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Lecture 1

Introduction to General Virology


Presented by: Prof. Dr. Mervat El Saygh Microbiology & Medical Immunology Dept, Pharos University

Course Specification
Course Code: Course Title: Academic Year/Level:

PHR 563
Specialization:

Virology
No. of Instructional Units:

Junior 2011/2012 ( level 5)


Lecture 2 Practical ... Tutorial 1

General Department of Microbiology

2 Crs

Dr. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

Thursday 13/10/2011

Course Specification
2-Course Aim

a. Recognize structural components of the viruses and how they influence pathogenesis of the disease and how they are transmitted among individuals and populations b. Develop the ability to correlate the clinical picture with laboratory information to establish a diagnosis. c. Students will be able to become abreast or emerging viral diseases and the challenges they pose that assist the pharmaceutical industry.... a1-Identify and describe the members of the viral world Tabulate the differences between bacteria and viruses a2-Identify, describe, name and label viral structure Describe and explain replication of viruses a3-Identify and distinguish viruses causing diseases Identify and interpret the signs and symptoms of some viral diseases. b1-Construct and apply the laboratory diagnosis, mechanism of infection, disease transmission and treatment of some viral diseases b2- Discover and report the different laboratory results and relate them with the clinical picture to be able to establish a diagnosis. c1- Distinguish the viral infections c2- Analysis by PCR c3- Perform serology c4- Preparation of viral vaccines

3-Intended Learning Outcome: By the end of this course , student will be able to:

a- Knowledge and Understanding

b- Intellectual Skills

c- Professional Skills

Dr. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

Thursday 13/10/2011

Course Specification
d- General Skills

d1-Verify the different characteristics and morphology of viruses causing infection depending on their morphology d2-Propose ways in order to prevent and guard against different infections by viruses. Sketch microscopic appearance of viruses d3-Practice the ability to communicate with others and work within a group d4-Practice the ability to prepare certain topics of the course and be able to extract information from text, reference books and the internet d5- Practice the ability to develop the good performance for oral presentations..... General features of viruses. Viral replications. Classification of viruses Bacteriophage. Antiviral chemotherapy. Viral vaccines. Interferon. Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. I-DNA viruses: Herpes viruses. Papillomaviruses. Adenoviruses. II-Hepatitis viruses. Ill-RNA viruses: Picornaviruses. Orthomyxoviruses. Paramyxoviruses. Rhabdoviruses. Retroviruses (HI V/AIDS)....
Dr. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

4-Course Content

Thursday 13/10/2011

Course Specification
5-Teaching and Learning Methods

Lectures Demonstration of more detailed information by Power point projection . -Tutorial -Group presentation -Self learning assignments -Quizzes

6-Teaching and Learning Methods for Students with Special Needs

None
7-Student Assessment:
a-Procedures used: b-Schedule:

Written exam Assignments Quizzes Quizzes: weeks 6 and 12 and Assignemnts: week 7 final exam: weeks 16 and 1 7 Course Work Final exam 50 % 50%
5

c-Weighing of Assessment:
Thursday 13/10/2011

Dr. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

Course Specification
8-List of References:
a-Course Notes

Available in the faculty web site

b- Required Books - GJ Tortora, BR Funke, CL Case, 2010, Microbiology, an (Textbooks) introduction. Ninth edition by. Pearson Education, Inc.

- RA Harvey, PL Champe, BD Fisher L, 2007, Lippincot's Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology. 2nd Edition by. Lippincott's Williams and Wilkins
c-Recommended Books d- Periodicals, Web Sites, ..., etc.

IS ButeL SA Morse, 2004, Medical Microbiology. Twentythird edition by .IF Brooks LANGE Medical Books. www.virology.net www.elsevier.com/locate/yviro

Course Instructor: Prof. Dr. Mervat Elsaygh Dr. Rania AboZahra Head of Department: Prof.Dr. Hoda Elshamy
Dr. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

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OUTLINE
Definition of the viruses Classification and types Structure and shape Mode of transmission and replication Diseases caused by the viruses Gallery
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GENERAL FEATURES OF VIRUSES


Size: very small in size is measured by nm which is 10-9meter or 10-3micrometer.It needs electron microscope to be detected. Obligate intracellular parasite Contain either DNA or RNA never both. Can affect humans, animals, insects, bacteria and plants. They do not respond to any antibiotic.
Dr. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

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STRUCTURE OF THE VIRUSES


Genome: the viral nucleic acid carries the genetic information in either DNA or RNA which is considered as the finger prints of the virus. Capsid (Protein coat): is the protein shell which enclose the nucleic acid. It is formed of small units called capsomeres.

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STRUCTURE OF THE VIRUSES

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STRUCTURE OF THE VIRUSES


1It protects the viral genome extracellular environments. against

2- It carries the viral attachment proteins (VAP) which are glycoproteinsthat attach the virus to a specific receptor on the target cell. 3- Determine the antigenic characters of the virus. 4- It is responsible for the symmetry of the virus.
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VIRAL SYMMETRY
1.

Cubic or icosahedralsymmetry Herpes viruses.

e.g.

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VIRAL SYMMETRY
2Helical symmetry: the capsomeresare bound together as ribbons which are twisted into spiral. The NA winds in a helical form inside the protein helix e.g. Influenza virus.

3- Complex symmetry e.g. Small pox


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The Shape of the Virus


The shape of the virus vary, may be:
Spherical Filamentous Bullet shape

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ENVELOPE
It is a protein containing a lipid membrane that surrounds the capsidin some viruses. Here the VAP is carried and present on the envelope. The enveloped viruses are killed by lipid solvents e.g. ether
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THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL AGENTS


Viruses are sensitive to:
1- UV: Ultraviolet irradiation. 2- Ether: only the enveloped viruses are sensitive to ether. 3- Oxidizing agents: as formaldehyde, CL, I2and H2O2 4- Sensitivity to heat: - Most viruses are inactivated at 56C for 30 min or at 100C for few seconds - Viruses are stable at low temp, can be stored at Dr. 40C -70C. Mervat Elsaygh- Pharos University

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Most viruses are relatively resistant to:


Phenols and glycerol, therefore sometimes glycerol is used as preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of viral suspensions

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CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES
DNA Viruses
Most are double stranded All are icosahedralexcept small pox virus. Most are none enveloped except Herpesv and hepatitis B virus.

RNA Viruses
Most are Helical and all the helical are enveloped. Some are enveloped icosahedralas the HIVand the German measles v, while Polio and hepatitis C are naked
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Classification By Symptomatology
1- Diseases of the respiratory tract: influenza, parainfluenzaand common cold. 2- Diseases of the nervous system: poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis and rabies. 3- Localized disease of the skin or mucous membrane: Herpes simplex type 1 (oral) and type 2 (genital) and wart.
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Classification By Symptomatology
4- Diseases of the liver: Hepatitis A E 5- Diseases of the eye: Herpesconjunctivitis 6- Diseases of the GIT: rotavirus diarrhea, enteric adenoviruses 7- Diseases of the genital tract: HSV 2, HIV
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Viruses Replication
Viruses are obligatory intracellular as they are metabolically inert. After invading a cell, viruses use their own genes to redirect the machinery of the cell to produce new viruses; this is done by virus messenger RNA.

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VIRUS GROWTH CYCLE


1. Adsorption , 2. Penetration, 3. Uncoating, 4. Transcription or eclipse phase, 5. Assembly 6. Release
Recognition and attachment to the target cell (by VAP) occurs by special receptors on the host cell
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VIRUS GROWTH CYCLE

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Eclipse phase or transcription


Transcription leads to formation ofproteins as polymerase enzyme, virus specific antigens and then capsidis formed (no intact viruses are detected)

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Assembly
It is combination of the viral nucleic acid with the protein coat

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Release
Either by lysisof the cell in the none enveloped viruses or by budding from the cell membrane where the envelope is acquired from this membrane

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Host Response To Viral Infection


1- Humoral immune response
Antibody response to neutralize and eliminate the ongoing Infection and can also prevent reinfection.

2- Cell mediated immune response


Stimulate the production of lymphokinesas Interferon swhich is very important for defense against viruses
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Interferon
Are proteins produced by human cells in response to viral infection.

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Properties
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Are the first line of body defense against viral infection. It inhibit sviral replication. Host species specific. Not viral specific. It acts also as cell immune regulatory activity as activation of natural killer cells, activation of monocytesand macrophages and inhibition of cell growth. Recombinant DNA techniques now allow production of inexpensive large amount of interferon by yeast and bacteria.
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CLINICAL USES
Used in treatment of sever viral infection e.g. rabies, herpetic encephalitis,.etc In the treatment of persistent viral infections e.g. hepatitis B & C,etc Used as anticancer agent on the basis of their cell immunomodulation properties. Treatment of multiple sclerosis.
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Gallery

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Gallery

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Gallery

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Homework Questions
Define:
Interferon, Its Clinical uses, & its properties

Mention the 6 steps of viruses replication. Classify viruses by Symptomatology

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Thank You