directly affected by it, mainly through turbulent diffusion. During the day the planetary boundary layer usually is well mixed, while at night it becomes stably stratified with weak or intermittent mixing. The depth of the ed planetary boundary layer ranges from as little as about 100 m on clear, calm nights to 3000 m or more during the afternoon in dry regions.



India is a land of diversities. Great mountains, rivers, wide plateaus and plains, lengthy coastlines etc., constitute the topography of our country. It has a monsoon climate with local and seasonal climatic diversities. We shall look at the topography, rivers and climate of our country. Physiographically, India can be classified into four divisions.

_ The Northern mountain region _ The Great Plains of the north _ The Peninsular plateau _ The Coastal plains and Islands

The Northern mountain region

This is the great wall like physiographic unit, which stretches from Kashmir in the North West to the Indian border in the east. This region is formed by the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zaskar and the Himalayan range of mountains and the eastern highlands. These mountain ranges are subdivided into three divisions namely, Trans Himalayas, Himalayas and the Eastern Highlands. The Trans Himalayas comprises the Karakoram, Ladakh and Zaskar ranges that originate from the Pamir Knot. The highest peak in India, Mount K2 (Mt. Godwin Austin, 8611m) is in the Karakoram Range. The Trans Himalayas, in which there are several gorges and mountain passes, has an average height of above 6000m.



THE ROOF OF THE WORLD The Pamir plateau with the Pamir Knot in the central Asian country of Tajikisthan is known as the roof of the world. Mountain ranges such as the Hindukush, Sulaiman, Tienshan, Kunlun and Karakoram run to different directions from the Pamir Knot. The Kailas range in Tibet is an extension of the Karakoram Range. The Himalayas, a part of the Northern mountain region, which trend in NW-SE direction for a length of about 2400km is an arc shaped mountain range. This mountain region with an area of about 5 lakh km2 is the highest region in the world. The width of this mountain range is about 400km in Kashmir, and it shrinks to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh. There are three parallel mountain ranges in this physical division, which is composed of many deep valleys and extensive plateaus. The Himalayas, still growing! Himalaya means the abode of snow. It is the youngest fold mountain system of the world. These mountain ranges are formed due to the intensive folding of the floor of an ancient sea called Tethys. The fossils of different marine organisms, found at various locations on the mountain ranges support the fact that the region was covered by sea in the past. The height of the mountain ranges gradually decreases as they approach the eastern parts of the Northern mountainous regions. This region with an average height of 500m to 3000m above MSL is known as the Eastern highlands (Purvachal). The thickly forested Khasi-Jaintia hills in this region are the worlds rainiest (wettest) spots. Greater/Inner Himalayas *The highest mountain range of the Himalayas. *Under perpetual snow, these ranges have an average height of about 6000m. *Mountain peaks with a height of more than 8000m are situated in this Lesser/Middle Himalayas *Situated to the south of the Himadri *Average height is above 3000m *Many health resorts are situated on the southern slope of the mountain range, eg: Shimla, Darjeeling. Outer/Lower Himalayas *This is the outer most range, situated on the south of the lesser Himalayas. *These discontinuous ranges join the lesser Himalayas in the extreme east. *Its average height is about 1200m



mountain range. (Eg: Kanchenjunga- 8595 m, Nangaparbat- 8126m) *The source of Ganges and Yamuna

* There are several elongated and flat valleys running parallel to the mountain ranges. They are called duns. (Eg: Dehradun)

Himalayan Rivers The snow clad peaks and glaciers are excellent sources of fresh water. Several great river systems originate from the melt waters of these glaciers. Abundant rain fall in the valleys enriches the flow of these rivers. Tributaries and distributaries Tributaries are those small and big streams that join a river. Upon reaching a plain the rivers branch out and join the sea. These branches are called distributaries. River Indus Originating at a height of about 5180m from the Manasarowar in Tibet, River Indus flows northwest through Tibet and enters Jammu and Kashmir. Flowing through the deep valleys of Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit, River Indus crosses the Indian border and reaches the plains through Attok in Pakistan. Having a length of about 2880 km, it is one of the longest rivers of the world. Only a length of 709 km of the river is in India. Flowing through the plains of Pakistan, Indus branches out into many distributaries and merges with the Arabian sea to the south of Karachi. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej are the important tributaries of the Indus. River Ganga The river Bhagirathi, which originates from the Gaumukh caves of the Gangotri Glacier and the river Alaknanda, which originates from the Alakpuri glacier meet at Devaprayag and flows further as the Ganga. Flowing through the snow-clad valleys, it enters the plains at Hardwar and becomes sluggish. After flowing through different states the river flows southeast and enters Bangladesh at Farrakkain West Bengal. The Ganga, with a length of more than 2500 km is the river with the largest number of tributaries in India. Important tributaries of the Ganga are Yamuna Son Ghaghara Kosi Gandak.



Hooghly is an important distributary of the river Ganga. Kolkata city is situated on the banks of the river Hooghly. The river Damodar is a tributary of the river Hooghly. The river Damodar is known as "Sorrow of Bengal". This is because of the severe threat it posed to the life and property due to the frequent floods and change in river course. The construction of dams across the river Damodar has mitigated this havoc to a considerable extent. The Ganga is known as Padma in Bangladesh. The river Padma joins the Brahmaputra near Chandpur in Bangladesh and is known as Meghna and Jamuna. Later it flows as a number of distributaries and builds an extensive delta. It then merges into the Bay of Bengal. Farrakka Barrage It was with the aim of developing water transport in Hooghly river that the Government of India decided to construct a barrage across the river Ganga. The barrage, which was completed in May 1986, has a length of 2240 m. The barrage is bridged with rail and road. The railway that connects the Eastern states with Kolkata passes over this barrage. Travelling by train over the roaring greatness of the river Ganga is an unforgettable experience. River Brahmaputra The Chemayungdung glacier (5150m) on the Kailas range about 100 km from the Manasarowar Lake in Tibet is the source of the river Brahmaputra. Having a length of 2900 km, the Brahmaputra is one of the longest rivers of the world. This river, which is known by different names in Tibet and Bangladesh, has a length of 725 km in India. The river Tista, river Manas, river Luhit and river Subansiri are the major tributaries. With the maximum discharge among the Himalayan Rivers, Brahmaputra causes severe floods in Assam and Bangladesh THE RED RIVER OF INDIA The Brahmaputra is also known as the red river of India. It's red colour is due to the suspension of red soils of Assam. Brahmaputra is known as Tsangpo in Tibet and Jamuna in Bangladesh.

The disappeared River Saraswathi


Saraswathi was an ancient river, which originated from Himachal Pradesh and flowed to the south and then to the southwest direction. The river which is mentioned in the Rig Veda remains totally disappeared. Studies, with the help of satellite imageries indicate that the river still flows, beneath the ground!

Water way on mountains! Ferries and boats of bamboo and leather are in use at a height of 3658 m above MSL. This is a spectacular scene in Brahmaputra River in the Tibetan region. This waterway has a length of670 km. In the mountainous zone, deep valleys have been formed due to soil erosion for centuries by rivers that originate from the Himalayas. These valleys break the continuity of the Himalayas. The Himalayas are divided into different divisions. The regions from one river bank to other have different names too.
From River Indus to River Sutlej Punjab Himalaya From River Sutlej to River Kali Kumaon Himalaya From River Kali to River Tista Nepal Himalaya From River Tista to River Brahmaputra-Assam Himalaya

Northern Great Plains

Extensive plains have been formed due to the continuous depositional activity of the Himalayan Rivers. With several thousand kilometers of thickness, the Northern Great Plains spread out to about 7 lakhs km2. This plain is one of the world's most extensive alluvial plains. Northern mountain zone *Stands as a natural barrier in the northern part of India *Prevents foreign invasion to a certain extent *Supports an indigenous culture * Protects India from the cold winds blowing from the northern parts of Asia *Obstruct south western monsoon winds and provides rain throughout India * Forms the source of several rivers *This region has a remarkable role in the Northern Great Plains *This is the birth place of Indian culture *It forms the backbone of Indian agriculture * One of the worlds most densely populated regions * Many metropolitan cities and industrial Centres are situated in this zone. *There is an extensive network



formation of the Northern Great Plains, which is the food bowl of India *It is the abode of diverse animal n plant species. *This region with cool climate and serene nature is a heaven for tourists

of rail and road system in this zone

Peninsular Plateau
The peninsular plateau is a landmass believed to have got separated from the ancient Gondwanaland. This zone is built of stable rocks and is the most extensive physiographic division of India. Note the characteristic features of the peninsular plateau given below. This physiographic division has an area of about 15 lakh km2 It has a diverse topography of mountains, plateaus and valleys The plateaus of this physiographic division has an average altitude of above 400m from mean sea level. Anamudi with a height of 2695m is the highest peak in this zone Most of the rivers that originate from this zone flow towards the east There are large deposits of different minerals occur in this zone Based on the uniqueness of the different regions, the peninsular plateau has been divided into nine subdivisions. The Aravalli hills, Malwa plateau, Vindhya ranges, Satpura ranges, the Chotta Nagpur plateau, the Deccan plateau, the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats, the Kachchh and Kathiawar of Gujarat are these subdivisions. Many small and large hills and plateaus are also included in these subdivisions

Deccan Trap Region The northwestern part of the Deccan plateau was formed due to the cooling down of lava from volcanic eruption hat occurred millions of years ago. Formed out of igneous rocks, this region is known as the Deccan Trap. Black soils have developed as a result of weathering of rocks in the lava plateau, one of the largest in the world. This black soil, also known as regur (black cotton soil) is most suitable for cotton cultivation.


Rann of Kachchh The brackish swampy region in the northwestern part of Gujarat is called the Rann of Kachchh. High tides from the Arabian Sea and the rivers Luni and Banas, inundate this region. There are two different divisions in the Rann of Kachchh, namely the Great Rann and the Little Rann. The Great Rann which is situated to the north of the Kachchh peninsula is a region filled by black sedimentary deposits and salts.

Peninsular Rivers Originating from the Peninsular Plateau, rivers Chambal, Betwa, Kenand Sind flow towards the north and join the Yamuna and the river Son joins the River Ganga. When compared to other peninsular rivers, these rivers are comparatively smaller in length. River Source Length Major tributaries Ib, Tel The sea to which it merges Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal



Mahanadi Maikala Ranges (Madhya Pradesh) Godavari Western Ghats (Nasik district of Maharashtra) Krishna Western Ghats (a spring to the north of Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra) Cauvery Western Ghats (Brahmagiri hills in Coorg district of Karnataka) Narmada Maikala ranges(Chhattisgarh) Tapti Multai plateau (Betul district of Madhya Pradesh)

857 km

1465 km

Indravati, Sabari Bhima, Tungabhadra

1400 km

800 km

Kabani, Amaravati

Bay of Bengal

1312 km 724 km

Hiran, Bajan Aanar, Girna

Arabian Sea Arabian Sea

Himalayan Rivers * Extensive catchment area * Rain fed and snow fed * High erosive capability * Develop gorges in the mountains and Meanders in the plains *Inland navigation is possible in the plains.

Peninsular Rivers *Comparatively small catchment area * Rainfed * Low erosive capability * Deep valleys are not produced as they Flow through hard crystalline rocks *Less chances for inland navigation

Coasts and Islands

Extending from the Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat to the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, it has a length of about 6083 km and lies divided into the west and the east coasts. West Coast *Between Arabian Sea and Western Ghats *Stretches from Rann of Kachchh to Kanyakumari. *Comparatively narrow * Divided into Gujarat coastal plain, Konkan coast and Malabar coast * Lagoons and estuaries are formed in the west coast * Highly influenced by the south west monsoon East Coast *Between Eastern Ghats and Bay of Bengal * Stretches from Sundarbans to Kanyakumari. * Comparatively wider *Divided into Coromondel coast and North Sircar coastal plains *Deltas are formed in this coastal stretch *Influenced by north east monsoons

There are many islands situated in the Indian Ocean, which form part of our country. These are distributed in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and in the Gulf of Mannar, between India and Sri Lanka. Lakshadweep means a hundred thousand islands. But, there are only 36 coral islands present in this group of islands. Only ten islands in the group have been inhabited. This group of islands is situated about 300 km away from the Kerala coast. Kavarati is the capital of Lakshadweep. Known as Bay Islands, the Andaman and Nicobar islands are located in the Bay of Bengal. There are about 200 islands, in this group the majority of which are uninhibited. The Barren volcano is situated in the Barren Island of this island group.=






The ocean floor can be divided into four major divisions. Continental Shelf: the continental shelf is gently sloping part of continent that lie submerged below the sea. Average width: 70km and Average Depth: 200m In all, the continental shelves cover about 7.5 % of total area of the ocean North Sea and The Baltic Sea - lie on the continental shelf, known as epicontinental or shelf seas About 20% of the world production of petroleum and gas comes from shelves. Continental Slope: that descends from the edge of the continental shelf to the deep sea platform. Continental Rise: where the continental slopes ends, the rise Continental begins. Continental Rise has an average slope of between 0.5 to1 and its general relief is low. Abyssal Plain: are the areas of deep ocean floor found at depth of 3000 to 6000metres. they occupy about 40% of the ocean floor. Ocean Facts

Pacific Ocean- name was coined by Ferdinand Magellan.

Shape: roughly triangular with the apex in the north at the Bering Strait Deepest part: North Pacific Deepest trench: the Mariana off the Guam Islands; most of the islands are of volcanic or coral origin.

Atlantic Ocean
Shape: resembles the latter S Striking feature: presence of Mid- Atlantic Ridge which divides the Atlantic into two deeper basins on either side. The Atlantic Ocean has less troughs and trenches than the Pacific Ocean. Of all the oceans, the Atlantic Ocean has longest coastlines.


Indian Ocean: considered half ocean, because, unlike the Pacific Ocean and
Atlantic Ocean, it does not open out northward into Arctic Ocean. Most of the islands in the Indian Ocean represent detached parts of the continental blocks. The Lakshadweep and Maldives Islands in the Indian Ocean are coral Islands, while the Mauritius and Reunion Island to the east of Madagascar is of volcanic origin.


Name Types PACIFIC OCEAN NORTH warm current

Description flows westwards in north of the equator , produced by north east trades flows westwards in south of the equator south east trades north east trades winds blow the north equatorial current off the coasts of the Philippines and Formosa into East China sea as Kuro Siwa Current

warm current warm current


The cold Alaska current/Bering strait current creeps



from the south-east coast of Japan the current flows right across the ocean from west to east ALASKA CURRENT cold current flows anti-clock wise along the coast of British Columbia and Alaska , branch of north Pacific current CALIFORNIAN cold current flows southwards along the Pacific CURRENT coastline , caused by upwelling g of colder water from greater depths due to the southward deflection of the north Pacific current, joins north equatorial current PERU/HUMBOLDT cold current reaching the south western coast of CURRENT South America, the South Pacific currents turns northward as Peru current COUNTER Between the north and south equatorial current, a current EQUATORIAL flows from west to east

warm current


southwards from narrow Bering strait and is joined by Okhotsk Current(cold current) to meet the warm Japan current warm current the steady trade winds in north and south of the equator drive two streams of surface water westwards warm current flows from west to east between the two main equatorial Current, known as Guinea Currents off the West African Coast The South equatorial Current is split into two branches Cape de sao Roque. One branch turns south as warm Brazil Current warm current originates in gulf of Mexico b4 flowing past Florida , keeps the Norwegian coast ice-free during the winter months cold current caused by upwelling g of colder water from greater depths due to the southward deflection of the west wind drift in North Atlantic and transference of surface water back across the Atlantic by north equatorial current cold current flowing northwards off the coast of South West Africa commences as branch of the North Equatorial current , enters the Caribbean and returns to the Atlantic Ocean through Florida Straits








in summer ,when the dominant wind is the south-west monsoon in winter , when the dominant wind is the north-east monsoon cold current ; one of the branches of this current turns northwards along the west coast of Australia- known as AUSTRALIAN CURRENT include the Agulhas current and Mozambique current