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SouLhern Mlndanao CompuLer College CPS uL1 age 3 of



InIormatIon Sbeet 1:1
PIannIng Ior InstaIIatIon

You don'i iIinl aloui suori and insiallaiion lan uniil somciIing forccs iIcm io
iIinl aloui ii. Ii is good raciicc io Iavc documcniaiion aloui your comuiing
cnvironmcni, Iavc roccdurc in lacc and iIougIis around oiIcr arcas sucI as
disasicr rccovcry. Ii's also imoriani io Iavc a laclu crson io go if your main IT
crson is noi around. Hcrc's an ouilinc of lan iIai covcrs iIc major comoncnis.
9 iIings you sIould do lcforc insialling an Ocraiing sysicm on a comuicr
1. Analyze your machine for upgrade readiness
2. Check the CPU
3. Nake sure you have enough memory
4. Evaluate your graphics adapter
S. verify that you have sufficient hard drive space
6. Nake sure you've got a DvD drive or CD drive
7. Sort out the versions
8. Check application compatibility
3. Remember the notebooks
cfinc iIc cscriiion of dcsirc infrasiruciurc.
O Invcniory all cquimcni
O alc a lisi of vcndors coniaci daia and accouni numlcrs.
O rcaic a crsonalizcd insiallaiion ma
O ocumcni any sccial configuraiion
isasicr Fccovcry Plan.
rcic sccnarios is rolally is rolally iIc lcsi io way io undcrsiand
dccndcncics, iIc imaci of a failurc, and idcniiiy criiical comoncnis. For cacI
sccnario iIinl aloui Iow you will rccovcr daia if iIcrc's rcdundani sysicm io
swiicI io rioriiics, cic.
I Iavc lccn using an asscmllcd P for iIc asi 6 ycars and ialing somc carc wIilc
cIoosing iIc aris madc mc io lc saiisficd wiiI iIc P I iool and ovcr iIc criod of
iimc lascd on my usagc I Iavc ugradcd ii and am cnjoying ii.

I Iavc sccn many colc wiiIoui iIc lnowlcdgc of Hardwarc urcIascd P form
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vcndors for a IigIcr ricc for iIc samc P wIicI would Iavc lccn vcry low if iIcy
Iad iIc lnowlcdgc of Iardwarc and iIc riccs.

Aficr luying iIcrc is no way of cIanging ii lccausc sincc wc all lnow iIai oncc
sold is sold lui siill wc Iavc somc good vcndors wIo rcally carc for iIcir cusiomcrs
and Icl iIcm io cIoosc iIc lcsi onc and now a days iIcy Iavc a lisi wiiI diffcrcni
configuraiion and iIc ricc for ii and lascd on our rcquircmcni and ludgci wc can
cIoosc onc or can cusiomizc according io our nccds.

WiiI iIc ccricncc I Iad wiiI my P and Icling colc io luy asscmllcd P's I
jusi wani io ui down fcw imoriani faciors io lc considcrcd wIilc luying an
asscmllcd P. Hoc iIcsc migIi Icl you io gci a lcsi onc and ai a lowcr ricc.

TIcrc arc iwo ways of gciiing asscmllcd P. Onc way is io go io a vcndor wIo is
rcliallc and givc iIc configuraiion and gci ii donc and oiIcr way is io luy all iIc
comoncnis form a rcliallc vcndor and if you Iavc iIc lnowlcdgc io asscmllc iIcn
you can. TIc firsi onc sccms advaniagcous lccausc iIc vcndor will givc a
guaranicc for iIc P so mosi of iIcm fccl safc cvcn if iIcy scnd a iIousand or
morc.

WIcn luying asscmllcd comuicr iIc firsi and mosi imoriani iIing io considcr
lcforc go for an asscmllcd comuicr is io find a rcliallc comuicr asscmllcr and
you sIould Iavc somc lasic Iardwarc lnowlcdgc.

PC ConIIguratIon:

Firsi and forcmosi lcforc luying you nccd io undcrsiand iIc configuraiion of iIc
macIinc you wani. TIc configuraiion sIould mcci your rcquircmcni as wcll as iIc
ricc. In ordcr io lnow iIis or io figurc oui iIis you nccd io do somc rcscarcI or
asl your fricnds. TIis sic may ialc somc iimc and cffori. You can also go io
diffcrcni vcndors and asl iIcm diffcrcni configuraiions and ricc and comarc
wiiI oiIcrs io scc wIo givcs for iIc lcsi ricc and comarc iIc advaniagc and
disadvaniagcs on cacI configuraiion. A rcliallc P asscmllcr can guidc you io
cIoosc iIc rigIi P configuraiion wiiIin your ludgci ricc.

CboosIng tbe Processor

Lci us undcrsiand wIai a roccssor is. A roccssor, also lnown as ccniral
roccssing unii (PU}, rcfcrs io iIc ari of a comuicr iIai inicrrcis and carrics
oui, or roccsscs, insiruciions and daia coniaincd in iIc sofiwarc.
TIc morc iIc sccd of iIc roccssor iIc fasicr ii worls and iIc ricc for iIc
roccssor varics wiiI iIc sccd.

So you Iavc io cIoosc wIai sccd you rcquirc for your worl.

TIcrc arc diffcrcni iycs of roccssors availallc in iIc marlci and onc can cIoosc
from Inicl and A roccssors.

In Inicl wc Iavc low riccd clcron roccssors io orc2uo roccssors.

TIc ricc diffcrcncc lciwccn iIcsc iwo cnds is mucI IigIcr. For normal
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rcquircmcni I rccommcnd a clcron roccssor i.c. for cducaiional urosc and for
all oiIcrs usc P4 roccssors. For IigIcr graIical rcndcring worl and IigI cnd
gamcs cIoosc orc2uo Proccssors.

AnoiIcr caicgory of roccssors arc A roccssors.

TIcy arc wiiI cIca ricc and wiiI good crformancc in comarison io Inicl
roccssors. Ii can givc lciicr roccssing sccd for cIcacr ricc. A Scmron is a
lcsi valuc for moncy cIoicc. TIcrc arc A64lii roccssors and A A2 dual
corc roccssors. TIc ricc of iIcsc roccssors is coniinually cIanging. Your vcndor
will lc allc io givc you iIc laicsi riccs.

So my say is iIai you sIould cIoosc iIc lcsi roccssor ii is lilc iIc Icari in iIc
Iuman lcing.

otberboards

oiIcrloard is of various lrands and wiiI various riccs. Ccncrally cvcryonc
rccommcnds Inicl original moiIcrloards lccausc of various rcasons. TIc oiIcr
lrand of moiIcrloards in iIc marlci is Cigalyic, crcury, Asus and Zclronics.

Cigalyic and Asus arc world lcadcr in moiIcrloard manufaciuring. In iIcsc
lrands you can gci cIiscis oiIcr iIan Inicl.

emory moduIes (RA

F and F2 FA modulcs arc rcscnily availallc in iIc marlci.

F2 is allowing iwicc iIc lus clocl sccd so iIai malcs iIc P iransfcr iIc daia
mucI fasicr iIan iIc F modulcs.

WIcn cIoosing iIc F2 Fam modulcs, cIoosc morc iIan 1 CD io gci full
crformancc of iIc dual cIanncl and also windows visia rccommcnds iIis. 1CD of
FA will givc you a lciicr crformancc on mulii iasling Ps.

WIilc 256D/512 D is morc iIan cnougI for iIc cniry lcvcl Ps, As iIc F2 is
iIc laicsi availallc FA modulcs, lciicr cIoosc iIcsc mcmory and iIc suiiallc
moiIcrloards wiiI cira I sloi for fuiurc u gradc.

TIcrc arc diffcrcni lrands io cIoosc from lilc Transccnd, Kingsion and Scandisl.
TIc riccs of FAs Iavc drasiically fallcn so ii is always lciicr io go for a IigIcr
cnd and ii also dccnds on iIc moiIcr loard you cIoosc.

ard drIves Ior your assembIed computers

TIcrc arc I (Parallcl ATA} and SATA Iard drivcs arc availallc in iIc marlci.

Ii is always rccommcndcd io luy 160CD/7200rm/Scagaic/SATA2 lccausc of
iIcir crformancc and warraniy criod. Dascd on iIc rcquircmcni you can go for a
IigIcr sacc lilc 300CD or 500CD Iard disl

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SATA2 drivcs arc iransfcrring daia mucI fasicr iIan I or SATA1 comarcd io
iIc ricc diffcrcncc.

Dciicr cIoosc SATA2 drivcs. 7200rm is morc iIan cnougI for almosi all P
rcquircmcnis. If lciicr crformancc on sccd is wIai you arc looling for iIcn you
can go for 10000rm.

onItors - CRT or LCD

TIcsc days ii is always rccommcnd io go for a L moniior or TFTs lccausc of
iIcir sizc and clariiy. TIcsc occuy vcry lcss sacc and for frcqucni movcmcni ii is
casy io carry. L moniiors arc lcsi for iis comaci, good iciurc qualiiy, long lifc
and low radiaiion. TIcrc arc diffcrcni lrands availallc in iIc marlci lilc
Vicwsonic, LC, and Samsung cic.

FT(aiIodc ray iulc} moniiors arc cIcacr iIan L moniiors. Dui for low
ludgci cIoosc iIc FT moniior from wcll lrandcd lilc Samsung, LC and
Vicwsonic.


DrIves- FIoppy, CD and DVD drIves.

Floics arc mosily oui daicd. osi of iIc laio modcls arc noi coming wiiI a
floy drivc nowadays. WIcn wc lool for /V drivcs, lciicr cIoosing a V
FW drivc, as iIis can rcad and wriic all s and Vs. V comlo is iIc cIoicc
for ludgci Ps. Sony, Samsung, Asus, Cigalyic, LC drivcs arc availallc in iIc
marlci wiiI good warraniy criods.

ouse and Keyboards.

Now oiical and lall iyc mousc arc availallc in iIc marlci. Oiical mousc's arc
rcfcrrcd cIoicc of mosi consumcrs as ii givcs accuraic movcmcnis. Wirclcss
mousc arc also availallc and lascd on our rcquircmcni wc can cIoosc.

TIc samc alics io lcyloards also. any wcll lrandcd muliimcdia lcyloards arc
availallc wiiI cord and cordlcss iycs. LogiiccI lrands arc wcll lnown for qualiiy
on ousc and lcyloards. TVS is offcring ccIanical lcyloards for long lifc.

CabInets and Power suppIIes (SPS.

TIcrc arc many good low cnd calincis arc availallc from Zclronics, Primcsourcc,
crcury and iDall.

HigI cnd alincis wiiI grcai lool and sccraic cIamlcrs and cooling fans arc
availallc from "Anicc" lrand. TIc owcr sulics (SPS} sulicd wiiI iIc
calincis arc mosily fulfill our owcr rcquircmcni.

If wc go for any oiIcr owcr consuming dcviccs, lciicr go for a IigIcr rangc owcr
sulics. Anicc owcr sulics arc of IigI qualiiy and offcr good crformancc on
diffcrcni owcr rcquircmcnis.
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Sclf Iccl
1. WIai arc iIc iIings you sIould do lcforc insialling and ocraiing sysicm?
2. ommon iycs of moniiion?






















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Answcr lcy
1.
1. Analyze your machine for upgrade readiness
2. Check the CPU
3. Nake sure you have enough memory
4. Evaluate your graphics adapter
S. verify that you have sufficient hard drive space
6. Nake sure you've got a DvD drive or CD drive
7. Sort out the versions
8. Check application compatibility
3. Remember the notebooks

2. 1. L
2. FT











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SouLhern Mlndanao CompuLer College CPS uL1 age 9 of



InIormatIon Sbeet 1:2
aterIaIs Ior ardware and soItware InstaIIatIon
Knowlcdgc and slill is noi cnougI io comlcic iIc iasl. Ii rcquircs comlcic aris
and comoncnis in cvcry ascci of insiallaiion, lilc in Iardwarc insiallaiion and
sofiwarc insiallaiion.
TIc following arc iIc maicrials nccdcd for iIc insiallaiion
1. Sysicm Unii TIc Sysicm Unii Is A Hardwarc omoncni Of A omuicr
Sysicm TIai Proccsscs aia.








2. oniior is an clccironic visual dislay for comuicrs. TIc moniior comriscs
iIc dislay dcvicc, circuiiry, and an cnclosurc. TIc dislay dcvicc in
modcrn moniiors is iyically a iIin film iransisior liquid crysial
dislay (TFTL}, wIilc oldcr moniiors usc caiIodc ray iulc (FT}.









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3. KcyDoard s an inui dcvicc, ariially modclcd aficr iIc iycwriicr lcyloard,
wIicI uscs an arrangcmcni of luiions or lcys, io aci as mccIanical lcvcrs
or clccironic swiicIcs. Aficr uncI cards and acr iac, inicraciion via
iclciycsiylc lcyloards lccamc iIc main inui dcvicc for comuicrs.
Tycs of lcy loard
QWFTY In wcsicrn counirics iIc siandard uscd is io iIc firsi si alIalciic lcys
found in iIc io.
AZFTY iIis oiIcr siandard is uscd in FrcncI counirics.



4. Ocraiing Sysicm %02489imoriani rogram iIai runs on a comuicr. vcry
gcncralurosc comuicr musi Iavc an ocraiing sysicm io run oiIcr
rograms. Ocraiing sysicms crform lasic iasls, sucI as
rccognizing inui from iIc lcyloard, scnding ouiui io iIc dislay scrccn,
lccing iracl of filcs and dircciorics on iIc disl, and conirolling criIcral
dcviccs sucI as disl drivcs and rinicrs.
For largc sysicms, iIc ocraiing sysicm Ias cvcn grcaicr rcsonsililiiics and
owcrs. Ii is lilc a iraffic co ii malcs surc iIai diffcrcni rogram
and uscrs running ai iIc samc iimc do noi inicrfcrc wiiI cacI oiIcr. TIc
ocraiing sysicm is also rcsonsillc for sccuriiy, cnsuring iIai unauiIorizcd
uscrs do noi acccss iIc sysicm.





noLe the 074342. keyboard is more comfortable than the basic
keyboard because it facilitates a more suitable position for the hands
users
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peratIng systems can be cIassIIIed as IoIIows:
muItI-user : Allows iwo or morc uscrs io run rograms ai iIc samc iimc.
Somc ocraiing sysicms crmii Iundrcds or cvcn iIousands of concurrcni
uscrs.
uItIprocessIng. Suoris running a rogram on morc iIan onc PU.
muItItaskIng : Allows morc iIan onc rogram io run concurrcnily.
muItItbreadIng : Allows diffcrcni aris of a singlc rogram io run
concurrcnily.
reaI-tIme: Fcsonds io inui insianily. Ccncralurosc ocraiing sysicms,
sucI as OS and UNIX, arc noi rcaliimc.
Ocraiing sysicms rovidc a sofiwarc laiform on io of wIicI oiIcr rograms,
callcd alicaiion rograms, can run. TIc alicaiion rograms musi lc wriiicn io
run on io of a ariicular ocraiing sysicm. Your cIoicc of ocraiing sysicm,
iIcrcforc, dcicrmincs io a grcai cicni iIc alicaiions you can run. For Ps, iIc
mosi oular ocraiing sysicms arc OS, OS/2, and Windows, lui oiIcrs arc
availallc, sucI as Linu.
As a uscr, you normally inicraci wiiI iIc ocraiing sysicm iIrougI a sci
of commands. For camlc, iIc OS ocraiing sysicm coniains commands
sucI as OPY and FNA for coying filcs and cIanging iIc namcs of filcs,
rcscciivcly. TIc commands arc acccicd and cccuicd ly a ari of iIc
ocraiing sysicm callcd iIc commandroccssor or command linc
inicrrcicr. CraIicaluscrinicrfaccs allow you io cnicr commands ly oiniing
and clicling ai oljccis iIai acar on iIc scrccn.











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5. rivcrs is a comuicr rogram allowing IigIcrlcvcl comuicr rograms io
wiiI inicraci wiiI a Iardwarc dcvicc.





6.Insiallcr of Sofiwarc Alicaiion is a sulclass of comuicr sofiwarc iIai cmloys
iIc caaliliiics of a comuicr dirccily and iIorougIly io a iasl iIai iIc uscr
wisIcs io crform.







7. Uiiliiy Sofiwarc Uiiliiy sofiwarc is a lind of sysicm sofiwarc dcsigncd io Icl
analyzc, configurc, oiimizc and mainiain iIc comuicr.









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Sclf Iccl
JhaL ls monlLor?
2 JhaL are Lhe dlfferenL Lypes of keyboard?
3 Clve Lhe classlflcaLlon of operaLlng sysLem?























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Answcr key
LlecLronlc vlsual dlsplay for compuLers 1he monlLor comprlses Lhe dlsplay devlceclrculLry
and an enclosure 1he dlsplay devlce ln modern monlLors ls Lyplcally a Lhln fllm LranslsLor
llquld crysLal dlsplay (1l1LCu) whlle older monlLors use caLhode ray Lube (C81)
2 ACJL81?
8 AZL81?
3 mulLluser
MulLlprocesslng
MulLlLasklng
8ealLlme
MulLlLhreadlng




















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InIormatIon Sbeet 1:3
DevIce and PerIpberaIs
Ii is so imoriani iIai an individual sIould lnow cvcry dcvicc and criIcrals iIai
lcing usc io ioially comlcic iIc iasl of insiallaiion.
1. oiIcr Doard TIc main circuii loard of a microcomuicr.
TIc moiIcrloard coniains iIc conncciors for aiiacIing addiiional loards.
Tyically, iIc moiIcrloard coniains iIc PU, DIOS, mcmory, mass
sioragc inicrfaccs, scrial and arallcl oris, cansion slois, and all iIc
conirollcrs rcquircd io conirol siandard criIcral dcviccs, sucI as iIc dislay
scrccn, lcyloard, and disl drivc. ollcciivcly, all iIcsc cIis iIai rcsidc on iIc
moiIcrloard arc lnown as iIc moiIcrloard's cIisci.


















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Processor socket (Soclci 478 onnccior} is an clccirical comoncni iIai
aiiacIcs io a rinicd circuii loard (PD} and is dcsigncd io Iousc
a microroccssor
ATX Power Connector is a comuicr form facior sccificaiion dcvclocd
ly Inicl in 1995 io imrovc on rcvious dc facio siandards lilc iIc AT form facior
MEMORY SLOT# # ommonly rcfcrs io iIc sloi comuicr mcmory is laccd
inio on iIc comuicr moiIcrloard or I/O Doard.
ack paneI Connectors arc iIc availallc conncciors found ai iIc lacl of iIc
sysicm casc.






FDD eader is an inicrfacc lciwccn iIc Floy disl drivc and iIc moiIcr loard
DD eader is an inicrfacc lciwccn iIc Hard disl drivc and moiIcr loard.
NortbbrIdge cbIpset (Inicl 865C} NoriIlridgc is an Inicl cIisci iIai
communicaics wiiI iIc comuicr roccssor and conirols inicraciion wiiI mcmory,
iIc PcriIcral omoncni Inicrconncci (PI} lus, Lcvcl 2 cacIc, and all
Accclcraicd CraIics Pori (ACP} aciiviiics.
AGP SLT cansion sloi connccis ACP vidco cards io a moiIcrloard.


AUX In eaderis an inicrfacc lciwccn SATA dcviccs io iIc moiIcr loard.
PCI SLT A connccior on PcriIcral omoncni
Inicrconncci and iIcassociaicd Iysical sacc occuicd ly iIc insiallcd PI card
US eader Somc oiIcrloards Iavc a USD froni ancl Icadcr iIai allows an
addiiional 2 USD oris. TIc oris can lc connccicd ciiIcr io iIc froni or rcar of iIc
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cIassis ly aiiacIing a froni ancl USD callc. TIc Icadcr may lc lalclcd Froni
Pancl USD" or FNT USD" on iIc dcslio loard.
CS IS CIPsofiwarc is luili inio iIc P, and is iIc firsi codc run ly
a P wIcn owcrcd on ('looi firmwarc'}.


2. cmory (FA} is a form of comuicr daia sioragc. Today, ii ialcs iIc form
of inicgraicd circuiis iIai allow siorcd daia io lc acccsscd in any ordcr (i.c.,
ai random}. "Fandom" rcfcrs io iIc idca iIai any iccc of daia can lc rciurncd in
a consiani iimc, rcgardlcss of iis Iysical locaiion and wIciIcr or noi ii is rclaicd
io iIc rcvious iccc of daia.





3. Hard disl is a nonvolaiilc sioragc dcvicc for digiial daia. Ii fcaiurcs onc or
morc roiaiing rigid laiicrs on a moiordrivcn sindlc wiiIin a mcial casc. aia is
cncodcd magnciically ly rcad/wriic Icads iIai floai on a cusIion of air alovc iIc
laiicrs.





4. FO drivcs arc ncccssary ioday for mosi rograms. A singlc can siorc
u io 650 D of daia (ncwcr Fs allow for 700 D of daia, crIas morc wiiI
"ovcrlurn"}. Fasi FO drivcs Iavc lccn a lig ioic in iIc asi, lui all of
ioday's FO drivcs arc sufficicnily fasi. Of coursc, ii's nicc io Iavc iIc liiilc
liis of cira sccd.


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5. Proccssor (PU} is iIc oriion of a comuicr sysicm iIai carrics oui iIc
insiruciions of a comuicr rogram, and is iIc rimary clcmcni carrying oui iIc
comuicr's funciions.





6. Powcr Suly Also callcd a owcr suly unii or PSU, iIc comoncni iIai
sulics owcr io a comuicr.





7. ousc is a oiniing dcvicc iIai funciions ly dcicciing iwodimcnsional moiion
rclaiivc io iis suoriing surfacc.
8. I is an inicrfacc siandard for iIc conncciion of sioragc dcviccs sucI as Iard
disls, solidsiaic drivcs, floy drivcs, and FO drivcs in comuicrs.




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SLLlCPLCk
1esL l
________________ ls Lhe polnLlng devlce use Lo polnL Lhe lnLerface ln Lhe compuLer
2________________ also called Su
3________________lnLerface sLandard use Lo connecL sLorage
4 _________________ ls Lhe porLlon of Lhe sysLem unlL LhaL lnLerpreL lnsLrucLlon
3 ________________ ls nonvolaLlle sLorage devlce LhaL capable of sLorlng large amounL of daLa



















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Answer key
Mouse
2 ower supply
3 luL (lnLegraLed devlce elecLronlcs)
4 Cu (CenLral rocesslng unlL)
3 Pard dlsk




















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InIormatIon Sbeet 1:4
SaIety use oI TooIs and DevIce
In using of any dcvicc ii is vcry mucI imoriani iIai arc iIc safciy iIings aloui
iIc dcvicc. TIc following arc iIc lisi of iIings io rcmcmlcr in using dcviccs.
AntI-StatIc and SaIety PrecautIons
Havc you cvcr wallcd across a carcicd floor and goiicn a sIocl wIcn you ioucIcd
a doorlnol, iallc, counicr, or cvcn anoiIcr crson?
TIai liiilc sIocl you goi was a rcsuli of siaiic clcciriciiy. Ii was also many iimcs
wIai is nccdcd io dcsiroy somc comuicr comoncnis.
You scc, Iumans can'i fccl a siaiic sIocl uniil ii is scvcral iIousand volis sirong,
lui ii ialcs lcss iIan 30 volis io damagc a scnsiiivc comuicr comoncni, sucI as
a siicl of FA or a roccssor.
TIai's wIy comuicr iccInicians and Iomc comuicr luildcrs Iavc io guard iIcir
comuicrs againsi iIc dcadly ravagcs of siaiic clcciriciiy, as wcll as ialc sics io
avoid injury io you. A sIocl iIai you can'i cvcn fccl can scriously damagc your
Iomcluili comuicr lcforc you'rc cvcn finisIcd luilding ii.

SaIety and AntI-StatIc RuIes
O WIcn ossillc, iry io avoid worling in carcicd arcas. arciing grcaily
incrcascs siaiic luildu wiiIin your lody.
O Always usc an aniisiaiic wrisi sira wIcn
worling on a comuicr ccci wIcn worling
on moniiors. morc aloui iIai lclow. Onc cnd is
an clasiic land iIai fiis around your wrisi and
wIicI is connccicd io an alligaior cli ly a
wirc. TIc cli connccis io a mcial ari of iIc
comuicr cIassis, wIicI cqualizcs iIc voliagc
lciwccn you and iIc comuicr, iIus avoiding
siaiic sarls.

Dciicr aniisiaiic liis also includc a rullcrizcd mai iIai is laccd lclow iIc
comuicr wIilc you arc worling on ii. TIis noi only rovidcs lciicr anii
siaiic roicciion, lui also roiccis your iallc from scraicIcs.
O Always gras a mcial ari of iIc comuicr cIassis wiiI your larc Iand
lcforc you ioucI anyiIing insidc. o iIis cvcn if you arc wcaring an anii
siaiic wrisiland.
O Always Iandlc clccironic comoncnis ly a nonconduciing (nonmciallic}
cdgc. on'i ioucI iIc ins or oiIcr conncciors.
O Ncvcr lug an ATX owcr suly inio A owcr unlcss ii is connccicd ciiIcr
io a comuicr's moiIcrloard or io a dummy icsi load.
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O Always usc a ULarovcd surgc roiccior or an Uninicrruiillc Powcr
Suly iIai incororaics surgc and silc roicciion.
O Ncvcr cai, drinl, or smolc wIilc worling on a comuicr.
Never Use a WrIst Strap wbIIe WorkIng on onItors
vcn iIougI iIis siic is noi aloui rcairing comuicrs, our siic siais indicaic iIai
a loi of colc find iIis agc ly scarcIing for iIc Irasc "aniisiaiic rccauiions."
So ii's imoriani iIai I mcniion iIc onc ccciion io iIc rulc aloui always using
an aniisiaiic wrisi sira.
Ncvcr usc an aniisiaiic wrisi sira wIilc worling on a FT moniior, cvcn if ii is
unluggcd. FT moniiors ocraic on vcry IigI voliagcs somciimcs as IigI as
40,000 volis and can Iold iIcsc voliagcs for a long iimc cvcn wIcn iIcy arc
unluggcd.
So wIai docs all iIai mcan? Hcrc ii is in simlc icrms. If you Iacn io ioucI a
FT moniiors fly lacl iransformcr or iis anodc wIilc you arc groundcd io iIc
moniior's cIassis ly a wrisi sira, you will rolally dic. No jolc.
Profcssional comuicr iccInicians rarcly worl on comuicr moniiors, and you
sIouldn'i, ciiIcr. all your ncigIlorIood TV rcair sIo insicad. osi TV rcair
sIos arc Iay io rcair comuicr moniiors, and iIcy arc morc lilcly io Iavc any
nccdcd aris on Iand.

Power suppIy ii is iyically dcsigncd io convcri gcncralurosc alicrnaiing
currcni (A} clcciric owcr from iIc mains (100127V in NoriI Amcrica, aris of
SouiI Amcrica, Jaan, and Taiwan; 220240V in mosi of iIc rcsi of iIc world} io
usallc lowvoliagc owcr for iIc inicrnal comoncnis of iIc comuicr. Somc
owcr sulics Iavc a swiicI io cIangc lciwccn 230 V and 115 V. OiIcr modcls
Iavc auiomaiic scnsors iIai swiicI inui voliagc auiomaiically, or arc allc io
accci any voliagc lciwccn iIosc limiis.
omuicr owcr sulics arc raicd lascd on iIcir maimum ouiui owcr. Tyical
owcr rangcs arc from 500 W io lowcr iIan 300 W for small form facior sysicms
inicndcd as ordinary Iomc comuicrs, iIc usc of wIicI is limiicd io Inicrnci
surfing and lurning and laying Vs. Powcr sulics uscd ly gamcrs and
cniIusiasis mosily rangc from 450 W io 1400 W. Tyical gaming Ps fcaiurc owcr
sulics in iIc rangc of 500800 W, wiiI IigIcrcnd Ps dcmanding 8001400 W
sulics. TIc IigIcsicnd uniis arc u io 2 lW sirong and arc inicndcd mainly for
scrvcrs and, io a lcsscr dcgrcc, circmc crformancc comuicrs wiiI muliilc
roccssors, scvcral Iard disls and muliilc graIics cards. TIc owcr raiing of a
P owcr suly is noi officially ccriificd and is sclfclaimcd ly cacI manufaciurcr.
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A common way io rcacI iIc owcr figurc for P PSUs is ly adding iIc owcr
availallc on cacI rail, wIicI will noi givc a iruc owcr figurc. TIcrcforc ii is
ossillc io ovcrload a PSU on onc rail wiiIoui Iaving io usc iIc maimum raicd
owcr.
Somciimcs manufaciurcrs inflaic iIcir owcr raiings, in ordcr io gain an advaniagc
in iIc marlci. TIis can lc donc duc io a lacl of clcar siandards rcgarding owcr
suly lalcling and icsiing.
Advcriising iIc cal owcr, raiIcr iIan iIc coniinuous owcr;
cicrmining iIc coniinuous ouiui owcr caaliliiy ai unrcalisiically low
icmcraiurcs (ai room icmcraiurc as ooscd io 40, a morc lilcly
icmcraiurc insidc a P casc};
Advcriising ioial owcr as a mcasurc of caaciiy, wIcn modcrn sysicms arc
almosi ioially rcliani on iIc currcni availallc from iIc 12 voli linc(s}.
TIis may mcan iIai if.
PSU A Ias a peak raiing of SS0 watts at 2SC, wiiI 2S amps (300
W} on iIc 12 voIt linc, and
PSU D Ias a contInuous raiing of 4S0 watts at 40C, wItb 33 amps (400
W} on iIc 12 voIt linc,
And iIosc raiings arc accuraic, and iIcn PSU D would Iavc io lc considcrcd a
vasily sucrior unii, dcsiic iis lowcr ovcrall owcr raiing. PSU A may only lc
caallc of dclivcring a fraciion of iis raicd owcr undcr rcal world condiiions.
TIis icndcncy Ias lcd in iurn io grcaily ovcr sccificd owcr suly
rccommcndaiions, and a sIoriagc of IigIqualiiy owcr sulics wiiI rcasonallc
caaciiics. Vcry fcw comuicrs rcquirc morc iIan 300350 waiis
maimum.
|1|
HigIcr cnd comuicrs sucI as scrvcrs and gaming macIincs wiiI
muliilc IigI owcr CPUs arc among iIc fcw ccciions. AliIougI, in rcccni ycars
iIc owcr dcmand of "vidco cards" in iIc aliliiy io waicI IigI dcfiniiion (H}
mcdia Ias lcd io cvcn iIc avcragc ATX comuicr io consumc lciwccn 400 and 500
waiis. Ii may lc cccicd io incrcasc again as iIc mcdia iransiiions io 3.

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onncciors




Tyically, owcr sulics Iavc iIc following conncciors.
P ain owcr connccior (usually callcd P1}. Is iIc connccior iIai gocs io
iIc moiIcrloard io rovidc ii wiiI owcr. TIc connccior Ias 20 or 24 ins. Onc
of iIc ins lclongs io iIc PSON wirc (ii is usually grccn}. TIis connccior is iIc
largcsi of all iIc conncciors. In oldcr AT owcr sulics, iIis connccior was
slii in iwo. P8 and P9. A owcr suly wiiI a 24in connccior can lc uscd on
a moiIcrloard wiiI a 20in connccior. In cascs wIcrc iIc moiIcrloard Ias a
24in connccior, somc owcr sulics comc wiiI iwo conncciors (onc wiiI 20
in and oiIcr wiiI 4in} wIicI can lc uscd iogciIcr io form iIc 24in
connccior.
ATX12V 4in owcr connccior (also callcd iIc P4 owcr connccior}. A sccond
connccior iIai gocs io iIc moiIcrloard (in addiiion io iIc main 24in
connccior} io suly dcdicaicd owcr for iIc roccssor. For IigIcnd
moiIcrloards and roccssors, morc owcr is rcquircd, iIcrcforc PS12V Ias an
8 in connccior.
4in PcriIcral owcr conncciors (usually callcd olc for iis manufaciurcr}.
TIcsc arc iIc oiIcr, smallcr conncciors iIai go io iIc various disl drivcs of iIc
comuicr. osi of iIcm Iavc four wircs. iwo llacl, onc rcd, and onc ycllow.
Unlilc iIc siandard mains clccirical wirc colorcoding, cacI IucI uc is
a ground, iIc cd uc is +5 V, and iIc cou uc is +12 V. In somc cascs
iIcsc arc also uscd io rovidc addiiional owcr io PI cards sucI as FircWirc
800 cards.
4in Dcrg owcr conncciors (usually callcd iniconnccior or "miniolc"}.
TIis is onc of iIc smallcsi conncciors iIai suly iIc floy drivc wiiI owcr.
In somc cascs, ii can lc uscd as an auiliary connccior for ACP vidco cards. Iis
callc configuraiion is similar io iIc PcriIcral connccior.
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Auiliary owcr conncciors. TIcrc arc scvcral iycs of auiliary conncciors
dcsigncd io rovidc addiiional owcr if ii is nccdcd.
Scrial ATA owcr conncciors. a 15in connccior for comoncnis wIicI usc
SATA owcr lugs. TIis connccior sulics owcr ai iIrcc diffcrcni voliagcs.
+3.3, +5, and +12 volis.
6in osi modcrn comuicr owcr sulics includc 6in conncciors wIicI
arc gcncrally uscd for PI rcss graIics cards, lui a ncwly iniroduccd 8in
connccior sIould lc sccn on iIc laicsi modcl owcr sulics. acI PI rcss
6in connccior can ouiui a maimum of 75 W.
6+2 in For iIc urosc of laclwards comaiililiiy, somc conncciors dcsigncd
for usc wiiI PI rcss graIics cards fcaiurcs iIis lind of in configuraiion.
Ii allows ciiIcr a 6in card or an 8in card io lc connccicd ly using iwo
scaraic conncciion modulcs wircd inio iIc samc sIcaiI. onc wiiI 6 ins and
anoiIcr wiiI 2 ins.
A 14 I connccior wiiI an aroriaic 13 cord is uscd io aiiacI iIc owcr
suly io iIc local owcr grid.

nergy eIIIcIency
omuicr owcr sulics arc gcncrally aloui 7075% cfficicni.
|3|
TIai mcans in
ordcr for a 75% cfficicni owcr suly io roducc 75 W of ouiui ii would
rcquirc 100 W of A inui and dissiaic iIc rcmaining 25 W in Icai. HigIcr
qualiiy owcr sulics can lc ovcr 80% cfficicni; IigIcr cncrgy cfficicni PSU's
wasic lcss cncrgy in Icai, and rcquircs lcss airflow io cool, and as a rcsuli will lc
quicicr. Cooglc's scrvcr owcr sulics arc morc iIan 90% cfficicni.
|2|
HP's scrvcr
owcr sulics Iavc rcacIcd 94% cfficicncy.
|4|
Siandard PSUs sold for scrvcr
worlsiaiions Iavc around 90% cfficicncy, as of 2010.
Ii's imoriani io maicI iIc caaciiy of a owcr suly io iIc owcr nccds of iIc
comuicr. TIc cncrgy cfficicncy of owcr sulics dros significanily ai low loads.
fficicncy gcncrally cals ai aloui 5075% load. TIc curvc varics from modcl io
modcl (camlcs of Iow iIis curvc lools can lc sccn on icsi rcoris of cncrgy
cfficicni modcls found on iIc 80 PLUS wclsiic}. As a rulc of iIuml for siandard
owcr sulics ii is usually aroriaic io luy a suly sucI iIai iIc calculaicd
iyical consumiion of onc's comuicr is aloui 60% of iIc raicd caaciiy of iIc
suly rovidcd iIai iIc calculaicd maimum consumiion of iIc comuicr docs
noi ccccd iIc raicd caaciiy of iIc suly. Noic iIai advicc on ovcrall owcr
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suly raiings oficn givcn ly iIc manufaciurcr of singlc comoncni, iyically
graIics cards, sIould lc ircaicd wiiI grcai slciicism. TIcsc manufaciurcrs wisI
io minimizc suori issucs duc io undcr raiing iIc owcr suly and arc willing io
advisc cusiomcrs io ovcrraic ii io avoid iIis.
Various iniiiaiivcs arc undcrway io imrovc iIc cfficicncy of comuicr owcr
sulics. limaic savcrs comuiing iniiiaiivc romoics cncrgy saving and rcduciion
of grccnIousc gas cmissions ly cncouraging dcvclomcni and usc of morc cfficicni
owcr sulics. 80 PLUS ccriifics owcr sulics iIai mcci ccriain cfficicncy
criicria, and cncouragcs iIcir usc via financial inccniivcs. On io of iIai iIc
lusincsscs cnd u using lcss clcciriciiy io cool iIc PSU and iIc comuicr's
iIcmsclvcs and iIus savc an iniiially largc sum (i.c. inccniivc + savcd clcciriciiy
IigIcr rofii}.

IectrIcIty is a gcncral icrm iIai cncomasscs a variciy of Icnomcna rcsuliing
from iIc rcscncc and flow of clcciric cIargc. TIcsc includc many casily
rccognizallc Icnomcna, sucI as ligIining and siaiic clcciriciiy, lui in addiiion,
lcss familiar conccis, sucI as iIc clcciromagnciic ficld and clcciromagnciic
induciion.
In gcncral usagc, iIc word "clcciriciiy" is adcquaic io rcfcr io a numlcr of Iysical
cffccis. In scicniific usagc, Iowcvcr, iIc icrm is vaguc, and iIcsc rclaicd, lui
disiinci, conccis arc lciicr idcniificd ly morc rccisc icrms.
lcciric cIargc a rocriy of somc sulaiomic ariiclcs, wIicI dcicrmincs
iIcir clcciromagnciic inicraciions. lccirically cIargcd maiicr is influcnccd ly,
and roduccs, clcciromagnciic ficlds.
lcciric currcni a movcmcni or flow of clccirically cIargcd ariiclcs, iyically
mcasurcd in amcrcs.
lcciric ficld an influcncc roduccd ly an clcciric cIargc on oiIcr cIargcs in
iis viciniiy.
lcciric oicniial iIc caaciiy of an clcciric ficld io do worl on an clcciric
cIargc, iyically mcasurcd in volis.
lcciromagnciism a fundamcnial inicraciion lciwccn iIc magnciic ficld and
iIc rcscncc and moiion of an clcciric cIargc.
lccirical Icnomcna Iavc lccn siudicd sincc aniiquiiy, iIougI advanccs in iIc
scicncc wcrc noi madc uniil iIc scvcniccniI and cigIiccniI ccniurics. Praciical
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alicaiions for clcciriciiy Iowcvcr rcmaincd fcw, and ii would noi lc uniil iIc laic
ninciccniI ccniury iIai cnginccrs wcrc allc io ui ii io indusirial and rcsidcniial
usc. TIc raid cansion in clccirical iccInology ai iIis iimc iransformcd indusiry
and sociciy. lcciriciiy's ciraordinary vcrsaiiliiy as a sourcc of cncrgy mcans ii
can lc ui io an almosi limiilcss sci of alicaiions wIicI
includc iransori, Icaiing, ligIiing, communicaiions, and comuiaiion. TIc
lacllonc of modcrn indusirial sociciy is, and for iIc forcsccallc fuiurc can lc
cccicd io rcmain, iIc usc of clccirical owcr.

TYPS oI LCTRICITY
StatIc IectrIcIty
Siaiic clcciriciiy is wIcn clccirical cIargcs luild u on iIc surfacc of a maicrial. Ii
is usually causcd ly rulling maicrials iogciIcr. TIc rcsuli of a luildu of siaiic
clcciriciiy is iIai oljccis may lc aiiracicd io cacI oiIcr or may cvcn causc a sarl
io jum from onc io iIc oiIcr. For amlc rul a lalloon on a wool and Iold ii u
io iIc wall.
Dcforc rulling, lilc all maicrials, iIc lalloons and iIc wool swcaicr Iavc a ncuiral
cIargc. TIis is lccausc iIcy cacI Iavc an cqual numlcr of osiiivcly cIargcd
sulaiomic ariiclcs (roions} and ncgaiivcly cIargcd sulaiomic ariiclcs
(clccirons}. WIcn you rul iIc lalloon wiiI iIc wool swcaicr, clccirons arc
iransfcrrcd from iIc wool io iIc rullcr lccausc of diffcrcnccs in iIc aiiraciion of
iIc iwo maicrials for clccirons. TIc lalloon lccomcs ncgaiivcly cIargcd lccausc ii
gains clccirons from iIc wool, and iIc wool lccomcs osiiivcly cIargcd lccausc ii
loscs clccirons.
Current IectrIcIty
urrcni is iIc raic of flow of clccirons. Ii is roduccd ly moving clccirons and ii is
mcasurcd in amcrcs. Unlilc siaiic clcciriciiy, currcni clcciriciiy musi flow
iIrougI a conducior, usually cocr wirc. urrcni wiiI clcciriciiy is jusi lilc
currcni wIcn you iIinl of a rivcr. TIc rivcr flows from onc soi io anoiIcr, and iIc
sccd ii movcs is iIc sccd of iIc currcni. WiiI clcciriciiy, currcni is a mcasurc of
iIc amouni of cncrgy iransfcrrcd ovcr a criod of iimc. TIai cncrgy is callcd a flow
of clccirons. Onc of iIc rcsulis of currcni is iIc Icaiing of iIc conducior. WIcn an
clcciric siovc Icais u, ii's lccausc of iIc flow of currcni.
TIcrc arc diffcrcni sourccs of currcni clcciriciiy including iIc cIcmical rcaciions
ialing lacc in a laiicry. TIc mosi common sourcc is iIc gcncraior. A simlc
gcncraior roduccs clcciriciiy wIcn a coil of cocr iurns insidc a magnciic ficld.
In a owcr lani, clcciromagncis sinning insidc many coils of cocr wirc
gcncraic vasi quaniiiics of currcni clcciriciiy.
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TIcrc arc iwo main linds of clcciric currcni. ircci (} and Alicrnaiing (A}. Ii's
casy io rcmcmlcr. ircci currcni is lilc iIc cncrgy you gci from a laiicry.
Alicrnaiing currcni is lilc iIc lugs in iIc wall. TIc lig diffcrcncc lciwccn iIc iwo
is iIai is a flow of cncrgy wIilc A can iurn on and off. A rcvcrscs iIc
dircciion of iIc clccirons.
KINDS oI Current
DIrect current (DC} is iIc unidircciional flow of clcciric cIargc. ircci currcni is
roduccd ly sucI sourccs as laiicrics, iIcrmocoulcs, solar cclls, and commuiaic
iyc clcciric macIincs of iIcdynamo iyc. ircci currcni may flow in
a conducior sucI as a wirc, lui can also lc iIrougI scmiconduciors, insulaiors, or
cvcn iIrougI a vacuum as in clcciron or ion lcams. TIc clcciric cIargcflows in a
consiani dircciion, disiinguisIing ii from alicrnaiing currcni (A}. A icrm formcrly
uscd for dcct cucnt was gaIvanIc current.









AIternatIng current (AC, also ac} iIc movcmcni of clcciric cIargc criodically
rcvcrscs dircciion. In dircci currcni (}, iIc flow of clcciric cIargc is only in onc
dircciion.
is iIc form in wIicI clcciric owcr is dclivcrcd io lusincsscs and rcsidcnccs.
TIc usual wavcform of an A owcr circuii is a sinc wavc. In ccriain alicaiions,
diffcrcni wavcforms arc uscd, sucI as iriangular or squarc
wavcs. Audio and radio signals carricd on clccirical wircs arc also camlcs of
alicrnaiing currcni. In iIcsc alicaiions, an imoriani goal is oficn iIc rccovcry of
informaiion cncodcd (or modulaicd} onio iIc A signal.


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Voliagc, also callcd ccctonotuc occ, is a quaniiiaiivc crcssion of iIc oicniial
diffcrcncc in cIargc lciwccn iwo oinis in an clccirical ficld. TIc grcaicr iIc
voliagc, iIc grcaicr iIc flow of clccirical currenL (iIai is, iIc quaniiiy of cIargc
carricrs iIai ass a ficd oini cr unii of iimc} iIrougI a conduciing or
scmiconduciing mcdium for a givcn rcsisiancc io iIc flow. Voliagc is symlolizcd ly
an ucrcasc iialic lciicr V or . TIc siandard unii is iIc voli, symlolizcd ly a
noniialic ucrcasc lciicr V. Onc voli will drivc onc couloml (6.24 10
18
} cIargc
carricrs, sucI as clccirons, iIrougI a rcsisiancc of onc oIm in onc sccond.














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Self Check
__________________ also called elecLromoLlve
2 __________________ Lhe movemenL of elecLrlc charge perlodlcally reverses dlrecLlon
3 __________________ 1erm use Lo descrlbe dlrecL currenL
4 __________________ elecLrlcal charges bulld up on Lhe surface of a maLerlal
3 __________________ raLe of flow of elecLrons



















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Answer key
volLage
2 AlLernaLlng currenL
3 Calvanlc CurrenL
4 SLaLlc LlecLrlclLy
3 CurrenL LlecLrlclLy




















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InIormatIon Sbeet 2:1
S InstaIIIng oI DevIce
Terms and DeIInItIons
Safciy Siaic or condiiion of lcing safc, frccdom from dangcr, risl, or injury.
Accidcni Any suddcnly occurring, uninicniional vcni iIai causcs crsonal injury
or damagcd io rocriy.
Firsi Aid Immcdiaic icmorary carc givcn io iIc viciim of an accidcni or suddcn
illncss uniil iIc scrvicc of Iysician is oliaincd.
OHS (Occuaiional HcaliI and Safciy} Insurc safc and saniiary worling condiiion
for cmloyccs.
Prcssurc Poinis Poinis on iIc lody aricrics as closc io iIc surfacc of iIc slin
and in froni of iIc lonc siruciurc so iIai rcssurc or cIccling iIc aricry againsi
iIc lonc can cIccl iIc flow of iIc llood io a sccific ari of iIc lody.
omlusiillc aicrials or liquids iIai caicI firc casily.
Hygicnc iIc scicncc of good IcaliI and iis mainicnancc, including saniiary
raciiccs and clcanlincss.

AppIy S'S
SS Is a systematIzed approacb to organIze work areas, keep ruIes and
standard, and maIntaIn tbe dIscIpIIne needed to do tbe job.
SOFT Taling oui and disosing unncccssary iicms
SYSTATIZ Organizaiion of ncccssary iicms in good ordcr and casy acccss.

SWP/SANITIZ lcan iIc worl lacc
STANAFIZ ainiaining iIc worl lacc in IigI siandard of Iousclccing.
SLF ISIPLIN oing iIings soniancously wiiIoui lcing iold. TAHINC
DY OINC"
WIai can you gain from 5S?
O 5S malcs your worllacc morc lcasani
O 5S malcs you worl morc cfficicni
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O 5S imrovc your safciy and
O Imrovc qualiiy of your worl and roducis.

WIy 5S lring sucI lcncfiis?
O 5S imrovc crcaiiviiy of iIc colc
O 5S imrovc communicaiion among iIc colc
O 5S imrovc Iuman rclaiion among iIc colc
O 5S imrovc iIc icamworl among iIc colc
O 5S imrovc camaradcric among iIc colc
O 5Sgivcs viialiiy io colc

THINCS SAF WOFKINC PFATI AOPLISH
1. liminaics iIc ain or discomfori of crsonal injury
2. liminaics iIc loss of cquimcni or an ccnsc of rcair
3. liminaics losi iimc and losi wagcs
4. oniriluics io iIc sycIological wclllcing of all cmloyccs
5. oniriluics io roduciiviiy
6. Fulfills iIc moral olligaiion a worlcr Ias io cmloycr and fcllow cmloyccs
PFOUFS IN ONTOLLINC FISK
1. Usc iIc rocr safciy dcvicc and faciliiics wIcn rovidcd
2. o noi indulgc in joling and fooling.
3. Lcarn io rccognizc dangcrous Iazards and rcori iIcm romily
4. Always lcc your worl arca clcan and iidy
5. Wcar safciy glasscs and iIc corrcci roicciivc cloiIing wIcn rcquircd.
6. Ncvcr do worl in manncr iIai you lnow io lc dangcrous.
7. Lcarn io lifi and Iandlc maicrials corrccily
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8. Always olscrvc iIc safciy rulcs.
9. Usc macIinc guard wIcrc rovidcd.
10. omc io worl corrccily drcsscd for jol (Loosc cloiIing, Fings, waicIcs, Long
Iair arc dangcrous.}
11. Fcori all accidcni Iow minor ii is a soon as iIcy Iacn.
12. Dc alcri io clccirical Iazards.
13. Talc carc on cnicring and lcaving iIc worl arca.
14. cvclo a rcal dcicrminaiion io worl safciy

HAZAFS A Iazard is a siiuaiion iIai oscs a lcvcl of iIrcai
io lifc, IcaliI, rocriy, or cnvironmcni. osi Iazards arc dormani or oicniial,
wiiI only a iIcorciical risl of Iarm; Iowcvcr, oncc a Iazard lccomcs "aciivc", ii
can crcaic an cmcrgcncy siiuaiion. A Iazard docs noi cisi wIcn ii is Iacning. A
Iazardous siiuaiion iIai Ias comc io ass is callcd an incidcni. Hazard
and vulncraliliiy inicraci iogciIcr io crcaic risl.
odcs of a Iazard
Dormant TIc siiuaiion Ias iIc oicniial io lc Iazardous, lui no colc,
rocriy, or cnvironmcni is currcnily affccicd ly iIis. For insiancc, a Iillsidc
may lc unsiallc, wiiI iIc oicniial for a landslidc, lui iIcrc is noiIing lclow
or on iIc Iillsidc iIai could lc affccicd.
Armed Pcolc, rocriy, or cnvironmcni arc in oicniial Iarm's way.
ActIve A Iarmful incidcni involving iIc Iazard Ias aciually occurrcd. Oficn
iIis is rcfcrrcd io noi as an "aciivc Iazard" lui as an accidcni, cmcrgcncy,
incidcni, or disasicr.
WRKING SAFLY WIT CICALS
Icmicals comc in various forms and can affcci iIosc coscd in diffcrcni ways. A
cIcmical can ialc iIc form of a misi, vaor, liquid, dusi, fumc or gas. TIc iyc of
cIcmical, iIc way ii is uscd, and iIc form iIai ii ialcs dcicrminc iis cffcci and
wIai sIould lc donc io avoid Iarmful cosurc.
Somc lasic safciy rccauiions sIould lc undcrsiood and followcd including.
O Know wIai io do in an cmcrgcncy. If iIcrc is a lcal or sill, lcc away from
iIc arca, unlcss you lnow wIai iIc cIcmical is and Iow io safcly clcan ii
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u. Know wIcrc cmcrgcncy roicciivc cquimcni and sulics lci and Iow
io usc iIcm.
O Usc aroriaic roicciivc cloiIing and cquimcni (glasscs, arons, loois,
glovcs, cic.} as rcquircd or as ncccssary.
O If iIc cloiIing lccomcs coniaminaicd ly iIc cIcmical, sIowcr or wasI iIc
slin arcas coscd. Iangc and dcconiaminaic cloiIing (or disosc of
cloiIing if ii is dcsigncd io singlc usc}.
O o noi ialc coniaminaicd cloiIing Iomc io lc laundcrcd lccausc ly doing
so, ii could cosc family mcmlcrs io iIc coniaminani.
O WIcn worling wiiI cIcmicals, always wasI Iands iIorougIly lcforc caiing.
If ncccssary, sIowcr and cIangc cloiIcs lcforc going Iomc.
O Ncvcr ialc food inio iIc worl arca wIcrc cIcmicals arc lcing uscd or siorcd.
O If worl will lc donc in an arca wIcrc iIcrc is a ossililiiy of cosurc io
ioic sulsianccs, usc a luddy sysicm or csiallisI an cmcrgcncy
communicaiion sysicm. A worlcr can lc dangcrously coscd or ovcrcomc
ly a cIcmical and nccd immcdiaic assisiancc.
O Kcc iIc worllacc clcan io rcducc iIc risl of coniaminaiion. WIcrc
ossillc, wic u and alsorl iIc coniaminani, using rocr roicciivc
cquimcni as rcquircd. lcan u sills immcdiaicly and disosc of
coniaminaicd maicrial rocrly. WiiI somc cIcmicals a vacuum is
rccommcndcd for clcanu raiIcr iIan a lroom or comrcsscd air. TIc idca
is io collcci and confinc iIc coniaminani, noi jusi srcad ii around.
Worlcrs sIould lnow iIc comany's sysicm for idcniifying Iazardous cIcmicals.
TIcy sIould lnow and undcrsiand iIc sccific IcaliI and safciy Iazards of iIc
cIcmicals wiiI wIicI iIcy worl and follow iIc rccommcndcd safciy rccauiions.
All worlcrs sIould lc iraincd in rocr cIcmical sioragc and disosal roccdurcs
and lnow wIai io do for firsi aid and cmcrgcncics.


Wben you use bazardous paInts or soIvents, aIways IoIIow tbese saIety
precautIons:
O Wic u all sills immcdiaicly
O Placc rags or oiIcr iicms you usc io clcan u sills in a scaraic, covcrcd
coniaincr.
O Usc roicciivc cloiIing, gogglcs, or oiIcr aroriaic dcvicc io rcvcni ainis
or solvcnis from gciiing on your slin or in your cycs.
O Havc acccssillc fircfigIiing cquimcni ncarly.
O Havc adcquaic vcniilaiion.
O isosc of ainis and solvcnis rocriy wIcn you no longcr nccd iIcm. If
you arc unsurc of iIc disosal roccdurc, cIccl wiiI you safciy officcr.
O Siorc flammallc solvcnis only in arovcd flammallc sioragc loclcrs. Dc
surc io siorc flammallc and corrosivc maicrials scaraicly.
O NVF usc carlon iciracIloridc. arlon iciracIloridc is IigIly ioic
comound and is lanncd from usc.
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O NVF smolc or usc an ocn flamc or allow anyonc clsc io do so in arcas
wIcrc aini, varnisIcs, lacqucrs, or solvcni arc lcing uscd.
O NVF lrcaiIcd iIc vaors of any clcaning solvcni for rolongcd criods. If
you don'i Iavc rocr vcniilaiion, usc rocr PP.
O NVF discard acrosol coniaincrs in wasic laslcis iIai will lc cmiicd inio
an incincraior.
O NVF sray clcaning solvcni onio clccirical windings is insulaiion.
O NVF aly clcaning solvcnis io Icaicd cquimcni. oing so could causc a
firc.

ASIC F LCTRIC SCK
TIc following faciors dcicrminc iIc scvcriiy of iIc cffcci clcciric sIocl Ias on your
lody. TIc amouni of lody rcsisiancc you Iavc io iIc currcni flow. TIc aiI iIc
currcni ialcs iIrougI your
lody. TIc lcngiI of iimc iIc currcni flows iIrougI your lody.
ody ResIstance
Fcsisiancc varics grcaily in diffcrcni aris of yourlody. A valuc of 1,500 oIms is co
mmonly uscd as iIcrcsisiancc lciwccn major circmiiics of an avcragcIuman lody
. Iand io Iand, or Iand io fooi.For camlc, suosc you accidcnially grallcd awi
rc carrying 120 volis alicrnaiing currcni (V ac}. Wccan usc OIm's law, I /F, io fi
gurc Iow mucI currcniwould flow iIrougI your lody. 120 V ac (iIc voliagc you
grallcd}F 1,500 oIms (your avcragc lody rcsisiancc}TIcrcforc.I 120/1,500 a
mI .080 amI 80 milliamcrcsTIcrcforc, if you grallcd a 120V
ac wirc, 80milliamcrcs of currcni would flow iIrougI yourlody!Tallc 3
1 sIows iIc cffccis of varying amounis ofclcciric sIocl on a normal crson. In our
camlc, yougrallcd 80 milliamcrcs of currcni!TIai is 15milliamcrcs lcyond
wIai could lc faial. Ii is also 70milliamcrcs lcyond iIc can'ilci
go" iIrcsIold for a120
ound crson and 62 milliamcrcs lcyond wIai isnccdcd io causc you io sio lrca
iIing.Fcmcmlcr, iIc 1,500 oIms is jusi an avcragcvaluc. Dody rcsisiancc vari
cs from crson io crsonand may oficn lc lcss iIan 1,500 oIms. WIcn you
rslin is moisi, your lody rcsisiancc could lc as low as300 oIms! Also, lrcals in
your slin ai iIc oini ofconiaci could rcducc your slin rcsisiancc io ncarl
yzcro!Slin rcsisiancc is only imoriani wIcn you arcIandling voliagcs of lcs
s iIan 240 volis. If you gcisIoclcd ly morc iIan 240 volis, iIc voliagc arc willl
urn iIrougI your slin and lcavc dcc, iIird
dcgrcclurns wIcrc ii cnicrs your lody.


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CurrentFIowPatb
TIc iwo mosi dangcrous aiIs iIai currcni can ialciIrougI your lody arc (1} from
Iand io Iand and (2} from lcfi Iand io ciiIcr fooi. TIc sccond aiI is iIc
OST dangcrous sincc iIc currcni will flow iIrougIloiI your Icari and oiIcr viial
organs.

Current FIow DuratIon
Filrillaiion is iIc sIocling of your Icari inio usclcss fluiicr. TIc longcr you arc sIo
clcd; iIc morccIancc iIcrc is for your Icari io lcgin filrillaiing. osicolc wIo
dic from clcciric sIocl dic fromfilrillaiion. Filrillaiion in a normal aduli is
unlilcly ifiIc currcni in milliamcrcs is lcss iIan 116/i, wIcrc i"is iIc sIocl dura
iion in scconds. TIc longcr you arcsIoclcd, iIc lcss currcni is nccdcd io causc Ica
ri filrillaiion.
Fcaciion of iIc Dody io Volis
0.008 am io 0.001
am
ay causc somc
scnsaiion
0.012 am io 0.02 am ay causc muscular
coniraciion
0.1am io 0.2 am Will causc dcaiI

ccupatIon eaItb and SaIety Ior AssembIy and DIsassembIy oI
Computer.
1. TIc arca sIould Iavc rocr vcniilaiion.
2. TIc arca sccially iIc worling siaiion Ias a rocr illusiraiion.
3. Any crson wIo disasscmllc or asscmllc iIc comuicr sIould usc Icr or
Iis wrisi ira ground.
4. TIc arca sIould Iavc a firc cii.
5. TIc arca sIould Iavc a irasI can.
6. To aly crsonal safciy rccauiion worl only in a clcan and dry arca,
rcmovc all ring, wrisi, waicIcs and oiIcr similar iicms.
7. Kcc away magncis io comuicr aris.
8. on'i worl on iIc arcicd room.
9. Unlug iIc omuicr.
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SouLhern Mlndanao CompuLer College CPS uL1 age 3 of



10. Ncvcr usc Forcc.
11. Always slcicI iIc sics you did.
























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SelfCheck
1esL LnumeraLe Lhe 3S

2
3
4
3
1esL ll
__________________siiuaiion Ias iIc oicniial io lc Iazardous, lui no colc,
rocriy, or cnvironmcni is currcnily affccicd ly iIis.
2. _______________colc, rocriy, or cnvironmcni is in oicniial Iarm's way.
3._______________ Iarmful incidcni involving iIc Iazard Ias aciually occurrcd
4. _______________ a lind of clcciriciiy iIai accumulaics in onc oljcci.
5. ________________ a lind of clcciriciiy iIai Ias a volumc and flow.













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Answcr lcy
1. Sori
2. Sysicmaiizcd
3. Sclf iscilinc
4. Saniiizcd
5. Siandardizcd
Tcsi II
1. oormai
2. Armcd
3. Aciivc
4. Siaiic lcciriciiy
5. urrcni lcciriciiy















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peratIon Sbeet 2:1
ow to dIsassembIe and assembIe tbe System UnIt
Ocraiion
Tiilc.
isasscmllc and asscmllc of iIc Sysicm Unii

Purosc. To lc allc io icrminaic and conncci of iIc dcvicc iIosc arc ari of
iIc sysicm unii.
ondiiion
or siiuaiion
for iIc
ocraiion
Follow iIc OH&S in crforming iIc iasl
quimcni,
Tools, and,
maicrials
1. Onc comlcic sci of sysicm unii wiiI all iIc criIcrals.
2. Pacr
3. Pcncil
4. Scrcw drivcr
5. Flai scrcw drivcr
6. Wrisi ira
7. Long nosc licrs
Proccdurc "FASSDLY WOFKSHT"
FOLLOW TH STPS IN FASSDLINC YOUF OPUTF.
DFOF ANY ISASSDLY YOU UST HAV TH DIOS, OS
AN POWF SUPPLY, T. ALL THIS INFOFATION UST D
OUNT. ANUAL WOUL ALSO D HLPFUL IF YOU
AN ODTAIN ON.
DFOF YOU ISASSDL TH OPUTF FAW A AP OF
TH OPUTF IN HOW IT IS STUP.
STPS TO FASSDL TH P
1. INSTALL TH POWF SUPPLY UNIT.
2. INSTALL TH SYST DOAF.
3. ONNT TH SYSTS UNIT FFONT PANL SWITHS
AN TH INIATOFS TO TH SYST DOAFS DFC
ONNTOFS.(ONNT TH L ONNTOF PINS},
FST, TUFDO, POWF}
4. VFIFY ST DOAF JUPF AN SWITH STTINCS.
(YOU AN FIN TH OTHF DOAF ON TH INTFNT
TO LOAT TH PFOPF JUPF STTINCS}
5. INSTALL TH DASI OPTIONS AAPTF AFS IN TH
SYST. ( NOT IF THIS L APPAFS NOT TO WOFK,
FVFS TH ONNTION}
6. FINSTALL TH FLOPPYISK FIV UNIT.
7. AK TH ONNTIONS TO TH HAF ISK FIV
UNIT.
8. AK TH ONNTIONS TO TH FO FIV UNIT.
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9. FONNT TH DASI I/O UNITS TO TH SYSTS.
(ONITOF, OUNIATION ADLS, POWF PLUC,
KYDOAF, T.}

10. HK OUT TH SYST ( TUFN ON, NOT TH
ATIONS, HK TH L LICHT}
11. FPLA TH SYST OVF.
12. FOF TH DIOS, OS STTINCS ( IF YOU AF
ONNT TO A PFINTF LOALLY YOU AN PFSS
SHFT + PFINT SFN AN THS STTINCS WILL D
PFINT FOF YOU

"ISASSDLY WOFKSHT"

TH SYST AN D IVI INTO TWO AJOF
OPONNTS. A} TH SYST UNIT,
D} PFIPHFALS (OPTIONS}
TH SYST UNIT ONTAINS TH ATUAL OPUTINC AN
INTFFAINC HAFWAF. ANY IFFFNT PFPHFAL
VIS AY D A TO TH DASI SYST IN OFF TO
TAILOF ITS OPFATION FOF SPIFI USFS.
VFY IPOFTANT.
DFOF ISASSDLINC ANY OPUTF FOF TH OS
AN DIOS STTINCS. (PFVNTS LOST INFO.}
1. FOV ALL XTFNAL I/O SYSTS.
(INPUT AN OUTPUT SYSTS}
A. UNPLUC, D} FOV ALL PFPHFALS, } ISONNT
TH OUS, } ISONNT TH KYDOAF, }
ISONNT TH ONITOF.
1. FOV TH SYTS OUTF OVF.
2. AP OUT TH AFHITTUF OF TH P.
3. STOF ALL SFWS PFOPFLY IN A PAPF UP.
4. FOV ANY OPTION AFS. ( CFAPHIS AF, SOUN
AF, O}
5. FOF TH FIDDON OF OFINTATION OF TH
FLOPPY FIV. FOV FLOPPY FIV.
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6. FOF TH FIDDON OF OFINTATION OF TH
FIV.
7. FOV TH FO FIV.
8. FOF TH FIDDON OF OFINTATION OF TH
FIV.
9. FOV TH FIV.
10. FOF TH OFINTATION OF TH PLUCS P9, P8, T.
LADLLINC IS A COO IA. THY OUL HAV
IFFFNT VOLTACS. THIS OUL AC TH
SYST IF THY AF IX UP.
11. FOV TH POWF SUPPLY UNIT.
12. FOV TH SYST DOAF AFFULLY; O NOT
TOUH TH DATTFY OF TH JUPF STTINCS. THIS
OUL THFOW OFF TH OS STTINCS.
13. ALL TH OPONNTS SHOUL D LAI OUT ON TH
TADL IN AN OFCANZI FASHION.

Prccauiion. O Olscrvc OH&S in doing iIc iasl.
O Placc iIc comoncni and dcvicc in rocr lacc
O Arrangc iIc criIcrals
riicria O Tasl donc in 30mins.
O All dcviccs, criIcral, and oiIcr comoncnis arc rocrly
scaicd in lacc.
O Proccdurc is olscrvcd.
O Ii sIould lc invcniory in iIcir rigIi dcscriiion












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InIormatIon Sbeet 2:4
SaIety PrecautIon durIng InstaIIatIon

omuicr ainicnancc Safciy, lcaning and S
SaIety FIrst. Ii is common raciicc, as iaugIi in any clccironics coursc, io cnsurc
safciy firsi, so iIai's wIai wc arc doing Icrc. Fuscs and circuii lrcalcrs arc uscd
io sio cccssivc currcni cvcnis in ovcrload siiuaiions. TIcy rcaci io, lui do noi
rcvcni sucI cvcnis. TIcy arc fasi, lui noi insianiancous, and iIcy do noi malc
any dcvicc 100% safc. ntIng tIut ugs nto tIc uu cun I! Wc musi ncvcr
assumc a owcr suly unii (PSU} is safc and worling rocrly, iIai iIc wall ouilci
is wircd corrccily, or iIai iIc luilding Ias a good "ground" ("ariI" in somc
counirics}.

TIcrc is somc confusion as io wIciIcr ii is ncccssary io unlug iIc PSU (owcr
suly unii} from iIc wall wIcn doing mainicnancc insidc a comuicr. WIcn doing
any lind of mainicnancc (rouiinc, rcvcniaiivc, or unscIcdulcd} wIcn oicniially
lciIal voliagcs arc rcscni, safciy diciaics iIai ii is csscniial io unlug wIcn
digging around insidc.
TIcrc arc only iIrcc ccciions.
1. IF iIc PSU Ias a masicr owcr swiicI on iIc lacl of iIc PSU (many do noi}
lui iIai assumcs iIc owcr suly and $.50 swiicI arc noi dcfcciivc, or
damagcd
2. WIcn ncccssary io Iavc owcr alicd for iroullcsIooiing
3. WIcn inscciing fans io cnsurc iIcy arc sinning

TIc rollcm wiiI iIosc ccciions is iIcy all assumc iIc owcr suly is
funciioning rocrly, Ias no manufaciuring dcfccis, and Ias noi lccn Iysically
damagcd ly somc cicrnal forcc (drocd in sIiing, a rimc camlc}. You
sIould noi assumc wiiI somciIing iIai can lill. I Iavc no douli millions of off
lrand; gcncric PSUs in usc ioday wcrc madc undcr Iorrillc worling condiiions in
filiIy unsafc faciorics undcr iIc waicIful cyc of corrui iIird world govcrnmcnis.
Somc ly cIildrcn in slavcry. You cannoi irusi iIc qualiiy of iIc maicrials and
comoncnis uscd in consiruciion, iIc iraining or slills of iIc asscmllcrs, or iIc
inicgriiy of iIcir qualiiy conirol. And rcmcmlcr iIai cvcn namc lrand, qualiiy
PSUs can fail, or lc damagcd.
Ii is ncccssary io unlug lcforc doing mainicnancc cvcn wiiI a crfccily
funciioning owcr suly io rcvcni damaging iIc moiIcrloard or oiIcr
comoncnis. TIc ATX Form Factor Standard, as indicaicd on agc 21, aragraI
4.1.3.2, rcquircs +5V 2 amcrcs "siandly voliagc" (normally dcsignaicd as
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"+5Vsl"} lc alicd across scvcral moiIcrloard oinis wIcncvcr iIc comuicr is in
"Siandly odc". Siandly odc is cnallcd wIcncvcr iIc owcr suly is luggcd
inio an A owcr sourcc (iIc wall or UPS}, and cquicd, iIc rcar masicr owcr
swiicI is iurncd on. If iIc PSU docs noi Iavc a masicr owcr swiicI, and many
PSUs do noi, Siandly odc is cnallcd wIcncvcr iIc owcr cord is simly
connccicd! Siandly odc allows for sucI fcaiurcs as "sofi owcr conirol" cnalling
iIc casc's froni ancl owcr swiicI io owcr u iIc comuicr. Ii also allows oiIcr
fcaiurcs, sucI as Walc on LAN, Walc on odcm, Walc on Kcyloard, and Walc on
ousc.

WIilc ii is iruc iIai iIc cicrior (ouiui} sidc of a rocrly worling PSU docs noi
rcscni a Iazard io Iumans, if iIc sulicd +5Vsl comcs across iIc wrong coniaci
on a criiical comoncni, ii can casily dcsiroy iIc dcvicc.

Ii is imoriani io rcmcmlcr iIai FA modulcs, PUs, cards, cic., Iavc many 100s
of coscd clccirical coniacis/ins in vcry closc roimiiy io cacI oiIcr. TIc
lilcliIood of clcciriciiy juming (arcing} from onc conducior io anoiIcr is
dccndcni on 2 simlc faciors.
1. TIc grcaicr iIc voliagc iIc grcaicr iIc cIancc of arcing
2. TIc smallcr iIc ga iIc grcaicr iIc cIancc of arcing
So cvcn iIougI iIc IigIcsi voliagc wc arc ialling aloui on iIc moiIcrloard is
12V, iIc closc roimiiy of iIc conduciors (coniacis/ins} on vulncrallc dcviccs
grcaily incrcascs iIc cIancc clcciriciiy will jum iIc ga (arc} io an adjaccni
coniaci (and circuii}, and dcsiroy iIc comoncni or a dcvicc in iIc rclaicd circuii.
vcn if iIcrc is no arc, iIc mcrc roimiiy of iIc closcly groucd coniacis and ins
ANS crfcci (siraigIi in/siraigIi oui} sicadyIand alignmcni ly iIc uscr
wIcn inscriing or rcmoving sucI dcviccs so iIai adjaccni ins/coniacis do noi
Iysically ioucI iIc wrong inscriion oini. If no voliagc is rcscni, damagc from
accidcnial coniaci is avoidcd.

TIcrcforc owcr UST lc comlcicly rcmovcd lcforc doing mainicnancc io any
comuicr io cnsurc a simlc disiraciion or lcss iIan roclsicady Iand docs noi
causc iIai +5VSD io coniaci iIc wrong oini.

I lnow wIai safciy and clccironic iccInical/scrvicc manuals say, lui in
rcscarcIing for iIis osi, I wanicd io scc wIai iIc moiIcrloard and vidco card
malcrs say. I could find no documcniaiion from any malcr io suori lcaving iIc
owcr cord aiiacIcd wIcn doing mainicnancc. I did find, ovcr and ovcr again,
moiIcrloard and vidco card malcrs wIo fccl unlugging iIc PSU is ncccssary. I
noic a fcw camlcs.


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IectrIcaI SaIety RequIrements
1. Flammallc maicrials sIall noi lc siorcd or laccd in roimiiy io clccirical
cquimcni.
2. All clccirical disiriluiion swiicIcs and conirols sIall lc marlcd io indicaic
iIc macIincry or cquimcni iIai iIcy scrvc.
3. cial laddcrs, or wircrcinforccd woodcn laddcrs, sIall noi lc uscd in
roimiiy io cncrgizcd clccirical cquimcni.
4. All clccirical iools and cquimcni musi lc groundcd or doullc insulaicd.
5. icnsion cords sIould only lc uscd icmorary scrvicc and sIould lc
mainiaincd in good condiiion ai all iimc. TIcy sIould lc rouiincly insccicd
for fray, iorn or slii cords and damagcd. Plugs or conncciors. All damagcd
cords musi lc rcaircd or rclacc immcdiaicly.
6. Ncvcr rclacc a llow fusc wiiI a largc caaciiy fusc.
7. ovcr laics sIould lc in lacc on all swiicIcs and ouilcis.
8. Jaclcicd clccirical cords sIould lc uscd wiiI oriallc clccirical iools and
wiiI cicnsion lams in loilcrs, ianls or oiIcr groundcd cnclosurcs.
9. Nonconduciivc maicrials sIould lc uscd io form iIc on oriallc Iand
lams and iIcrc sIould lc no mciallic conncciors lciwccn iIc lams
guards and iIc soclci sIcll.
10. Always malc ccriain iIai lug connccior configuraiion maicI iIcy arc
inicniionally dcsigncd iIai way io rcvcni Iazardous, or cvcn faial,
clccirical conncciors.
11. Avoid using clccirical iools and cquimcni in or around dam or wci arcas.
12. Firc ciinguisIcr of iyc D" (carlon dioidc} or AD" (muliilc dry
cIcmical} sIould lc rcadily availallc in iIc cvcni of an clccirical firc. A iyc
A" (rcssurizcd waicr} sIall noi lc uscd on clccirical fircs. Halon iyc
ciinguisIcr arc accciallc, lui arc no longcr manufaciurcd.
13. cfcciivc clccirical cquimcni musi lc rcori io your Sucrvisor
immcdiaicly

STPS T UNDRTAKN T AVID LCTRIC SCK
1. Ncvcr worl on livc" cquimcni, lui wIcn ii is ncccssary ncvcr worl alonc
and ialc ncccssary rccauiion, Including.
O alc surc iIc cquimcni is cariIcd;
O Wcar adcquaic fooiwcar, lilc safciy sIocs wiiI rullcr solcs
O Worl on rullcr or insulaiing mais io morc cffcciivcly isolaic iIc lody
from wIicI sIould c assumc io lc cariIcd
2. Worl wiiI onc Iand in a oclci so as noi io form a circuii across iIc cIcsi
if livc oinis arc coniacicd
3. Fcmovc all mciallic jcwclrics and waicIcs iIai may comc inio coniaci wiiI
cquimcni.
4. Dc awarc of worn or fraycd lcads. lrolcn lugs. cccssivc sarls. and IigI
voliagcs.

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SelfCheck

LnumeraLlon

LlecLrlcal 8equlremenLs
2 S1LS 1C 8L unuL81AkLn 1C AvClu LLLC18lC SPCCk



































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SouLhern Mlndanao CompuLer College CPS uL1 age 4 of



Answer key

1.
llammable maLerlals shall noL be sLored or placed ln proxlmlLy Lo elecLrlcal
equlpmenL
2 All elecLrlcal dlsLrlbuLlon swlLches and conLrols shall be marked Lo lndlcaLe Lhe machlnery or
equlpmenL LhaL Lhey serve
3 MeLal ladders or wlrerelnforced wooden ladders shall noL be used ln proxlmlLy Lo
energlzed elecLrlcal equlpmenL
4 All elecLrlcal Lools and equlpmenL musL be grounded or double lnsulaLed
3 LxLenslon cords should only be used Lemporary servlce and should be malnLalned ln good
condlLlon aL all Llme 1hey should be rouLlnely lnspecLed for fray Lorn or spllL cords and
damaged lugs or connecLors All damaged cords musL be repalred or replace lmmedlaLely
6 never replace a blow fuse wlLh a large capaclLy fuse
7 Cover plaLes should be ln place on all swlLches and ouLleLs
8 !ackeLed elecLrlcal cords should be used wlLh porLable elecLrlcal Lools and wlLh exLenslon
lamps ln bollers Lanks or oLher grounded enclosures
9 nonconducLlve maLerlals should be used Lo form Lhe on porLable hand lamps and Lhere
should be no meLalllc connecLors beLween Lhe lamps guards and Lhe sockeL shell
Always make cerLaln LhaL plug connecLor conflguraLlon maLch Lhey are lnLenLlonally
deslgned LhaL way Lo prevenL hazardous or even faLal elecLrlcal connecLors
Avold uslng elecLrlcal Lools and equlpmenL ln or around damp or weL areas
2 llre exLlngulsher of Lype 8C" (carbon dloxlde) or A8C" (mulLlple dry chemlcal) should be
readlly avallable ln Lhe evenL of an elecLrlcal flre A Lype A" (pressurlzed waLer) shall noL be
used on elecLrlcal flres Palon Lype exLlngulsher are accepLable buL are no longer
manufacLured
3 uefecLlve elecLrlcal equlpmenL musL be reporL Lo your Supervlsor lmmedlaLely

2
never work on llve" equlpmenL buL when lL ls necessary never work alone and Lake
necessary precauLlon lncludlng
O Make sure Lhe equlpmenL ls earLhed
O Jear adequaLe fooLwear llke safeLy shoes wlLh rubber soles
O Jork on rubber or lnsulaLlng maLs Lo more effecLlvely lsolaLe Lhe body from whlch
should e assume Lo be earLhed
2 Jork wlLh one hand ln a pockeL so as noL Lo form a clrculL across Lhe chesL lf llve polnLs are
conLacLed
3 8emove all meLalllc [ewelrles and waLches LhaL may come lnLo conLacL wlLh equlpmenL
4 8e aware of worn or frayed leads broken plugs excesslve sparks and hlgh volLages



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InIormatIon Sbeet 2:S
peratIng System RequIrements

To lc uscd cfficicnily, all comuicr sofiwarc nccds ccriain Iardwarc comoncnis or
oiIcr sofiwarc rcsourccs io lc rcscni on a comuicr. TIcsc rcrcquisiics arc
lnown as (comuicr} system requIrements and arc oficn uscd as a guidclinc as
ooscd io an alsoluic rulc. osi sofiwarc dcfincs iwo scis of sysicm
rcquircmcnis. minimum and rccommcndcd. WiiI incrcasing dcmand for IigIcr
roccssing owcr and rcsourccs in ncwcr vcrsions of sofiwarc, sysicm
rcquircmcnis icnd io incrcasc ovcr iimc. Indusiry analysis suggcsi iIai iIis ircnd
lays a liggcr ari in driving ugradcs io cisiing comuicr sysicms iIan
iccInological advanccmcnis.

Recommended system requIrements
Fccommcndcd sysicm rcquircmcnis arc oficn suggcsicd ly sofiwarc vcndors for
oiimal crformancc of sofiwarc. AliIougI noi a ncccssiiy, iIis sci of rcquircmcnis
is oficn sougIi aficr ly owcr uscrs wIo ccci io gain a lciicr ccricncc of
sofiwarc usaliliiy. Fccommcndcd Sysicm Fcquircmcnis do noi romisc lcsi
ossillc crformancc of sofiwarc and arc ircaicd as morc of a guidclinc iIan a rulc.
Almosi always a lciicr sysicm is availallc, or will lc in fuiurc, io rovidc lciicr
crformancc. Also, ccccding ly far iIcsc rcquircmcnis docs noi guaranicc io iIc
uscr iIai cvcryiIing will run wiiI alsoluic smooiIncss and lool iis lcsi. orc
oficn iIan noi, gamcs arc a lii disaoiniing in iIis rcscci, rcscniing issucs iIai
may or may noi lc corrccicd wiiI fuiurc modificaiions.

ardware requIrements
TIc mosi common sci of rcquircmcnis dcfincd ly any ocraiing sysicm or sofiwarc
alicaiion is iIc Iysical comuicr rcsourccs, also lnown as Iardwarc, A
Iardwarc rcquircmcnis lisi is oficn accomanicd ly a Iardwarc comaiililiiy
lisi (HL}, csccially in casc of ocraiing sysicms. An HL lisis icsicd, comaiillc,
and somciimcs incomaiillc Iardwarc dcviccs for a ariicular ocraiing sysicm or
alicaiion. TIc following sulscciions discuss iIc various asccis of Iardwarc
rcquircmcnis.

ArcIiicciurc
All comuicr ocraiing sysicms arc dcsigncd for a ariicular comuicr
arcIiicciurc. osi sofiwarc alicaiions arc limiicd io ariicular ocraiing sysicms
running on ariicular arcIiicciurcs. AliIougI arcIiicciurcindccndcni ocraiing
sysicms and alicaiions cisi, mosi nccd io lc rccomilcd io run on a ncw
arcIiicciurc. Scc also a lisi of common ocraiing sysicms and iIcir suoriing
arcIiicciurcs.
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ProcessIng power
TIc owcr of iIc ccniral roccssing unii (PU} is a fundamcnial sysicm
rcquircmcni for any sofiwarc. osi sofiwarc running on 86 arcIiicciurc dcfinc
roccssing owcr as iIc modcl and iIc clocl sccd of iIc PU. any oiIcr
fcaiurcs of a PU iIai influcncc iis sccd and owcr, lilc lus sccd, cacIc,
and IPS arc oficn ignorcd. TIis dcfiniiion of owcr is oficn crroncous,
as A AiIlon and Inicl Pcniium PUs ai similar clocl sccd oficn Iavc diffcrcni
iIrougIui sccds. Inicl Pcniium PUs Iavc cnjoycd a considcrallc dcgrcc of
oulariiy, and arc oficn mcniioncd in iIis caicgory

emory
All sofiwarc, wIcn run, rcsidcs in iIc random acccss mcmory (FA} of a comuicr.
cmory rcquircmcnis arc dcfincd aficr considcring dcmands of iIc alicaiion,
ocraiing sysicm, suoriing sofiwarc and filcs, and oiIcr running roccsscs.
Oiimal crformancc of oiIcr unrclaicd sofiwarc running on a muliiiasling
comuicr sysicm is also considcrcd wIcn dcfining iIis rcquircmcni.

Secondary storage
Harddisl rcquircmcnis vary, dccnding on iIc sizc of sofiwarc insiallaiion,
icmorary filcs crcaicd and mainiaincd wIilc insialling or running iIc sofiwarc,
and ossillc usc of swa sacc (if FA is insufficicni}.

DIspIay adapter
Sofiwarc rcquiring a lciicr iIan avcragc comuicr graIics dislay, lilc graIics
cdiiors and IigIcnd gamcs, oficn dcfinc IigIcnd dislay adaicrs in iIc sysicm
rcquircmcnis.
PerIpberaIs
Somc sofiwarc alicaiions nccd io malc cicnsivc and/or sccial usc of
somc criIcrals, dcmanding iIc IigIcr crformancc or funciionaliiy of sucI
criIcrals. SucI criIcrals includc FO drivcs, lcyloards, oiniing
dcviccs, nciworl dcviccs, cic.
SoItware requIrements
Sofiwarc Fcquircmcnis dcal wiiI dcfining sofiwarc rcsourcc rcquircmcnis and rc
rcquisiics iIai nccd io lc insiallcd on a comuicr io rovidc oiimal funciioning of
an alicaiion. TIcsc rcquircmcnis or rcrcquisiics arc gcncrally noi includcd in
iIc sofiwarc insiallaiion aclagc and nccd io lc insiallcd scaraicly lcforc iIc
sofiwarc is insiallcd.
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PIatIorm
In comuiing, a laiform dcscrilcs somc sori of framcworl, ciiIcr
in Iardwarc or sofiwarc, wIicI allows sofiwarc io run. Tyical laiforms includc a
comuicr's arcIiicciurc, ocraiing sysicm, or rogramming languagcs and
iIcir runiimc lilrarics.
Ocraiing sysicm is onc of iIc firsi rcquircmcnis mcniioncd wIcn dcfining sysicm
rcquircmcnis (sofiwarc}. Sofiwarc may noi lc comaiillc wiiI diffcrcni vcrsions of
samc linc of ocraiing sysicms, aliIougI somc mcasurc of laclward comaiililiiy
is oficn mainiaincd. For camlc, mosi sofiwarc dcsigncd for icrosofi Windows
XP docs noi run on icrosofi Windows 98, aliIougI iIc convcrsc is noi always
iruc. Similarly, sofiwarc dcsigncd using ncwcr fcaiurcs of Linu Kcrncl v2.6
gcncrally docs noi run or comilc rocrly (or ai all} on Linu disiriluiions using
Kcrncl v2.2 or v2.4.
APIs and rivcrs
Sofiwarc maling cicnsivc usc of sccial Iardwarc dcviccs, lilc IigIcnd dislay
adaicrs, nccds sccial API or ncwcr dcvicc drivcrs. A good camlc is ircciX,
wIicI is a collcciion of APIs for Iandling iasls rclaicd io muliimcdia, csccially
gamc rogramming, on icrosofi laiforms.
Wcl lrowscr
osi wcl alicaiions and sofiwarc dccnding Icavily on Inicrnci
iccInologics malc usc of iIc dcfauli lrowscr insiallcd on sysicm. icrosofi
Inicrnci lorcr is a frcqucni cIoicc of sofiwarc running on icrosofi Windows,
wIicI malcs usc of AciivcX conirols, dcsiic iIcir vulncraliliiics.

RequIrements anaIysIs
Fcquircmcnis analysis in sysicms cnginccring and sofiwarc cnginccring,
cncomasscs iIosc iasls iIai go inio dcicrmining iIc nccds or condiiions io mcci
for a ncw or alicrcd roduci, ialing accouni of iIc ossilly
confliciing rcquircmcnis of iIc various sialcIoldcrs, sucI as lcncficiarics or uscrs.
Fcquircmcnis analysis is criiical io iIc succcss of a dcvclomcni
rojcci.
|2|
Fcquircmcnis musi lc documcnicd, aciionallc, mcasurallc, icsiallc,
rclaicd io idcniificd lusincss nccds or ooriuniiics, and dcfincd io a lcvcl of dciail
sufficicni for sysicm dcsign. Fcquircmcnis can lc funciional, non
funciional, siruciural, and arcIiicciural.
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vervIew
oncciually, rcquircmcnis analysis includcs iIrcc iycs of aciiviiy.
liciiing rcquircmcnis. iIc iasl of communicaiing wiiI cusiomcrs and uscrs io
dcicrminc wIai iIcir rcquircmcnis arc. TIis is somciimcs also callcd
rcquircmcnis gaiIcring.
Analyzing rcquircmcnis. dcicrmining wIciIcr iIc siaicd rcquircmcnis arc
unclcar, incomlcic, amliguous, or coniradiciory, and iIcn rcsolving iIcsc
issucs.
Fccording rcquircmcnis. Fcquircmcnis migIi lc documcnicd in various forms,
sucI as naiurallanguagc documcnis, usc cascs, uscr siorics, or roccss
sccificaiions.
Fcquircmcnis analysis can lc a long and arduous roccss during wIicI many
dclicaic sycIological slills arc involvcd. Ncw sysicms cIangc iIc cnvironmcni and
rclaiionsIis lciwccn colc, so ii is imoriani io idcniify all iIc sialcIoldcrs,
ialc inio accouni all iIcir nccds and cnsurc iIcy undcrsiand iIc imlicaiions of
iIc ncw sysicms. Analysis can cmloy scvcral iccIniqucs io clicii iIc rcquircmcnis
from iIc cusiomcr. Hisiorically, iIis Ias includcd sucI iIings as
Iolding inicrvicws, or Iolding focus grous (morc aily namcd in iIis conici as
rcquircmcnis worlsIos} and crcaiing rcquircmcnis lisis. orc modcrn iccIniqucs
includc roioiying, and usc cascs. WIcrc ncccssary, iIc analysi will cmloy a
comlinaiion of iIcsc mciIods io csiallisI iIc caci rcquircmcnis of iIc
sialcIoldcrs, so iIai a sysicm iIai mccis iIc lusincss nccds is roduccd.

RequIrements engIneerIng
Sysicmaiic rcquircmcnis analysis is also lnown as cqucncnts cngnccng.
|3|
Ii is
somciimcs rcfcrrcd io looscly ly namcs sucI as cqucncnts
gutIcng, cqucncnts cutuc, or rcquircmcnis sccificaiion. TIc
icrm cqucncnts unuss can also lc alicd sccifically io iIc analysis rocr,
as ooscd io cliciiaiion or documcniaiion of iIc rcquircmcnis, for insiancc.
Fcquircmcnis cnginccring can lc dividcd inio discrcic cIronological sics.
Fcquircmcnis cliciiaiion,
Fcquircmcnis analysis and ncgoiiaiion,
Fcquircmcnis sccificaiion,
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Sysicm modcling,
Fcquircmcnis validaiion,
Fcquircmcnis managcmcni.
Fcquircmcni cnginccring according io Lalanic (2007} is "a sul discilinc
of sysicms cnginccring and sofiwarc cnginccring iIai is conccrncd wiiI
dcicrmining iIc goals, funciions, and consirainis of Iardwarc and sofiwarc
sysicms."
|4|
In somc lifc cyclc modcls, iIc rcquircmcni cnginccring roccss lcgins
wiiI a fcasililiiy siudy aciiviiy, wIicI lcads io a fcasililiiy rcori. If iIc fcasililiiy
siudy suggcsis iIai iIc roduci sIould lc dcvclocd, iIcn rcquircmcni analysis
can lcgin. If rcquircmcni analysis rcccdcs fcasililiiy siudics, wIicI may
fosicr ouisidc iIc lo iIinling, iIcn fcasililiiy sIould lc dcicrmincd lcforc
rcquircmcnis arc finalizcd.
PRATING SYST ARDWR R"UIRTS
WIndows 9S
TIc following lisi dcscrilcs iIc minimum Iardwarc rcquircmcnis for Windows 98.
O A crsonal comuicr wiiI a 486X 66 mcgaIcriz
(Hz} or fasicr roccssor (Pcniium ccniral
roccssing unii rccommcndcd}.
O 16 mcgalyics (D} of mcmory (24 D
rccommcndcd}.
O A iyical ugradc from Windows 95 rcquircs
aroimaicly 195 D of frcc Iard disl sacc,
lui iIc Iard disl sacc may rangc from lciwccn
120 D and 295 D, dccnding on your
comuicr configuraiion and iIc oiions iIai you
cIoosc io insiall.
O A full insiall of Windows 98 on a FAT16 drivc
rcquircs 225 D of frcc Iard disl sacc, lui may
rangc from lciwccn 165 D and 355 D,
dccnding on your comuicr configuraiion and
iIai oiions iIai you cIoosc io insiall.
O A full insiall of Windows 98 on a FAT32 drivc
rcquircs 175 D of frcc Iard disl sacc, lui may
rangc from lciwccn 140 D and 255 D,
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dccnding on your comuicr configuraiion and
iIc oiions iIai you cIoosc io insiall.
O Onc 3.5incI IigIdcnsiiy floy disl drivc.
O VCA or IigIcr rcsoluiion (16lii or 24lii color
SVCA rccommcndcd}.
SN, TIc icrosofi Nciworl, Windows cssaging, or Inicrnci acccss rcquircs 14.4
liis cr sccond (ls} modcm (28.8 or fasicr rccommcndcd}.





Oiional comoncnis.
O Nciworl adaicr
O VFO drivc and dccodcr adaicr
O Audio card and scalcrs for sound
O Scanncr or digiial camcra
O Sccond moniior and sccond vidco adaicr
O I 1394 lus (Fircwirc}
O Univcrsal Scrial Dus (USD} lus and HI
Iardwarc
O ATI AllinWondcr graIics card
WINOWS 2000 PFOFSSIONAL
O 133 Hz or IigIcr Pcniiumcomaiillc PU.
O 64 mcgalyics (D} of FA rccommcndcd minimum; morc mcmory gcncrally
imrovcs rcsonsivcncss |4 gigalyics (CD} FA maimum.|
O 2 CD Iard disl wiiI a minimum of 650 D of frcc sacc. (Addiiional frcc
Iard disl sacc is rcquircd if you arc insialling ovcr a nciworl.}
O Windows 2000 Profcssional suoris singlc and dual PU sysicms.
WINOWS 2000 SFVF
O 133 Hz or IigIcr Pcniiumcomaiillc PU.
O 256 D of FA rccommcndcd minimum. (128 D minimum suoricd; 4
CD maimum.}
O 2 CD Iard disl wiiI a minimum of 1 CD of frcc sacc. (Addiiional frcc Iard
disl sacc is rcquircd if you arc insialling ovcr a nciworl.}
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O Windows 2000 Scrvcr suoris u io four PUs on onc macIinc.
WINOWS 2000 AVAN SFVF
O 133 Hz or IigIcr Pcniiumcomaiillc PU.
O 256 D of FA rccommcndcd minimum (128 D minimum suoricd; 8
CD maimum.}
O 2 CD Iard disl wiiI a minimum of 1 CD of frcc sacc. (Addiiional frcc Iard
disl sacc is rcquircd if you arc insialling ovcr a nciworl.}
O Windows 2000 Advanccd Scrvcr suoris u io cigIi PUs on onc macIinc.
WINOWS XP
TIcsc arc iIc minimum rcquircmcnis for lasic funciionaliiy. Aciual rcquircmcnis
vary, dccnding on iIc sysicm configuraiion and iIc rograms and fcaiurcs iIai
you cIoosc io insiall. If you arc insialling Windows XP ovcr a nciworl, you may
nccd addiiional availallc Iarddisl sacc.

TIc minimum Iardwarc rcquircmcnis for Windows XP Homc diiion arc.
O Pcniium 233mcgaIcriz (Hz} roccssor or fasicr (300 Hz is
rccommcndcd}
O Ai lcasi 64 mcgalyics (D} of FA (128 D is rccommcndcd}
O Ai lcasi 1.5 gigalyics (CD} of availallc sacc on iIc Iard disl
O FO or VFO drivc
O Kcyloard and a icrosofi ousc or somc oiIcr comaiillc oiniing dcvicc
O Vidco adaicr and moniior wiiI Sucr VCA (800 600}or IigIcr rcsoluiion
O Sound card
O Scalcrs or IcadIoncs
TIc minimum Iardwarc rcquircmcnis for Windows XP Profcssional includc.
O Pcniium 233mcgaIcriz (Hz} roccssor or fasicr (300 Hz is
rccommcndcd}
O Ai lcasi 64 mcgalyics (D} of FA (128 D is rccommcndcd}
O Ai lcasi 1.5 gigalyics (CD} of availallc sacc on iIc Iard disl
O FO or VFO drivc
O Kcyloard and a icrosofi ousc or somc oiIcr comaiillc oiniing dcvicc
O Vidco adaicr and moniior wiiI Sucr VCA (800 600} or IigIcr rcsoluiion
O Sound card
O Scalcrs or IcadIoncs
WINOWS VISTA SYST FQUIFNTS

If you wani io run Windows Visia on your P, Icrc's wIai ii ialcs.
O 1 gigaIcriz (CHz} 32lii (86} or 64lii (64} roccssor
O 1 gigalyic (CD} of sysicm mcmory (512 mcgalyics (D} for Homc Dasic}
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O 40 CD Iard drivc wiiI ai lcasi 15 CD of availallc sacc (20 CD for Homc
Dasic}
O Suori for ircciX 9 graIics wiiI W and 128 D of graIics mcmory
(32 D for Homc Dasic}
O VFO drivc
O Audio Ouiui
O Inicrnci acccss (fccs may aly}
Addiiional rcquircmcnis.
Aciual rcquircmcnis and roduci funciionaliiy may vary lascd on your sysicm
configuraiion.
WIilc all cdiiions of Windows Visia can suori muliilc corc PUs,
only Windows Visia Dusincss, Uliimaic, and nicrrisc can suori dual
roccssors.
inimum rcquircmcnis.
O 800 mcgaIcriz (Hz} roccssor and 512 D of sysicm mcmory
O 20 CD Iard drivc wiiI ai lcasi 15 CD of availallc sacc
O Suori for Sucr VCA graIics
O FO drivc
Produci funciionaliiy and graIics may vary lascd on your sysicm configuraiion.
Somc fcaiurcs may rcquirc advanccd or addiiional Iardwarc.

WINOWS 7 SYST FQUIFNTS

II you want to run WIndows ? on your PC, bere's wbat It takes:
O 1 gigaIcriz (CHz} or fasicr 32lii (86} or 64lii (64} roccssor
O 1 gigalyic (CD} FA (32lii} or 2 CD FA (64lii}
O 16 CD availallc Iard disl sacc (32lii} or 20 CD (64lii}
O ircciX 9 graIics dcvicc wiiI W 1.0 or IigIcr drivcr
AddItIonaI requIrements to use certaIn Ieatures:
O Inicrnci acccss (fccs may aly}
O ccnding on rcsoluiion, vidco laylacl may rcquirc addiiional mcmory and
advanccd graIics Iardwarc
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O Somc gamcs and rograms migIi rcquirc a graIics card comaiillc
wiiIircciX 10 or IigIcr for oiimal crformancc
O For somc Windows cdia cnicr funciionaliiy a TV iuncr and addiiional
Iardwarc may lc rcquircd
O Windows ToucI and Tallci Ps rcquirc sccific Iardwarc
O HomcCrou rcquircs a nciworl and Ps running Windows 7
O V/ auiIoring rcquircs a comaiillc oiical drivc
O DiiLoclcr rcquircs Trusicd Plaiform odulc (TP} 1.2
O DiiLoclcr To Co rcquircs a USD flasI drivc
O Windows XP odc rcquircs an addiiional 1 CD of FA and an addiiional 15
CD of availallc Iard disl sacc.
O usic and sound rcquirc audio ouiui
Produci funciionaliiy and graIics may vary lascd on your sysicm configuraiion.
Somc fcaiurcs may rcquirc advanccd or addiiional Iardwarc.
PCs wItb muItI-core processors.
Windows 7 was dcsigncd io worl wiiI ioday's muliicorc roccssors. All 32lii
vcrsions of Windows 7 can suori u io 32 roccssor corcs, wIilc 64lii vcrsions
can suori u io 256 roccssor corcs.
PCs wItb muItIpIe processors (CPUs.
ommcrcial scrvcrs, worlsiaiions, and oiIcr IigIcnd Ps may Iavc morc iIan
onc Iysical roccssor. Windows 7 Profcssional, nicrrisc, and Uliimaic allow for
iwo Iysical roccssors, roviding iIc lcsi crformancc on iIcsc
comuicrs. Windows 7Siaricr, Homc Dasic, and Homc Prcmium will rccognizc only
onc Iysical roccssor.

WINOWS SFVF 2008 F2 SYST FQUIFNTS

O Proccssor inimum. Singlc roccssor wiiI 1.4 CHz (64 roccssor} or
1.3CHz (ual orc}
Noic. An Inicl Iianium 2 roccssor is rcquircd for Windows Scrvcr 2008 F2
for IianiumDascd Sysicms
O cmory
inimum. 512 D FA
aimum. 8 CD (Foundaiion} or 32 CD (Siandard} or 2 TD (nicrrisc,
aiaccnicr, and IianiumDascd Sysicms}
O isl Sacc Fcquircmcnis
inimum. 32 CD or grcaicr
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Noic. omuicrs wiiI morc iIan 16 CD of FA will rcquirc morc disl sacc
for aging, Iilcrnaiion, and dum filcs
O islay
Sucr VCA (800 600} or IigIcr rcsoluiion moniior
O OiIcr
V rivc, Kcyloard and icrosofi ousc (or comaiillc oiniing dcvicc},
Inicrnci acccss (fccs may aly}











































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SLLl CPLCk

llll ln Lhe blanks

SysLemaLlc requlremenLs analysls
_____________ 2.deal wlLh deflnlng sofLware resource requlremenLs and prerequlslLes LhaL
need Lo be lnsLalled on a compuLer Lo provlde opLlmal funcLlonlng of an
appllcaLlon
_______________3.SofLware requlrlng a beLLer Lhan average compuLer graphlcs dlsplay
_______________ 4 CfLen suggesLed by sofLware vendors for opLlmal performance of sofLware
_______________ S fundamenLal sysLem requlremenL for any sofLware


















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Answer key
8equlremenLs englneerlng
2 SofLware requlremenLs
3 ulsplay adapLer
4 SysLem 8equlremenLs
3 rocesslng power




















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InIormatIon Sbeet 2:4
TIps and TrIcks In InstaIIatIon oI peratIng System
peratIng system ACs
An ocraiing sysicm, or OS, is a sofiwarc rogram iIai cnallcs iIc comuicr
Iardwarc io communicaic and ocraic wiiI iIc comuicr sofiwarc. WiiIoui a
comuicr ocraiing sysicm, a comuicr would lc usclcss.
peratIng system types
As comuicrs Iavc rogrcsscd and dcvclocd so Iavc iIc iycs of ocraiing
sysicms. Dclow is a lasic lisi of iIc diffcrcni iycs of ocraiing sysicms and a fcw
camlcs of ocraiing sysicms iIai fall inio cacI of iIc caicgorics. any comuicr
ocraiing sysicms will fall inio morc iIan onc of iIc lclow caicgorics.
GUI - SIori for CraIical Uscr Inicrfacc, a CUI Ocraiing Sysicm coniains
graIics and icons and is commonly navigaicd ly using a comuicr mousc. Scc
our CUI diciionary dcfiniiion for a comlcic dcfiniiion. Dclow arc somc camlcs of
CUI Ocraiing Sysicms.
Sysicm 7.
Windows 98
Windows
uItI-user - A muliiuscr ocraiing sysicm allows for muliilc uscrs io usc iIc
samc comuicr ai iIc samc iimc and/or diffcrcni iimcs. Scc our muliiuscr
diciionary dcfiniiion for a comlcic dcfiniiion for a comlcic dcfiniiion. Dclow arc
somc camlcs of muliiuscr ocraiing sysicms.
Linu
Uni
Windows 2000
uItIprocessIng - An ocraiing sysicm caallc of suoriing and uiilizing morc
iIan onc comuicr roccssor. Dclow arc somc camlcs of muliiroccssing
ocraiing sysicms.
Linu
Uni
Windows 2000
uItItaskIng - An ocraiing sysicm iIai is caallc of allowing muliilc sofiwarc
roccsscs io run ai iIc samc iimc. Dclow arc somc camlcs of muliiiasling
ocraiing sysicms.
Uni
Windows 2000
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uItItbreadIng - Ocraiing sysicms iIai allow diffcrcni aris of a sofiwarc
rogram io run concurrcnily. Ocraiing sysicms iIai would fall inio iIis caicgory
arc.
Linu
Uni
Windows 2000
Computer Software

rogram or sci of insiruciions iIai iclls iIc comuicr wIai io do
4 Sysicm sofiwarc
rograms iIai conirol iIc lasic ocraiions of a comuicr
sysicm
4 Alicaiion sofiwarc
rograms iIai arc uscd io accomlisI sccific iasls for
comuicr uscrs

peratIng System (S

sofiwarc iIai coniains insiruciions iIai coordinaic all iIc aciiviiics among
comuicr rcsourccs
scrvcs as iIc middlcman lciwccn alicaiions and Iardwarc

S Components

vcry ocraiing sysicm Ias iwo main inicrnal comoncnis.
4 SIcll
rclaics io iIc uscr and io alicaiions
4 Kcrncl
corc of an ocraiing sysicm


Uscr malcs a rcqucsi io iIc ocraiing sysicm iIrougI iIc sIcll




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sIcll cIccls uscr's rcqucsi for
validiiy and corrccincss and
iIcn asscs ii io iIc lcrncl


Ocraiing
Sysicm
lcrncl crforms
rcqucsicd scrvicc



DIsk peratIng System (DS

Ii is iIc firsi OS uscd for ID and IDcomaiillc comuicrs.
Ii uscs a commandlinc inicrfacc wIcrc iIc uscr Ias io cnicr sccific
commands.

UnIx

Ii is a oular OS uscd io managc nciworls, suori muliilc uscrs, io Iandlc
a IigI volumc of insiruciion and io suori alicaiions uscd on iIc Inicrnci.
Ii is an ocn sourcc OS.

LInux
Ii is a scalcd down vcrsion of Uni.
Ii is mainly uscd for scrvcr alicaiions.
In iis lasic form, Linu is frcc and an ocn sourcc so iIai uscrs and dcvclocrs
can modify iIc codc.
Dclow is iIc Linu logo.



Computer User
She||
kerne|
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ac S

Ii is availallc only for Alc aciniosI comuicrs.
aciniosI comuicrs oficn rcfcrrcd io as acs arc uscd ly colc worling wiiI
graIics alicaiions.


















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WIndows

TIc Windows ocraiing sysicm is iIc ocraiing sysicm mosi widcly uscd on
ioday's crsonal comuicrs.
acI Windows vcrsion dcvclocd was dcsigncd io rovidc addiiional fcaiurcs for
sccific uscrs including Iomc or lusincss uscrs.





Windows Versions Windows Description
Windows 3x Early Windows version including Windows 3.1 and 3.11. It
uses the DOS system.
Windows 9x It includes the Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows ME
(Millennium Edition). Windows 9x rely on a DOS core.
Windows NT It comes in two versions: Windows NT Workstation and
Windows NT Server. It is used for businesses and technical
users.
Windows 2000 An upgrade of Windows NT. It has several versions such as
Windows 2000 Professional, Windows 2000 Server, Windows
2000 Advanced Server and Windows 2000 Datacenter
Server.
Windows XP It combines the strength of Windows 2000 with the user-
friendly features of Windows 98 and Windows ME.
Windows Server It is a network operating system with additional features for
managing and maintaining a 2003 network.
Windows Vista It is the most recent version of Windows as of 2007. It has
updated graphical user interface, advanced multimedia and
improved security.
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Importance oI operatIng system
1. Ii modcraics iIc rclaiionsIi lciwccn iIc comuicr and iis criIcrals
2. Ii Icls in iIc managcmcni of filcs, coying, dclciing, moving of filcs from onc
sioragc locaiion io iIc oiIcr.
3. Ii cncouragcs iIc mcmory for iis cfficicni usagc and iIus adding iIc sccd of iIc
comuicr.
4. Ii managcs iIc aciiviiics of iIc roccssor in icrms of jol cccuiion according io
iIc rioriiy of arrival ,of jols
5. Ii informs iIc uscr of nay Iardwarc or sofiwarc crror
6. Ii malcs communicaiion lciwccn iIc comuicr and iIc uscr or iIc ocraior
ossillc.
Common and advanced troubIesbootIng tIps, trIcks, and metbodoIogIes.
To cffcciivcly iroullcsIooiing any comuicr, nciworl, Iardwarc, or sofiwarc issuc
you nccd io usc a mciIodical, scicniific aroacI iIai rulcs oui common issucs as
you rogrcss. Ii is oficn vcry icmiing io sli sics or jum around, lui ialing
sIoricuis will jusi lcngiIcn iIc iroullcsIooiing roccss. You sIould ialc vcry
lasic sics io avoid crrors or causing morc damagc.
TIcsc iccIniqucs can lc uscd for anyiIing from siandard comuicr and Iardwarc
issucs io lroadcr nciworl and advanccd rollcms.
01} Daclu Firsi and forcmosi you sIould lacl u your sysicm. If ii is looiallc
lui unsiallc, lacl u your daia as soon as ossillc lccausc somc iccInical issucs
can causc daia corruiion and you do noi wani io risl losing your daia wIilc
iroullcsIooiing iIc rollcm.
02} Accuraic dcscriiion Cci a comlcic and accuraic dcscriiion of iIc rollcm.
Idcniify iIc rollcm so iIai you lnow Iow io rocccd. Onc of iIc liggcsi misialcs
madc is lccausc colc fail io fully undcrsiand wIai is Iacning lcforc iIcy iry
io solvc wIai is Iacning.
03} Hisiory Undcrsiand iIc Iisiory of iIc comuicr and idcniify any ossillc
iIings iIai migIi Iavc cIangcd rcccnily in iIc cnvironmcni. Somciimcs somc of
iIc mosi insignificani cIangcs can causc a fuiurc rollcm. Has somciIing
cIangcd in iIc Iardwarc or sysicm configuraiion laicly?
04} amagc onirol Dcforc you siari doing anyiIing clsc you nccd io malc surc
iIai your iroullcsIooiing cfforis will noi furiIcr damagc iIc comuicr or wIaicvcr
dcvicc you arc worling on. TIcrc is noiIing worsc iIan siariing io worl on a
rollcm and ii only gcis worsc.
05} Know your iools and sci your limiis.
cvicc anagcr SIows if iIcrc arc drivcr and oiIcr issucs.
rivcrs, Dooidisls, cic.
Dooiing io Safc odc Safc odc loois wiiI only iIc csscniial sysicm drivcrs
and filcs. Jusi Iold iIc F8 lcy wIilc looiing.
TIc oncIour rulc Tunncl vision is a ossillc ira of noi considcring cicrnal
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faciors iIai migIi lc causing your rollcm. In any casc, ii is csscniial io limii your
corc iroullcsIooiing cfforis io jusi onc Iour lcforc sicing lacl from iIc
siiuaiion and calling in Icl and rcinforccmcnis.
A iroullcsIooiing ma iroullcsIooiing is lciicr crformcd, and morc cffcciivc
if you worl from an ouilinc or ma.
Avoiding lo canyons o noi do iIc samc sics ovcr and ovcr or crcaic a
sccnario wIcrc you will Iii a dcad cnd.
06} Fcroducc iIc symiom Now comcs iIc nci lig sic in solving your issuc,
aciually rccrcaiing iIc rollcm if nccdcd. TIis will Icl you aciually scc iIc lcad
u and cnd rcsuli of wIai is Iacning io iIc sysicm.
07} Scaraic symiom from causc Is iIc sysicm aciing oui for somc undcrlying
fundamcnial rcason? Will addrcssing iIc symioms do noiIing for rcsolving iIc
causc of iIosc symioms?
08} aming iIc crror WIciIcr you arc gciiing a lluc scrccn of dcaiI, a sysicm
Iard locl, or somc cryiic sofiwarc crror mcssagc, you nccd io malc surc you Iavc
iIc caci mcssagc.
09} Hardwarc vcrsus Sofiwarc Try io dcicrminc if iIc rcsulis sccn from
rcroducing iIc crror is a Iardwarc or sofiwarc rollcm.
10} Prcarc a lan of aiiacl Figurc oui your nci sic ioward solving iIc rollcm
you arc ccricncing. Will ii rcquirc a mulii lan of aiiacl or docs ii lool io lc
somciIing simlc.
11} Iccl onlinc suori Prolally iIc lcsi and fasicsi lacc io solvc rollcms is
io lool u onlinc iIc crror or symiom you arc sccing. Plug in iIc caci crror or
sccific lcywords from iIc crror and scc wIai comcs u. You migIi lc solving iIc
rollcm in a maiicr of minuics.
12} Siari wiiI iIc simlc siuff You would lc surriscd Iow somc of iIc Iardcsi
looling issucs can aciually lc solvcd wiiI iIc simlcsi of mcans. o noi ovcr iIinl
your rollcm or iis soluiion. Somc of iIc following could aciually solvc your
rollcm.
Ccncral ainicnancc lcan oui icm filcs, dcfrag iIc sysicm.
Iccl callcs alc surc all your callcs arc connccicd and all dcviccs iurncd on
corrccily as wcll as configurcd rigIi.
Ocn iIc casc and rcscai mcmory, inicrnal conncciors, cic.
Udaic drivcrs and sofiwarc rograms.
13} Talc noics alc surc io documcni wIai you Iavc donc and wIai iIc crrors
arc. TIis Icls malc surc you do noi gci losi or iry iIc samc iIings again and
again.
14} Trial and crror Pcrsonal comuicrs arc IigIly modular ly dcsign and iIc
mosi owcrful iroullcsIooiing iccIniquc is io isolaic iIc rollcm io a sccific
comoncni ly irial and crror. Swa comaiillc comoncnis and scc if iIc sysicm
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siill worls. Try diffcrcni criIcrals on diffcrcni macIincs and scc if iIc samc
rollcm occurs. alc onc cIangc ai a iimc.
15} ausc an crror Somc of iIc Iardcsi rollcms can lcc you siumcd for
Iours. Onc of iIc lcsi iccIniqucs I Iavc is io aciually causc anoiIcr crror or
rollcm. Sccing wIai crrors sIow u or iIai you can causc migIi Icl you idcniify
iIc undcrlying rollcm. You would lc surriscd Iow oficn iIis Ias worlcd io lring
iIc rollcm io ligIi.
16} o noi gci frusiraicd o noi lc afraid of comuicr rollcms lccausc ii is
oficn iIc lcsi ooriuniiy io lcarn. If you aroacI cvcry rollcm as onc iIai you
can solvc iIcn ii malcs ii a lii casicr. I Iavc ncvcr found somciIing iIai I cannoi
find a soluiion io lccausc I rclaic cvcryiIing as jusi a rollcm iIai docs Iavc a
soluiion. TIis is noi arrogancc lui jusi a confidcncc iIai you can find a soluiion if
you aly yoursclf and ialc iIc iimc nccdcd.
17} all for Icl If you can noi malc any rogrcss iIcn lool for Icl. vcryonc
docs noi lnow cvcryiIing lui iIc lcsi iroullcsIooicrs Iavc iIc wisdom and
lnowlcdgc of wIo iIcy can go io for Icl.
18} Narrow ii down io iIc rooi causc Sooncr or laicr you will comc across ciiIcr a
scrics of iIings iIai Iacn io causc iIc crror or aciually iIc rooi causc. Oncc you
lnow wIai is Iacning io causc iIc rollcm you can solvc ii.
19} Fcair or rclacc iIc dcfcciivc comoncni Oncc you Iavc found iIc rollcm,
rclacc or fi wIai is nccdcd io solvc iIc issuc you arc Iaving.
20} Vcrify iIai iIc soluiion worlcd alc surc wIai you did io solvc iIc rollcm
docs indccd do so. Try io rccrcaic iIc issuc in various ways iIai you lcarncd in
your noics or rcvious sics.
21} Prcvcni fuiurc occurrcncc of iIis rollcm If you can do anyiIing io malc surc
iIis rollcm docs noi Iacn again imlcmcni ii.
22} ocumcni iIc soluiion alc surc you Iavc iIc soluiion wriiicn down in casc
iIc rollcm Iacns again or if oiIcrs will nccd ii for wIcn iIcy migIi Iavc iIc
rollcm.
FIL SYST
Filc sysicm A mciIod of organizing llocls on a sioragc dcvicc inio filcs
and dircciorics.
A sci of llocls wIicI arc so organizcd.
ciIod in wIicI filcs arc namcd and wIcrc iIcy arc laccd logically for
sioragc and rciricval in a comuicr.


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FIIe system
(1 TIc mciIod for sioring and rciricving filcs on a disl. Ii is sysicm sofiwarc iIai
ialcs commands from iIc ocraiing sysicm io rcad and wriic iIc disl clusicrs
(grous of scciors}. TIc filc sysicm managcs a foldcr/dircciory siruciurc, wIicI
rovidcs an indc io iIc filcs, and ii dcfincs iIc synia uscd io acccss iIcm (Iow
iIc "aiI" io iIc filc is codcd}. Filc sysicms diciaic Iow filcs arc namcd as wcll as
iIc maimum sizc of a filc or volumc.

TIcrc arc numcrous filc sysicms in usc; for camlc, FAT32 and NTFS arc
Windows filc sysicms, and HFS is uscd on acs. Linu uscs ci2, ci3 and FAT32.
Uni sysicms usc UFS, ci2, ci3 and ZFS.
Scc clusicr, aiI, FAT32, NTFS, HFS, NFS, UFS, ci, ZFS and IicrarcIical filc
sysicm.

(2 A daia roccssing alicaiion iIai managcs individual filcs. Ii ocns, closcs,
rcads and wriics iIc filc as a singlc cniiiy. In a filc sysicm, filcs arc rclaicd io cacI
oiIcr ly cusiomizcd rogramming (cusiomcrs io ordcrs, vcndors io urcIascs,
cic.}. onirasi wiiI a "rclaiional daialasc," wIicI Ias luiliin consirucis iIai can
morc casily form iIcsc rclaiionsIis. For camlc, iIcy can lc uscd io join filcs
iogciIcr and slii iIcm aari, all wiiIoui icdious rogramming. Scc rclaiional
daialasc and DS.
Tycs of Filc Sysicm To aciually lc morc rccisc iIcrc arc a ioial of four diffcrcni
siylcs or iycs of sysicms ai your command. TIcsc sysicms arc your disl filc
sysicms; iIc nciworl filc sysicms as wcll as iIc various sccial uroscs filc
sysicms. Wc will lricfly covcr cacI of iIcsc sysicms in iurn.
TIc dIsk IIIe system is crIas iIc mosi common mcans cmloycd for sioring and
mainiaining loiI crsonal and lusincss rclaicd filcs. TIcsc arc casy io usc and
can lc uscd ai your Iomc or ai your lacc of cmloymcni. TIc mainicnancc and
iIc sioragc of iIcsc filcs arc faciliiaicd only ly iIc daia sioragc dcviccs iIcmsclvcs
sucI as ly iIc usc of iIc common disl drivc. TIc disl filc sysicm uscd ly an
organizaiion can usc iIc FAT, NTFS, HFS or a fcw of iIc lcsscr lnown mciIods
wIicI wc will noi discuss Icrc. Ii is lciicr io lcc io iIc major iycs of sysicms in
ordcr io faciliiaic comaiililiiy.
AnoiIcr quiclly growing iyc of filc sysicm is tbe FIasb IIIe system. TIis is iIc
cIoicc of sysicm if your inicniion is io siorc your daia on iIc oriallc flasI
mcmory dcviccs. TIc oulariiy of iIcsc sioragc mcdia dcviccs Ias grown alongsidc
iIc oular molilc dcviccs and iIc closcly rclaicd flasI mcmorics. TIougI ii is a
common misundcrsianding io cmloy iIc usc of iIc usual disl filc sysicm on iIc
flasI dcvicc ii quiclly lccomcs aarcni iIai ly doing so will simly noi lring oui
iIc lcsi rcsulis of iIis sysicm.
Wc nci Iavc tbe network IIIe system wIicI is quiclly gaining in oulariiy noi
only in iIc lusincss cnvironmcni lui in rivaic Iomcs as wcll. TIis sysicm malcs
usc of wIai is lnown as rcmoic filc acccss roiocol. TIis roiocol rovidcs uscrs
iIc ncccssary acccss for filcs wIicI arc siorcd on a common scrvcr.
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TIc lasi iyc of filc sysicm iIai wc will lricfly discus is tbe specIaI purpose IIIe
system. Simly ui, any filc sysicm wIicI is noi a nciworl or a disl filc sysicm
would fall undcr iIis ncw caicgory of filc sysicm. Ccncrally iIcsc iycs of sysicms
arc in Iousc dcsigncd sccifically for a ariicular urosc ly iIc comuicr
dcarimcni of major cororaiions. TIis iyc of daia lascs and filc siruciurcs do
noi adai vcry wcll from onc ficld of usc io anoiIcr. As an camlc you would noi
wani io iry and usc a sccially dcsigncd mcai roduciion filc sysicm for usc wiiI
an auio indusiry comany comlc.
DISK FIL SYST disl filc sysicms arc filc sysicms wIicI managc daia on
crmancni sioragc dcviccs. As magnciic disls arc iIc mosi common of sucI
dcviccs, mosi disl filc sysicms arc dcsigncd io crform wcll in siic of iIc sccl
laicncics inIcrcni in sucI mcdia.
Latency is a mcasurc of iimc dclay ccricnccd in a sysicm, iIc rccisc dcfiniiion
of wIicI dccnds on iIc sysicm and iIc iimc lcing mcasurcd.
FLASH FIL SYST A IIasb IIIe system is a filc sysicm dcsigncd for
sioring filcs on flasI mcmory dcviccs. TIcsc arc lccoming morc rcvalcni as iIc
numlcr of molilc dcviccs is incrcasing, iIc cosi cr mcmory sizc dccrcascs, and
iIc caaciiy of flasI mcmorics incrcascs.
WIilc a llocl dcvicc laycr can cmulaic a disl drivc so iIai a disl filc sysicm can lc
uscd on a flasI dcvicc, iIis is suloiimal for scvcral rcasons.
rasing llocls. FlasI mcmory llocls Iavc io lc cliciily crascd lcforc iIcy
can lc wriiicn io. TIc iimc ialcn io crasc llocls can lc significani, iIus ii is
lcncficial io crasc unuscd llocls wIilc iIc dcvicc is idlc.
Fandom acccss. isl filc sysicms arc oiimizcd io avoid disl sccls wIcncvcr
ossillc, duc io iIc IigI cosi of sccling. FlasI mcmorics dcviccs imosc no
sccl laicncy.
Wcar lcvcling. FlasI mcmory dcviccs icnd io wcar oui wIcn a singlc llocl is
rccaicdly ovcrwriiicn; flasI filc sysicms arc dcsigncd io srcad oui wriics
cvcnly.
SpecIaI purpose IIIe systems
A sccial urosc filc sysicm is lasically any filc sysicm iIai is noi a disl filc
sysicm or nciworl filc sysicm. TIis includcs sysicms wIcrc iIc filcs arc arrangcd
dynamically ly sofiwarc, inicndcd for sucI uroscs as communicaiion
lciwccn comuicr roccsscs or icmorary filc sacc. Sccial urosc filc sysicms
arc mosi commonly uscd ly filcccniric ocraiing sysicms sucI as Uni. amlcs
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includc iIc '/roc' filcsysicm uscd ly somc UNIX varianis, wIicI granis acccss io
informaiion aloui roccsscs and oiIcr ocraiing sysicm fcaiurcs.
Database IIIe systems
Ncw conccis for filc managcmcni arc daialasclascd filc sysicms. Insicad of
IicrarcIical siruciurcd managcmcni, filcs arc idcniificd ly iIcir cIaracicrisiics,
lilc iyc of filc, ioic, auiIor, or similarmciadaia. TIcrcforc a filc scarcI can lc
formulaicd in SQL or in naiural scccI. TIc camlc on iIc rigIi sidc sIows a
qucry for "ovics iIai wcrc dirccicd ly sicllcrg"
DIsk FIIe Systems
A disl filc sysicm is a filc sysicm dcsigncd for iIc sioragc of filcs on a disl drivc,
wIicI migIi lc dirccily or indirccily connccicd io iIc comuicr.
amlcs of disl filc sysicm includc.
O FS
O XT2
O XT3
O FAT (OS and icrosofi Windows filc sysicm; 12, 16 and 32 lii iallc
dciIs}
O USOS
O FFS
O HFS (for ac OS}
O HPFS
O ISO 9660 (Focl Fidgc and Jolici arc cicnsions io iIis}
O JFS
O lfs
O ini
O NTFS (Vcrsions 4, 5 and 5.1}
O OFS
O FciscrFS, and Fciscr4
O UF
O UFS
O XFS
O LFS (log siruciurcd filc sysicm}
Somc of iIcsc arc journaling filcsysicms.
Network FIIe Systems
A Nciworl filc sysicm is a filc sysicm wIcrc iIc filcs arc acccsscd ovcr a nciworl,
oicniially simuliancously ly scvcral comuicrs.
amlcs of nciworl filc sysicms includc.
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O AFS (Andrcw Filc Sysicm}
O AlcSIarc
O IFS (somciimcs also callcd SD or Samla filcsysicms}
O oda
O Inicrczzo
O NFS
O CFS
O Lusirc
SpecIaI Purpose FIIe Systems
A sccial urosc filc sysicm is lasically any filc sysicm iIai is noi disl filc sysicm
or nciworl filc sysicm. TIis includcs sysicms wIcrc iIc filcs arc arrangcd
dynamically ly sofiwarc, inicndcd for sucI uroscs as communicaiion
lciwccn comuicr roccsscs or icmorary filc sacc.
O acmc (Plan 9} (ici windows}
O arcIfs (arcIivc}
O cdfs (rcading and wriiing of s}
O cfs (cacIing}
O VFS
O fifs (fi acccss}
O lnfs (long namcs}
O nnifs (ncincws}
O lumlcr (Plan 9} (inicrroccss communicaiion ics}
O PFOFS
O FOFS
O TPFS
O wilifs (wili wili}
FIIe systems under IcrosoIt WIndows
icrosofi Windows dcvclocd from an carlicr ocraiing sysicm (SOS wIicI in
iurn was lascd on P/80, wIicI iool many idcas from siill carlicr ocraiing
sysicms, noially scvcral from }, and Ias addcd loiI filc sysicm and uscr
inicrfacc idcas from scvcral oiIcr sourccs sincc iis firsi rclcasc (Uni, OS/2, cic}.
As sucI, Windows malcs usc of modificd vcrsions of iIc simlc FAT and HPFS filc
sysicms, FAT32 and NTFS rcscciivcly. Oldcr vcrsions of iIc FAT filc sysicm Iad
filc namc lcngiI limiis, lus Iad rcsiriciions on iIc maimum sizc of FAT
formaiicd disls or ariiiions. NTFS allowcd ALlascd crmission conirol, and
inIcriicd HPFS's auiomaiic fragmcniaiion conirol, wIicI was a rollcm for FAT
lascd filc sysicms.
NTFS iisclf suoris many fcaiurcs. Somc arc noi coscd or uscd ly windows.
TIc fcaiurcs includc Iard linls, muliilc filc sircams; aiiriluic indcing, quoia
iracling, comrcssion and mounioinis for oiIcr filc sysicms (callcd "junciions"}.
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Windows, wIcn using FAT32 and NTFS malcs usc of duc cttcs in ordcr io
disiinguisI iIc Iysical locaiion of filcs on a disl. For camlc,
iIc aiI .\WINNT\ rcrcscnis a dircciory WINNT on iIc drivc rcrcscnicd ly iIc
lciicr . TIc drivc is mosi commonly uscd for iIc rimary Iard disl, on wIicI
Windows is insiallcd and from wIicI ii loois. TIis "iradiiion" Ias lccomc so firmly
ingraincd iIai lugs camc aloui in oldcr vcrsions of Windows wIicI madc
assumiions iIai iIc drivc iIai iIc ocraiing sysicm was insiallcd on was . TIc
iradiiion of using "" for iIc drivc lciicr can lc iraccd io SOS, wIcrc iIc lciicrs
A and D wcrc rcscrvcd for u io iwo floy disl drivcs.
Sincc Windows inicracis wiiI iIc uscr via a graIical uscr inicrfacc, iis liicraiurc
(Icl filcs, icon lalcls, ...} all rcfcr io a "dircciory" as aodc wIicI coniains filcs.
Nciworl locaiions can lc nucd io drivc lciicrs. for camlc, Z. could rcrcscni a
locaiion on a diffcrcni scrvcr.
Ncwcr filc sysicms, sucI as WinFS, aim io movc lcyond iIc odc mciaIor and
inio morc gcncral caicgorics, wiiI grcaicr usc of mciadaia.

FAT - FIIe AIIocatIon TabIe (FAT} is comuicr filc sysicm arcIiicciurc now widcly
uscd on many comuicr sysicms and mosi mcmory cards, sucI as iIosc uscd wiiI
digiial camcras. FAT filc sysicms arc commonly found on floy disls, flasI
mcmory cards, digiial camcras, and many oiIcr oriallc dcviccs lccausc of iIcir
rclaiivc simliciiy. Pcrformancc of FAT comarcs oorly io mosi oiIcr filc sysicms
as ii uscs ovcrly simlisiic daia siruciurcs, maling filc ocraiions iimcconsuming,
and malcs oor usc of disl sacc in siiuaiions wIcrc many small filcs arc rcscni.
FAT filc sysicm is comoscd of four diffcrcni scciions.
1. TIc Reserved sectors, locaicd ai iIc vcry lcginning. TIc firsi rcscrvcd
sccior (sccior 0} is iIc Dooi Sccior (ala !utton Hoot Hccod}. Ii includcs an
arca callcd iIc HIOS !uunctc HocI (wiiI somc lasic filc sysicm
informaiion, in ariicular iis iyc, and oinicrs io iIc locaiion of iIc oiIcr
scciions} and usually coniains iIc ocraiing sysicm's looi loadcr codc. TIc
ioial couni of rcscrvcd scciors is indicaicd ly a ficld insidc iIc Dooi Sccior.
Imoriani informaiion from iIc Dooi Sccior is acccssillc iIrougI an
ocraiing sysicm siruciurc callcd iIc Duc !uunctc HocIin OS and
OS/2. For FAT32 filc sysicms, iIc rcscrvcd scciors includc a Fc Sstcn
Inonuton Sccto ai sccior 1 and a HucIu Hoot Sccto ai Sccior 6.
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2. TIc FAT RegIon. TIis iyically coniains iwo coics (may vary} of iIc Fc
ocuton TuIc for iIc salc of rcdundancy cIccling, aliIougI iIc cira
coy is rarcly uscd, cvcn ly disl rcair uiiliiics. TIcsc arc mas of iIc aia
Fcgion, indicaiing wIicI clusicrs arc uscd ly filcs and dircciorics. In FAT16
and FAT12 iIcy immcdiaicly follow iIc rcscrvcd scciors.
3. TIc Root DIrectory RegIon. TIis is a Dccto TuIc iIai siorcs informaiion
aloui iIc filcs and dircciorics locaicd in iIc rooi dircciory. Ii is only uscd
wiiI FAT12 and FAT16, and imoscs on iIc rooi dircciory a ficd maimum
sizc wIicI is rcallocaicd ai crcaiion of iIis volumc. FAT32 siorcs iIc rooi
dircciory in iIc aia Fcgion, along wiiI filcs and oiIcr dircciorics, allowing
ii io grow wiiIoui sucI a consiraini. TIus, for FAT32, iIc aia Fcgion
siaris Icrc.
4. TIc Data RegIon. TIis is wIcrc iIc aciual filc and dircciory daia is siorcd
and ialcs u mosi of iIc ariiiion. TIc sizc of filcs and suldircciorics can
lc incrcascd arliirarily (as long as iIcrc arc frcc clusicrs} ly simly adding
morc linls io iIc filc's cIain in iIc FAT. Noic Iowcvcr, iIai filcs arc
allocaicd in uniis of clusicrs, so if a 1 KD filc rcsidcs in a 32 KD clusicr, 31
KD arc wasicd. FAT32 iyically commcnccs iIc Fooi ircciory Tallc in
clusicr numlcr 2. iIc firsi clusicr of iIc aia Fcgion.
Istory
TIc FAT filc sysicm was dcvclocd ly Dill Caics and arc conald during 1976
1977.
|4||5|
Ii was iIc rimary filc sysicm for variousocraiing sysicms including F
OS, FrccOS, SOS, OS/2 (v1.1} and icrosofi Windows (u uniil, and
including Windows c}.
TIc FAT filc sysicm was crcaicd for managing disls in icrosofi Siandalonc isl
DASI. In Augusi 1980 Tim Paicrson incororaicd FAT inio Iis 86OS ocraiing
sysicm for iIc S100 8086 PU loards;
|6|
iIc filc sysicm was iIc main diffcrcncc
lciwccn 86OS and iis rcdcccssor, P/.
TIc namc originaics from iIc usagc of a iallc wIicI ccniralizcs iIc informaiion
aloui wIicI arcas lclong io filcs, arc frcc or ossilly unusallc, and wIcrc cacI filc
is siorcd on iIc disl. To limii iIc sizc of iIc iallc, disl sacc is allocaicd io filcs in
coniiguous grous of Iardwarc scciors callcd custcs. As disl drivcs Iavc cvolvcd,
iIc maimum numlcr of clusicrs Ias dramaiically incrcascd, and so iIc numlcr
of liis uscd io idcniify cacI clusicr Ias grown. TIc succcssivc major vcrsions of
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iIc FAT formai arc namcd aficr iIc numlcr of iallc clcmcni liis. 12, 16, and 32.
TIc FAT siandard Ias also lccn candcd in oiIcr ways wIilc rcscrving
laclward comaiililiiy wiiI cisiing sofiwarc.
Image oI FAT and bard drIve






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NTFS (Ncw TccInology Filc Sysicm}
|1|
is iIc siandard filc sysicm of Windows NT,
including iis laicr vcrsions Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Scrvcr
2003, Windows Scrvcr 2008, Windows Visia, and Windows 7.
|5|

NTFS sucrscdcs iIc FAT filc sysicm as iIc rcfcrrcd filc sysicm for
icrosofi's Windows ocraiing sysicms. NTFS Ias scvcral imrovcmcnis ovcr FAT
and HPFS (HigI Pcrformancc Filc Sysicm} sucI as imrovcd suori
for mciadaia and iIc usc of advanccd daia siruciurcs io imrovc crformancc,
rclialiliiy, and disl sacc uiilizaiion, lus addiiional cicnsions sucI as
sccuriiy acccss conirol lisis (AL} and filc sysicm journaling

Istory
In iIc mid 1980s, icrosofi and ID formcd a joini rojcci io crcaic iIc nci
gcncraiion of graIical ocraiing sysicm. TIc rcsuli of iIc rojcci was OS/2, lui
cvcniually icrosofi and ID disagrccd on many imoriani issucs and scaraicd.
OS/2 rcmaincd an ID rojcci. icrosofi siaricd io worl on Windows NT. TIc
OS/2 filc sysicm HPFS coniaincd scvcral imoriani ncw fcaiurcs. WIcn icrosofi
crcaicd iIcir ncw ocraiing sysicm, iIcy lorrowcd many of iIcsc conccis for
NTFS.
|6|
Prolally as a rcsuli of iIis common anccsiry, HPFS and NTFS sIarc iIc
samc disl ariiiion idcniificaiion iyc codc (07}. SIaring an I is unusual sincc
iIcrc wcrc dozcns of availallc codcs, and oiIcr major filc sysicms Iavc iIcir own
codc. FAT Ias morc iIan ninc (onc cacI for FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, cic.}.
AlgoriiIms wIicI idcniify iIc filc sysicm in a ariiiion iyc 07 musi crform
addiiional cIccls. Ii is also clcar iIai NTFS owcs somc of iis arcIiicciural dcsign
io Filcs11 uscd ly VS. TIis is Iardly surrising sincc avc uilcr was iIc main
lcad for loiI VS and Windows NT.









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NTFS Features and Advantages.
Sparse IIIes arc filcs wIicI coniain sarsc daia scis, wIicI arc filcs wiiI scgmcnis
siorcd ai diffcrcni filc offscis wiiI no aciual sioragc sacc uscd for iIc sacc
lciwccn scgmcnis. WIcn a filc is rcad lacl, iIc filc sysicm drivcr rciurns zcros for
any daia iIai docsn'i aciually cisi, so iIc filc may acar io lc mosily fillcd wiiI
zcros. aialasc alicaiions, for insiancc, somciimcs usc sarsc filcs. Dccausc of
iIis, icrosofi Ias imlcmcnicd suori for cfficicni sioragc of sarsc filcs ly
allowing an alicaiion io sccify rcgions of cmiy (zcro} daia. An alicaiion iIai
rcads a sarsc filc rcads ii in iIc normal manncr wiiI iIc filc sysicm calculaiing
wIai daia sIould lc rciurncd lascd uon iIc filc offsci. As wiiI comrcsscd filcs,
iIc aciual sizcs of sarsc filcs arc noi ialcn inio accouni wIcn dcicrmining quoia
limiis

NTFS Log Ii is a criiical funciionaliiy of NTFS (a fcaiurc iIai FAT/FAT32 docs noi
rovidc} for cnsuring iIai iis inicrnal comlc daia siruciurcs (noially iIc volumc
allocaiion liima, or daia movcs crformcd ly iIc dcfragmcniaiion API, iIc
modificaiions io FT rccords sucI as movcs of somc variallclcngiI aiiriluics
siorcd in FT rccords and aiiriluic lisis}, and indiccs (for dircciorics and sccuriiy
dcscriiors} will rcmain consisicni in casc of sysicm crasIcs, and allow casy
rolllacl of uncommiiicd cIangcs io iIcsc criiical daia siruciurcs wIcn iIc volumc
is rcmounicd.

USN Journal (Udaic Scqucncc Numlcr Journal} is a sysicm managcmcni fcaiurc
iIai rccords cIangcs io all filcs, sircams and dircciorics on iIc volumc, as wcll as
iIcir various aiiriluics and sccuriiy sciiings. TIc journal is madc availallc for
alicaiions io iracl cIangcs io iIc volumc TIis journal can lc cnallcd or disallcd
on nonsysicm volumcs.

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ard IInks and sbort IIIenames originally includcd io suori
iIc POSIX sulsysicm in Windows NT Iard linls arc similar io dircciory junciions,
lui uscd for filcs insicad of dircciorics. Hard linls can only lc alicd io filcs on
iIc samc volumc sincc an addiiional filcnamc rccord is addcd io iIc filc's FT
rccord. SIori (8.3} filcnamcs arc also imlcmcnicd as addiiional filcnamc rccords
and dircciory cnirics iIai arc linlcd and udaicd iogciIcr. Hard linls also Iavc
iIc lcIavior iIai cIanging iIc sizc or aiiriluics of a filc may noi udaic iIc
dircciory cnirics of oiIcr linls uniil iIcy arc ocncd.
AIternate data streams (ADS allow morc iIan onc daia sircam io lc associaicd
wiiI a filcnamc, using iIc filcnamc formai "filcnamc.sircamnamc" (c.g.,
"ici.ii.cirasircam"}. Alicrnaic sircams arc noi lisicd in Windows lorcr, and
iIcir sizc is noi includcd in iIc filc's sizc. Only iIc main sircam of a filc is
rcscrvcd wIcn ii is coicd io a FATformaiicd USD drivc, aiiacIcd io an cmail, or
uloadcd io a wclsiic. As a rcsuli, using alicrnaic sircams for criiical daia may
causc rollcms. NTFS Sircams wcrc iniroduccd in Windows NT 3.1, io cnallc
Scrviccs for aciniosI (SF} io siorc aciniosIrcsourcc forls. AliIougI currcni
vcrsions of Windows Scrvcr no longcr includc SF, iIirdariy Alc Filing
Proiocol (AFP} roducis (sucI as Crou Logic's ircmcZIP} siill usc iIis fcaiurc of
iIc filc sysicm.
FIIe compressIon NTFS comrcsscs filcs using a variani of
iIc LZ77 algoriiIm.
|
AliIougI rcadwriic acccss io comrcsscd filcs is oficn, lui
noi always
|20|
iransarcni, icrosofi rccommcnds avoiding comrcssion on scrvcr
sysicms and/or nciworl sIarcs Iolding roaming rofilcs lccausc ii uis a
considcrallc load on iIc roccssor.
Singlcuscr sysicms wiiI limiicd Iard disl sacc can lcncfii from NTFS
comrcssion. TIc slowcsi linl in a comuicr is noi iIc PU lui iIc sccd of iIc
Iard drivc, so NTFS comrcssion allows iIc limiicd, slow sioragc sacc io lc lciicr
uscd, in icrms of loiI sacc and (oficn} sccd. NTFS comrcssion can also scrvc as
a rclaccmcni for sarsc filcs wIcn a rogram (c. g. a download managcr} is noi
allc io crcaic filcs wiiIoui conicni as sarsc filcs.

VoIume Sbadow Copy (VSS} lccs Iisiorical vcrsions of filcs and foldcrs on NTFS
volumcs ly coying old, ncwlyovcrwriiicn daia io sIadow coy (co-on-utc}. TIc
old filc daia is ovcrlaid on iIc ncw wIcn iIc uscr rcqucsis a rcvcri io an carlicr
vcrsion. TIis also allows daia laclu rograms io arcIivc filcs currcnily in usc ly
iIc filc sysicm. On Icavily loadcd sysicms, icrosofi rccommcnds sciiing u a
sIadow coy volumc on a scaraic disl
Transaciional NTFS Ii uscs iIc similar iccIniqucs as iIosc uscd for Volumc
SIadow oics (i.c. coyonwriic} io cnsurc iIai ovcrwriiicn daia can lc safcly
rollcd lacl, and a LFS log io marl iIc iransaciions iIai Iavc siill noi lccn
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commiiicd, or iIosc iIai Iavc lccn commiiicd lui siill noi fully alicd (in casc of
sysicm crasI during a commii ly onc of iIc ariicianis}.
Transaciional NTFS docs noi rcsirici iransaciions io jusi iIc local NTFS volumc,
lui also includcs oiIcr iransaciional daia or ocraiions in oiIcr locaiions sucI as
daia siorcd in scaraic volumcs, iIc local rcgisiry, or SQL daialascs, or iIc
currcni siaics of sysicm scrviccs or rcmoic scrviccs. TIcsc iransaciions arc
coordinaicd nciworlwidc wiiI all ariicianis using a sccific scrvicc, iIc T, io
cnsurc iIai all ariicianis will rcccivc samc commii siaic, and io iransori iIc
cIangcs iIai Iavc lccn validaicd ly any ariiciani (so iIai iIc oiIcrs can
invalidaic iIcir local cacIcs for old daia or rolllacl iIcir ongoing uncommiiicd
cIangcs}. Transaciional NTFS allows, for camlc, iIc crcaiion of nciworlwidc
consisicni disiriluicd filc sysicms, including wiiI iIcir local livc or offlinc cacIcs.

ncryptIng FIIe System (FS} FS rovidcs sirong
|
and uscriransarcni
cncryiion of any filc or foldcr on an NTFS volumc. FS worls in conjunciion wiiI
iIc FS scrvicc, icrosofi's ryioAPI and iIc FS Filc Sysicm FunTimc Lilrary
(FSFTL}. FS worls ly cncryiing a filc wiiI a lull symmciric lcy (also lnown as
iIc Filc ncryiion Kcy, or FK}, wIicI is uscd lccausc ii ialcs a rclaiivcly small
amouni of iimc io cncryi and dccryi largc amounis of daia iIan if an asymmciric
lcy ciIcr is uscd. TIc symmciric lcy iIai is uscd io cncryi iIc filc is iIcn
cncryicd wiiI a ullic lcy iIai is associaicd wiiI iIc uscr wIo cncryicd iIc filc,
and iIis cncryicd daia is siorcd in an alicrnaic daia sircam of iIc cncryicd filc.
To dccryi iIc filc, iIc filc sysicm uscs iIc rivaic lcy of iIc uscr io dccryi iIc
symmciric lcy iIai is siorcd in iIc filc Icadcr. Ii iIcn uscs iIc symmciric lcy io
dccryi iIc filc. Dccausc iIis is donc ai iIc filc sysicm lcvcl, ii is iransarcni io iIc
uscr.
|26|
Also, in casc of a uscr losing acccss io iIcir lcy, suori for addiiional
dccryiion lcys Ias lccn luili in io iIc FS sysicm, so iIai a rccovcry agcni can
siill acccss iIc filcs if nccdcd. NTFSrovidcd cncryiion and comrcssion arc
muiually cclusivcNTFS can lc uscd for onc and a iIirdariy iool for iIc oiIcr.
TIc suori of FS is noi availallc in Dasic, Homc and cdia cnicr vcrsions of
Windows, and musi lc aciivaicd aficr insiallaiion of Profcssional, Uliimaic and
Scrvcr vcrsions of Windows or ly using cnicrrisc dcloymcni iools wiiIin
Windows domains.
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"uotas isl quoias wcrc iniroduccd in NTFS v3. TIcy allow iIc adminisiraior of a
comuicr iIai runs a vcrsion of Windows iIai suoris NTFS io sci a iIrcsIold of
disl sacc iIai uscrs may usc. Ii also allows adminisiraiors io lcc iracl of Iow
mucI disl sacc cacI uscr is using. An adminisiraior may sccify a ccriain lcvcl of
disl sacc iIai a uscr may usc lcforc iIcy rcccivc a warning, and iIcn dcny acccss
io iIc uscr oncc iIcy Iii iIcir ucr limii of sacc. isl quoias do noi ialc inio
accouni NTFS's iransarcni filccomrcssion, sIould iIis lc cnallcd. Alicaiions
iIai qucry iIc amouni of frcc sacc will also scc iIc amouni of frcc sacc lcfi io iIc
uscr wIo Ias a quoia alicd io iIcm.

Reparse poInts TIis fcaiurc was iniroduccd in NTFS v3. Fcarsc oinis arc uscd
ly associaiing a rcarsc iag in iIc uscr sacc aiiriluic of a filc or dircciory. WIcn
iIc oljcci managcr (scc Windows NT linc cccuiivc} arscs a filc sysicm namc
loolu and cncounicrs a rcarsc aiiriluic, ii will cusc iIc namc loolu, assing
iIc uscr conirollcd rcarsc daia io cvcry filc sysicm filicr drivcr iIai is loadcd inio
Windows. acI filicr drivcr camincs iIc rcarsc daia io scc wIciIcr ii is
associaicd wiiI iIai rcarsc oini, and if iIai filicr drivcr dcicrmincs a maicI,
iIcn ii inicrccis iIc filc sysicm call and cccuics iis sccial funciionaliiy. Fcarsc
oinis arc uscd io imlcmcni Volumc ouni Poinis, ircciory Junciions,
HicrarcIical Sioragc anagcmcni, Naiivc Siruciurcd Sioragc, Singlc Insiancc
Sioragc, and Symlolic Linls.

VoIume mount poInts
DIrectory junctIons
SymboIIc IInks
SIngIe Instance Storage (SIS
IerarcbIcaI Storage anagement (S
NatIve Structured Storage (NSS