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,

. . .




.
AWR DESIGN ENVIRONMENT

2008 .


...........................................................................................................................................2
1 .............................................................................................................................................3
1.1 .........................................................................................3
1.1.1 ..................................................................................................................6
1.1.2 .........................................................................................................................7
1.1.3 ............................................................................................................................9
Baseband- .....................................................................................................................11
1.2 .....................................................................................................16
1.2.1 (OOK, ASK, M-ASK)...................................................17
(M-ASK) ......................................................19
1.2.2 (BPSK, QPSK, M-PSK) .........................................................20
(BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying)....................................21
(QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) .....................22
(M-PSK) ...............................................................24
1.2.3 - (QAM) ..............................................................24
1.2.4 (FSK, MSK, M-FSK, GFSK, GMSK). ...............................25
(M-FSK) ............................................................26
(MSK) ......................................................26
(GFSK, GMSK) ..........................27
1.2.5 .........................................................................28
1.2.6 ........................................................................32
1.2.7 .........................................................................40
..............................................................................................................40
(TCM) ................................................................41
. N- ..........................42
2 Visual System Simulator (VSS) ..................................................................43
2.1 . .................................................................................................44
2.2 BPSK ...........................................................................................................45
3 ..........................................................................................................................46
1. ..........................................................46
2. . .....48
3. ...................................................................49
4. .
................................................................................................................................49
5.
. ..................................................................50
6. .
........................................................................................................................................51
4 ........................................................................................................................................52

1

. ,
(, ), ,
.
:
(GSM, CDMA, 3- (CDMA-2000, UMTS(WCDMA),
(GPRS .), (IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi),
(IEEE 802.16 WiMax), (TETRA .).
(DVB)
(Eureka). ,
, (DECT), .
.


() .
(
, ). ,
( , - .).

, .
,

(, ).
- .

( (Digital Signal Processor DSP)
(). ,
.
, ,
, ,

.
.

1.1

.1.

1.


,
.
.2.
3

2.

.
() .

(.3, ). , ,
. .

() . , ,
, - .
, ,
(- ).

. ()
,
. , , ,
(.3, ). , ,
. , ,
, ().

3. : ; ;
.


():
,
f d 2 f max , f max
. (1):

sin( max t k )
s (t ) = s k
,
(1)
max t k
k =
max = 2f max , s k () .
(1), ,
. , ,
,
.
.
.
,
(), ,
, .
5


.
. ,
-5..+5. , 12 , ,
212 = 4096 10/4096= 0.00244 .
+2.5 .
1024,
1024(10)=0100 0000 0000(2).
0100 0000 0000,
. ,
.

1.1.1
-
(.2). .
,
, ,
, .
, .
( MP3-),
( , ),
,
( Wi-Fi).
, , .
, .
, ( ,
),
.

.
. , ,
.
,
(, ). ,
, , ..
.
- ().
.
,
.
. , , GSM (
).
.1
. - ()
, ..
. .1
8 12 .
96 /c.

1.

12
7..8
4..6
3..4
1
1

, /
96000
56000..64000
32000..48000
24000..32000
32000..64000
16000..32000
2400..4800

1.1.2
.
.
,
. ,
.
:
, ,
.
.

( ,
-1.6 , . ),
( ).

.
.

(BER Bit Error Rate). BER
,
.
, , ,
[/].
, ( 100%
).
/ :
S
C = W log 2 (1 + ) ,
(2)
N
C (/), W
(), S , N . ,
: N = N 0W , N 0
.
/, E b / N 0
, ..
. ,
, .
(2) :

Eb W C / W
=
2
1
(3)
N0 C
C / W
E b / N 0 .
.4.

4. :

Eb / N 0

, E b / N 0 ,
. E b / N 0 ,
. : Eb / N 0 = 1.6 .
E b / N 0 1.6 C / W . ,
Eb / N 0 < 1.6 ( 100% )
. E b / N 0 .
(2) (3) ,
, ( )
. ,
, ,
. , (2) (3)
,
,
/, /
.

(M ),
M- .
. ,
,
M- . M-
. ,
. ,
8

p 0 ,
. :
p

C = F log 2 M + (1 p 0 ) log 2 (1 p 0 ) + p 0 log 2 ( 0 ) ,


(4)
M 1

p 0 - (BER), M , F
(/c), .. , .
F, ,
( ),
C < F . C,
C .
M-
.
M- . , M- ,
,
. ,
(.. ).
(4). , (4)
M-
.
,
. - ,
,
().
. , ,
,
.
- .
100%-
. .
, BER 10 3 . ,
.
, ,
.
.

. , , ,
, .
...

1.1.3
[5],
:
s (t ) = I (t ) cos(t ) Q(t ) sin(t ) ,
(5)
, I(t) Q(t)
.
,
: 1)
( )
2) (5).
9

(1) (2) .
(1) baseband-, (2) (IQ)
.
Baseband- (baseband) I(t) Q(t)
( ). ,
, .
(IQ) (5) (.5).

5. IQ-

IQ-

I in (t ) = I (t )

(6)

Qin (t ) = Q (t ) ,

(7)

baseband-
.
cos(t ) .
(5) I(t) , Q(t)
, 90,
.
, IQ-
. ,
, baseband-,
. IQ-
() , , .
,
, - (),
.
, IQ- (5)
baseband-. baseband-
s(t) , , .

.

10

Baseband-
baseband-
. .


.
.
/.
baseband- .
, baseband-.
()
(). , ,
( )
:

x( )h(t )d ,

y (t ) = x(t ) h(t ) =

(8)

x(t) , y(t) , h(t)


, .
:

h(t )e

H ( j ) =

jt

dt

(9)

.
. ,
. -
(
) , (8)
:
y ( n) =

x ( m ) h ( n m) =

m =

h ( m) x ( n m ) ,

(10)

m =

m, n .
- . [5],

:
N

H ( j ) =

( j ) k

( j )

k =0
M

k =0

(11)

a k , bk .

N

H ( j ) =

b e
k =0
M

kj

1 + ak e

kj

(12)

k =1

a k , bk , .
:

11

k =0

k =1

y (n) = bk x(n k ) a k y (n k ) ,

(13)

.. -
, . -
-
( ).
. .6

. -
(.7).
t 0 .

6. :
;

7. - :
; ( )

,
. ()
, (
).
.
, , ,
.
.
1. .
fs
,
f N = f s / 2 , ,
.. .

. .8. ,
.

12

8.
. , ,

, (baseband)
. ()
,
.
.
, ,
, .
.
2. :
.


.
. Y()
N ( N = 2f N )

Y ( N x) = Y ( N + x), 0 < x < N , N = 2f N .
.9.

9.

f N

13

, -
f N . ,
, ,
:
0 f < f N (1 );
1,


f
1
H ( f ) = 1 sin
1 , f N (1 ) f < f N (1 + )
(14)

f
2
2


0,
f > f N (1 + )

0 1.
, ,
(), .
=0
f N . =1 2 f N
, .
=0.35.

.

. ,
(
). (QAM)
, (
) .
0
. (, GMSK
GSM) .
.
CDMA
,
.
; ()

.

, IQ-.
,
. , (
)
.

,
.
,
, (.10).
()
IQ-,
I(t) Q(t),
(DSP). baseband-,
. , ,
14

(, )
.

10.

.
, , : ()
().

,
,
.
.
( ,
3 ),
. (, , QAM
.) . ,
, , GMSK, ,
-
.

,
.
.
(, , -)
(Costas
loop), [2].
(.10).

15

( ) .
,
. (, ),

.

I(t) Q(t) .
, (. )
() / 4 . ,

(. ).

. , ,
baseband- ( ()
, )
, .
, () ,
, .. .
, ,
,
.

.

.
, -
, ()
. , ,
(, ,
, , ). ,
,
.

1.2
( ),
, , ,
(, -), ,
s (t ) = A(t ) cos( (t )t + (t ))
.
(, {0,1} ),
.
baseband- , ,
(,
) .

16

1.2.1 (OOK, ASK, M-ASK)


.
:
s (t ) = A(c(t ) + B) cos(t + 0 ) ,
(15)
c(t) , A, B 0 , B 0 ,
.
c(t) {0,1}, B=0.
s (t ) = Ac(t ) cos(t + 0 ) , 0
A (.11).
OOK (On-Off Keying, -)
.

11. OOK: ; ;

B=1.
A 2A .
, B 0 , ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying
). OOK ASK B=0.

. .
,
. ,
( ).
[2],
(baseband) , ,
, . ,
, ,
. ASK
baseband- .12. .13
baseband-.
.12 .13 ,

.

17

12. ASK-. :
1 , 2 , 3 .

13. :
1 , 2 , 3

OOK
:

sin ( f f c Tb )

1
(16)

1 + ( f f c ) ,
f f c Tb Tb

f C , Tb . ,
.
A 2Tb
PSD( f ) =
4

(15) baseband, .. . ,

(5). (15) (5), : I (t ) = A(c(t ) + B) , Q(t ) = 0 .
OOK
, .
I(t) Q(t)
. ,
, I(t),
Q(t). (x,y)
, x, y.
, .
(5), [5],

A(t ) = I 2 (t ) + Q 2 (t ) , , (I,Q),
.

18

OOK ASK .14.

14. OOK,
ASK

(M-ASK)
ASK
( baseband-).
,
.
.
. {0,1},
{00, 01, 10, 11}.
{0, A, 2A, 3A}.
,
. () M-ASK
M = log 2 k , k
. , 256-ASK 256
8 .
M-ASK , (15), c(t)
,
{0,1,2...M-1}.
M-ASK (16)
Tb Ts = Tb log 2 M . .15
8-ASK
ASK ( baseband-).
(
) , ..
.

19

15.
-:
ASK, 8-ASK

8-ASK .16.

16. 8-ASK

(
),
.
- , ..
.

.
, .
.
.

1.2.2 (BPSK, QPSK, M-PSK)


:
s (t ) = A cos(t + (t ) + 0 ) ,

(17)

A 0 , .
(t ) .
sC (t ) = A cos(t + 0 ) , (17)
(t ) . (t )
c(t).
20

(BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying)


{0,1}
{0, }.
180. , BPSK

A cos(t + 0 ), c(t ) = 1
s (t ) =
A cos(t + + 0 ) = A cos(t + 0 ), c(t ) = 0
1
, s (t ) = A 2(c(t ) ) cos(t + 0 ) . ,
2
BPSK ,
{-1,1}. baseband-
1
I (t ) = A 2(c (t ) ), Q (t ) = 0 .
2

.17.

17. BPSK:
; ; -;

BPSK OOK
:

sin ( f c f Tb )
(18)
PSD( f ) = A Tb

f c f Tb
BPSK () BPSK (DBPSK).
,
()
.
, 180.
(
). , ,
. ,
,
180, ,
.
2

21

(QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)



(M=4), 4
, / 2 .

{ / 4,3 / 4} () {00, 01, 10, 11}

, .18.
.

18. QPSK

,
,
.
.
, ,
, ( ) .
, .
.
2 ,
QPSK- 2 ,
BPSK- . [2],

Tb
Ts = Tb log 2 M . M=4 , , Ts = 2Tb .
QPSK-
(18) :

sin ( f c f 2Tb )
(19)
PSD( f ) = 2 A Tb

f c f 2Tb
,
QPSK f = 1 / Tb , 2 ,
BPSK. , QPSK 2
, BPSK.
QPSK I(t) Q(t)
, ..
baseband-. ,
0
(I,Q), . , I (t ) = cos( (t )) , Q(t ) = sin( (t ))
:
22
2

2. QPSK-

00
1
/4

01
3
3/4

11
-3
-3/4

10
-1
-/4

I k = cos( k )

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

Qk = sin( k )

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

1/ 2

, baseband-,
I(t) Q(t)
.2. baseband-
I(t) Q(t).
QPSK
(DQPSK) (OQPSK Offset QPSK).
DQPSK, DBPSK, -
, / 2 . DBPSK,
.
OQPSK , QPSK,
. QPSK (.18),
, 90, 180.
, 180. QPSK
.
( baseband-)
.
. ,
,
.
.
,
. OQPSK
/ 2 . OQPSK 30%
100% QPSK. OQPSK :
I(t) Q(t) ,
.
QPSK ( )
.

23

(M-PSK)
M-PSK , ,
k = log 2 M -

. .
.19 8-PSK .

19. 8-PSK

1.2.3 - (QAM)
,
, .
.

.

.
[5]. .
,
2 . ,

- .
,
, ..
. ,
.
(QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).
QAM . M=4 QPSK,
QAM M 8 (.. k = log 2 M , k N ,
M 2: 2, 4, 8, 16 ..). .20
16-QAM .

24

20. 16-QAM

, 1024-QAM.
. ,
,
, QAM
, .
QAM- .
I(t) Q(t),

. ,

. baseband-
I(t) Q(t).

1.2.4 (FSK, MSK, M-FSK, GFSK, GMSK).



(t ) .
:
s (t ) = A cos( (t )t + 0 ) = A cos( c t + d c(t )t + 0 ) =
(20)
= A cos( c t + 0 ) cos( d c(t )t ) A sin( c t + 0 ) sin( d c(t )t ) ,
c , d () ,
c(t) , 0 .
, 2 ,
(FSK Frequency Shift Keying). (20)
, .. {-1,1}, -1
() 0, 1 . ,
{0,1}

{ c d , c + d } . FSK .21.

25

21. FSK: ; ;
-

(20) FSK-: I(t) Q(t)


: I (t ) = A cos( d c(t )t ) , Q(t ) = A sin( d c(t )t ) . sin cos
[-1..1], FSK A.

(M-FSK)
() M-FSK ,
, k = log 2 M
-
.
2 d . M-FSK
(20), M-FSK , FSK. (20),
, ,
. ,
4-FSK {00, 01,
10, 11}
c(t) {-3, -1, 1, 3}.

(MSK)
m = 2 f d Ts , f d = d / 2 , Ts ,
. ,
, (
), . FSK
0.1 m 1 . [2], m 0.5
m,
. .22 FSK
.
0.5 . FSK m = 0.5
(MSK Minimum Shift Keying).

26

22. -
: 1 m=0.25; 2 m=0.5; 3 m=1

MSK
2

cos(2fTb )
(21)
PSDMSK ( f ) =
1 (4 fTb ) 2
MSK QPSK
.23.

23. :
1 MSK; 2 QPSK.

, QPSK MSK ( 50%)


, .. .
MSK ( f 4 f 2
QPSK). , , MSK
, QPSK.

(GFSK, GMSK)
FSK MSK
baseband-. GFSK (Gaussian Frequency
Shift Keying) GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying, GSM).
,
,
. , baseband-
.

, ,
(, ()
,
). ,
27

.
-

.
. :
2

f ln 2
G ( f ) = exp[
],
B 2
B 3 .

(22)

:
- (
baseband-).
(B,C);
- ( ),
;
- .
,
.

IQ-, .
, baseband-
, ().
,
, . ,
.
.
( , )
,
FSK-, FSK .
. FSK-
. ,
.
(, )
.

,
.

.
,
.
(.1.2.7), .

1.2.5
,
.
,
( ).
, ,
28

. ,

. ,
, .
,
. , -
,
. , ,
- .
, () ( M-ASK, M-PSK MQAM) k = log 2 M . ,

MSK. MSK c ( GMSK)
BTb = 0.3 QPSK
= 0.35 ( )
, 99% 1 QPSK 2.6
GMSK. , MSK 2.6 , QPSK
1.3 , BPSK.
.

. [2], [10] ,
Eb / N 0 :
E
(23)
BER = f b ,
N0
BER Eb ,

, N 0 .
P, , ,
Eb = PTb , Tb . .3
Eb / N 0 .
3.

(BER)

OOK

Q( Eb / N 0 )

M-ASK
BPSK

DBPSK

DBPSK
QPSK

DQPSK
Eb / N 0 >> 1

2( M 1) log 2 M E b
Q
M log 2 M ( M 1) 2 N 0
Q( 2 Eb / N 0 )
1
exp( E b / N 0 )
2
2 Eb
2 Eb
1 Q
2Q
N
N
0
0

Q( 2 Eb / N 0 )

2 Q( 2 Eb / N 0 )

29

M-PSK

2 Eb log 2 M
2

Q
sin 2

N0
log 2 M
M

FSK

sin( 2 m) E b
Q 1

2 m N 0

MSK

Q( Eb / N 0 )

E
2( M 1)
Q log 2 M b
M log 2 M
N 0
k = log 2 M , k :

M-MSK

2 P P0
BER = 0
,
log 2 M
QAM

.3

Q( x) =

2( M 1) 3 log 2 M E b
Q

M 1 N 0
M

k:
2

3 log 2 M Eb
1

1 1 2Q
BER

log 2 M
M
1
N
0

P0 =

t
e

/2

dt , M
2 x
, m , BER
.
.3 , ,
(., , M-ASK M-PSK, Q(x)
). , ,
.
BER BPSK QPSK (. 3),
QPSK 2 , BPSK. , QPSK
, BPSK, , , QPSK,
BPSK. , , QPSK
: Q(t). BPSK
I(t).
,
.
DBPSK DQPSK ( ). BER
, (.24).

BPSK QPSK (0.3 0.9 ). DBPSK c
DBPSK
( 0.5 ), .24.
Eb / N 0 .

30

24. :
DBPSK, DQPSK DBPSK

, .
OOK, BPSK MSK. .3, OOK MSK
BPSK (, , QPSK)
3 (.25).

25. OOK, MSK BPSK

,
4 QPSK
.
GMSK. , QPSK,
.
GMSK,

,
. QPSK ,
( ). , ,
GMSK , QPSK. GSM
GMSK, CDMA OQPSK. ,
QPSK (, FQPSK) GMSK (. .1.2.7).
M>4. . 26
, -
M=16 M=64.
31

26. M-ASK, M-PSK M-QAM:


M=16, M=64

.26, ( 10 M=16)
-, M=64 .
M-PSK M-QAM , M-QAM M-PSK,
M-QAM M. , M=16
4 , M=64 10 . ,
M-PSK , M-QAM.
M-PSK
, M-QAM
. ,
.
,
, , ,
M
. .3, ,

log 2 M
M-MSK, ,
.
.
, , M 4
QPSK, M > 4 QAM. QPSK QAM M=4.
QAM .
QPSK QAM
, , (FQPSK, FQAM),
(TCM),
(.1.2.7).

1.2.6
, .
,
. , BER 10 3 .
, .
BER
( 10-9..10-12). BER
(, TCP/IP),
BER, , 10-20.

32

, , ,
.
. ,
,
, .
(UWB).
. UWB
( 1) ,
.
UWB .
Eb / N 0 ,
,
. .
P
, Eb = P Tb = , P ,
R
T b , R (/).
P = P0 GTX G RX K , P0 , GTX
, G RX ,
K . Eb (
), , : Eb = P0 + GTX + G RX Loss 10 log R ,
1
Loss =
.
K

( , ). ,
, N 0 = 174 + NF , -174 /
. 17, NF
, .
, :
Eb
= P0 + GTX + G RX NF Loss + 174 10 log R
(24)
N0
Eb / N 0 .

():
= P0 + GTX + G RX NF Loss + 174
(25)
, -
.

Eb
= 10 log R
(26)
N0
, Eb / N 0 .
,
.
(Loss).
, -
( -
). ,
. ,
33

. ,
, ,
, ( ,
).
- ( )
(Loss).
, .
, .
W,
BERmax (
) ( )
(
).
- .
.
BER Eb / N 0 , ,
, Eb / N 0 , BERmax.
BER
Eb / N 0 .3. ,
.
. ,
, Eb / N 0
. , ,
;
. ,
BER Eb / N 0 .3
. , BER
Eb / N 0 . , .27
BER Eb / N 0 QPSK, 16-QAM 64-QAM
, AWR Design Environment.

34

27. E b / N 0
QPSK, 16-QAM 64-QAM,

,
Eb / N 0 , BER.
, , ,
.

:
R
1
W = (1 + )
,
(27)
log 2 M Rc
W (), R (/),
M , , Rc
(1 ). ,
.
(26) :
1+
10 log W = 10 log
+ 10 log R = 10 log R + K ( M ) ,
(28)
log 2 M Rc
1+
.
K ( M ) = 10 log
log 2 M Rc
10 log R (28) (26).
:
Eb / N 0 = 10 log W + K ( M )
(29)
Eb / N 0 , BERmax,
(i-) (Eb / N 0 )i . (29), :
min

min
i

E
= b
N0

min

+ 10 log W 10 log

1+
,
log 2 M Rc

(30)

35

imin ,
BER .
R (27):
1
(31)
Rmax = W log 2 M Rc
1+
(31) ,
() ( ),
.
(30) (31) .

min
(E b / N 0 )i . (30)

imin .
( ), imin
( BER),
log 2 M Rc ( ).
(31)
( ) ,
.
(30) (31)
. ,
QAM ( , ..
).
QAM .
.
BER=10-4, 10 , ,
0.35. .27
min
BER=10-4 (E b / N 0 )i 8.1; 12.0; 16.3 QPSK
(M=4), 16-QAM 64-QAM. (30), imin :
79.8 ; 86.7 ; 92.8 . (31): 14.8 /;
29.6 /; 44.4 /. .28.

36

28.

,
1min . - ,
,
(
), .
< 1min ? -

, (E b / N 0 )1 ,
, BER
Eb / N 0 , (BPSK BER
Eb / N 0 , QPSK). (26) , Eb / N 0
, :
min
10 log R = (E b / N 0 )1
(32)
min

, < 1min
.
.28 .29.

37

29.

< 1min
.29 ,
, (, 1 /c 10
).
(27).
, .
10 (10 ), 20 ,
1 (0 , )
. , ,
2.5 . (1):
L(d ) = 27.56 20 log f 20 log d 0 10n log(d / d 0 ) ,
(33)
L [], f , d
[], d0 [],
n ( 2 n 4 ). n=3.5, d0=3 .
(33) (25), :
= 130.8 35 log d
(34)
.28 (32),
(.30).

38

30.

, .28 . ,
:
( , , )
.
, ,
( , ).
,
.
.

.
QAM log 2 M (8-QAM, 32-QAM, 128-QAM .)
, (
0.5-0.7 ).
( .28), ,
, (.28),
, .
.
, .
BER,
. BER,
Eb / N 0 , .27 ( ).
(29)
.
, ,

, ( ,
QAM) .
(
), -
39

(, ) .
.
BER .3
.
, BER
Eb / N 0 . BER
.

BER Eb / N 0 ,
, . ,
, BER Eb / N 0 ,
.
(OFDM, RAKE, MIMO, .)
, Eb / N 0
, , . ,

( , ,
).

1.2.7


[1] OQPSK QAM.
(
baseband-) I Q .

. .4
QPSK, GMSK FQPSK
.
4. FQPSK

QPSK ( = 0.2 )
GMSK ( BTb = 0.5 )
FQPSK

, /()

1.67

0.36

0.70
1.00

0.69
0.96

.4 , FQPSK
QPSK ,
. , OQPSK
QPSK,
. , , FQPSK GMSK.
, ..
. , ,
QPSK FQPSK
. ,
.

40

FQPSK (.31).

31. FQPSK

FQPSK OQPSK (Q-


), baseband-.
:
0.5[1 + cos(t Ts )], t Ts
(35)
p(t ) =
0
,

{a n } {bn } I Q
. :
x(t ) = a n p (t nTs ) + a n 1 p[t (n 1)Ts ];
(36)
y (t ) = bn p[t (n 0.5)Ts ] + bn 1 p[t (n + 0.5)Ts ] + bn 2 p[t (n + 1.5)Ts ]
I Q . x(t) y(t) .32.

32. FQPSK

FQPSK-KF (-),
I Q ,
FQPSK [1]. FQAM (SQAM)
QAM
[1].

(TCM)
,

Eb / N 0 . ,
. ,
.

.
, , .

41

: ,
? ,
,
. . .
2 , 2
. , 32-QAM.
64-QAM, 2 .
, , Eb / N 0
.
. ,
, .
.
(TCM Trellis Coded Modulation)
. , TCM
( ).
,
,
.
3 ,
6 [4], [3].
,
, .5 .6 .
,
- .

. N-
, QAM
. .
,
I Q. ,
: 4 0, I>0 4 1, I<0 (
), : 4
I, I. .

. 0.2 ,
0.6 .
( ,
).
N- .
N- . ,
16-QAM (4 ).
, .
, , .
. ,
2 , .
8 ,
.
1616=256 .
.
. , .
42

.
, ,
, Eb / N 0 .
.5
.
5. N-

(N)
2
4
8
16
24
32
48
64

()
0.20
0.45
0.73
0.98
1.01
1.17
1.26
1.31

( )
0.62
1.51
3.01
4.52
6.02
6.02
7.78
8.09

2 Visual System Simulator (VSS)


Visual System Simulator,
AWR Design Environment, Applied Wave
Research ().
Visual System Simulator ,
() . ,
() ,
. VSS
(, ,
, , , .),
- ( , ,
, .).
VSS , ..
, , . ,
,
.
, (, ), ,
( BPSK,
, ). ,
.
VSS , ,
, ,
. Matlab
.
AWR Design Environment 3- : VSS, Microwave Office
EMSight. 3
. , Microvave Office ,

VSS. , ,

43

( ). EMSight
, ,
.
tune, ..
, ,
.
Visual System Simulator .
, (..
). .
, , ,
. ,
-,
. ,

.

2.1 .
1. 1-3.emp .
AWR Design Environment.
2. AWR Design Environment 3
(.33): 1) , 2) 3) .

33. AWR Design Environment

44

.
AWR Design Environment (System
Diagrams , VSS), (Circuit
Schematics, Microwave Office), (EM Structures,
EMSight), (Global Definitions
, ),
(Graphs), (Data Files), (Output Equations)
. System Diagrams,
Global Definitions, Graphs Output Equations.
3. System Diagrams.
- , .

2.2 BPSK
.34 BPSK,
.

34. BPSK

.
.
Parameters (),
.
( ) (
).
Element Help ( ), .
baseband-
. ( OUTLVL)
(CTRFRQ), ,
(PLSTYP) (ALPHA).
I(t) Q(t)
, ,
. .
VSS I (t ) + jQ (t ) , I(t) Q(t)
. ,
.
.
45

baseband- IQ-,
(5): s (t ) = I (t ) cos(t ) Q(t ) sin(t ) .
(),
.
,
.

.
() .
.
.
.
,

. ,
. , AWR ,
.
, .
, (.5-6),
.

3
1.
1.

OOK, .
(View All)
,
.

2.

3.
4.


(Test Point ) .
.
,
baseband- ,
. .
.
. Parameters
() ID () (,
RSGout ), OK.
. Graphs
, Add Graph ( ). ,
, Waveform, Rectangular ().
, .
, Add
Measurement ( ). Meas. Type ( )
System ( ). Measurement
WVFM (Waveform ).
Block Diagram ,
, OOK. Test Point
46

( ) ,
. TP.RSGout. OK.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.


(Run/Stop System Simulators /
).
. , ,
, .
,
.
, Properties (). Axes ()
Choose Axis Left 1 ( ). Limits ()
Auto limits ( )
: Min -0.2, Max 1.2. .
,

0 1 . . ,
. (/).
( )
( BER), , , CHout RXout.
.3-5 2
. Add
measurement Complex modifier ( )
Real ( ). ,
VSS I (t ) + jQ (t ) , I(t)
Q(t) .
, Real, I(t).
Toggle Enable
(/ ) ,
.

.
baseband-
IQ-

OOK,
BPSK,
MSK,
QAM_16. ,
.
WfOOK,
WfBPSK, WfMSK
Wf16QAM. 2
: beaseband- IQ-.
Add measurement Complex
modifier Real, Time Span ( )
5 Symbols ( 5
).
, (Block Diagram).

beaseband- IQ- OOK, BPSK,
MSK, 16-QAM ,
,

(), .
.
.
47

10.

11.

, Global Definitions (
). ,
. Filter Filter=0.
, ( )
.
9 .

2. .

, ,

OOK, BPSK, MSK, GMSK, 16-QAM.
OOK, BPSK, 16-QAM
, MSK , GMSK
. :
1.
OOK.
baseband-, Parameters ().
PLSTYP () Rectangular (
).
BPSK 16-QAM.
2.
2 SpecTXout SpecRXin.
3.
5
IQ- OOK, BPSK, MSK, GMSK, 16-QAM.
Meas. Type
System, Spectrum (). Measurement
PWR_SPEC (Power Spectrum ).
. Complex Modifier dBm
( ).
RBW/#Bins ( ) 1 MHz.
4.
5
( ) OOK, BPSK,
MSK, GMSK, 16-QAM.
5.
, .
5
.
. 200 400 ,
-50 +20 -5 +15 .
IQ-
( ). .
6.
Raised Cosine ( )
OOK, BPSK QAM. SpecTXout
-100 +20 . 5
IQ- (
). . /
( )*.
7.
.
* .
48

3.
OOK, BPSK, MSK, GMSK QAM
.
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

OOK baseband.
BPSK, MSK, GMSK QAM.
Constellation. (Graph type)
Constellation ( ).
OOK, BPSK 16-QAM.
5
OOK, BPSK, MSK, GMSK QAM.
Meas. Type System, Measurement
IQ ().
OK. Time Span ( ) 100 Symbols
(100 ).

( Toggle Enable),
OOK, BPSK, MSK, GMSK QAM.
(Root Raised Cosine)
16-QAM. .
AWR Design Environment, .

4. .

1.

2.

3.

4.

4-6.emp.

, .
(IQ-
). [2],
.
, AWR
. , baseband.

Global
Definitions

SNDRD=..

P0=sweep(stepped(-12, 8, 1). ,
-12 +8 1 .
Eb N 0 .
BER_vs_Eb_N0.

Eb / N 0 . BER,
.3.
Toggle Enable, BER BPSK
(BPSK:BER) 64-QAM (QAM_64:BER),
BPSK:BPSK_BERREF QAM_64:QAM_BERREF.
.
49

5.
6.

7.

BER
10-3. .

: BPSK, MSK, GMSK, 2-FSK, OOK, QPSK, / 4 -QPSK, OQPSK, 8PSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM, 256-QAM, 1024-QAM.
BER 10-3.
Toggle Enable ( )
,
, : 1) BPSK QPSK, 2)
QPSK, 3) BPSK OOK, MSK, GMSK 2-FSK, 4) 8-PSK
16-QAM, 5) QAM . .

5.
.

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

Toggle Enable,
: QPSK, QAM_16, QAM_64,
QPSK_Coded, QAM_16_Coded, QAM_64_Coded.
Coded

.
, , DVB (Digital Video Broadcast
).
QPSK_Coded.
Toggle Enable Prop sposobnost,
, .1.
BER
10-4.

(), :
QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM. BER (,
10-3) , Eb / N 0
BER .
,
.
,
( ).

, 6.

Eb / N 0 .

50

6. .


.
.
: W = 10 ,
BER = 10 4 ,
1
= 0.35 , Rc = .
2
.5.
1.
, ,
min
(E b / N 0 )i

.
imin , (30).
2.

3.
(31). < 1min
(32), .
4.


.
5.

(.28).
. , ,
(, -)
.

51

4
1. .: . .: , 2000.
2. .. . .: , 2007.
3. .: . .: , 2000.
4. . . .: , 2003.
5. .. . ., , 2003.
6. , . : , 2- .
.: , 2004.
7. ., .., .. .
. . .: -, 2005.
8. . . ., , 2004.
9. .., .. . :
. .: , 2004.
10. Xiong Fuqin, Digital Modulation Techniques. Artech House Publishers, 2006.

52

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