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City District Government Karachi

Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program

Initial Environmental Examination


Dualization of Link Road from National
Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Document Stage: Final Report


Document Date: March 07, 2008

The initial environmental examination is a document of the


borrower. The views expressed herein do not necessarily
represent those of ADB’s Board of Directors, Management, or
staff, and may be preliminary in nature.
Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program
IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

CONTENTS

I.  INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 6 


A  Overview .........................................................................................................6 
B  Environmental Regulatory Compliance .......................................................6 
C  Environmental Category of the Subproject .................................................7 
D  Objectives and Scope of IEE ........................................................................7 
E  Report Structure ............................................................................................7 

II.  DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ..................................................... 8 


A  Background ....................................................................................................8 
B  Existing Road .................................................................................................9 
C  Proposed Development Plan ........................................................................9 

III.  DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT ................................................. 12 


A  Environmental Profile of Karachi ...............................................................12 
Physical Environment ....................................................................................12 
Biological Environment ..................................................................................13 
Social and Cultural Environment ....................................................................14 
B  Environmental Conditions of the Existing Road.......................................15 

IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ...... 19 


A  Design Related Impacts and Design Concept ...........................................19 
B  Sensitive Receptors .....................................................................................19 
C  Preparing the Contractor(s) to Install Mitigation ......................................19 
D  Construction Related Impacts ....................................................................21 
Traffic Management .......................................................................................21 
Public Safety ..................................................................................................21 
Land Productivity and Resource Use .............................................................21 
Soil Erosion ....................................................................................................22 
Soil Contamination .........................................................................................23 
Material Management ....................................................................................23 
Water Resources ...........................................................................................24 
Noise and Dust ..............................................................................................25 
Sanitation and Disease Vectors .....................................................................26 
Traffic Management .......................................................................................26 
Enhancements ...............................................................................................26 
E  Operational Impacts ....................................................................................27 
Noise .............................................................................................................27 
Gaseous Emissions .......................................................................................27 
Particle Emissions..........................................................................................27 

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Hazardous Driving Conditions .......................................................................28 


Soil Erosion ....................................................................................................28 
Community Safety..........................................................................................28 

V.  PUBLIC CONSULTATION ................................................................ 30 


A  Identification of Stakeholders .....................................................................30 
B  Consultation with Stakeholders .................................................................30 

VI.  INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL


MANAGEMENT PLAN ...................................................................... 33 
A  Institutional Requirements ..........................................................................33 
B  Environmental Assessment of Follow-Up Subprojects ...........................36 
C  Environmental Management Plan ..............................................................36 
D  Environmental Monitoring ..........................................................................37 

VII.  FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................... 41 

VIII.  CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................. 42 

Appendix A:  Selected Photographs..................................................... 43 

Appendix B:  Environmental Management Plan .................................. 48 

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FIGURES

Figure 1: Location of the Link Road in Karachi ..........................................................11 


Figure 2: Satellite Image of Northern Section of the Existing Road .........................17 
Figure 3: Satellite Image of Southern Section of the Existing Road ........................18 

TABLES

Table 1: Ambient Air Quality in Karachi (µg/m3) .........................................................13 


Table 2: Population of Karachi .....................................................................................15 
Table 3: Summary of Public Consultation...................................................................31 
Table 4: Environmental Monitoring Plan for Link Road Subproject .........................39 
Table 5: Summary of Estimated Costs for EMP Implementation for Link Road ......40 

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ADB Asian Development Bank


CDGK City District Government Karachi
CSC Construction Supervisory Consultant
DCO District Coordination Officer
DDC Detailed Design Consultants
DOE District Officer Environment
EARF Environmental Assessment and Review Framework
EDO Executive District Officer
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
GER Gross Enrolment Rate
GoP Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
KMCSDP Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program
MFF Multi-tranche Financing Facility
MMP Materials Management Plan
NEQS National Environmental Quality Standards
NOX Oxides of Nitrogen
NWFP Northwest Frontier Province
Pak-EPA Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
REA Rapid Environmental Assessment
RoW Right-of-Way
RRP Report and Recommendations to the President
SEPA Sindh Environmental Protection Agency
SO2 Sulphur Dioxide
SR Sensitive Receiver
TA Technical Assistance
TCD Transport and Communication Department

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

dB(A) Decibel (A-weighted)


ft Feet/Foot
km kilometre
km/h kilometre per hour
m meter
m3 cubic meter
m2 square meter
s seconds

LAWS AND REGULATIONS

IEE-EIA Regulations 2000 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review


of Initial Environmental Examination and
Environmental impact Assessment Regulations
2000
PEPA 1997 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997
SLGO 2001 Sindh Local Government Ordinance 2001

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I. INTRODUCTION

1. Government of Pakistan (GoP) has requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB)
to provide a multi-tranche financing facility (MFF) to facilitate investments to support the
proposed Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program (KMCSDP, the
Program). The KMCSDP will implement a number of subprojects within seven
components including: support to institutional reform and development; water supply and
wastewater management; urban roads; traffic and transportation; improvement of katchi
abadi (squatter settlements) and assistance in housing for the poor; public awareness
and outreach; investment program management and engineering support.
2. This Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) presents the environmental
assessments of the road link between Super Highway (M-9) and the National Highway
(N-5), a component of the traffic and transportation sector in Tranche 1 of the MFF. This
IEE has been carried out to ensure that the potential adverse environmental impacts are
appropriately addressed in line with Environment Policy (2002) and ADB Environmental
Assessment Guidelines (2003). This IEE has also been prepared to meet the
requirements of the GoP for environmental assessment.
3. This IEE is submitted to ADB by the City District Government Karachi (CDGK) and
this report will be submitted for review and approval by the Sindh Environmental
Protection Agency (SEPA) if required by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997
(PEPA 1997) and its subservient rules and regulations.

A Overview
4. The MFF will substantially support improvements to transport sector in Karachi.
The transport component in Tranche 1 of the KMCSDP MFF includes urgently needed
widening and rehabilitation of Link Road between Super Highway (M-9) and National
Highway (N-5). This link road between two important highways connecting Karachi with
the rest of the country caters for over 5,500 vehicles per day. More than 80% of this
traffic consists of heavy vehicles, trucks, trailers and tankers. With the new
developments planned along the road the traffic on this road is likely to increase
significantly.

B Environmental Regulatory Compliance


5. Section 12(1) of the PEPA 1997 requires that “No proponent of a project1 shall
commence construction or operation unless he has filed with the Federal Agency2 an
initial environmental examination or, where the project is likely to cause an adverse
environmental effect, an environmental impact assessment, and has obtained from the
Federal Agency approval in respect thereof.”

1 Defined as “any activity, plan, scheme, proposal or undertaking involving any change in the environment
nd includes-(a) construction or use of buildings or other works; (b) construction or use of roads or other
transport systems; (c) construction or operation of factories or other installations; (d) mineral prospecting,
mining, quarrying, stone-crushing, drilling and the like; (e) any change of land use or transit/transportuse;
and (f) alteration, expansion, repair, decommissioning or abandonment of existing buildings or other
work roads or other transport systems, factories or other installations.
2 The Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan has delegated the power of the Federal Agency
for EIA and IEE reviews for projects falling in different provinces to the environmental protection
agencies of the respective provinces. Federal Agency in this case is the sindh Environmental Protection
Agency.

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6. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental


Examination and Environmental impact Assessment Regulations 2000 (IEE-EIA
Regulations 2000) provide the necessary details on the preparation, submission, and
review of the IEE and the environmental impact assessment (EIA). The regulation
categorizes the projects on the basis of anticipated degree of environmental impact.
Project types that are likely to have significant adverse impact are listed in Schedule II of
the regulations and require an EIA. Projects that are not likely to have significant
adverse impacts are listed in Schedule I and require an IEE to be conducted, rather than
an EIA, provided that the project is not located in an environmentally sensitive area.
Provincial Highways or major roads (except maintenance or rebuilding or reconstruction)
costing more than Rs 50 million require EIA (Schedule II) and those costing less require
IEE. .
7. According to this schedule there is no requirement to submit an IEE or EIA to the
SEPA for this road. However the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000 also allow the
environmental protection agencies (EPAs) to direct the proponent of a project whether or
not listed in Schedule I or Schedule II to file an IEE or EIA for reasons recorded in such
a direction. Such a direction would need to be issued after recommendation in writing
from the Environmental Assessment Advisory Committee to be constituted under the
IEE-EIA Regulations 2000.

C Environmental Category of the Subproject


8. Under ADB’s Environmental Policy (2002) and Environmental Assessment
Guidelines (2003) the Tranche 1 subprojects are Category “B” and require IEE.

D Objectives and Scope of IEE


9. The objectives of this IEE were to:
• Assess the existing environmental conditions in the project area including the
identification of environmentally sensitive areas;
• Assess the proposed planning and development activities to identify their
potential impacts, evaluate the impacts, and determine their significance; and
• Propose appropriate mitigation measures that can be incorporated into the
proposed activities to minimize any adverse impacts, ensure that residual
impacts are acceptable and propose monitoring and planning of future projects in
this sector in Karachi.
10. This IEE is based mainly on secondary sources of information, field reconnaissance
surveys and public consultation undertaken specifically for this study was also
undertaken.

E Report Structure
11. Following this introduction this report contains seven more sections including (ii)
description of subproject; (iii) description of the environment; (iv) environmental impacts
and mitigation; (v) public consultation; (vi) institutional requirements and environmental
management plan; (vii) findings and recommendations; and (viii) conclusions.
12. Photographs of the project area are presented in Appendix A and the environmental
management plan is presented in Appendix B.

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II. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

A Background
14. The population of Karachi is increasing at more than 4% annually. Correspondingly,
the city is growing both laterally and vertically. A consequence of the vertical expansion
is increased traffic on the existing roads. The recurring traffic congestions on the city
roads suggest that traffic on most of these roads have exceeded their carrying
capacities. Recent improvement of the inner road network has eased the situation to
certain extent however, in the absence of mass transit system any further vertical
expansion of the city is likely to be slowed down due to lack of road capacities. Under
the circumstances, considerable horizontal expansion is taking place. As the city is
bounded on the south by the sea and to the west by Hub River and Balochistan, the
expansion is more towards the east and north.
15. The expansion to the east is more rapid. The factors that contribute towards making
the eastward direction preferable for expansion are a) the terrain in this direction is flat
and generally alluvial making it more suitable for development, unlike the north where it
is more rocky, b) two major roads in the east, the National Highway (N-5) and the Super
Highway (M-9), provide easy access to the area whereas in the north the only road is the
recently developed northern bypass, c) lastly, proximity to industrial zones such as
Korangi, Landhi, Port Qasim Industrial Zone and Gharo (further east of Port Qasim).
16. In addition to the industrial development taking place in Gharo Industrial Area, Bin
Qasim and both sides of National Highway (N-5), development are also taking place
along the link road. These include Education City, some industrial units, and many
housing schemes.
17. Karachi is connected to the rest of the country by three major highways (see
Figure 1). The RCD Highway to the west connects the city to Hub, Quetta and rest of
the Balochistan, whereas the Super Highway (M-9) and the National Highway (N-5), to
the east connect the Karachi rest of the country. The National Highway (N-5) has been
recently converted to dual lane highway whereas the Super Highway (M-9) is being
converted to limited access motorway. A major part of the traffic on these highways
consists of trucks carrying goods imported at Port Qasim and Karachi Port or designated
for export from these ports. Another source of truck traffic on these highways are the
industrial areas of Karachi. Karachi, being the industrial center of the country also
generates traffic on these highways in the form of finished goods designated for north or
raw material from received from the north.
18. The expansion of the city to the east in the form of new housing schemes,
development of new education institutions, and industrial units has put an added load on
the existing link road between the National Highway (N-5) and the Super Highway (M-9).
The road is an important link that will:
i) Bring upcountry traffic on the Super Highway (M-9) to the Port Qasim, Korangi,
Landhi and Gharo industrial zones
ii) Bring upcountry traffic on Super Highway (M-9) to the Port Qasim and to some
extent to Karachi Port
iii) Bring upcountry traffic on RCD Highway to the Port Qasim, Korangi, Landhi and
Gharo industrial zones
iv) Bring upcountry traffic on RCD Highway to the Port Qasim

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v) Connect Bin Qasim and Gharo industrial areas to residential sectors in the
northeast.
19. To meet the increasing traffic demand with the pace and shape of development of
the city in near future, rehabilitation and widening of this link road is imperative not only
to accommodate the increasing traffic needs but to provide relief to the existing facilities.
20. The feasibility study of the link road suggests that this route has enough potential to
meet the increasing traffic demands associated with the development of Karachi city. It
is envisaged that with the expansion of this road, a viable route would be established
with the potential to serve the growing traffic demand and to reduce the congestion on
the other nearby routes.

B Existing Road
21. The existing Link Road is two lane single carriageway starting from National Highway
(N-5), Karachi-Thatta-Hyderabad section at about 8 km from Pakistan Steel Mills and
terminating at Super Highway (M-9) at Km 24, near Kathore Village. The length of the
Link Road is 18.1 km between the two highways. About 85% of traffic on link road
comprises heavy trailers and trucks. The existing link road is connected with the Super
Highway (M-9) with a single loop interchange, whereas the National Highway (N-5)
between Karachi and Thatta is connected with an at-grade intersection.
22. The existing road condition is rated from poor at most places and fair at some
locations. The earthen shoulders are also in bad shapes. The deep rutting on the left
lane owing to movement of heavy loaded vehicles and no maintenance. The deck slabs
of the bridges have wide holes which are repaired improperly from time to time. The
culverts are in good shape and do not need any major repair. Only minor repair may be
needed.
23. The existing link road is toll facility. There exists one toll plaza on National Highway
(N-5) side whereas only a temporary cabin is erected on the Super Highway (M-9) side
to collect toll.
24. Traffic survey on the road was undertaken in 2001. According to this survey, the
total annual average daily traffic on the road in 2001 was 4,102. This is projected to
increase to over 5,500. The traffic survey also showed that more than 80% of the traffic
consisted of buses, trucks, trailers, and tankers.

C Proposed Development Plan


25. Under the proposed project, the existing two lane single carriageway will be widened
and rehabilitated and converted to dual carriageway, 4-lane road (2 lanes on each side)
and separated with 3-m wide median. The travel width on each side will be 7.3 m. A
1 m wide internal shoulder and 3 m wide external shoulder will be constructed on each
side.
26. The works also include provision of two bridges and repair and rehabilitation of the
two bridges and provision of other allied works like signage, road marking, and guard-
rails.
27. Following is the design criteria for the road:
i) Height of embankment: Between 0.60 to 1.50 m
ii) Pavement Life: 10 years
iii) Speed: 90 km per hour
iv) Lane Width Dual carriageway with 2 Lanes for

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28. The road will be constructed according to American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design codes.

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Figure 1: Location of the Link Road in Karachi

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III. DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENT

A Environmental Profile of Karachi

Physical Environment
29. Topographically ridges, plains, and the coastal belt are the dominant topographic
features of the Karachi. The main features include ridge and runnel upland in Sindh
Kohistan, piedmont colluvial fans and peneplains, north of Karachi, moidan and Gadap
Plains, plains and Plateau of Malir-Lyari Interflous, plains and Hills of the Coastal Belt.
30. Pakistan has 15 seismo-tectonic regions.3 The proposed project is located in the
seismo-tectonic region of the Southern Kirthar Ranges, where a moderate level of
activity is believed to exist, but large magnitude earthquakes are rare. The Building Code
of Pakistan4 places Karachi in Zone 2 corresponding approximately to Intensity VII of the
Modified Mercalli Scale of 1931.5 The peak ground acceleration values in the Zone 2
according to the Building Code of Pakistan ranges from 0.08 to 0.16 g. Thus every
construction in this zone should be designed to withstand the load corresponding to
ground acceleration value of about 0.2 g.
31. There are no significant natural freshwater sources in Karachi. Almost the entire
freshwater needs are met by surface waste sources located outside Karachi, i.e. the
Indus River (about 120 km to the east of the city) and the Hub River (a perennial stream
that originates in Balochistan) that marks the boundary between Karachi and
Balochistan.
32. The Lyari and Malir Rivers that pass through the city do not have any natural flow,
except during the monsoons. Lyari River that passes through the western Karachi, rises
in the northeastern part of the Karachi district and is joined by smaller natural drains
within the city limits. The Malir River rises in the northeast of the city and flows through
the eastern part of the city. Outside the monsoon season flows in these rivers are more
or less completely formed by municipal sewage and industrial effluent discharges that
flow into the rivers and tributaries as they traverse the city.
33. Groundwater resources in the Karachi area are limited. The aquifers close to the
coastal belt are mostly saline and unusable for domestic purposes. The aquifers near
the Hub River bed, estimated to lie at depths of 50-100 m, are well developed and are
source of water for agriculture and other domestic purposes. The main potential sources
of groundwater pollution in Karachi are the unlined drains carrying contaminated waste
from the industries. Similarly, the drains and the domestic and industrial waste in the
Malir and Lyari rivers can also potentially seep through the river beds and reach the
groundwater aquifers.

3 Quittmeyer, R. C. 1979. The Seismicity of Pakistan and Its Relation to Surface Faults in Geodynamics of
Pakistan. Quetta: Geological Survey of Pakistan.
4 Government of Pakistan. 1986. Building Code of Pakistan. Islamabad: Ministry of Housing and Works,
Environment and Urban Affairs Division. A revised version of this document is under development and is
likely to be available soon, however, a draft could not be reviewed at the time of writing of this report.
5 Unlike earthquake magnitude, which indicates the energy a quake expends, the Modified Mercalli
Intensity Scale of 1931 is designed to describe the effects of an earthquake, at a given place, on natural
features, on installations and on human beings. It has 12 divisions, using Roman numerals from I to XII.
I is the mildest—described as: ‘Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances’—
and XII is the most severe—‘Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level
distorted. Objects thrown upward into the air.

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34. The climate of the Karachi can be broadly classified as moderate and which lies in
‘Subtropical Double Season Coastland zone’6. The characteristic features of this climatic
zone are moderate temperatures, afternoon sea breezes in the hot season, and higher
temperatures in the period from July to January than January to July, in spite of the
monsoon-rain.
35. At present, monitoring of urban air pollution in Pakistan is limited to isolated studies
and instances where air pollutants are measured for brief periods at selected locations.
Urban locality, city, region, or countrywide continuous or repeated air quality monitoring
data has not been collected. Similarly, there is no formal system of air quality data
storage and reporting. Whatever air quality data is available is with the public and private
organizations and agencies that conducted the studies. The integrity of air quality as well
as the availability of ambient air quality data are important concerns.
36. A study on emissions of vehicular traffic was conducted by Transport and
Communication Department (TCD), of the CDGK to evaluate the impact of operation of
vehicular traffic on physical, living and social environment of Karachi7. The study was
based on sampling undertaken at 28 different locations throughout the city. The results
are presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Ambient Air Quality in Karachi (µg/m3)
Maximum Minimum Average WHO Guidelines and
Targets8
Sulfur Dioxide 110 16 57 500 (10-minute)
20-125 (annual)
Nitrogen Oxides 489 17 199 40 annual
200 1-hr
Particulate Matter Less than 490 40 243 20-70 annual
10 micron 50-150 24-hr mean
Ozone 92 10 35 100-250 8-hr mean
Source: TCD CDGK

37. The air quality study also included measurement of roadside noise. The study
suggested that the average noise level at the 28 locations was 77dB(A). The maximum
was recorded as high as 99dB(A), the minimum level was 52dB(A). By comparison with
the World Bank Guidelines the measured levels are much above guideline acceptable
limits of 55dB(A) during the day for residential areas and 70dB(A) for industrial and
commercial areas.

Biological Environment
38. Pakistan can be divided into four phytogeographical regions based on similarity of
floral diversity. Karachi falls in the Saharo-Sindian region. This region covers almost
80% of the country including all of Sindh, central and southern Punjab, most of
Balochistan and the plains of Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP). Floristically the

6 Shamshad, K.M. 1988. The Meteorology of Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Company.
7 Feasibility Study and Development of Transportation Control Plan of Karachi. Prepared by Pakistnn
Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission for Transport and Communication Department,
City District Government Karachi. 2007.
8 For several parameters, WHO now sets guidelines and also interim targets. Wherever a range is
provided, the first number is the guideline value whereas the second is first interim target value.

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Saharo-Sindian region is considered very poor because despite the area covered only
9.1% of the known 5,640 floral species of Pakistan are found in this region9. The natural
flora is sparse and mostly xerophytes in the west and northwest areas of the city.
However, marine phytoplankton and mangrove forests are in relative abundance in the
coastal areas.
39. Several species of reptiles, birds, and terrestrial mammals are found in the city,
wherever suitable refuges and habitats are found. The beaches and coast of Karachi are
home to an abundance of marine fauna, such as birds, rare reptiles, fish, and marine
mammals. Karachi also falls in the Indus Flyway, one of the major migration routes for
birds. Karachi coast becomes the winter home and even breeding ground for many
species of birds. There are 26 mammal species reported from the region, in which 2
species musk shrew and pigmy shrew are considered to be the rare species.
40. The reptiles and amphibians found in the Karachi include 4 species of land snake, 8
species of marine snake, 10 species of gecko, the Indian sand swimmer, the Indian
monitor, and 5 species of frogs. All these species are widely distributed across the
region10.

Social and Cultural Environment


41. Karachi is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the largest city in Pakistan.
The metropolitan area along with its suburbs comprises one of the world's most
populated area that spreads over 1,000 square kilometers11. The city credits its growth
to the mixed populations of economic and political migrants and refugees with different
national, provincial, linguistic and religious origins, many of whom have come to settle
permanently.
42. The population of Karachi in the 1998 census was reported as 9.86 million, an
increase of 80% from the 1981 census (see Table 2). The present estimate of Karachi
population in the Master Plan is 16.4 million.12 This demonstrates that the population
growth rate has increased from 3.6% per annum in the 1981-98 period to 5.8% since
1998. Part of this phenomenal growth can be explained if the population of Karachi was
under-reported in 1998. The Master Plan estimates that the population in 1998 was
actually 11.335 million. This gives an annual growth rate of 4.42% in the 1981-1998
period and 4.2% since then. According to the Karachi Master Plan, the population of the
city is expected to reach 27.6 million by 2020, almost double that of 2005.

9 Nasir, Y. J. and A.R. Rubina. 1995. Wild Flowers of Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
10 Hafiz Ur Rehman and I. Fehmida. 1997. A Revised checklist of Reptiles of Pakistan. Records Zool.
Sur. of Pak. Vol. XIII. Zoological Survey Department of Pakistan.
11 The Karachi is divided into 18 towns. The total areas of these towns is 3,530 square kilometers. This
includes the urban areas, as well as the rural areas.
12 The estimates of current population of Karachi vary by a large margin. Even the website of CDGK,
report three different figures ranging from 14.7 million to 20 million.

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Table 2: Population of Karachi

Source Year Population (‘000) Annual Growth Rate

Population Census Organization 1981 5,438 4.96%

1998 9,856 3.56%

Karachi Master Plan 1998 11,335 4.42%

2007 16,401 4.19%

Sources: 1981 District Census Report of Karachi Division, 1981 District Census Reports of five
districts of Karachi, Karachi Master Plan 2020

43. The female-to-male ratio in the Karachi population 100:117, as compared to the
national figure of 100:109. Of the total population 37.6% are under the age of 15 years
and 58% are between 15 to 50 years of age. In comparison, the national figures are
42.4% and 44.6%, respectively. These numbers are reflective of the high migrant
population in the city who come here often leaving their families behind in order to earn
their living.
44. Approximately 22% of the present day population consists of migrants. The ethnic
configuration of the metropolis shows that 48% people are Urdu speaking. 14% of
Karachiites are Punjabi speaking, 11% speak Pashto, 7.2% speak Sindhi, 4.3% speak
Balochi and Seraiki is spoken by 2.11% of the population.
45. Literacy rates have been on a constant ascendancy in Karachi, with substantial
reduction in male-female literacy gap. The overall literacy rate in 1998 was 67.4%,
including 62.3% literacy for women. The Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-06 reports
that the gross enrolment rate (GER) in Karachi for the primary schools (age 5-9) is
almost 100%. Furthermore, the GER at the metric level in Karachi is at 79% during the
period 2004-05, and the overall literacy rate of the population (10 years and above) in
2004-05 was 78%. There will thus be a large population ready to enter the work force in
a decade or so requiring employment opportunities.

B Environmental Conditions of the Existing Road


46. The existing link road passes through an area in which very little development has
taken place although a large portion of the land has been allocated for various purposes.
On both sides of the road most of the land is bare or covered with sparse wild vegetation
and few trees. The satellite image of the existing road is shown in Figures 2 and 3.
Selected photographs showing conditions along the road are included as Appendix A.
47. The key environmental features on the 18-km road are the following:
i) There are three villages that are connected to this road. The largest of the three
is located on both side of the road, however, other than one building the other
houses are located more than 100 m from the road. Both the other villages are
located away at least 300 m from the road.
ii) An underground water conduit crosses the road at about 3 km from National
Highway (N-5). This is the main water conduit that brings water from Indus River
to Karachi.
iii) At least three housing schemes are planned on the road for which land has been
allocated and acquired, however, no development has taken place so far.

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iv) At least two poultry farms are operating near the road. The farms buildings are
made of unbaked bricks and corrugated metal roofs.
v) There are three roadside tea and food stalls to cater for the needs of the
travelers and the local population. Two of these are located at the same place.
vi) There is one shrine at about 8 km from the National Highway (N-5). It is located
more than 500 m from the road. In addition, there is one roadside mosque.
vii) There are two bridges on the road: a 4-span bridge at 11 km from National
Highway (N-5) on Sukin Nallah, and an 11-span bridge on Malir River at 17 km
from the National Highway (N-5).
viii) There is one milk processing plant near the link road at 14 km from the National
Highway (N-5).
48. The project area lies in the tropical thorn forest ecozone and vegetation is typical
desert scrub. The common and dominant species are Zizyphus nummularia, Salvadora
oleoides, Rhazia stricta, and Fagonia indica, along with other common grass species,
such as Aristida funniculata and Octhocloa compressa. Most of the species found in the
project area are quite hardy, with a wide ecological aptitude. No threatened or
endangered species are present in the project area.
49. The nearby villages that have access from the road are Goth Jokhio Aeb, Goth
Abdur Rehman Jokhio, and Goth Mohammad Qasim Magsi.
50. The villages residents are dependent on the Link Road road for access to the city.
The largest of these villages is Goth Abdul Rahman Jokhio. It has nearly 500
households and a population of more than 4,000. The villages have electrical
connections but no gas supply. The villages depend on locally collected fuel wood to
meet their cooking needs. There is no water source. Water is bought from Gadap on the
Super Highway (M-9) at Rs 600 per tanker. Although there is a primary school but
teachers are often not available. There is one basic health unit in the area. The
livelihood of the occupants is dependent on the jobs provided by industrial units and
farms in the area. Other opportunities include manual labor for loading of sand at
quarries, fuel wood collection, jobs in government organization mainly as security
guards, and livestock rearing.

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Figure 2: Satellite Image of Northern Section of the Existing Road

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Figure 3: Satellite Image of Southern Section of the Existing Road

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IV. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

51. This section discusses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed
rehabilitation project of the link road and identifies mitigation measures to minimize the
impacts in the design, construction and operational phases. The main issues relate to
impacts such as noise, dust, and traffic interruption during construction.

A Design Related Impacts and Design Concept


52. The proposed project involves rehabilitation and widening to a dual carriageway of
an existing two lane road. As the existing alignment of the road will be followed, route
selection and its related impacts not likely to be relevant. However there are a number of
other matter that will require the attention of the detailed design consultant engineers
(DDC) to avoid construction impacts by good design and to minimise operational
environmental pollution impacts. In line with ADB policy on environmentally responsible
procurement, opportunities to provide environmental enhancements should also be
identified in the detailed designs well as routine matters such as avoiding unnecessary
removing of trees and compensatory and enhancement planting. Other opportunities for
design construction ad operational enhancements have been included in the
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and should be reviewed at the detailed design
stage.
53. The land required for widening of the road is part of the existing right-of-way and no
additional land will be acquired. The proposed land is free of encroachments and no
requirement for resettlement is envisaged. However the project will need to be disclosed
to SEPA and a check should be made at the detailed design stage that the road
alignment has been designed as described in the Report and Recommendations to the
President (RRP) as approved by the ADB Board. If there are changes in alignment the
IEE and EMP should be reviewed and resubmitted to ADB and incorporating any
recommendations and requirement form the SEPA.

B Sensitive Receptors
54. The Education City and residential estates are planned to be near the Link Road.
The residential elements and teaching facilities should not bet alongside the Link Road
carriageways but should be set back from the Link Road so that traffic fumes can be
dispersed and road traffic noise can be attenuated before affecting the sensitive
receivers in the developments.
55. There are no schools or any medical facility on the Link road yet. The receptors with
some degree of sensitivity include the shrine at about 8 km from National Highway N-5
and 500 m from the Link Road, and a roadside mosque the three roadside tea and food
stalls, and part of the village Goth Abdul Rahman Jokhio.
56. At the detailed design stage, and with the benefit of forecast traffic flows for the Link
Road, noise criteria for environmental planning should be discussed with CDGK such as
appropriate set backs can be planned. At this stage and given the ample space available
it appears that the World Bank criterion of Leq67dB(A) at the sensitive receiver for new
noise sensitive developments such as residences, schools, colleges and hospitals could
comfortably be achieved.

C Preparing the Contractor(s) to Install Mitigation


57. During the detailed design phase and in preparation for the construction phase, the
DDC will prepare tender documents to make sure that future contractors will be prepared

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and primed to cooperate with the implementing agency, project management,


supervising consultants and local population in the mitigation of environmental impacts.
The detailed designers should include in the tender documents and daft contracts
requirements as follows:
i) Minimize acquisition of agricultural land for temporary facilities (if needed) by
selecting preferred locations in detailed designs for construction yards and
asphalt plant on barren or marginal land.
ii) Solution spaces should be identified in advance by the DDC and approved by
CDGK to ensure sufficient disposal space for cut surface materials and avoid fly-
tipping.
iii) Arrangements to facilitate the timely production of rock and bitumen based
materials for construction and to avoid impacts due to unnecessary stockpiling
near the Link Road route.
iv) Retain or re-provision current facilities for pedestrian crossing in detailed designs
and avoid severance
v) Ensure that provisions are made to preserve the operation of any existing local
infrastructure and that utilities are protected.
vi) Extend / improve drainage culverts under embankments for Link Road should be
included in detailed designs and minimize hydrological and drainage impacts
during construction by early phasing of replacement of culverts and other
infrastructure. Include preliminary designs for in contracts.
vii) Avoid disruption to and retain or re-provision current facilities for irrigation; that
provisions are made to preserve the operation of current facilities for irrigation
viii) Include plans to minimize disturbance of vehicular traffic and pedestrians during
construction I the detailed designs.
ix) Aim to provide some enhancements in line with ADB policy on environmentally
responsible procurement and avoid negative impacts due to unnecessary
removing of trees.
58. Furthermore the contractor will be primed by including the EMP and environmental
assessments in the contract documentation. The contractor will be required to produce
method statements and plans in advance as required in the EMP for:
i) Temporary traffic management plan,
ii) Drainage and utilities re-provisioning plan,
iii) Materials management master plan,
iv) Noise and dust control plan,
v) Waste management plan;
vi) Tree Compensatory Planting Plan (if required)
59. All the above should be agreed in advance with CDGK in the project preparation
phase and in the contract documentation. The requirements in the contract will include
full implementation of the EMP. The contractor would also be required to engage
capable and trained environmental management staff to audit the effectiveness and
review mitigation measures as the project proceeds. The effective implementation of the
EMP will be audited as part of the loan conditions and the executing agency will be
prepared for this. In this regard, the CDGK (the Implementing Agency) will also prepare
resources to fulfill the requirements of the law and guidance prepared by federal and

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provincial EPAs on the environmental aspects of road construction13 or other road


projects. Any updated recommendations would be incorporated in the EMP and
updated.

D Construction Related Impacts


60. The source of the construction impacts will mainly be from works (cut and fill),
reconstruction of the road base, building elevated carriageways across river beds,
reprovisioning of crossing drains in embankments and construction of road
embankments base courses, lanes and surfacing works.

Traffic Management
61. Construction activities on the Link Road are likely to cause hindrance in traffic flow if
not mitigated properly. A temporary traffic management plan will be developed and
submitted by the contractor at least one month before commencement of construction.
The main objectives of the plan shall be to maximize the safety of the workforce and the
travelling public. The main secondary objective will be to keep traffic flowing as freely as
possible.
62. The Temporary Traffic Management Plan will include consideration of the following
i) Lane availability and minimization of traffic flows past the works site.
ii) Establishment of acceptable working hours and constraints.
iii) Agreement on the time scale for the works and establishment of traffic flow/delay
requirements.
iv) Programming issues including the time of year and available resources.
v) Acceptability of diversion routes, where necessary.
vi) Discussion of the CDGK inspection/monitoring role.
vii) Establishment of incident management system for duration of the works
viii) Agreement on publicity/public consultation requirements (advance signing etc.).
63. The plan will be reviewed by CDGK and approved, if found appropriate. Resources
from contractor, CDGK, and the traffic police will be provided as per the plan before
construction commences.

Public Safety
64. Public safety, particularly of pedestrians can be threatened by the excavation of the
trenches for sewer construction. A safety plan will be submitted by the contractor and
properly resourced at least one month before construction commences and approved by
CDGK before construction commences. The plans will include provisions for site
security, trench barriers, reflective signs and covers to other holes, hoarding plans and
any other safety measures as necessary.

Land Productivity and Resource Use


65. The potential impact of road construction works include: a) the loss of the fertile
plough layer at campsites and asphalt mixing plants, and a drop in the elevation of
borrow areas will decrease land productivity; b) potential conflicts may emerge with

13 Guidelines for Major Roads, Pakistan EPA, 1997; Small and Medium Size Road Construction in Urban
Areas, NWFP EPA 2004.

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landowners regarding the restoration of borrow areas; c) borrow pits and other
landscape depressions if left open, may prove hazardous to human beings and
livestock; d) open pits containing water are potential sources of mosquito breeding if left
stagnant, and can create health problems; e) during highway operation, embankments
that restrict cross-country drainage may cause the land on either side of the
embankment to flood in case of heavy rains; and, f) surface run-off from the impervious
surface of the carriageway can further aggravate the flooding of embankment sides
during the operation phase.
66. The following measures to mitigate potential impacts will be included in the contracts:
i) Project facilities such as concrete batching or asphalt plant will be located at a
minimum distance of 500 m from settlements or any other sensitive receivers.
ii) As far as possible, waste/barren land i.e. areas not under agricultural or
residential use and natural areas with a higher elevation will be used for setting
up project supporting facilities such as construction plant parking and
maintenance yards.
iii) Where the use of agricultural land is unavoidable, the top 30 cm of the plough
layer will be stripped and stockpiled for redressing the land after the required
borrow material has been removed and the holes backfilled.
iv) The excavation of earth fill will be limited to an approximate depth of 50 cm. This
practice will be applied uniformly across the entire extent of the farmland unit
acquired for borrowing earth material.
v) If deep ditching is to be carried out, the top 1m layer of the ditching area will be
stripped and stockpiled. The ditch will initially be filled with only inert scrap
material from construction and then leveled with the stockpiled topsoil to make it
even with the rest of the area.
vi) Ditches or borrow pits shall all be fully rehabilitated and landscaped to minimize
erosion and to avoid creating hazards for people and livestock.
vii) The embankments will be stabilized with erosion control measures immediately
after construction is complete to protect the works.
viii) Side drains and median drains will be constructed to prevent flooding on the
carriageways. The traversed areas will all be in open areas and lead off drains
will be constructed along the toe of the embankment.
ix) All existing culverts will be extended and an adequate number of culverts will be
included in the detailed designs and constructed across under the highway
embankments.

Soil Erosion
67. Once the highway returns to normal operation, it may become subject to a natural
settlement as high embankments become increasingly prone to soil erosion, causing an
increase in dust emissions and a fall in land productivity.
68. Engineering controls that include erosion protection measures will be designed and
installed to control soil erosion both at all the constructed works and in peripheral areas,
particularly in borrow areas and along haul tracks. These will include the following
measures:
i) Low embankments will be protected from erosion by hydro-seeding and planting
indigenous grasses that can flourish under relatively dry conditions.

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ii) High embankments, i.e. 2 m high and above, will be protected by constructing
stone pitching or a riprap across the embankment immediately after the works
are completed. This practice will also be applied along cross-drainage structures
where embankments are more susceptible to erosion by water runoff.
iii) The contractors will also be required to include appropriate measures for slope
protection, i.e. vegetation cover and stone pitching, as required in the detailed
construction drawings and implement them accordingly.
iv) Payments should be linked to the completion of the works as marked by the
installation of erosion control measures to protect the works.

Soil Contamination
69. Scarified/scraped asphalt and concrete materials, if not disposed of properly, may
contaminate soil resources. Possible contamination of soil may also occur from oils and
chemicals at asphalt plant sites, workshop areas, and equipment washing-yards. The
contamination may limit the future use of land for agricultural purposes.
70. The following practices will be adopted to minimize the risk of soil contamination:
i) The contractors will be required to instruct and train their workforce in the storage
and handling of materials and chemicals that can potentially cause soil
contamination.
ii) Solid waste generated during construction and at campsites will be properly
treated and safely disposed of only in demarcated waste disposal sites identified
and agreed with CDGK.
iii) Debris generated by the dismantling of existing pavement structures will be
recycled subject to the suitability of the material.

Material Management
71. The construction of the road will require cutting and filling to create elevated transit-
way. Balancing cut and fill requirements can be a major contribution to the minimization
of impacts. If surplus materials arise from the removal of the existing surfaces these may
be used elsewhere on the project for fill before additional rock, gravel or sand extraction
is considered. The use of this immediately available material will minimize the need for
additional rock based materials extraction.
72. The detailed design engineers will produce a mass haul chart for the aggregate and
bitumen materials needed for the construction works. The mass haul chart or something
similar can be modified to produce a materials management plan (MMP) including
mitigation for the extraction of materials, to specify (i) the methods to be employed prior
to and during construction, (ii) all other measures to be employed to mitigate nuisances
to local residents, and (iii) any additional measures such as compensatory planting, if
trees have to be removed. The MMP should be updated regularly and reported monthly
as a contract requirement for each contractor to monitor the production and use of
materials. The construction supervising consultant (CSC) will be responsible for
updating and reporting the cut and fill estimates in the MMP. The MMP can then be used
to plan for bitumen and aggregates management and to provide an overall balance for
bitumen and cut and filled materials and minimize impacts on other local resources
outside the Right-of-Way (RoW).
73. Locations for dumping of material will be identified in the plan. It is preferred that
government land is used for dumping of material. If private land is to be acquired for the
purpose, compensation will be paid before dumping commences and only after written
permission from the owner.

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74. Contractual clauses should be included to require each contractor to produce a draft
MMP (including mass haul chart one month before construction commences) to identify
all sources of bitumen and aggregates and to balance cut and fill. The plan should
clearly state surplus or shortfall and the methods to be employed prior to and during the
extraction of materials and all the mitigation measures to be employed to mitigate
nuisances to local residents. Financial compensation shall not be allowed as mitigation
for environmental impacts or environmental nuisance. Mitigation measures shall seek to
control the impacts at source in the first place. The CSC shall be responsible to report
the update of the cut and fill estimates and monitor bitumen and aggregates master
planning between the different areas and sub-contractors and advise on overall
balancing for cut and fill materials to minimize impacts on local resources. A waste
management plan will also be required.

Water Resources
75. The surrounding land’s drainage system and water resources may be affected by
construction activities as follows: a) Local water supplies will need to be tapped to meet
campsite and construction requirements, bringing project based water use into
competition with local use; b) Surface and subsurface water resources in the selected
sections could be contaminated by fuel and chemical spills, or by solid waste and
effluents generated by the kitchens and toilets at construction campsites; c) Natural
streams and irrigation channels may become silted by borrow material (earth) in the
runoff from the construction area, workshops and equipment washing-yards.
76. Generally water should be brought in by tanker from other areas. Local water
resources could be used only if it is determined that sufficient yield is available. As a rule
of thumb 50% of the available yield (total yield minus existing use) can be used for the
project. Other measures to mitigate the adverse impact on water resources and surface
drainage patterns have been incorporated into the other drainage mitigation measures.
77. The contractors will incorporate the following design features into the detailed design
to minimize alterations in the project corridor’s surface drainage patterns as far as
possible:
i) Contractors will review the detailed designs for cross-drainage structures
provided with the tender and assess and agree with CDGK if redesign is required
or if new structures would be constructed or existing ones would be repaired.
ii) Median drains would be in line with the detailed designs such that the outlets
would lead into either natural streambeds or to open areas, if no natural streams
are located nearby.
iii) In areas close to the sensitive receiver (SR), appropriate drains would be
constructed so that the outfalls of the highway median and surface run-off from
the carriageway are diverted away from the SR.
iv) Measures will also be taken during the construction phase to ensure that storm
drains and highway drainage systems are periodically cleared to maintain storm
water flow.
78. The contractors will carry out the following measures to mitigate the impact of
tapping local community water resources, where required:
i) In areas where potable water is in short supply, the availability of water will be
assessed to evaluate the impact on community resources. Project water will be
brought in by tanker as necessary without depleting local supplies.
ii) Camps will be located at least 500 m away from the nearest local settlement to
prevent the contamination of community-owned water resources.

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iii) The contractors will be required to maintain close liaison with local communities
to ensure that any potential conflicts related to common resource utilization for
project purposes are resolved quickly.
iv) Guidelines will be established to minimize the wastage of water during
construction operations and at campsites.
79. The contractors will adopt good management practices to ensure that fuels and
chemicals, raw sewage, wastewater effluent, and construction debris/scarified material is
disposed of in controlled conditions to reduce the risk of contamination. The proposed
measures include:
i) Construction camps will be established in areas with adequate natural drainage
channels in order to facilitate flow of the treated effluents.
ii) Portable lavatories or at least pit latrines shall be installed and open defecation
shall be discouraged and prevented by keeping lavatory facilities clean at all
times.
iii) Wastewater effluent from contractors’ workshops and equipment washing-yards
will be passed through gravel/sand beds to remove oil/grease contaminants
before discharging it into natural streams. Oil and grease residues shall be stored
in drums awaiting disposal in line with the agreed waste management plan.
iv) Borrow pits and natural depressions with pre-laid impervious liners will be used
to dispose of scarified/scraped asphalt, and then covered with soil. This will
check potential groundwater contamination. Options for completely or partially
recycling scraped asphalt will also be taken into account.

Noise and Dust


80. There is generally sufficient buffer distance between the work corridor and the
existing SRs such that no significant impact is expected from the construction works on
residential sensitive receivers in terms of noise, vibration, and dust. However noise and
dust have been identified as significant concerns by the general public in consultation
and it is good practice to control all dusty materials at source so that visibility on the
adjacent road is not impaired and so that road safety can be maintained or increased.
i) Water will be sprinkled on the road and exposed surfaces when work is carried
out within 100 m of the roadside tea and food stalls.
ii) No work will be carried out within 500 m of any settlement during the night
(2100hrs to 0700hrs).
iii) If works have given rise to complaints over dust, the contractor shall investigate
the cause and review and propose alternative mitigation measures before works
recommence.
iv) All heavy equipment and machinery shall be fitted in full compliance with the
national and local regulations.
v) Stockpiled soil and sand shall be slightly wetted before loading, particularly in
windy conditions.
vi) Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks shall be employed to minimize
exhaust emissions. Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be allowed
and shall be removed from the project.
vii) Vehicles transporting soil, sand and other construction materials shall be covered
with tarpaulin sheets. Speeds of such vehicles shall be limited to 15 km/h within
the works site and on unpaved edge areas of the Link Road.

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viii) The active open areas of the construction yard sites and haul roads shall be
sprayed at least twice per day with water to suppress dust and to avoid
excessive dust obscuring visibility on the remaining operation lanes of the Link
Road. In the event of complaints water spraying shall be increased and the
pattern of spraying shall be reviewed to improve its effect.
ix) Wheel and vehicle washing facilities shall be installed at the main construction
yards, stockpiling areas, cement batching facilities and bitumen plant to prevent
the transfer of excessive dust on to the remaining operational lanes of the Link
Road.
x) Concrete batching plants. Asphalt plant and rock crusher activities (if required) to
be controlled (e.g. asphalt hot-mix plants should not be located within 500 m of
any sensitive receiver, river bank or irrigation channel but located at convenient
sites nearby but downwind of and at least 500 m from sensitive receptors such
as schools and hospitals.

Sanitation and Disease Vectors


81. In order to maintain proper sanitation around construction routes, temporary toilets
will be provided, particularly when work is carried out close to the settlements. Vectors
such as mosquitoes will be encountered at any standing water which is allowed to
accumulate in the temporary drainage facilities, improper disposal of wastewater
generated from the local wells along the roadside or water accumulating in the works.
Temporary and permanent drainage facilities shall be designed to facilitate the rapid
removal of surface water from all areas and prevent the accumulation of surface water
ponds. As a fall back option a thin mist of kerosene can be applied to standing water if it
cannot be removed or drained within five days.

Traffic Management
82. During construction, the existing road would be partly closed. This could affect the
free flow of the existing traffic. A traffic management plan will be developed in the
detailed design stage for finalization by the chosen contractor in agreement with CDGK.
Measures may include signage, traffic control signals and addition of the new lanes only
before starting work on the existing lane so that when work is carried out on the existing
land the traffic could be diverted to the new lanes.

Enhancements
83. Environmental enhancements have not been a major consideration in the
assessment of other Tranche 1 sub-project sites. However it is noted that it has been
common practice to plant trees along highways to provide visual interest in line with
best international practice for highway design. Whereas water supply may be limited
along much of the Link Road there may be some opportunity sites near the occupied
isolated buildings. These locations may provide a chance to create some local soft
landscaping where successful planting of trees and shrubs could be accomplished
and should be investigated at the detailed design stage. This practice should be
encouraged as far as practicable. Other opportunities for enhancements can be
assessed prior to construction and proposed enhancements should be discussed
with the local population to identify possible water supply and serve as a vehicle for
further public consultation at the implementation stage and to assist in public
relations.

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E Operational Impacts
84. The introduction of the dual carriageway can be expected to cause some increases
in ambient noise and air pollution. However these impacts may not become visible for
some time and may be balanced out by other changes that are implemented in the
management of the vehicle fleets in Karachi and depending on improvements that can
be made resulting from the proposals for the of Urban Traffic Control System and
Transport Master Plan.
85. The implementation of Link Road will be within a wide reserve within the RoW
keeping the Link Road vehicles away from sensitive receivers and at this stage it is
difficult to see that many residences or commercial premises or schools will still be close
to the Link Road during the foreseeable operation of Link Road.

Noise
86. There are very few SRs close to the Link Road. It is therefore expected that road
traffic noise impacts upon SRs will be acceptable. However as yet there is little
information on the proposed developments near the Link Road and no traffic modeling to
confirm future traffic flows so that a noise model cannot be constructed. Noise criteria for
operational performance should therefore be agreed with the CDGK and included in the
Urban Traffic Control System and Transport Master Plan. At the detailed design stage
and prior to implementation, acoustical checks should be made to reconfirm that noise
mitigation is not required for any sensitive receivers that are developed in the meantime.
87. Whereas there is no statutory control on road noise in Pakistan a criterion of
Leq67dB(A) or L1070dB(A) at the exterior of residences, schools, mosques and other
noise sensitive receivers is suggested as a target criterion based on international
standards. Several EIAs in Pakistan have used similar criteria upon which to base
conclusions about predicted noise levels and if they will cause a significant disturbing
effect. This would correspond approximately to a noise level of about L1060 dB(A) at the
exterior of residences that are 100 m from the Link Road.

Gaseous Emissions
88. Vehicle emissions (gaseous) as indicated concentration of oxides of nitrogen will be
the main air pollution sources during operation. There will be a few other sources of
emissions near the Link Road from fuel burning. However most sensitive receivers are
set far enough back from the Link Road to allow adequate dispersion that there will be
no significant impacts at the sensitive receivers.
89. In conjunction with the additional policy measures and institutional arrangements,
fuel controls, transportation control systems and transportation planning as well as the
removal of the “smoke belching vehicles” from the roads, it is expected that there will be
improvements in air quality in the near medium to long term such that the recommended
air quality standards can be met at locations on the Link Road.

Particle Emissions
90. Vehicle emissions (particulate contamination) such as dust and fumes will also be
air pollution sources during operation however toxic residues from vehicle emissions
near the Link Road are unlikely to accumulate or create significant impacts under the
local conditions.
91. Air quality observations near the existing road indicate that dust can be a nuisance
in some places especially where traffic accidentally or deliberately uses the unsealed
hard shoulders. The dual carriageways and wider sealed surfaces will reduce, to some

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extent locally, dust arising from the passage of traffic on unsealed areas near the
existing road.

Hazardous Driving Conditions


92. The Link Road will introduce fully separated two way traffic. Overall the condition of
the road facilities will be enhanced and with the implementation of dual carriageway Link
Road driving conditions should improve. Routine safety measures, signage and road
markings should be introduced to reduce driving risk further in accident prone areas and
provide enhancements to driving conditions near the junctions. The Urban Traffic Control
system should also contribute to reduce d accidents and improved road safety.
93. With fully separated two way traffic the risk of accidents such as involving colliding
lorries carrying hazardous chemicals will be low. In the event of chemical spillage a rapid
clean up and accidental spillage action plan should be prepared with the local
emergency services to protect local soils or any water bodies in the event of an
accidental spillage of toxic or hazardous chemicals.
94. Provisions will need to be made to consider in the detailed designs for road
conditions at the major intersections and other local intersections. The overall visibility at
the intersections is unlikely to be hindered but checks should be made to ensure the
designs meet the local design standards and will need to be acceptable under all the
foreseeable conditions. Improvements to sighting angles and improved junction warning
signage and road markings may need to be included at the detailed design stages.
Fluorescent junction countdown markers should be considered for the major junctions.
The Urban Traffic Control system should also contribute to the overall improvement in
the condition of the junctions and driving conditions generally.
95. The main environmental impacts of the Link Road during operations phase include
soil erosion and community safety.

Soil Erosion
96. Will be prevented by developing a comprehensive suite of engineering controls in
the detailed designs to prevent and maintain erosion.
97. A system will be devised and engineered to control erosion and flooding on either
side of the embankment in case of heavy rains. Apart from affecting the community
lands and resources, this may cause natural streams and irrigation channels to become
silted.
98. Measures will also be taken during the operational phase to ensure that storm drains
and highway drainage systems are periodically cleared to maintain clear drainage to
allow rapid dispersal of storm water flow.
99. An adequate system of monitoring, reporting and maintenance will be developed to
maintain cross-drainage structures, culverts and water channels to ensure that they are
not choked with debris and eroded soil, adversely affecting the cross-country drainage.
Road sweeping and refuse disposal should also be included in the system of monitoring.

Community Safety
100. The rehabilitation and widening of the Link Road is likely to increase the vehicle
speed on the road. Increases in traffic flow have not yet been modeled and there are no
up to date predictions for future traffic. Increased traffic speed may create some
community safety issues. However, the conversion of the road to median-separated dual
carriage road, the traffic hazards and community safety issues would be mitigated. With
fully separated two way traffic the risk of accidents such as involving colliding lorries will

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be low. However road crossing facilities must be reprovisioned as necessary for the
local community.
101. The crossing near the Goth Abdur Rehman Jokhio and the shrine will need to be
carefully designed to include a safe pedestrian crossing. This may include and at grade
crossing with flashing lights to warn the drivers about the crossing and lower speed limit
or a footbridge when the local population is large enough to warrant it.

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V. PUBLIC CONSULTATION

102. The objectives of the stakeholder consultation process was to disseminate


information on the project and its expected impact, long-term as well as short-term,
among primary and secondary stakeholders, and to gather information on relevant
issues so that the feedback received could be used to address these issues at an early
stages of project design. Another important objective was to determine the extent of the
concerns amongst the community and to address these in the project implementation
and suggest appropriate mitigation measures.

A Identification of Stakeholders
103. Stakeholders are people, groups, or institutions that may be affected by, can
significantly influence, or are important to the achievement of the stated purpose of a
proposed intervention. For this project stakeholders included the community living in the
area, the road users, the business associated with the road and the locally elected
representative.

B Consultation with Stakeholders


104. The results of the public consultations are recorded in Table 3. The main concerns
included community safety, land acquisition, and construction dust.

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Table 3: Summary of Public Consultation

No. Name Participants Address Date Issues Raised/Concerns Action Taken/


Expressed/Suggestions and Proposed
Requests/Action Proposed
1-4 Imam Bux Farm workers and S. S. Farms Considered the project beneficial for area
Irfan Jokhio residents of the
Abdul Aziz Jokhio area Demonstrated concern about dust during Dust mitigation
construction measures
Dawood Jokhio
Enquired about land acquisition for the project No land to be acquired
Suggested that roadside dumping of material Material management
on private land should be avoided plan to be developed
5 Mohammad Musawir Foodstall owner Quetta Considered the project beneficial for his
Samandri business
Hotel
Showed concerns about the dust but Dust mitigation
considered it as a temporary nuisance measures
Unavailability of public transport is a major
issue for the area
There is additional traffic on the weekends and Community safety
holidays due to visitors to the shrine measures
6 Attaullah Truck Driver Considered the project beneficial for his
business
Asked for minimal disturbance to existing Traffic management
traffic particularly during the peak hours
(evenings)

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No. Name Participants Address Date Issues Raised/Concerns Action Taken/


Expressed/Suggestions and Proposed
Requests/Action Proposed
7 Hussain Bux Jokhio Councilor, Union Expressed concern about the land acquisition No land to be acquired
Council 7, Bin process
Qasim Town
Complained that although toll is collected but
there is no maintenance of existing road by the
CDGK
Demanded that the residents of the area
should be exempted from toll tax
8-10 Ali Bux Jokhio Community Goth Abdul Demonstrated concern about community Community safety
Muhammad Khan Rehman safety and accidents involving livestock. measures
Jokhio Jokhio Suggested proper arrangement for road
crossing of community
Abdul Aziz Jokhio
Expressed concern about the land acquisition No land to be acquired
process

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VI. INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND


ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

A Institutional Requirements
105.Environmental regulations of the GoP require proponents of projects that have
reasonably foreseeable qualitative and quantitative impacts are required to submit an
IEE for their respective projects (Schedule I). Proponents of projects that have more
adverse environmental impact (Schedule II) are required to submit an EIA to the
respective provincial EPA. Provincial highways or major roads (except maintenance or
rebuilding or reconstruction) costing more than Rs 50 million require EIA (Schedule II)
and those costing less require IEE. Dualization of existing roads is not specifically
included in the schedules.
106.However the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000 also allow the EPAs to direct the proponent
of a project whether or not listed in Schedule I or Schedule II to file an IEE or EIA for
reasons recorded in such a direction. Such a direction would need to be issued after
recommendation in writing from the Environmental Assessment Advisory Committee to
be constituted under the IEE-EIA Regulations 2000. The Link Road will generally
involve the use of existing carriageways and at this stage it is not known if CDGK will be
required to submit an IEE for the Link Road. An IEE with Environmental Management
Plan is required for all MFF subprojects under ADB requirements and therefore this IEE
has been prepared. This IEE which has been prepared for ADB submission can be also
be used as the basis for regulatory approval requirements of the PEPA 1997.
107.It has also been noted that in another ADB MFF project, Pakistan Environmental
Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) has assumed that all proponents will consult with the
relevant provincial EPAs and follow their advice with regards to environmental
assessment requirements for all MFF subprojects. In 2006 Punjab EPA requested
disclosure of the scope and extent of each of the subprojects in ADB Power
Transmission Enhancement MFF. As such it is expected that all the Tranche 1 and
subprojects in future tranches will be disclosed to the SEPA and the environmental
assessment requirements of the statutory authority will be followed. An Environmental
Assessment and Review Framework (EARF) has also been prepared to select, assess,
monitor, and manage the potential environmental impacts of any subprojects in future
tranches.
108. Therefore prior to implementation and commencement of construction of the Link
Road CDGK will need to notify the SEPA of the location and scale of the subproject and
comply with any environmental requirements and, if IEE is required, obtain approval or
“No Objection Certificates” (under the PEPA 1997). Whatever the SEPA requirements,
IEE is required by ADB for road projects of this scale. The EMP (Appendix B) was
prepared taking into account the environmental management capacity of the CDGK and
SEPA14.
109.In September 2007, Municipal Services of CDGK had one full time environmental
staff member, the District Officer Environment (DOE). The DOE is responsible for
addressing environmental concerns for a citywide development program. The DOE took
charge of his post and department in February 2007. The DOE therefore faces
considerable challenges in implementing the terms of reference. Other problems have

14 Institutional Appraisal of Environmental Assessment and Management Capability within Sindh


Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) and City District Government of Karachi (CDGK), TA 4573
PAK, Preparing the Karachi Mega City Development Project, September 2007.

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been identified with the lack of capacity in SEPA but these are not the subject of this
IEE.
110.At present DOE is responsible for overseeing several key functions that relate to
environmental assessment and management. These were previously under the
jurisdiction of the Law Department but were transferred to the DOE. The environmental
responsibilities of CDGK are defined under the Sindh Local Government Ordinance
2001 (SLGO 2001) and there is a general requirement to raise environmental awareness
in the CDGK jurisdiction. The key elements directly relevant to the implementation of the
MFF subprojects can be summarized as follows:
i) To ensure implementation of environmental protection and preservation
measures in all development projects at district level and sensitize government
agencies on environmental issues;
ii) To assist provincial EPA in discharge of its functions under the PEPA 1997;
iii) To ensure, guide and assist proponents of new projects in the submission of
IEEs and EIAs to SEPA for approval;
iv) To request the Environmental Magistrate or Environmental Tribunal to take
cognizance of any offence under the provisions of PEPA 1997;
v) To undertake regular monitoring of projects financed from the provincial
sustainable development fund and to submit progress reports to the SEPA for
publication in its annual report.
111.At present the DOE is alone within the CDGK with sole responsibility for bringing
environmental issues to the notice of corporate management (District Coordination
Officer, DCO and City District Nazim). The most significant challenge is the lack of
human and financial resources and necessary infrastructure. In 2006 the Governor of
Sindh made a call to establish a separate environment department in the face of growing
national and international environmental concerns. The DOE has made a proposal for a
separate environment department to the DCO but as of February 2008 there is no
change to the existing Municipal Services Department structure.
112.If the terms of reference stated in the SLGO are to be realized then overcoming
environmental capacity deficit within the CDGK will need to be addressed.
Environmental assessment and coordination with SEPA are both key to CDGKs
environmental responsibilities under the SLGO. However although proposals have been
made to address this shortfall in environmental capacity by DOE, a response in terms of
adequate additional human and financial resources may not materialize for some time.
Therefore there is likely to be a period at the start of the KMCSDP MFF when DOE has
insufficient resources to carry out the environmental assessment requirements for ADB.
The lack of appropriate institutional arrangements may interfere with the KMCSDP
attempts to ensure compliance with both GoP and ADB environmental assessment
requirements. Therefore it is recommended that the KMCDSP provide an environmental
cell of at least two full time environmental specialists to support the DOE and remain in
support until such time as the proposed Environmental Department is created or
sufficient other resources are available in CDGK and the proposed Executive District
Officer (EDO) Environment is fully capable of supporting the environmental assessment
portfolio of CDGK. At such a time the appointed environmental cell professionals may
be absorbed into the Environment Department in order to retain institutional memory.
113. To facilitate EMP implementation, during preparation for construction the
contractors must be prepared to cooperate with the environmental cell team, DOE, and
the local population in the mitigation of impacts. However, experience suggests that
contractors may have little impetus or interest in dealing with environmental problems in

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the absence of performance-linked criteria. Therefore, the required environmental


mitigation will be clearly described in a memorandum of understanding and other
contract documents at the bidding stage; the completion of mitigation will be linked to
payment milestones.
114.The EDO will need more staff and training resources if effective quality control is to
be provided for the EMP implementation and much of the environmental assessment
work may be delegated to consultants. The aspirations of the SLGO objectives, to raise
awareness both within Municipal Services Department and more broadly in CDGK, are
sound, but at present the awareness level is not high. Specific areas for immediate
attention are in environmental assessment and auditing, waste, air, water and noise
pollution management and impact mitigation. As a first step CDGK should consolidate
DOE as soon as possible and nominate additional suitable staff to work from within the
department to monitor and audit progress on environmental management for the MFF.
115.For the KMCSDP, the environmental cell staff, engaged to support the DOE for the
MFF subprojects, must be appointed at the outset of the implementation. At the detail
design stage of subproject the cell shall have at least one environmental specialist to
assist the DOE to address all environmental aspects in the detailed design and
contracting stages and the relevant statutory submissions and approvals. In addition,
there needs to be an environmental specialist to cover the implementation of
environmental mitigation measures in the construction stage of the subproject packages.
The environmental specialists should work as members of the environmental
management team with significant proportion of time spent in the field, observing and
making recommendations to improve or modify environmental mitigation measures
executed by the contractors, as the EMP evolves and the MFF subprojects proceed, to
respond to unexpected circumstances.
116.The requisite staff should be appointed prior to the commencement of the tendering
for the construction activities to ensure the inclusion of environmental requirements can
be translated into contractual works for completion to four lane standard and also
respond to unexpected circumstances. Both members of the cell can initially be bolted
on to the DEO or within supervising consultant’s team.
i) The environmental specialists will:
a) Work with DOE to execute any additional EIA and IEE requirements prior to
project commencement;
b) Work with the project management team(s) in CDGK to ensure all
environmental requirements and mitigation measures from the EIAs and IEEs
and environmental performance criteria are incorporated in the contracts; and
c) Work with contractors to manage the implementation of the project EMP.
ii) Overall implementation of the EMP will become CDGK’s responsibility. Other
parties to be involved in implementing the EMP are as follows:
a) Contractors: responsible for implementing all measures required to mitigate
environmental impacts during construction; and
b) Other government agencies: such as union councils, Towns authorities,
regional EPA and state pollution authorities for monitoring the implementation
of environmental conditions and compliance with statutory requirements in
their respective areas.
117.Considering the number of government agencies that need to be involved in
implementing the EMP, training workshops should be conducted at every six months or
twice each year, for the first 3 years, to share experience in the implementation of the

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subprojects and the monitoring report on the implementation of the EMP, to share
lessons learned in the implementation and to decide on remedial actions, if unexpected
environmental impacts occur.

B Environmental Assessment of Follow-Up Subprojects


118.Other road routes may be subprojects in a future tranche(s). Based on the likely
urban location they will be in similar locations to other transportation subprojects.
However other follow-up subprojects in the transport management sector may involve
more complex environmental assessments. A detailed EARF procedure has therefore
been prepared that must be followed as required by ADB for all the subprojects in future
Tranches of the KMCSD MFF.

C Environmental Management Plan


119.This IEE concludes that the construction impacts will be manageable if the
mitigation measures are implemented thoroughly. The EMP is based on the type, extent
and duration of the identified environmental impacts. The EMP has been prepared by
close reference to best practices and in line with ADB’s Environmental Policy (2002) and
Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003).
120.Implementation of construction of the Link Road will need to comply with several
environmental requirements and clearance will be required from SEPA for any statutory
environmental assessment or an indication that no assessment is required. DOE will
also need to confirm that contractors and their suppliers have complied with all statutory
requirements for licenses from CDGK. DOE should also check that contractors have all
the necessary valid licenses and permits for use of powered mechanical equipment if
necessary and the use of local water supplies (and to construct and operate plants such
as concrete batching in line with all environmental regulations and license conditions
from EPA).
121.The effective implementation of the EMP should be audited as part of the loan
conditions and the executing agency must be prepared for this. In this regard the CDGK
(the Implementing Agency) must be prepared to guide the design engineers and
contractors on the environmental aspects and ADB has suggested that such leadership
and auditing should be undertaken by the DOE and environmental cell from the
commencement of the MFF.
122.Prior to implementation of Tranche 1 the EMP shall be amended and reviewed by
the DOE and environmental cell in due course after Link Road detailed designs are
complete and contracting arrangements are known. Such a review shall be based on
reconfirmation and any additional information on the assumptions made at the feasibility
stage on location scale and expected operating conditions of the subprojects. For
example, in this case if there is additional land required for junctions and fly-overs
(although not confirmed as yet) the designs may be amended and the environmental
significance must be reviewed. Although no major additional impacts would be
anticipated based on the information provided to date the performance and evaluation
schedules to be implemented during project construction and operation can be reviewed,
updated, and costs estimates can be revised if necessary.
123.The EMP must be reviewed by the DOE and project management in CDGK and
approved before any construction activity is initiated on Tranche 1, to take account of
any subsequent changes and fine tuning of the proposals. It is recommended that before
the Tranche 1 contracts are worked out in detail and before pre-qualification, that the
environmental status of the existing Link Road routes is monitored to set a baseline for
benefit monitoring using some of the key EMP mitigation measures as the performance
indicators.

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124.This IEE including the EMP should be used as a basis for an environmental
compliance program and an updated EMP should be included in the revised contract
documentation for the Link Road route. The updated EMP, any conditions of the
environmental clearance from the SEPA and any subsequent licenses and approvals
from SEPA should also be included in the environmental requirements for the
contractors in the compliance program. Therefore, continued monitoring of the
implementation of mitigation measures, the implementation of the environmental
conditions from environmental clearance, and monitoring of the environmental impact
related to the construction of all future works to complete the Link Road, including
complaints, should be properly carried out and reported periodically in monthly progress
reports. Compliance with all of the EMP requirements shall also be reported in other
periodic project performance reports.
125.The impacts from construction and operation will be manageable and no
insurmountable impacts are predicted providing that the updated EMP is included in the
contract documents and implemented to its full extent. The details of EMP given in
Appendix B are in the form of the matrix and may require revision as the project reaches
detailed design. The impacts have been classified as per the design/preparation stage,
construction stage and operation and maintenance stage. The matrix details the
mitigation measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, approximate
location of the mitigation routes, time span of the implementation of mitigation measures,
an analysis of the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution. The
institutional responsibility has been specified for the purpose of the implementation and
the supervision. The matrix is supplemented with a monitoring plan for the performance
indicators. An estimation of the associated costs for the monitoring is given with the plan.
The EMP has been prepared following best practice and the ADB’s Environmental Policy
(2002) and Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003).

D Environmental Monitoring
126.Monitoring activities during implementation will focus on compliance with license
conditions, recording implementation of mitigation measures, monitoring complaints,
recording environmental parameters, reviewing contractor environmental performance
and proposing remedial actions to address unexpected impacts during construction.
Some of these tasks can be assigned to the contractors and managed by the DOE and
environmental cell. The monitoring plan n (Tables 4 and 5) was designed based on the
likely subproject cycle.
127.During the preconstruction period, the monitoring activities will focus on (i) checking
the contractor’s bidding documents, particularly to ensure that all necessary
environmental requirements have been included; and (ii) checking that the contract
documents’ references to environmental mitigation measures requirements have been
incorporated as part of contractor’s assignment. Where detailed design is required (e.g.
for further elaboration of the junctions and viaducts) the checking of updated designs
must be carried out including requirements for additional land. During the construction
period, the monitoring activities will focus on ensuring that environmental mitigation
measures are implemented, and some performance indicators and complaints will need
to be monitored to record the subproject’s environmental achievements and to guide any
remedial action to address unexpected impacts. Monitoring activities during project
operation will focus on recording transport management and dust near the Link Road as
well as general environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to address
unexpected impacts.
128. Operational monitoring of the Link Road is essential to ensure that the system is
performing to required standards and that adjustments can be made as required to meet
demand levels of an expanding road network. Travel times and accidents should be

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monitored. Monitoring activities during project operation will also focus on traffic accident
frequency and soil erosion. Effective monitoring will also facilitate data and performance
outcomes to be fed back into the design and operation of the next phases of the Link
Road network development.
129. The impacts from construction and operation will be manageable and no
insurmountable impacts are predicted providing that the updated EMP is included in the
contract documents and implemented to its full extent. The details of EMP given in
Appendix B are in the form of the matrix and may require revision as the project reaches
detailed design. The impacts have been classified as per the design/preparation stage,
construction stage and operation and maintenance stage. The matrix details the
mitigation measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, approximate
location of the mitigation routes, time span of the implementation of mitigation measures,
an analysis of the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution. The
institutional responsibility has been specified for the purpose of the implementation and
the supervision. The matrix is supplemented with a monitoring plan for the performance
indicators. An estimation of the associated costs for the monitoring is given with the plan.
The EMP has been prepared following best practice and the ADB’s Environmental Policy
(2002) and the Environmental Assessment Guidelines 2003.

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Table 4: Environmental Monitoring Plan for Link Road Subproject


No. Environmental Monitoring Implementation Implementation Schedule
Tasks15 Responsibility
1 Design Phase
1.1 Audit project bidding CDGK through Prior to issue of bidding
documents to ensure IEE and environmental officer documents.
EMP is included.
1.2 Disclosure of subproject to
SEPA
1.3 Monitor final site selection CDGK through Prior to CDGK approval of
(alignment) and its environmental officer detailed designs.
environmental compliance with
EMP
1.4 Monitor the performance of CDGK through Ongoing, prior to and during
environmental training and environmental officer implementation of works and
briefings and of the operation.
environmental awareness of
project staff and CDGK
2 Construction Phase CDGK through
environmental officer
2.1 Regular (monthly) monitoring CDGK through Continuous throughout
and reporting (quarterly) of environmental officer construction period.
contractor’s compliance with
statutory environmental
requirements
2.2 Regular (monthly) monitoring CDGK through Continuous throughout
and reporting (quarterly) of environmental officer construction period.
contractor’s compliance with
contractual environmental
mitigation measures
2.3 Regular (monthly) monitoring CDGK through Continuous throughout
and reporting (quarterly) of environmental officer construction period.
complaints and responses or
environmental mitigation
measures
2.4 Monitor adjustments to the CDGK through During all phases of the
EMP and the thorough environmental officer subprojects
implementation of detailed
EMP
2.5 Commissioning phase CDGK through At commissioning.
monitoring of as built environmental officer
equipment and facilities versus
environmental contractual
performance criteria

15 Monitoring of issues related to compensation of landowners for land acquisition and loss of production,
etc. are addressed in the Resettlement Action Plan.

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No. Environmental Monitoring Implementation Implementation Schedule


Tasks15 Responsibility
3 Operation and Maintenance CDGK through
Phase environmental officer
3.1 Observations during routine CDGK through As per CDGK inspection
maintenance inspections of environmental officer schedules
facilities. Inspections will
include monitoring
implementation of operational
mitigation measures versus
environmental criteria specified
in EMP for operational impacts.
3.2 Visual monitoring of dust and CDGK through During the life of the project
operational noise from two environmental officer
locations on the link road.

Table 5: Summary of Estimated Costs for EMP Implementation for Link Road
Item Sub Item Estimated Total Estimated Total Cost
Costs [USD]
[PKR]
Staffing, audit and 2 persons for 2 years 1,500,000 25,000
monitoring
Monitoring activities As detailed under EMP 5,000,000 83,300
Mitigation measures As prescribed under 11,500,000 191,700
EMP and IEE
Transport 1 vehicle for 2 years 1,000,000 16,700
Contingency 5% contingency 1,000,000 16,700
Total 20,000,000 333,400

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VII. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

130. This IEE study was carried out when the MFF Tranche 1 subproject were at the
stage of conceptual design during the TA 4753 (PAK). Essentially secondary data were
used to assess the environmental impacts in a comprehensive manner and public
consultation and route reconnaissance were carried out in order complete the
environmental assessments and recommend suitable mitigation measures.
131. Several actions are required during the detailed design stage to minimize
impacts to acceptable levels. The negative environmental impacts from the Link road
rehabilitation and widening projects will mostly take place during the construction stage.
The construction impacts should be very predictable and manageable and with
appropriate mitigation few residual impacts are likely.
132. Some key actions are required after the detailed designs are developed. CDGK
should update the EMP and together with the IEE recommendations all mitigation
measures should be included as contractual requirements, accepted by all contractors
prior to signing the contract(s). Certain mitigation management plans (temporary traffic
management plan, materials management master plan, noise and dust control plan,
waste management, and erosion control plan) should be deliverable by the contractors
before construction commences.
133. The construction is restricted to Government land and as far as can be
ascertained at this stage there is not likely to be any significant additional land required
to complete the construction. However it is possible that some land may be required at
the detailed design stage. A resettlement action plan has been completed in tandem with
the environmental work stream that will apply to all subprojects.
134. At the detailed design stage a review should be conducted of the monitoring
activities proposed in this IEE to establish the parameters to be checked during the
construction and operation. Impact and compliance monitoring activities will focus on
compliance with license conditions, recording implementation of mitigation measures,
recording environmental parameters, reviewing contractor environmental performance
and proposing remedial actions to address unexpected impacts and complaints.
135. The IEE, including the EMP, should be used as a basis for an environmental
compliance program and be included in the contract documentation. The EMP shall be
reviewed at the detailed design stage. In addition, any conditions that are part of the
environmental clearance from the SEPA should also be as a basis for the environmental
compliance program. Therefore, continued monitoring of the implementation of
mitigation measures, the implementation of the environmental conditions for work and
environmental clearance, and monitoring of the environmental impact related to the
operation of the road should be properly carried out and reported monthly to track and
determine the net environmental benefits that have accrued. These should be
summarized by CDGK in regular quarterly progress reports to ADB also summarized at
least twice per year as part of the ADB project performance report. The negative
environmental impacts from the project will mostly take place during the construction.
136. The implementation of the environmental mitigation measures during the
construction period will be assigned to the contractors. However, experience suggests
that contractors may have little impetus or interest to deal with environmental problems
in the absence of performance linked criteria. Therefore, the required environmental
mitigation must be clearly described in the contract documents at the bidding stage and
the completion of mitigation should be linked to payment milestones.

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VIII.CONCLUSIONS

137.Environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of the Link
Road need to be mitigated and institutional arrangements are available. Additional
human and financial resources will be required by CDGK to incorporate the
environmental recommendations effectively and efficiently in the contract documents,
linked to payment milestones. The proposed mitigation and management plans are
practicable but require additional resources.
138.Monitoring activities will need to focus on compliance with license conditions,
recording implementation of mitigation measures, recording environmental parameters,
reviewing contractor environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
address unexpected impacts.
139. The need for dualization of the Link Road is well established but thorough
implementation of the EMP is required throughout the design, construction and operation
of the Link Road in order to minimize impacts and retain public support for the project.
.

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Appendix A: Selected Photographs

View to north

T-Junction at National Highway (N-5)

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Another view of the road

Goth Ahmad Jokhio

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Bridge on Sukin Nallah

Bridge on Malir River

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A typical culvert

Roadside mosque

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Under-construction Entrance to a planned Housing Estate

A roadside tea and food stall

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Appendix B: Environmental Management Plan

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B.1.1 Link Road Dualization - Environmental Management Plan – Matrix


Environmental Timing to Locations to Resp to Resp to
Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
DESIGN STAGE
1. Project Ensure statutory Disclose Link Road project and design to the SEPA Commencement The Link Road CDGK with the CDGK – ADB
disclosure compliance with and clarify that no documents are required to be filed of detailed design. route DDC
PEPA 1997. with the Provincial and Federal EPA to ensure
compliance with Sec. 12(1) of the PEPA 1997 (as
amended).
2. Subproject Ensure EMP Ensure route is as described in RRP with no land Completion of The Link Road CDGK with the CDGK – ADB
boundaries change. sufficient to acquisition. detailed design. route DDC
control impacts OR
and compliance
with statutory Review IEE and EMP and confirm findings and
requirements recommendations.
PEPA 1997. Submit REA, revised IEE/EIA and EMP to ADB.
Complete the environmental assessment process in
line with and ADB Guidelines.
3. Noise control Ensure noise 1. Discuss and agree noise criteria for environmental 1. During 1., 2., 3. For Link CDGK with the CDGK
impacts are planning with CDGK such as set backs and World designing stage Road route and DDC
acceptable in Bank criterion of Leq67dB(A) for new noise sensitive no later than pre- for future urban
operational phase. developments such as schools, colleges, hospitals qualification or planning
and temples near the Link Road (if any). tender improvements.
2. At detailed design stage, with the benefit of traffic negotiations. 4. Noise sensitive
flow forecasts, acoustical assessments should be 2. Include barrier / locations to be
made to reconfirm width of noise mitigation set back low noise road reconfirmed and
from source for future / planned noise sensitive surface in the checked in the
receivers (or if noise barriers / low noise road dualization EMP that is
surfacing are required). contract if approved by ADB.
3. Conduct detailed acoustic assessment to required.
determine appropriate set back based on best
estimate of road traffic on the Link Road for 2025.
Design set back width to attenuate noise to below
agreed criterion [e.g. Leq67dB(A) as recommended
by World Bank].
4. Ensure any future new noise sensitive
developments such as schools, colleges, hospitals
and temples are set back from the road to attenuate

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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
noise climate to below criterion agreed with CDGK.
4. Air quality Prevent future 1. Establish clear demarcation of RoW and enforce During detailed 1. Throughout the CDGK with the CDGK
development in to prevent development within the RoW to provide design stage Link Road route DDC
areas of some set back. and for future
deterioration air 2. Ensure any new developments are set back from urban planning
quality. the road to allow dispersal of vehicular emissions to improvements.
below criteria agreed with CDGK or any likely future
additions to the National Environmental Quality
Standards (NEQS) to cover fugitive emissions.
5. Loss of Minimise need to Consultation with local authorities and land owners s 1. Integral part of The Link Road 1. DDC CDGK
productive acquire Site selection on marginal land. detailed design route 2. DDC/CDGK
agriculture agricultural land output.
for temporary As far as possible, use waste/barren land and non- 3. CDGK /
agricultural plots. 2. Consultation Contractor
facilities (if with local
needed). authorities and
land owners.
3. Reconfirmation
during
construction
planning
6. Waste Disposal Ensure sufficient 1. Design consultants to identify reuse options and 1. Detailed design The Link Road DDC/CDGK CDGK
disposal space for sufficient stockpiling and disposal locations for site output. route
cut surface clearance of scabbled and cut surface bitumen 2. Within one
materials and materials and bored piles or caissons and include month of award of
avoid fly-tipping. disposal locations and requirements in contracts. contract or earlier.
2. Before works commence selected contractor to
prepare Waste Management Plan with disposal sites
identified for agreement by construction supervision
consultants and CDGK.
7. Plan Facilitate the 1. Link Road detailed designers estimate the 1. Detailed design The Link Road DDC/contractors/ CDGK
construction timely production additional construction materials required. Works output. route. CDGK
materials of rock and scheduled to facilitate the timely production of rock, 2. Within one
management bitumen based based and bitumen materials for construction and to month of award of
materials for avoid the need for excessive stockpiling and contract or earlier.
construction and importing from elsewhere in the districts that will be
to avoid impacts affected by this subproject.

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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
due to stockpiling 2. The selected contractor(s) to prepare Mass
near the Link Balance for Waste Management Plan with disposal
Road route. sites identified for agreement by construction
supervision consultants and CDGK.
8. Minimize impacts Retain or re- 1. Detailed design consultants to maintain current During detailed 1. Existing CDGK with DDC CDGK
due to Link Road provision current level of pedestrian crossing after inclusion of median design stage. crossing facilities
route alignment facilities for barrier or provide alternatives and include in detailed across the Link
designs. pedestrian design. Road especially.
crossing. 2. Retain existing crossings places or include 2. Close to
Ensure that footbridges or overpasses and underpasses to avoid mosques, schools
provisions are pedestrian severance. and other SRs to
made to preserve 3. Ensure existing drainage and other utilities have be retained.
the operation of been identified and avoided / re-provisioned. 3. Locations of
any existing local overpasses and
infrastructure and 4. The impacts related to the aesthetic value,
religious context (if any) of the local environment drainage to be
that utilities are included in plans
protected. have been considered.
4. Shrine to the
Avoid severance. south east of
Sukin Nullah and
other SRs.
9. Hydrological To minimize 1.Hydrologic flow in areas where it is sensitive, such 1., 2.During Areas considered CDGK with DDC CDGK
Impacts hydrological and as bridges and culverts or where flooding may occur detailed design. prone to flooding,
drainage impacts next to embankments to be facilitated through 3. Agreed with bridges and
during provision of permeable base layer in the road base contractors before culverts
constructions. with appropriate drainage structures additional the
bridges and culverts. commencement of
2. Redistribution of sheet flows from road surfaces to construction
be provided for in the design to reduce impacts. activities/during
3. Design of adequate major and minor lead off reconfirmation of
drainage facilities will be completed in detailed designs.
design.
10. Irrigation Avoid and retain 1. Detailed design consultants to maintain current During detailed Any irrigation CDGK with DDC CDGK
channels and or re-provision level of current facilities for irrigation design stage. facilities identified
related facilities. current facilities 2. Consultation with local irrigation authorities and in consultation
for irrigation. design engineers - with local irrigation
Ensure that authorities and
3. Appropriate location of facilities to avoid especially the
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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
provisions are interference with irrigation channels water conduit
made to preserve 4. The impacts related to the aesthetic value, south of shrine.
the operation of religious context (if any) of the local environment
current facilities have been considered.
for irrigation.
11 Temporary and Extend / improve 1. Identify all locations for drains and slopes or 1. During All embankments CDGK with DDC CSC
permanent drainage culverts embankment that are to be expanded and all designing stage and vulnerable
drainage and under Link Road. culverts. no later than pre- slopes to be
erosion control. Include 2. Design slope stabilization and protection for works qualification or identified during
preliminary in line with worst case storm predictions. tender detailed design
designs for in negotiations stages
3. Contracts to specify locations and expected
contract. mitigation measures. 2. Include in the Other locations
contract. based on
3.include reprovisioning in contracts as payment complaints and
milestone(s) problems as
advised by CSC.
12.Traffic Condition Plan to minimize 1. Avoiding blocking existing roads and access near During detailed The most DDC CDGK
disturbance of the Link Road during construction. design. important
vehicular traffic 2. Design provisional TEMPORARY TRAFFIC locations to be
and pedestrians MANAGEMENT PLAN for updating by the identified and
during construction contractors ONE MONTH PRIOR TO listed in revised
construction. START OF WORKS in any given sector. EMP. Relevant
plans to be made
3. Installation of traffic warning signs, and enforcing available to the
traffic regulations during transportation of materials Contractor with
and equipment and machinery. 4. 4. Conditions of tenders.
access roads to all the Link Road bridges to be
considered.
5. Include plans for conducting awareness programs
on safety and proper traffic behavior near Link Road
construction sites.
6. Plan requirements to assign dedicated traffic
control personnel and to construct new lanes before
starting work on the existing lane.
7. Prior to the conclusion of the detailed design
stage, modify plans as required to respond to any
changes that result from the assumptions made in
other Tranche 1 subprojects such as the

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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
development of the Urban Traffic Control System and
preparation of the comprehensive long term
Transport Master Plan. I.e. the potential cascade of
effects upon traffic conditions on the Link Road (if
any). There is insufficient data to make these
assumptions at the present stage.
13. Enhance To provide 1. Opportunity spaces for landscape planting to be 1. Detailed design The Link Road CDGK with DDC CDGK
landscape by enhancements in identified along side of highway to provide visual output. route
including trees in line with ADB interest in line with best international practice for
landscape designs policy on highway design. Locations may provide a chance to
environmental create landscaping where successful planting of trees
avoid negative and shrubs could be accomplished. This practice
impacts due to should be encouraged as far as practicable. Other
unnecessary opportunities for enhancements can be assessed
removing of trees prior to construction and proposed enhancements
should be discussed with the local population with
respect to available water supply during
establishment and protection to avoid cutting for fuel.
2. Detailed design to avoid tree removal unless
justified and include tree protection and mitigation
requirements in tender and contract documentation.
3 Landscaping at available Link Road verges
included in detailed designs.
Trees/shrubs/ornamental plants to increase aesthetic
value.
14. Environmentally Look for Choose non polluting or enhancing methods. During detailed CSC / Tender CSC / Tender CDGK
responsible enhancement Contractor to submit Method Statement and schedule design and evaluators to evaluators
procurement opportunities in of environmental mitigation measures with tender. compiling check contractors
design and Enhancements, techniques and machinery selection contracts and Method
construction. to minimize impacts and duration of works. during contractor Statements
Avoid construction Choose non polluting equipment selection, prior to include sufficient
and operational contract signing. resources for
Specify equipment not to contain persistent organic proposed
environmental pollutants, asbestos and other hazardous or toxic
pollution. environmental
components. mitigation
measures and
correct timing in
tender/bids.

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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
Equipment and
construction
specifications and
performance with
company
testimonials /
certificates /
accreditations.
CONSTRUCTION STAGE
1. Plans to control Avoid impacts 1. Temporary traffic management plan, Prior to To cover all the Contractor. CDGK.
environmental and from unplanned 2. Drainage and utilities re-provisioning plan, construction Link Road route.
associated impacts activities activity
3. Materials management master plan,
Submission to
4. Noise and dust control plan, ADB
5. Waste management plan;
6. Tree Compensatory Planting Plan (if required)
should all be deliverable in final form by the
contractors one month before construction
commences.
2. Loss of trees and To avoid several PAYMENTS LINKED TO TREE One month prior The Link Road Contractor and CDGK/
vegetation cover of negative impacts REESTABLISHMENT NOT TREE REMOVAL- to and during route especially CSC CSC
the areas work- due to 1. Removal of trees>10cm DBH (diameter at breast construction of where trees can
areas and unnecessary height) to be justified on engineering and safety relevant activities remain under
aesthetics removing of grounds in tree removal plan. elevated bridge
(if required) shrubs / trees and sections.
other street 2. Clearing of trees for construction, cutting trees and
foliage. other important vegetation during construction should
be minimized.
3. Trees that are unavoidably to be removed for
construction shall have compensatory planting and
replacement and establishment plans for trees that
shall be approved by the contractor one month before
existing trees are cut.
4. Payments for site clearance shall be withheld until
compensatory tree planting is complete for that
sector and payment therefore linked to tree
reestablishment not removal as one of the milestone
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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
payments.
5 At least seven (7) new trees shall replace each cut
tree and maintained alive for three years as part of
the contractual agreement and milestone payments.
6. Landscaping with trees and shrubs shall take place
at the Link Road verges. Planting of
trees/shrubs/ornamental plants to contribute to the
aesthetic value of the area.
7. At conclusion of the project, all debris and waste
shall be removed. All temporary structures, including
office buildings, shelters and toilets shall be removed.
3. Orientation for Ensure that the 1. Contractors tenders shall be required to separate Induction for all All site agent staff. Contractor CDGK to observe
Contractor, and CSC, Contractor clearly the resources and funds to be applied to the site agents and monthly induction management with and record
Workers and and workers mitigation measures for environmental impacts. above including all and six month the CSC to check success.
materials understand and 2. Contractors tenders shall identify named staff to CSC staff new refresher course monthly and
management. have the capacity supervise and plan, staff before as necessary until record details and
to ensure that the commencement of contractors report monthly in
environmental • Drainage and utilities re-provisioning work. comply / improve. progress reports
requirements and • Temporary traffic management, Weekly tool box
mitigation • Materials management, talks and
measures must be refreshers at early
implemented by • Noise and dust control,
stages of
them. • Waste management, construction for all
• Tree removal and compensatory planting construction
3. Contractual clauses shall be included to tie the employees as far
implementation of environmental mitigation measures as reasonably
in the above plans to trigger milestone payments. practicable.
Include with safety
Contractual clauses shall require Contractors to talks.
conduct induction briefing and / or on-site training for
the contractors’ management, contractors’ staff,
subcontractors and casual workers to cover the
environmental requirements of the project.
4. Contractual clauses shall be included to require
contractors to employ dedicated environmental
management staff to conduct/oversee the
environmental orientation sessions and the
implementation of environmental mitigation measures

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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
so as to facilitate checking for milestone payments.
5. Contractual clauses shall emphasize that financial
compensation shall not be allowed as mitigation for
environmental impacts or environmental nuisance
without written and environmentally justifiable
agreement from the relevant environmental
authorities.
6. Engineering controls shall be promulgated by the
construction contractors and shall be designed as
mitigation measures to control the impacts at source
in the first place. The CSC shall be responsible to
approve the measures and report the update of EMP.
7. The contractor shall be responsible for
implementation of an effective environmental
monitoring and reporting system using checklists of
all contractual environmental requirements and EMP.
4. To minimize and Contracts to include specifications for update monthly 1. List the borrow Contractor and CSC CDGK
Exploitation handling, or avoid adverse areas to be prepared to agree
1. Fuel and bulk materials securely stored above high one month prior to
transportation and environmental flood level of the Malir River and Sukin Nallah with
storage of commencement of
impacts arising covers and retaining boards, covered when not in
construction contracts stage 2
out of construction use, at end of shift and at night. construction
materials material
exploitation, 2. Selecting sites for material exploitation as 2.A list of routes of
approved by CDGK. transport of
handling, construction material
transportation and 3. Move bulk materials at Link Road’s off peak less is to be prepared for
storage. bus times. the contract and
4. Maintain vehicles used in material transport in agreed one month
good condition and covered with tarpaulins. prior to stage 2
To minimize construction
contamination of 5. Specifiy sites for material storage >1000m away
4. A map of
the surroundings from SRs in contracts locations of storage
6. Excavation of earth fill to be limited to an is prepared by the
approximate depth of 50 cm. In case of deep contractor.
(due mainly to
implementation of ditching, the top 1 m layer of the ditching area to be
works, asphalt, stripped and stockpiled. Ditch initially to be filled with
concrete and scrap material from construction and then levelled
aggregates with the stockpiled topsoil.
crushing plants) 7. Ditches or borrow pits be revegetated and

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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
landscaped to minimize erosion and to avoid creating
surface hazards for people and livestock
8. Update materials management plan monthly and
include in progress report
5. Institutional To ensure that 1. Capacity building activities. Initiate during All senior staff in CDGK ADB
strengthening and CDGK and PMU 2. Consolidation of the DOE or Setting up of DOE preconstruction CDGK at senior
capacity building officials are within CDGK. and continue engineer and
trained to beyond project above in PMU and
understand and to 3. Development of a strengthening plan for the DOE. completion. related units.
appreciate and
have the
resources to apply
the EMP.
6. Air quality To minimize air CONTOL ALL DUSTY MATERIALS AT SOURCE. 1. Before works The Link Road 1. The Contractor CDGK
impacts effectively 1. If works have given rise to complaints over dust, commence and route should maintain
and avoid the contractor shall investigate the cause and review weekly throughout the accepted
complaints due to and propose alternative mitigation measures before all construction standards.
the airborne works recommence. works 2. CSC should
particulate matter 2 Monthly monitor dust
released to the 2. All heavy equipment and machinery shall be fitted
in full compliance with the national and local reporting in complaints, wheel
atmosphere. progress reports. washing and
regulations.
3.Report to allow surface wetting
3. Stockpiled soil and sand shall be slightly wetted and other relevant
before loading, particularly in windy conditions. inclusion in PPR
to ADB. activities.
4. Fuel-efficient and well-maintained haulage trucks 3. CDGK
shall be employed to minimize exhaust emissions.
Smoke belching vehicles and equipment shall not be
allowed and shall be removed from the project.
5. Vehicles transporting soil, sand and other
construction materials shall be covered with tarpaulin
sheets. Speeds of such vehicles shall be limited to
15km/h within the works site and on unpaved edge
areas of the Link Road.
6 The active open areas of the sites and haul roads
shall be sprayed at least twice per day with water to
suppress dust and to avoid excessive dust obscuring
visibility on the remaining operation lanes of the Link
Road. In the event of complaints water spraying shall
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Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
be increased and the pattern of spraying shall be
reviewed to improve its effect.
7. Wheel and vehicle washing facilities shall be
installed at the main construction yards, stockpiling
areas, cement batching facilities abd bitumen plant to
prevent the transfer of excessive dust on to the
remaining operation lanes of the Link Road.
8. Concrete batching plants. Asphalt plant and rock
crusher activities (if required) to be controlled (e.g.
asphalt hot-mix plants should not be located within
500m of any sensitive receiver, river bank or irrigation
channel but located at convenient sites nearby but
downwind of and at least 500m from sensitive
receptors such as schools and hospitals.
7. Bitumen usage Avoid air pollution Bitumen should not be used as fuel Before works The Link Road The Contractor CDGK
and traffic Fuel wood should not be for bitumen heating. commence and route observe rules
obstacles throughout all CSC should
Bitumen drums should be stored in a dedicated area, construction works
not scattered along the works monitor bitumen
use and other
related activities.
8. Construction To minimize the Waste management plan to be submitted to the CSC Update once a 1. A list of 1.Contractor CDGK/CSC
Waste Disposal impacts from and approved one month prior to starting works. month and report temporary 2.CSC should
construction waste 1. Estimating the amounts and types of construction quarterly. dumping areas supervise and
disposal. waste to be generated by the project. identified by take action to
detailed design ensure completion
2. Identify opportunities for waste to be reused in the engineer to be
project or by other interested parties. of Contractor’s
prepared at the relevant activities
3 Identifying potentially safe disposal sites close to contract stage for according to
the project. or those designated sites in the contract. agreement. environmental
4 Waste shall not be burned - under any 2. The list of standards.
circumstances. waste sites to be
OPEN BURNING IS CONTRARY TO GOOD reconfirmed and
ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE. that dumping
areas is available
as identified by
detailed design
engineer.

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9. Water quality To prevent 1. Storage of lubricants, fuels and other Timing will depend Throughout the Contractor CDGK/CSC
adverse water hydrocarbons in self-contained dedicated enclosures on the Link Road Route
quality impacts >50 m away from water bodies. construction
due to negligence 3. Proper disposal of solid waste from construction timetable
and ensure activities and labour camps.
unavoidable
impacts are 4. Covering the construction material and spoil
managed stockpiles with a suitable material to reduce material
effectively. loss and sedimentation.
Ensure adverse 5. Avoiding stockpiling to water bodies.
impacts on water 6. Stripped material shall not be stored where natural
quality caused by drainage will be disrupted.
construction 7. Borrow sites should not be close to sources of
activities are drinking water.
minimized.
10. Erosion control To avoid threat to Immediately after completion of engineering works in At all times with All embankments CDGK CDGK/CSC
established works any sector require establishment of vegetation cover special focus in and vulnerable
and minimize and other erosion protection prior to payment rainy seasons. slopes to be
excessive erosion milestone. identified during
of works in Prior to hand back of any section regular monthly detailed design
progress, surveillance by contractor and immediate repair and stages
embankments and reestablishment and as part of routine progress
slopes. reporting.
11. Worker camp To ensure that the 1. Identify location of worker canteen and toilet Update Once a Location Map is Contractor CDGK/CSC
canteen and toilet operation of the facilities in consultation with local communities. month prepared by the
facilities works and worker Location subject to approval by the CDGK. If Contractor.
facilities does not possible, canteen and toilet facilities shall include
adversely affect drinking water supplies.
the surrounding 2. Marking of vegetation not to be removed prior to
environment and clearance, and strict control on clearing activities to
residents in the ensure minimal clearance. Felled trees and other
area. cleared or pruned vegetation to be disposed of as
authorized by CDGK but not burned. LPG or other
fuels to be provided for cooking at worker camps.
3. In case of agricultural land, top 30 cm of soil to be
stockpiled and preserved for future re-spread after
site vacated.

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4. In order to maintain proper sanitation around
construction routes, temporary toilets will need to be
provided. Waste shall not be buried (see above)
5. Drinking water and sanitary facilities shall be
provided for employees.
6. Solid waste and sewage shall be managed
according to the national and local regulations.
7. The Contractor shall organize and maintain a
waste separation, collection and transport system.
8. The Contractor shall document that all liquid and
solid hazardous and non-hazardous waste are
separated, collected and disposed of according to the
given requirements and regulations.
9. At the conclusion of the project in a particular
sector, all debris and waste shall be removed. All
temporary structures, including office buildings,
shelters, waste receptacles and toilets shall be
removed.
10. Exposed areas shall be replanted with suitable
vegetation in line with the landscape plans and be
inspected by CDGK and CSC shall inspect and report
that the site has been vacated and restored to pre-
project conditions or as agreed with CDGK.
12. Safety To ensure safety 1. Providing adequate warning signs. During Relevant canteen Contractor and CDGK/CSC
Precautions for the of workers and 2. Providing workers with skull guard or hard hat. construction and worker CSC
Workers and first equipment. sanitation facilities
aid. 3. Contractor shall instruct his workers in health and
safety matters, weekly, and require the workers to Base height as for
use the provided safety equipment. equipment yards
above HFL.
4. Establish all relevant safety measures as required
by law and good engineering practices.
5. Contractor shall provide first aid facilities for the
workers on the Link Road Route and at the worker
canteens with at least one qualified first-aider or
nurse present at all times. It is recommended that the
workforce be given access to a trained doctor at least
once per two weeks for routine checks and medical

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examinations if necessary.
6. Locate construction yards and facilities above the
highest recorded flood level (HFL – also avoids water
contamination)
13. Traffic Minimize SUBMIT TEMPORARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Day time The most Contractor and CDGK/CSC
Condition disturbance of PLAN ONE MONTH PRIOR TO START OF WORKS important Engineer
vehicular traffic & in any given sector. locations to be
pedestrians during - Formulation and implementation of a construction identified and
haulage of related traffic management plan . Assign traffic listed. Relevant
materials, spoil, control personnel.. plans of the
equipment & Contractor on
machinery. No - Vicinity of schools and hospitals to be considered. traffic
blocking access Installation of traffic warning signs. arrangements are
near the Link - Conducting awareness programs on safety and available.
Road. proper traffic behavior in densely populated areas
near the construction sites.
OPERATIONAL STAGE
1. Soil erosion. To minimize Ensure thorough maintenance programme of Throughout All embankments CSC and CDGK. CDGK
excessive erosion vegetation cover and other erosion protection prior to operations and slopes with
of embankments payment milestone. protection
and slopes. Regular monthly surveillance as part of routine measures.
regular maintenance for initial three years of
operation.
2. Air Quality Integrated Law enforcement on vehicles conditions. During operation Throughout road CSC and CDGK. CDGK
approach to traffic Full development of the Urban Traffic Control System of all roads. transport network.
management
hand in hand with Timely preparation of the comprehensive long term
reductions in Transport Master Plan.
pollution. I.e. the potential cascade of effects upon traffic
conditions at the street level resulting from the
proposals for the of Urban Traffic Control System and
Transport Master Plan should contribute to some
reductions in air pollution.
Adopting other subsequent policies, initiatives and
guidelines or National measures due to regulations
on fuel type and purification of exhaust gases.

CDGK = City District Government Karachi CSC=construction supervision consultant DDC = Detailed Design Consultant PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar.
07/03/08 Page 61 of 62
Karachi Mega City Sustainable Development Program
IEE of Dualization of Link Road from National Highway (N-5) to Super Highway (M-9)

Environmental Timing to Locations to Resp to Resp to


Objectives Mitigation Measures (MM) Recommended
Concern Implement MM Implement MM Implement MM Minotor MM
Promoting mass transport and traffic management.
Establishing vehicle emission regulations and
standards.
Strict enforcement of the regulations subsequent to
an awareness program.
3. Noise Control noise from Establishing standards and regulations for noise During operation. - CDGK CDGK
exceeding levels emanating from vehicles.
tolerable levels Strict enforcement of regulations, subsequent to an
within a 100m awareness programme.
corridor by
decrease of traffic Establishing a national policy on vehicle imports –
flow. noise levels in line proposals for the of Urban Traffic
Control System and Transport Master Plan should
contribute to some reductions in noise as vehicle fleet
is improved.
4. Monitoring To control serious Link Road user and neighbour information/ During operation - CDGK CDGK
Accidents and fatal education, traffic signs and Link Road feeder road
accidents on the markings.
roads surrounding Lighted junctions, lane markings and coloured cats-
the Link Road due eyes for identification of lanes in nighttime operation.
to new road
layouts and Establishment of accident review committee.
possibly higher
speeds.
5 Refuse disposal To control litter, fly Link Road sweeping weekly. During operation. CDGK CDGK
and fly tipping. tipping and Information campaigns and litter bins at junctions.
garbage disposal
by the side of Link Placing garbage bins along the Link Road lanes with
Road by users signboards
creating pollution Fines against littering and rewards for whistle
and dangerous blowers.
driving conditions Regular cleaning of the Link Road lanes.
Collaborative work with NGOs

CDGK = City District Government Karachi CSC=construction supervision consultant DDC = Detailed Design Consultant PMU = Project Management Unit or Similar.
07/03/08 Page 62 of 62

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