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Load Modeling for Voltage Sag Studies

J.A. Martinez, Member, IEEE, J. Martin-Arnedo, and J.V. Milanovic, Senior Member, lEEE

simulations using the Alternative Transients Program (ATP)

Abstract-. This paper investigates the influence of load is proposed in this paper. It is a static representation that
modeling on voltage sag characteristics and compares the results includes a separate voltage dependence for real and reactive
of voltage sag calculation with different load models. It is shown power demands [7]. A more accurate representation can be
that some voltage sag characteristics are strongly influenced by
achieved by using generic dynamic load models or a
the models chosen for representing power system loads.
Therefore, depending on the aims of the voltage sag study, load combination of induction motor and static load models (i.e.,
models need to he carefully chosen. hybrid approach).
The paper has been organized as follows. Section I1
Index Terms- Load Modeling, Power Distribution, Power presents and analyzes a static load model. Section I11 presents
Quality, Simulation. a comparison of the results obtained with a static load model
and an induction motor model in voltage sag calculations.
1. INTRODUCTION Section IV describes a detailed study with several load

A’ simulation tool based on a time-domain technique can be

a powerful mean for analyzing the main characteristics
of voltage sags originated in transmission and
models. They are used for voltage sag calculations in a power
system with several voltage levels. The study will be useful to
compare the severity of voltage sags originated at each level.
distribution networks. Many voltage sag studies are presently The main conclusions of the study are given in Section V.
performed with the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program
(EMTP) and like [I], 121. The built-in capabilities available in LOADMODEI
these programs can he used to duplicate very accurately most
transients in power systems [3]. A realistic load model has to include voltage and frequency
To date there is a significant experience on the application dependence, as well as a dynamic behavior. This last aspect
of EMTP-like tools in power quality studies [4]. However, can have a strong influence on the characteristics of the
there is a lack of experience for representing loads in power voltage sags at some nodes. The frequency dependence is not
quality studies for which a very detailed model is not usually a concern in voltage sag calculations. The models
advisable. Consider, for instance, the simulation of voltage used in this work are aimed at representing loads for voltage
sag calculations in transmission and distrihution networks.
sags in a large power system. A detailed representation of the
load at every node of the system is theoretically possible, but The goal is to use a model that can represent the interaction
it is also time consuming. In addition, the derivation of such between a load and the system during the event that causes
load models can he a very complex task, and not always the voltage sag.
possible. Therefore, simple load models are needed. The study included in this section is focused on the voltage
Although load modeling is not a critical issue in many dependence of static loads and illustrates the importance of
voltage sag studies, this aspect can he very important for some load representation for voltage sag calculations.
calculations, for instance the calculation of a voltage sag A power demand that incorporates voltage dependence can
index based on the lost energy [ 5 ] , [6]. he expressed as follows
The most common approach for representing loads when
using an EMTP-like tool is a constant impedance. This
representation is a very crude approach of an actual demand
where Pi,, and Qi,o,are the rated real and reactive power at
and cannot represent accurately most situations, mainly when nominal voltage, and V, is the p.u. voltage. On the other hand,
the dynamic behavior of the load or the energy supplied by “P “4
the system are important issues. aik = 1 ; bit = 1
A new model for representing loads in voltage sag k=O k =O
There is no built-in model in ATP for representing the load
Juan A. Maninrr and Jacinta Manin-Ameda are with the Deparrament model described by equations ( I ) and ( 2 ) . Fig. 1 shows the
CEnginyetia El&ctrica,Univrnilal Politknica dc Catalunyu. 08028 Barcelona. implementation used in this work. The voltage dependence is
laciao Manin-&do is preparing his Ph.D. with a grant from the Spanish modeled by means of a controlled current source whose value
Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnolo@a. is adjusted during the initial steps of the simulation. The
Iovica V. Milanovic is with the Dept. of Electtical Engineering and actual transient simulation can start only after the
Elcctronicr. UMIST. P.O. Box 88. Manchester. M60 IQD, UK.
convergence to the rated values has been achieved.

0-7803-7989-6/03/$17.00 02003 IEEE 2508


Fig. I . ATP rrpmcntation of a static load model.

This approach has a good behavior in steady state

- 1

calculations. The results, however, should he considered as an 04 4

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
approximation of the real load model.
The above equations assume that there could be a part of a Sn [MVAI
power demand that is voltage-independent. In fact, this is the h) Vollage at the load node
approach implemented in the majority of load flow programs.
By using this approach, the power demand remains the same
irrespectively of the values of bus voltages. This is not a
realistic model for voltage sag calculation, as it would mean
that even for very low rctained voltages, the demand will be
the same as that prior to the sag. A VI dependence means that
the load behaves as a constant current source, while a V2
5 A’
dependence means that a load behaves as a constant
impedance. 0 4,-
Fig. 2a shows a single-line diagram of a very simple system 0 5 io 15 20 25 30
used to test the performance of these models. The two plots
included in this figure illustrate their behavior. It can be easily
deduced that the per unit energy lost during a voltage sag will c) Power demand 81 the load node
be greater than the per unit voltage drop if the load hehaves as Fig. 2. Steady-state analysis of volrageedependenlload d e l s
a constant impedance model. (Power factor = 0.8 lag&).
As a conclusion, an accurate calculation, not only for is used, but they can he very different, depending on the fault,
steady state analysis, hut also for voltage sag calculations when the load is represented by an induction motor. In
should be based on an accurate knowledge of the actual addition, voltage responses derived from both models are very
demand performance, since any of the models mentioned different. Another conclusion from the comparison of both
above would be a very crude representation for most loads. models is that the energy to he supplied by the system is very
different. One can also observe that in the first case voltage
Ill. LQADMODELCOMPAP~SON swells and sags appear simultaneously as the result of a
To illustrate the differences between the above static load single-line-to-ground fault. This is due to the substation
model and a model that takes into account a dynamic behavior transformer group connection and the value of the grounding
of the load, two simple test systems have been used. The impedance. The severity of the voltage sag decreases at low
configurations are shown in Fig. 3a and 4% respectively. The voltage levels due to the presence of distribution transformers,
first system is a two-feeder medium voltage (MV) network as it will he shown in Section IV.
that feeds two constant impedance loads (V2 model). The MV
side of the substation transformer is grounded through a zig- ANALYSIS
zag reactance of 75 R per phase. The second system is a very
simple low voltage (LV) network feeding a constant A. Test System
impedance load in parallel with an induction motor. In both Fig. 5 shows the diagram of the multi-bus test system used
cases, a short circuit is originated in one feeder (points F1 and for the analysis of the influence of load models on voltage
F2 in Fig. 3a and 4a, respectively). The plots of Fig. 3 and 4 sags. The MV side of the substation transformer is also
show the behavior of both models following a single-line-to- grounded through a zig-zag reactance of 75 Q pcr phase. This
ground fault and a three-phase fault. Note that voltages and example attempts to illustrate how different load models can
active powers have similar responses when a static load model affect voltage sag characteristics.

HVyuivalrnl : 110 kV, 1500 MVA. XIR = 10

pf=0.93 (lag)
24 kw (lag)

Subslalion Iransfomr: I10125 kV. 20 MVA. 8%. Yd Equivalent impedance:Z W= 0.05 + j0.2S. 2, = 0.10 + j0.SO Qikm
Lines:Zli.=0.61 +j0.39,2,=0.76+jl.S6Lukm Line : ZLE= 0.60 + jO.lO, 2, = 1.50 + jO.20 Wkm

D -
a) D i a p m of the test system
a) Diagram of Ihe test system
9 -

~.~ 0
40 en 120 160 mo 1w m sm la0 0
Tinntmrl TimI N,
b) Single-line-to-groundfaull -Voltages ill load terminals b) Singlc-line-to-@ound fault - Voltages at mlor terminals

40 en 120 160 200 100 m sm ,a0 rm
nm lmsl T i m Imal
C) Single-line-io-pound fault - Active powers c) Single-line-to-pound fault - Active powers
Phase A


3 100

40 m 120 160 200
lime (mr)
d) Threephase fault - Voltage at load tcrminals d) Three-phase fault - Voltage at motor leminals

Phase A Phase A
1.0, 30

2 20
g 10



0.0 -10
40 en tm 160 m 1W yw) sm l3w 17M
TlmC(r4 Ticmlmrl
e ) Three-phase fault ~ Active power e) Three-phasefault - Active power

Fig. 3. Constant impedance load model behavior. Fig. 4. Induction m l o r behavior.

D. Simulatioii Resirlts
The study was performed by simulating faults at all MV
nodes and measuring the voltage sag characteristics at MV
and LV nodes. Voltage sags caused by a11 types of faults were
analyzed. A software application was developed to classify
the recorded waveforms and depict simulation results.
Fig. 6 , 7 and 8 show a selection of results obtained by
considering some load models detailed above. These results
correspond to variables measured at MV and LV sides of the
transformer located at BUS06 when the faults were applied at
BUSOZ. Note that active and reactive power plots, shown in
Fig. 8, correspond to three-phase powers; they were measured
at the LV side of distribution transformers.
The main conclusions derived from these results can he
summarized as follows:
When the voltage sags are caused by single-line-to-ground
HV equivalen!: I IO kV, 1500 MVA, WR = 10 faults, the severity of the sag depends on the voltage level
Substation transformer: 110125 kV. 20 MVA. 8% Yd
Distribution transfomr: 25 kVl415 V. 1 MVA. 470, Dyn
at which it is measured and the transformer connections.
Liner:Zla=0.61 +j0.39.&=0.76+j1.56~m For the system tested in this work, it is evident that the
Fig. 5 . D i a p m of the lest systcm.
voltage sag severity is lower at the LV side of the
distribution transformers.
As expected, thc load model has a strong influence on the
B. Modeling Guidelines
voltage sag characteristics, as well as on the value of the
The present study assumes that voltage sags are caused lost energy. When the bus load or a part of it is represented
only by faults. In gencral, transients associated with faults can as an induction motor, the duration of the sag is longer than
be classified as low frequency or slow front transients. Since the fault duration and the shape of the sag is non-
the goal is to obtain voltage sag characteristics, a simplified rectangular. If the load is assumed to be static however, the
representation of the fault and the power components will sag will have a rectangular shape.
suffice. All models used in this study are linear and havc Different static load models can also have some influence
lumped parameters. The representation of some important on simulation results. This can he deduced by comparing
components, such as protective devices or mitigation the rcsults obtained with a voltage dependent load, Fig 6,
equipment, has not been included. with those obtained with a constant impedance load, Fig. 3.

C. Load Models
E. Discussion
The energy lost during voltage sags can be a good index to
Four different low voltage load models have been
assess or benchmark systcm performance 151. However, the
analyzed. Their main characteristics are listed below.
calculation of the energy must be carefully made. Some
Constant impedance. The following parameters are used to voltage sag energy-based indices have been proposed for
represent this model: rated voltage (rms line-to-line) = 415 which the calculation is made with the per unit voltage
V; rated apparent power = 840 kVA; power factor = 0.95 drop for each phase, see for instance [ 5 ] , 161. From the
(lagging). results derived for single-line-to-ground faults, one can
Voltage dependent load. Active and reactive power of deduced that such values will he very different if the
every load represented by this model are calculated voltages are measured at MV or LV sides of transformers.
according to the following expressions If the transformer losses are neglected, only an index based
on the actual lost energy can give similar results by using
P = P,, (0.2t 0.3V t OW2) (3) variables measured at both transformer sides. For instance
Q=Q ,, (0.2 t 0.1V t 0.3V2 t O X 3 t 0.2V4) (4)
where Vis the per unit rms voltage. The rated powers are
the same as those for the constant impedance model. where P,,re.xa8and P,,, are the active power prior to the sag
Induction motor load. It is represented by a single and during the sag, respectively 181.
induction motor whose parameters have been adjusted to A very important issue related to these results is the model
obtain a power demand of 800 kW and 400 kVAr, at a chosen for representing transformers. It is obvious that
rated voltage of 415 V distribution transformers can become saturated during
voltage swells. This effect has not been included in any
Hybrid load model. It consists of a combination of transformer model in this study, as all models are linear.
constant impedance and induction motor loads. The Another important aspect of transformer modeling is the
constant impedance demand is set to 420 kW, power factor model chosen to represent the core topology. The models
= 0.95 (lagging), while the IM power is set to 400kW1200 used in this work are based on a three single-phase




OC 1
200 400 6w am Imp ,MO 200 400 6w BM

nm(nr) Ti- (m)
a) Voltage dependent load Single-line-to-ground fault a) Voltage dcpendcnt load - Single-line-lo-poundhull

B c

0,o 0.0
em cm sm

2W 400 ,WO ZW UIO Em Imp
n m (m) hmlm)
b) Voltage dependent load - mer-phase fault

b) Voltage dependent load - Three-phase fault

. ,

- -
ZW ua 6w m Imp 1m
nm (nm)

1 2
c) Induction motor - Single-line-to-pound fault

0.0 0.0
200 ua 6w 8m ,WO 2m 400 m cm ,WO
“(nu) n- im)
d) Induction mtor - Three-phasefault d) Induction motor - Three-phasefault

200 ua Ea0 BM ,WO
1200 2m 400 WO *W ,WO 1200
T i m (m) T i m (nu)
e) Hybrid load ~ Thrm~phasefault e ) Hybrid load - Three-phasd fault
Fig. 6 . Lovd d e l analysis - Pcr unit vdwgei at BUS06 Fig. 7. Laad model analysis -Per unit voltages ut Load 5
(Vanahles are masured at MV side). (Variables are m a r u e d at LV side).

transformer hank. It is well known that this is no1 a good
representation of some core designs, i.e. a three-legged
stacked core. The main goal of the study, however, was to
illustrate the differences that can result from the application
o l different load models in voltage sag calculations;
therefore, transformer modeling as such is not of a
paramount importance.

200 UXI 6m am ,om 1200
Tim tm1 Load reprcsentation is an important subject for which time-
a) Voltage dependmi load - Single-line-lo-pound fault
domain tools have significant advantages. This paper has
illustrated the importance of load modeling for voltage sag
analysis using a widely used simulation package.
The paper emphasizes the importance of load modeling for
an accurate determination of voltage sag characteristics and
the subsequent assessment of equipment sensitivity to voltage
It is shown that, depending on the load model, different
values of energy based voltage sag indices can he obtained.

uy) MD
Tim ("4
b) Voltage dependent load - Three-phase fault



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elecuonwgnetic trunsienls pro@m" IEEE PES Winrer Meeting,January
27-31. 2002. New York.
J.A. Maniner-Velasco and J. Manin-Ameda. "Stochaslic predinion of
vollap dips using an electromag?etic transients program" 141h PSCC,
June 24-28.2002. Seville.
131 H.W. D o m l , ElectroMognetir Trarisientr Pro,q,nni. Rqfererice Monuul
(EMTP Theory Book). Bonnrvillr Power Administration. Ponland. 1986.
141 J.A. Murtincr-Velasco (Ed.), Computer A,tulyris of Electric POIW.PT
Sytem Tmnrienrr. IEEE Press. 1997.
2W 400 6w w4 ,Ow 1m
I rsi IEEE Voltage Quality Working Group, "Recommended practice for the
c s t a b l i i h n t of voltage sag indices." IEEE PISM, Dnft.March 2001.
T" (M)
[61 R.S. Thallnm and G.T. Heydt. "Power acceptability and voltage sag
c) Induction motor load Single-line-to-pound hull
indices in the three phase sense," 2000 IEEE PES S u m r Meeting, July

16-20.2000. Seattle.
171 P.A. Gnadt and J.S. Lawler (Eds.), Automatic Electric Utiliry Diitribu-

rim Syrtenrr, Prentice Hall, 1990.


i'\ 181 J.A. Maninez and J. Manin-Amedo, "Voltage sag stirhastic prediction
using an elcctromagnetic transients propam" submitted for publication in
IEEE Truris.on P o w r Delivery.

0.0 Juan A. Martine2 was ban in Barcelona (Spin). He is Profesor XTUlar at the
4.5 D r p v w r r n t #Enginyea El&micaofthe UniveaiW Politi.oliw. de Cutalunya. His
4M MD rwa 1x4 teachjnr and r e m c h intcmls include Transmission and DisVibtUion Power System
Analysis and EM" applications.
Jacinto M a r t i n - A d o was bom in Barcelona (Spin). He is cumntly a W.D.
candidate at the Univmitat Polilecnica de Cawlmya. His research interrsls include
Power Wily SNdies using EMF-rype tools and Transient Analysis of Power
4 . 4 I Jovica V. Milsnovic (M95, SM98) received his DiplJng. and his M.Sc. degree
from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and his Ph.D. degree from the
University of Newcastle, Australia. His employment experience includes
"Energoproject-MDD consulting and engineering company. as well as the
Universities of Belgrak in Yugoslavia and Newcastle and Tasmania in
Auslralia. In January 1998 he joined the Depannlenl of Elrcuical Engineering
-0.5 and Electronics at UMIST. UK where he is currently a Senior Lecturer.
zw 4M 6W ,000
e) Hybrid load ~ Threephase h u h
Fig. 8. Load d e l analysis - Active and reactive powers - b d 5