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(^J

HOME DRESSMAKING

Sewing Room

HOME DRESSMAKING
A COMPLETE GUIDE TO

HOUSEHOLD SEWING

BY

^
MYERS

ANNIE

E.

Fully Illustrated with more than One

Hundred Engravings

"^7

y
CHARLES
H.

CHICAGO

SERGEL & COMPANY


MDCCCXCII
,

Co

.-\'^

t^>

Copyright, 1892. By Charles H. Sergel & Company.

f'3ff^/

PREFACE.

In undertaking this

work there has been a higher

object than merely adding another to the long catalogue


of books.

My

great ambition has been to help

who are trying to who wished to be


allowed,
I

help themselves.
as well dressed as

As

women young woman


means
Again,
to study

my

limited

had

to

work out

for myself the principles of

planning, cutting and making

my own

gowns.
I

as a writer for newspapers and magazines,


to formulate into

had

words the knowledge

had gained by
the

practical

work.

Many and many were


to help
in

times

wished

for

some book

both

my hand work
To
I

and

my

writing.

There was none


the help
I

in the market.

offer

other

women
to

vainly craved

present this

book

the public.

Annie E. Myers.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
Training for Hand-sewing
I

TOOLS FOR THE WORK

The

Shears

Tools

for Pressing.

,...'....
CHAPTER H
dressmakers' findings
.
.

The Sewing-room Tools for Cutting for Sewing Tools for Fitting Tools
ii

Linings

FacingsWadding and Canvas FasteningsWhale.21 bones and Casings Shields Yokes.


.
.

CHAPTER
HOW TO MAKE

III

DRESS SKIRTS
Skirt Skirt Reeds.
.

The Modern Gored Skirt The Foundation eries The Kilt Skirt The Trained Skirt

Drap
.

29

CHAPTER
HOW TO MAKE
An Ordinary Basque
ing the Lining

IV

A BASQUE

The Pattern First Step in MakingBast Fitting the Lining Fitting the BasqueCuting out Stripes and Plaids Stitching Seams Finishing Seams Pressing Seams Finishing Closing Edges.

...
.

47

CHAPTER V
HOW TO MAKE
Boning a Basque
A BASQUE

To Finish a Tailor Garment Lead Weights.


CHAPTER
Dress Sleeves
lars

Scale for

Placing the Bones

CONTINUED Finishing Edges


.

64

VI

SLEEVES AND COLLARS

Making
Collars

a Coat Sleeve

Jacket and Cloak Sleeves

Sewing in a Sleeve Standing CollarsTurned-over Colvii

Revers

Plastrons.

.....

78

via

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
VII
JACKETS AND CLOAKS

Ladies' Tailoring

Cutting

Cloth

Difi&cultyThe Pattern Sponging Cloth Lining a Wrap Finishing Seams.


Its
.

89

CHAPTER
Over-hand

VIII

PLAIN SEWING AND FANCY STITCHES

Sewing Fine Stitching Running Seams Back Hemming Hem-Stitching FellingFrench Fell Gathering Shirring Overcasting Tucking GussetsPatching Sewing on Strings
Stitching

96

CHAPTER IX
PLAIN SEWING AND FANCY STITCHES
Slip-Stitching

CONTINUED

Whipping Binding Cording PipingDarning Chain-Stitch Cross-Stitch Herring-Bone Stitch Loops Button-holes Sewing on Pearl and Similar Buttons.
.

no

CHAPTER X
UNDERWEAR
Materials

Cut, Fit and Making Chemise DrawersCorsetCovers NightgownsPetticoats Dressing-Sacques Wrappers Aprons. .125
.
. .
.

CHAPTER
How
to

XI

INFANTS' WARDROBES

Dress Baby

A Simple
Suits.

Layette

and Cloaks Nurses'

......
How
to

make

it

Caps
140

CHAPTER
American Mothers
for Girls

XII

children's CLOTHES

Short Clothes Small An Apron.


CHAPTER

........
Boys' Clothes

Dress
148

XIII

DRESS TRIMMINGS
Bias Bands

Cord-edge

Plain Binding and French Hem -Round Piping Double Cord-edge Straps and BandsFur Trimmings Flounces Pleating.

157

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XIV
SPECIAL COSTUMES

ix

Riding Habits Cycling


Business
the Photographer.

Women Artistic

Costumes Bathing Suits Dress for and Reform Dress To Dress for

167

CHAPTER XV
DRESS FOR HOME AND FOREIGN TRAVEL
Dress for

Home

the far East

Travel Dress for Southern Travel Dress for Dress for Ocean Travel.

....
.
.
.

189

CHAPTER XVI
MOURNING
Mourning

Mourning for a Parent, Child or Sister Children's and School-girls' Mourning Complimentary Mourning Second Mourning For the Neck.
for

Widows

200

CHAPTER
Seasonable

XVII

BRIDAL OUTFITS

Gowns The Veil Weddings The Best Date


General Trousseau.

........
XVIII
Color
.

Bridesmaids' Dresses For Quiet Brides' Traveling Dresses The


206

CHAPTER
Materials for Stage Dresses

FANCY AND THEATRICAL DRESSING

Some Fancy Dresses,


Correct Taste
Colors.

Effect of
. .

Waists and Skirts


.
. .

.215

CHAPTER

XIX

HOW TO BE YOUR OWN MILLINER

To Trim a Hat How Make a Crowned Hat or Bonnet Making Drawn Bonnets or Hats Taste
to
Stiff

..........
CHAPTER XX
THE DRESSMAKER AT HOME

in

227

Three Methods Preparing Making Over Dresses.

.......
for the

Home Dressmaker

Hints for
240

CHAPTER XXI
FABRICS, LACES AND EMBROIDERIES

Vel vet

Silk Linen Cloth Laces Embroideries Ostrich Feathers Widths of Dress Fabrics.
,

....

249

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
XXII
THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN

In what

it

must consist

Darning

Table and Bed Linen

The
265

Linen Closet

CHAPTER

XXIII

LAWS OF CORRECT DRESS


Considered from the point of Economy Considered from the point of Beauty Dress for Slender Women Dress for Stout Women Individuality in Dress Dress for Red Hair Dress Dress for Brown Hair Dress for Black Hair for Blonde Hair

Dress for Gray HairJewels General Remarks.


CHAPTER XXIV
THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS
Incongruities

273

Correct Dress for the MorningCorrect Dress for Teas, Matinees and Afternoon Receptions Correct Dress for Dinners Correct Dress for Lawn Parties Correct Dress for Driving and Coaching Correct Dress for Weddings and Wedding Anniversaries Correct Dress for Dancing Parties Correct Dress for Mourning Correct Dress for Servants.
.

295

CHAPTER XXV
TERMS USED
IN

DRESSMAKING

31O

CHAPTER XXVI
TO CUT A BASQUE PATTERN BY MOLDING

The Front Back and Side-Bodies Embellishments The Sleeve

318

CHAPTER
Introduction

XXVII

CUTTING-OUT BY MEASUREMENT

Measurements How take Measures Verification of the Measurements Variable Measurements Draft of Pattern of a Dress Verification of the Patterns for a Body Pattern for Basque Dressing Gown Low, Round Waist Transposing Measurements Drawers for a Woman Drawers for a Girl Princess Apron Apron with Straps Apron for a
to

Child

325

HOME DRESSMAKING
A Complete Guide to Household Sewing

CHAPTER I TOOLS FOR THE WORK


TRAINING FOR HAND-SEWING THE SEWING-ROOM FOR CUTTING THE SHEARS TOOLS FOR SEWING FOR FITTING TOOLS FOR PRESSING

TOOLS
TOOLS

TRAINING FOR HAND-SEWING

When

woman

attempts to make a dress, we natur-

ally conclude she

knows how

to sew.

Let us hope she

has practiced running up long seams, both by hand

and machine, that she knows how


gather,
fell,

to

hem, blind-stitch,

and,

above

all,

to

baste.

Our grand-

mothers served their apprenticeships piecing patch-

work together.

Nothing could be a better schooling.


said,

There has been much

and with good cause, against

the waste of time and talent over patchwork.


skillful

A woman,
She might

and intelligent, spending days and weeks over


is

a bedquilt,

not an ennobling thought.

do

something more important, do much that would

12

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


would seem.
is

make her world wider and those around her more comfortable,
girl,
it

But, for

child

or

young

there

no better training for the hand, the eye

and the contriving, accurate intelligence than to neatly


join pretty pieces of cloth into symmetrical designs.

In later chapters will be found

complete and clear

explanations of plain sewing and the clever but inexperienced

woman

will find therein

many

assistants to the

proper and effective use of the needle.

But

just here

we must
is

start

out with the idea that

the dressmaker

capable of doing plain sewing.


to

We

would pause here, however,

comment upon

the

value of hand-training for woman.


the hand
is

skillful

use of

alwa5^s

conducive to a well furnished

and orderly mind.


touch and the sight.
the beautiful.

It calls into It

more perfect use the

tends to

make

the useful also

slowl}' but surely disappearing.


is

The prejudice against manual labor is The little girl who


for

now being educated


is

any

field of intellectual

and

administrative work,

not well equipped


to

unless her

hands have been trained

do dainty needlework and


This physical developaccording to nature's

are skilled in other handicraft.

ment along with the mental

is

method of preserving a balance of power and a proper


equilibrium between the brain and hands.

THE SEWING-ROOM

With

the hands trained, the

dresses must furnish herself with the proper tools.

woman who would make To

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


begin with, she should have a sewing-room.
the
If,

13
in

economy

of the

house, there

is

no room she can

devote exclusively to that purpose she must have one


that
is

given up to that occupation for the time being.


absolutely necessary to have such a room to do
it

It is as

good dressmaking as
to
in.

is

necessary to have a kitchen


in, a

cook

in,

a studio to

paint

sanctum

to

write

If it is at all
it

possible, she should close herself

up

in

with her tools and fabrics and forbid interruption.


well,

To do anything
tion, one's

one must give one's entire attento


it.

whole mind,

This

is

true

in dress-

making
tools
just

as in

everything

else.
is,

Another reason why


that
all

one should

liave

such a room

materials and

may be kept

there together in their places and

where the hand maybe put upon them the instant


And, when such a room
is

they are needed.


to that

devoted
undis-

purpose, pieces of fabric


If

may

be

left

turbed and ready for use.


up, they are often thrown

they must be

gathered

away and

are missing

when

they are wished for afterward.

This room may be furnished as simply as can be


imagined, yet
it

must have two


of

chairs, an

ordinary

cane-bottomed square chair

medium

height and a

low one.
to

We

would not recommend a rocking chair


is

sew

in,

but a low rattan chair without rockers

just the thing.

footstool

is

also

a very convenient

thing to have in a sewing-room.

her work to her knee

A woman who when she sews should have

pins
that

14

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


This relieves the back
of

foot on a stool.

much bend-

ing and back-aches are less frequent.

TOOLS FOR CUTTING

For cutting ample provision should be made.


table

The

upon which material

is

laid preparatory to cutof sufficient

ting should be perfectly

smooth and

dimen-

sions to permit the largest patterns to be laid out


entirely.

For such pieces

as a trained

or kilted skirt

this is often not practicable but the

worker must then

exercise her most careful ingenuity and judgment.

The
can

home dressmaker

is

often led into the most expensive

mistakes by cutting out on the floor or bed.


not be too urgent against such a proceeding.

We

Therefore in our sewing-room there must be a table


at least four feet long out.

and three
is

feet

wide

for cutting

The

best table

the

substantial ordinary one

of

wood, with a
If this
is

smooth, even surface and square


not available, one of the folding
is

corners.

tables

of at least that size

reasonably convenient.

They are certainly entirely satisfactory for cutting but a more substantial one is better for pressing, and there is no reason why the same table should not be used for
both purposes.

When

working

at the

table, either
sit,

cutting, basting

or pressing, one

should

not stand.

When

sitting

one can easily reach across three


feet

feet of space

and two

on either side.

This saves much tiresome bend-

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


the season of sewing.

15

ing of the body and wearied feet and legs at the end of

This table

in the

sewing-room will be used

for all

sorts of other purposes beside cutting out the original

garment.
provided.

But an ordinary lap-board should


It

also

be

will often

be used when

cutting small
flounces

pieces like collars and facings and

when putting
it

or pleatings on the bottoms of skirts

will be

found

indispensable.
the sewing-room

Perhaps
is

the most important tool in


In dressmaking

a pair of shears.

much depends
edges.

in the

beginning upon clean, evenly cut


is easily,

In basting or stitching seams the eye

although often unconsciously, influenced by the outlined edges and where

they are rough or uneven the

seam

is

wavering and inaccurate.

Clean cut and even edges also influence the stitcher


to finish the

seams

in a neater

manner.

She

will with-

out thinking execute that part of the work with greater


precision.

THE SHEARS
Long, slender and sharp blades should characterize
the shears used.

Never attempt

garment with

dull,

rough or rusty ones with a loose


little

rivet,

nor with dainty


of

embroidery

scissors.

Use shears

good metal

not less than eight inches long with bent handles, with
well sharpened ends and riveted just tight

enough that

no resistance will be noticeable when opening and


closing them.
in use.

Take care

of

them when they are not


let

Keep them from dampness and do not

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


fall

them

as that will often impair the

nicety of their

adjusted blades.

TOOLS FOR SEWING


Ever}' sewing
light running

room should have


of

machine that

is

and capable
It

sewing from the heaviest

to the lightest fabrics.

should be kept well oiled

and

in order.

It

should also be kept perfectly clean.


or old
oil.
it

Do A little

not let

it

become clogged up with dust


all

kerosene will clean


off

this

away, when

in

turn must be wiped

and the machine properly oiled


oil.

with the best machine sperm

It

is

pleasant to

have

all

the attachments invented with the machine,

but for dressmaking one must have the hemmers, the


tuckers and the gatherer.

At the side of the machine

provide a scrap bag

in

which can be stowed away usebags are not too many

less pieces, and thus save the bother of picking them


off

the floor later.

Two

one for

absolutely useless pieces, the


that

other for larger scraps

may be found useful There are many minor


will

later on.

details of the sewing-room's

furnishings which

gradually be

provided

and

accumulated as the sewer prosecutes her work.

But

her sewing basket must be well stocked to commence.


It

should be a strong basket or box sufficiently large

to

meet

all

ordinary requirements.
sizes

It

must contain

needles of
quality.

all

and chosen from those of good


are the easiest to

Those with egg-shaped eyes

thread.

They should have long taper


stiff

points, as

it is

impossible to sew on

material with a conical-pointed

TOOLS FOR THE WORK

17

needle without pricking one's fingers at every stitch.


Tn every case the needle must be large enough to draw
the thread through the fabric without the least effort.

There must be pins


silk
in

in plenty, cotton thread

and spool

both white and black with a good large spool

of coarse basting cotton.

There must be an emery bag,


in

which should be home made, as those bought


dise stores
are

merchan-

generally filled with anything rather

than good

filings.

There should be a square

of to

hard

white soap.

linen

seam
If

is

a difficult

seam

sew
it

by hand or machine.
before commencing,
all

you pass the soap over


is

the difficulty

instantly re-

moved.
There must be
in this basket a well
it

fitted

thimble.

Two
tarily

thimbles are even better, as

is

very provoking

to be forced to stop

and hunt a thimble that has momenit.

disappeared just when you most need


fit

They

must exactly
to

the finger.

It is ver}'

uncomfortable
finger;
it
if

work with a thimble which turns on the


is

the extra space

filled

with paper or rag,

renders
catch.

the thimble too heavy and the thread

is liable to

There must be a lead pencil and

good tape

line

and

a pair of button-hole cutters with a gauge are a great

convenience.

Equally pleasant to have

at

hand are

sharp steel punch or chisel and a perforated bodkin for

drawing

a cord or tape

through clings or hems.

This basket should be provided with a cover to keep


its

tools free

from

all

but ordinary dust.


its

piece of

silk as long as

the basket around

top and about

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


wide makes
a

six inches

good cover.

Join

its

ends and
a

sew one

of its

edges to the basket top.

Then run

casing in the other edge of the silk and pass a drawing-string through
it.

Thus the cover may be opened


is

and closed

at pleasure.

A medium
to

size leaded pincushion

extremely con-

venient for use in pinning the work.


the

Pinning the cloth


account
of

knee

is

very poor policy, on


it

the

fatiguing stoop
is at

causes.
is

When

the leaded pincushion

hand, the cloth

so easily attached, and a

woman

without

who has become accustomed to one will never be it. They are easily made, the heavy piece
hidden
in

of lead being securely


fill

the sawdust used to

the cushion.

TOOLS FOR FITTING

There

is

an absolute necessity for a mirror in which

the entire figure

may be

surveyed.

Even
effect

in

fitting a

bodice or short

wrap the general

should be the

thing considered.

Their lengths can only be decided

correctly in reference to the entire length of the figure.

The

best mirror

is

one that swings in a frame.


is

Such
these

a one in a dressing-case

very convenient, and there


If

are less expensive ones called easel mirrors. are

beyond the means


floor
at

at

hand, place any ordinary mirror

on the

an angle Avhere a view of the entire

figure can be obtained.

The gown must harmonize

with the wearer.

In other words, you must adapt the

materials to yourself, and this can only be done by see-

ing yourself as others see you.

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


The
an
next best help one can have for this purpose
adjustable wire

19
is

form.

The forms
if

that

may be

adjusted to correspond with neck, waist and bust measure are few and expensive,
all,

they are of any value at

but there are skirt figures that

may

be bought for a

couple of dollars
eries

they are a capital investment.


TOOLS FOR PRESSING

Drap-

may

be adjusted with the greatest ease

when they

are used.

Among the most importanttools are aflatiron and some


means
there
of

heating

it.

In this day of steam radiators

is

often no such

means

at

hand.

There have been

many
lic,

inventions given an aggrieved and credulous pubto gas jets, alcohol

such as attachments
but the best thing
it

burners,

etc.,
is

is

little

kerosene stove.
;

There

no reason why

should be dangerous
it

nothing but
it

the grossest carelessness makes


flatiron in a

so,

and

heats a

few moments.
there
is

Remember

everything

in the

proper pressing

of the garment.

This applies

to

the skirt seams, the


to the sleeves

hems, the bodice seams and facings and


as well.

A good

investment

is

a couple of press boards,

one for skirts and a smaller one for bodices and sleeves.

Any carpenter
trifle,

will

make them and

the cost

is

but

while the convenience will more than repay an

even greater expenditure.

skirt

board

should be

about forty-four inches long, the length of an ordinary


skirt

and nine inches wide.

The

sleeve board should

be

five

inches in width and twenty-seven inches long.

20

TOOLS FOR THE WORK


at least

Give them each

one thickness of flannel and


these and a couple
of hot

add a cotton cover.

With

flat-irons and plenty of strength, the

homemade

dress

may be made

a very presentable affair-

CHAPTER
LININGS

II

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS
FACINGS WADDING AND CANVAS EASTENINGS WHALEBONES AND CASINGS SHIELDS YOKES

LININGS

Those who undertake

to learn the trade of

dressmak-

ing find that silesia, braid and canvas represent the

C's of the art.

The novice

will

do well
but

to try every

pattern or idea in the smooth, firm


silesia.
It is

inexpensive
frequently
all

the amateur dressmaker


of

who

makes the mistake

plunging

at

once into

the per-

plexities of silks, velvets and furbelows.

Such experi-

ments are pretty sure


liable to

to result disastrous!}'.

She

is

waste

great deal of material and to expend

so

too

much time and patience in several thousand times many stitches that she gives up trying to sew at all. How much better to begin with the anatomy of the
Master the
fit

dress.

in the linings,

which

is

reall}-

essential

to the successful fabrication,

and then suc-

cess awaits further along the line of experience and a

garment
proud.

is

achieved of which the maker

may

well feel

22

DRESSMAKERS FINDINGS
"But what kind
of linings

should we use?" do you

ask?
In the
first

place, don't

use old linings.

Such

course

is

not

economy

at all.

For with linings that

have lost their firmness and body no waist can be made


to
fit,

no

skirt

made

to

hang properly.

The same may


be

be

said

of whalebones, hooks and eyes, braids and of buttons, although the latter can again

sometimes

used more frequently.

Yet cloth buttons are usually


are tarnished.

worn shiny and metal ones

Have
fabrics,

plentiful

and good lining materials.

Ail dress
to

except some cottons, require a foundation

protect

them from

strain

cloths and woolens stretch,

laces and sheer woolens tear and silks cut and split with-

out a good under foundation.


Silk,

cambric and
its

silesia

are each

in

turn

used.
is

Each has
are

recommended
to

qualities

and each again

entirely unsuited

certain purposes.

Silk linings

by

all

odds the most elegant and comfortable.


little

To

be sure they are a

expensive in the

first

outlay

but they wear so well and are so light in weight, perfect in


fit

and generally elegant

in appearance, they are

favored by our leading and best modistes.

For dresses intended

for

general wear the soft fine

French cambric can not be too highly recommended.


Silesia is also an admirable lining material for almost

any dress and


its

for all its

parts.

For the waist and

sleeves

it is

unsurpassed, and for the skirts of dresses

as well.

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS
The purpose
ladies will tell of

23
It
is

a dress

lining

is

twofold.

necessary as a neat finish and as a foundation.

Some

you they use good, perhaps the best good


for the sleeves,

linings for the waist, not quite so

and that anything

Avill

do

for the skirt of a dress.

These
strain

are mistaken economies.

There

is just

as

much

and wear on the sleeves

of a dress as

upon the waist and


difference

the linings should be the same.

The only
skirt,

which may be made


and

is

for the

where a lighter
it

less strong material

can be used, as there

is

only

the neat finish and protection,

and really no strain

upon

it.

FACINGS

Beside the linings proper


accessories which

for skirts there are several

must be provided, that must be

classed with them.

The
is

facing for skirts comes


quite a diversity of

first

among them.
as to

There

opinion

which

is

preferable of

some three

or four which

are all in general use.

Perhaps we are safe in saying a majority


sional dressmakers

of profes-

face

their

skirts first with crossit

barred

crinoline, afterward

covering

with alpaca.
but also
extreme-

This certainly makes a


one which
ly
is

soft finish to the skirt


is

thick and clumsy and one which


to gathering

addicted

and holding dust.


is
is

Equally

objectionable for the same reason

the use of canvas


yet another objec-

covered with alpaca.


tion

And
and

there
that
is

we may

urge,

such facings do not

24

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS
of

wear well and are very hard upon the shoes


wearer.

the

Ladies who have their skirts finished in this manner


find themselves in a very short

time forced to trim

off

rags and

tatters
feet,

or

look untidy with them hanging


if

around their

and,

the dress

is at all

durable, the
its exist-

facing must be renewed at least twice during


ence.

Very much

better,

for

durabilit)^,

cleanliness
it is
it

and
the

soft finish is the cotton

padding.

When

used,

work

of facing a skirt is greatly simplified,

being

easily put on as will appear in our extended directions


for facing a skirt in a following chapter.

Every

skirt

must be finished with a braid


required, but

or a vel-

veteen band.

Pleated braids are sometimes used


is

when
it

a little extra finish

when an ordinary
to

braid

is

used

it

should be one of the best and then

will not be a narrow one, but

wide enough

cover

all

edges.

WADDING AND CANVAS


Findings
First
is

for the waists of dresses are

the lining proper, which as

more complex. we have suggested be-

fore should be either silesia, cambric or silk.


is

Whichever
it

used, let

it

be the color of the dress unless

be a black

dress.

Black lining should never be used

for waist or
still

sleeves and dark gra3MS better for black skirts too,

black

may be sometimes employed


silesias

for

them.

It

is

quite likely to soil the underwear.

There are many

good

woven black on one

side

and dark gray

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS

25

on the other, which will be found useful for some purposes.

There are but few women

or

men

either

whose
dress-

forms do not require some "building up".

Many

makers place a

laj^er

of

wadding between the lining

and the dress fabric reaching from the shoulders to the


top of the darts.

This certainly gives a smoothness


is

over the bust, that


the warmth.

desirable, still

it

greatly increases

One
the

thickness of light quality of canvas

accomplishes
of the sleeves,

same end and

is

cooler.

The
is

tops

from the shoulder

to the

elbow should
not
the form
thick-

be given the

same treatment when the form

plump and bones make unevennesses.


is

When

inclined to be too large below the waist, one

ness of canvas placed


dress fabric below the

between the lining


tops of the darts
in shape.

and

the

assists in

keeping a basque or polonaise

FASTENINGS

When

buttons are used, the button-holes are a seri-

ous question for the dressmaker and must be neatly

worked with good


will be

twist, or the

garment

is

not beautiful

even when handsome fabrics are used.

In Chapter IX.

found

full instructions

concerning button-holes.

When

hooks and

ej^es

are used for closing, the

amathose

teur dressmaker should

ask

for

bent hooks, as

slightly bent near the point stay fastened.


it is

Otherwise

necessaray to sew them on alternately, which makes


for

them very inconvenient

closing.

Small

rings

used instead of eyes on the outer part

of dress waists

26

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS
in

should be covered with silk

button-hole stitches.

The very
skirt

large hooks and eyes used as cloak and

wrap
heavy

fastenings are also excellent for keeping


:

up

four of the hooks being set on the waist just


belt,

below the

two

on the seam joining the back and


;

side-forms and one on each under-arm seam


are placed

the eyes

on the

skirt

band

to

correspond and the

wearer hooks them before fastening the inside belt of


her dress.

WHALEBONES AND CASINGS

The use
sider.

of

whalebones

is

an important item to conIf

Most ladies require every seam stayed.


it

the

seams were curved absolutely perfectly


be necessary, but this
art is

would not

seldom encountered.
the
best wht^lebones

When
only.
elasticity.

stays

are

needed, use

Nothing

else wears so well nor gives the proper


tin, steel

Horn,
either

and rubber have


or

all

been

used, and

rust,

break

twist unpleasantly.

Galloon must be provided


run the stays. seams.

for

casings in which to

Casings of lining material make clumsy

Ribbon
seams

for binding the edges of the waist

and sleeves

finish the waist in the

most acceptable manner.

With loops
to this

to

go in each armseye of the same by which


waist, a neat finish
is
is

hang up the

given.

However,

ribbon binding

repudiated by some ladies


fits.

who

delight in the snuggest

They

insist the

binding of

edges draws the seams and demand rather they shall


be loosely top sewed and pressed.

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS
must be provided

27

In any case a sufficient length of binding tor an


inside belt
to

attach at the back

seams
It is

at the waist-line to take the strain off the front.

usually fastened in front by

medium

sized hooks

and eyes.
SHIELDS

Dress shields must be provided, large ones in the


armseyes, and ladies

who

perspire profusely use small

ones in the sleeves at the elbow curve.

Some

ladies abominate

cheap shields

for dresses.

They buy the wash them in


It is also

best and take

them out
This

at intervals

and

clean soap suds.


to

is

not a bad idea.

good practice
often.

purchase cheaper ones and


are perfect and

change then

None

neatness

requires they should be changed as soon as the slightest

odor can be detected.


to

In any case

it

is

good policy

buy shields by the half dozen pair and so have them


A RESUME

always at hand.

For

medium

sized

woman's ordinary costume, con-

sisting of a

walking length skirt and a basque with

coat sleeves, the following findings will be found necessary


:

If silesia is

used

five

and one-half yards


for the waist

for the

skirt,

one and one-half yards

and one yard


If

for the sleeves, or a total of


silk is

eight yards.

ordinary

used ten yards will be found

sufficient.

For the
of alpaca,

skirt facing

one yard of canvas, with one yard

or one yard of

padding alone,

if

the latter

is

preferred.

Add

to these three long

whalebones, one boltofbraid,

28

DRESSMAKERS' FINDINGS
to

one bolt of ribbon


for

bind seams, one piece of galloon

whalebone casings, one card of hooks and eyes or


of

one and one-half dozen

medium

sized

button,

two

spools of twist, one of sewing silk and one spool of

basting cotton.

The
of all
to

findings required for jackets and outside wraps

kinds will be fully treated in chapters devoted

such garments.

To conclude and
pay.
false

at the

same time be
findings.

would say do not buy cheap

explicit we They do not


It
is

Do

not use old linings or whalebones.


in

economy. Findings do not show


tell

one sense

of the

word, but they


comfort.

every time in wear and general

YOKES

word

as to

keeping the whole gown


'

in

shape and

doing away with wire yoke such

closet wrinkles.
tailors

"

Buy

wooden

or

as

use for suspending coats,

and

after turning the dress

wrong side out

fasten the
It

waistband and slip the whole over the yoke.


the folds of the drapery, preventing

spreads

them from being

crushed into an unshapely mass, and keeps the founThese dation from stretching down at the seams.

yokes are inexpensive, and

may

be found at any dry-

goods store.

CHAPTER III HOW TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


THE MODERN GORED SKIRT THE FOUNDATION SKIRT SKIRT DRAPERIES THE KILT SKIRT THE TRAINED SKIRT REEDS
THE MODERN GORED SKIRT

The

size

and st3de

of skirts vary

with each edict of


styles

fashion.

However,

tliere are

two general

upon
skirt

which the changes are rung, the short walking


and the trained
into the
is

skirt.

Walking

skirts

may be
;

divided

round

full skirt

and the gored

skirt

the former
a gathered

mere matter

of straight seams, a

hem, and

top on a band,

tliat

anyone can make.

But the shapely

gored skirt

is

a different thing.

The modern gored skirt is the work of an artist. Some one has said "the making of one is like singing an old ballad. A novice may sing a grand operatic aria
but
it

takes a genius to sing 'Comin' thro' the Rye,'

and

to

make

a gored skirt.
difficult of

Both are most simpte


construction."
to

in

design but most

There are three things which go


skirt
;

make

perfect

first

an accurate cut, second a neat finish and


29

third a thorough pressing.

30

HOJV TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS

The walking skirt most used is rather narrow in its proportions. The only skirt less ample was the one
which showed
its

back breadth gored

at

the top to

fit

as close as the present front and side-gores do.


Z^Inches.

7 Inches.

18 Fnches.

<
CD

18 Inches.

THE FOUNDATION SKIRT

Every

skirt should be
It

made with
It is

perfectly fitted

foundation.
erly gored

should be of easy walking length, propusually cut with

and not too wide.


two side-gores
of

one front-gore,
breadth.

and a straight back


size

For a lady

medium

who

will

measure

twenty-four inches around the waist the following are


the correct measurements for each part.

The

front

gore will be fifteen inches wide at the top with a dart

two inches wide allowed

for

on each side of the mid-

HOU^ TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


die of the front.
It is forty

31

inches in length in front

but

is

sloped to forty-one inches in length at the sides

and

at the

bottom

is

twenty-two inches wide.

The

side-

gores are each forty-one inches in length at their front


sides and forty-two where they are joined to their back

breadth.

They

are seven inches wide at the top with

two inches allowed for darts and are gracefully curved


to sixteen inches just in

width

at the

bottom.

The back

is

one yard in width

its entire

length, which

is forty-

two at its sides


middle.

sloping to forty-four inches in the

When

quarter-inch-wide

seams

are

taken,
inches,

the back has

all its

fulness gathered

into five

which

is

the correct proportion.


it

For home dressmakers

is

much

the best plan to

use a good pattern for this skirt, as no rule given in


figures can explain the graceful curves

which each gore


skirt that

should show to give the best


ill

effect.

hangs

is

always dowdy

looking.

No

matter

how

elabor-

ately draped or trimmed, a badly shaped foundation


skirt ruins all.

The

materials used for the foundation skirt vary with

the fabrics

employed

for drapery.

We

will for

examshould

ple suppose

we

require one for a dress of


silk.

cashmere,

serge, cloth or

In which case the

skirt

be of lining silk the same color or a shade harmonizing with


it.

However, good

silk linings

(poor ones are


there
are

an abomination) are expensive, and


materials

other

which make admirable

linings.

By some

sateen and silesia are preferred and the latter cannot be

32

HOW

TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


in the matter of weight.

too highly
It is
it is

recommended except

always heavier than any other skirt lining,


not too weighty.

Yet

French cambric

is

also an excel-

lent material for skirts.

Whatever the material chosen, cut the

front and back

breadths on a lengthwise fold of the goods and the sidegores with their front edges on straight edges of
it,

The seams

of

this foundation

skirt

are

of

course

sewed up separately from the outside or draped portions.

They may be sewed

so that the

smooth sides

of the

seams are on the underside

of the skirt

and their rough

edges next the draperies. The facings in that case should


all

be cut to

fit

the skirt after


it

its

seams are

closed.

For heavy

skirts

is

better to slash the front-gore


its
is

for four inches at least

on

lower edge to give greater


a great saving to shoes,
is

freedom in walking.

This

whose leather over the instep

otherwise
intact.

often

worn

through while the other parts are


is

tight braid

very wearing in that respect.

The foundation
the drapery.
skirt with its

of

most

skirts

is

faced on the upper

side under the draperies, four inches with material of

This facing

is laid

on each portion of the

upper edge turned under and stitched down

on the lining, before the skirt seams are sewed.


to

Begin

sew each seam (and there

will be four in all) at the


fall at

top, allowing all

unevenness to

the bottom.
If

Be

careful not to

stretch any bias

edges.

you are an

entire novice

it is

the best plan to both pin and baste the


It will

seams before stitching them.

often save hours

I/Of!^
of

TO

MAKE DRESS
When
flat,

SKIRTS

33

worry and ripping.


each one down

the seams are stitched,

press

turning them alwa3S toward


better than laying the

the back, this

method

is

seams

open.

In either case the edges should be overcast or

top-sewed, and thoroughly pressed, with a

warm

iron.

Then
front

lay the skirt folded

down

the middle at the

and back portions so that the corresponding


a table.

seams are together, on


the top, and then pare

Let them be even


at the

at

off

any unevenness
is

bottom.

The

matter of inside facing

a very important
is

one

and also one upon which there

almost

as

diversity of opinion as there are dressmakers.


ever,

much Howis

when we

resolve
it

the question

down
is

to

what

really required,

is a simple thing to

decide

how

to

face

your walking

skirts.

facing

required to
a facing
is

neatly finish the bottom

of

a skirt, and

required to obviate any luipleasant clinging about the

limbs when walking.


requirements
is

What

will

best

cover

both

what we want.
that
this
is,

Some dressmakers contend


alpaca.

first

a five-

inch piece of crinoline or canvas and tlien a piece of

Another will demand a hem lined


hair
cloth, still

for twelve

inches with horse

another demands
In most things the

canvas or buckram in like width.


simplest

way

is

the

best way, and

we

believe

it

is

especially true in putting on a skirt facing.

Much
is

practice and experience convince us that skirt


is

padding used alone


the cheapest.

the best thing and


localities

it

certainly
is

In

some

this

material

34

HO]V TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


But
it is

called by other names.


ric
It

moderate weight fabflannel

glazed on one side and likecanton

on the other.

possesses sufficient stiffness but at the same time


pliable

it is

and does not render even the lightest


It is also
is

skirt

ungraceful.

a fabric

which sheds the dust,


off

and when
cloth.
tion:
it

it

required
its

may be wiped
is

with a

damp

Again,

durability

great

recommendaafter the

will last as long as

any

skirt.

The

neatest

manner

of putting

on a facing

is,

lower edge of the skirt has been properly pared, tocut the
facing eight inches deep and to
fit

it

exactly.

Then
should
it

seam the

skirt

and facing's lower edges together on the

inside and turn.

The upper edge


Then
it

of the facing

be cut in fine notches and just below them stitch

down on

the skirt lining.

finish

the

smooth

edge with the customary braid.

Always use the best


in water

braid,

receives the hardest


It

usage of any portion of the

skirt.

should be dipped
it

and allowed

to

thoroughly dry before

is

stitched on the skirt.

Otherwise, even the "warranted

not to shrink" braid will draw up on the skirt foundation.

The above
tom
tern and the

directions are ample for finishing the bot-

of a skirt

when you have


is

it

cut over a perfect pata skirt design


its
is

padding

used.

When

used that has not the proper spring given


resources must be called upon.

gores, other

Every woman knows

how
foot

disagreeable
is

it is

to walk,

when

at

every step the


is

pulled back by the

skirt.

This

obviated by

HOll' TO

MAKE DRESS SK/RTS


the
foot

35

twice slashing for four inches

of the skirt's

front-gore and covering the slashes with pleating.

Some
are not
silk.

dainty imported dresses for wear in the house

bound with

braid, but are simply faced

with
is

Attached to this facing inside the skirt


frill

pinked

of silk instead of thelace balayeuse

some-

times formerly employed.

To
are
to.

protect the extreme lower edges of skirts which

of

extra length,

At the

many expedients shops many new"protectors"

are

resorted

are found and

at

once recall those used for a similar purpose some years

ago.

The new

ones, of course, have the advantage of all

the improvements of progression.

Several kinds are of

buckram, which

is

widely bound with rubber cloth and

either pleated to a binding

which curves the protector

to

the shape of the train, or

is

sewed

to a j^oke-like piece

shaped

like the

bottom

of the skirt at the back.

These

protectors extend across the sweep of the skirt only.

Others, however, are in the nature of a facing.


ing material
is

The
and
is

fac-

a strip of blacksilesia orserge,

long

enough
For a
at the

to pass

completely round the skirt foundation. extend around the sweep


again
faced with a stirp of

sufficient distance to

back this facing

is

rubber cloth securely stitched on, and as this comes


next the surface on which one
the edges of the skirt
is

walking,

it

prevents

and

its

foundation

becoming

worn, soiled or damp.

braid

is
it

.also supplied
for a

which has
portion of

a rubber strip
its

Stitched to

sufficient

length to

36

JJOIF

TO MAKE DRESS SKIJRTS


;

protect the sweep of the skirt

and folded rubber

strips,

which look like pipings, are made to extend entirely


round the skirt and are very satisfactory
ity of protector.

in the

capac-

Most

of these protectors

may be found

in gray,

brown and

black.

When
the

the lower edge of


skirt
is

foundation
it

completed,

should also

be finished at the top before


its

draperies are ad

justed.

A placket-opening
at

must be provided either


the back
or
at

one

side.

This

is

done by making an
in a

opening either

seam or
from the

by cutting the material the


depth
top.
of ten inches

Face the upper or


side

INSIDE OF FINISHED SKIRT

Overlapping

with a

two-inch-widestrip of the material of the draperies.

Then

sew

in a

seam

to the
let

opposite side a double flap of the


it

same material and


tacking
it

extend under the faced side,

fast at its

lower end to the opposite facing.

pocket should then be put in along the second


It

right-side seam.

may be made

of either silk or siiesia

and must be faced with the material of the dress each


side of its opening.

When
skirt

these preliminaries are completed the entire


skirt

must be most thoroughly pressed on the long

board with a hot iron.

HOW
hips of
matter.
a

TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


of the foundation
skirt,

37
the

The adjustment
small

about
a

woman

is

comparatively
the

simple

The

darts in the front and in

side-gores
is

are stitched and


gathers.

the fulness at

the

back

held in

The band
of

of the required size ma)'


First, the

be added in one

two ways.

edge

of

the

band may be
skirt,

basted on the under or wrong side of the

tacking

the middle of the band to the middle of the front and the tops of the seams on either side at corresponding distances on the band.
yourself that
it

Then

tr}'

on the

skirt,

and

satisfy

hangs perfectly even and easy.

The

re-

mainder of the work will be done on the machine,

which

is

difficult

to

rip,

consequently

all

changes

should be made now.

When

satisfied, stitch the

band

and the upper edge of the

skirt

together.

over the band with the seam inside and stitch

Then turn it down


all

on the

skirt.
is

This process does away with


a very neat finish.

hand

sewing and

The second manner


with a band,
size.

of finishing the top of the

skirt

is to first

(A piece

of

make the band of belting may be used.) Then


band

the required

Then

turn

under the edge of the skirt a quarter of an inch, securing


it

with a running stitch.

tack the middle of


in their respective

the front and the seams to the

positions and lay the fulness of the back in pleats or


gathers.

After which fell the band to the skirt edge by

hand with a strong thread.

38

HOW

TO

MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


To sew
the
belt,

the gathered portion to


see
illustration.

The
with a

portions sewed to the belt,


close

over-casting stitch, are the


of

stitches

the

gathering

them-

selves, the intervals


Sewing Skirt Gathers

between them

Supplying the deep pleatS which

are secured

in

place
inch
a

by

row
the

of

strong
of

stitches

about one-half

below

line

gathering.

When

there

is

great deal of material to gather into

a small compass, the

gathering stitch has to be disthe the


stitches being too

carded, the intervals between

wide

to

sew

across.

Then

material

is

evenly
in

pleated up and sewed as pleated to the belt,


the uncompleted portion. ering over real pleats
upright,
is

shown

The advantage

of this gath-

that the gathered pleats are


freely,

and the material below hangs


are

while

pleats

sewed

flatly into

the belt and confine the

material more.

For stouter women a


bodice worn over
it,

skirt
it is

band mars the


a good

fit

of the

and

practice to face

the entire top of the skirt, gathering the fulness of the

back on tapes and so use no band

at all.

SKIRT DRAPERIES

Before the draperies are added, the best skirts are


given a pleating of the dress material.

This pleating

should be five or six inches wide and should be stitched


fast to the

upper side

of the

foundation

skirt.

HOW TO MAKE
The
ities
It

DRESS SKIRTS

39

draperies of skirts are so varied and often so

complex, according as fashion dictates, only generalcan be considered in this work.


requires great skill to cut skirt draperies without a

pattern.
it.

To do

Only experienced dressmakers should attempt so generally results in much worry and a

waste of material.
ies

When
cut in

it

is

attempted, the draper-

should be

first

soft

paper or some cheap

cloth,

and

this

used as a guide in cutting the more

expensive dress fabric.

When

the

draperies are cut, stitch

all

the breadths

together and press the seams.

Then

turn up the lower

edge in a medium sized hem.


silk

For bordered materials,


best to secure this
cloths

and cotton

fabrics,

it

is

hem

with a fine

blind

stitching, but

and

suitings

may

often be enhanced by
is

machine stitching the hem.


in quality
it Is

Unless the material


best to stiffen this

heavy and firm

hem

with crinoline before stitching.

The edge

of draperies are of-

ten best finished by a false

hem

of the foundation material, (C)

about six inches wide, (B) after

having overcast an interlining


muslin (A) to the lower edge of
the skirt.
finished

The
as

false

hem

being

illustrated, place

A FALSE

HEM

^raid at the lower edge, not in

the ordinary binding style, doubled in half and conceal-

40

HOJV TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS

ing the whole edge, but sewed inside the skirt and left
quite
fiat.

For cloths and other heavy woolens the

tailor

hem

makes the neatest

finish.

The
of the

stitches of the tailor

hem

are invisible from the


to

right side.

Thin paste

is

employed

make

the halves

hem adhere
which

together, and to facilitate flattening

in with the iron.

Three inches from the edge tack a


is to

straight line

be the edge of the


at hand.

skirt.

Have

the paste and a

hot

iron

Apply the paste

inside with a brvish, not too thickly, where the


to

hem

is

bend over, on the three inches below the tacking.


paste, turn over the

As you
iron
safety,

hem

at the

tacking, and
for greater

it flat

and smooth.

Tack down the hem


it

and then hem

invisibly, passing the needle

only half through the cloth, so that no vestige of the


stitch appears

on the right side.

Now

remove the tackin spite of the


fiat,

ing and iron a second time.

Your hem

thickness of
beautifully

the

cloth, should

be perfectly

and
the

smooth and even.

Sew with
silk

silk

of

cloth color, not cotton.

The

must be strong and

of excellent quality, as the constant in

damping necessary
silk,

tailoring injures the color of

cheap

which

is

also not strong

enough
tunic

to
is

hem and
is

stitch thick cloth.

When a skirt or

edged with one or more rows


not necessary, although

of stitching, the tailor

hem

the pasting and ironing are advisable before the


is

hem

put under the machine to be stitched.

When

this

hem has been

carefully pressed, turn

no IF TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


under half an inch
at the top of the draperies

41

and

fell

them into place on the foundation


Cover this edge with a
fiat

skirt, at the waist.

galloon or braid.
It is as

Now comes
venience
;

into use the skirt stand.


it is

neces-

sary as the sewing machine;


it

a comfort and a conresults

facilitates the

work and much better

can be produced by arranging the draperies and sewing them into place while the foundation skirt
stand.
at
is

on the

Draping

is

too changeable in style to be treated

length here.

It is

ornamental and must be an expres-

sion of the existing fashion

and the

taste of the wearer.

To

finish the skirt,

along the

belt,

tack on two braid

loops by which to hang up the skirt.

Use two hooks

and eyes to close the waistband and add two large


hooks
to

correspond with two large eyes placed on the

bodice at the waist-line to join the two.

THE KILT SKIRT

The
It is

kilt skirt is

but a variety of
is

the draped skirt.


the gored skirt.
it.

made with

a foundation as

The The
if

same proportions prevail as are mentioned for


strictly followed.

kilted or pleated portion, is not difficult to adjust

two simple rules are


first,

These rules

are
its

the outer edge of each pleat must be folded


tlie

entire length along the straight thread of

cloth

second, each pleat must be laid to hang in a straight


line

from the waist


first

to the

bottom

of the skirt.

many women would declare this to be impossible but it is not. The easiest way to accomplish these results is to make the foundation skirt as
At
glance

42

I/OJy

TO

MAKE DRESS

SKIRTS
it

directed in the preceeding pages.

Finish

complete

with an upper facing of the dress material and the usual


under-facing,

braid

and waistband.

Then put

it

on

the skirt stand.


kilted

Prepare the straight breadths to be

by sewing and pressing the seams, joining the

breadths and finishing the lower edge with a hem,

machine or blind

stitched.

Enough breadths muSt be


the foundation skirt.

provided to make the portion to be pleated three times


as

wide as the bottom

of

Then

divide the breadths at the


five

hem

into

spaces of about

inches and crease

the

goods the length of the This crease will be the

skirt

each

five

inches apart.

outside fold of the pleat.

These creases may be basted

with a thread their entire length.

Pin

all

the pleats into position round the bottom of

the foundation skirt and

draw the creased edge


it is

of

each

up

to the waist-line, so

in straight line

and the

extra width will arrange itself into an easy graceful pleat

underneath.
skirt baste

When
it

this has

been done

all

around the
the kilted
of

the pleats securely and remove

drapery.

Press

on the under side.

Then take tape

medium width and

tack one length to the under crease

of the pleats about nine inches

below the waist-line

and another about eighteen inches above the bottom.

The pressing and tapes


tion
it

will hold the pleats in


it

posi-

permanently.

When

has been done, again put


fell

on the skirt stand over the foundation skirt and

it

on to the
Tf

latter, at the waist-line.

any ornamentation of stitching, braid or embroid-

HOW
ery
is

TO

MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


it

43

given the

skirt,

must be done before the


foundation
to

pleats are laid.

For some

kilt skirts the

skirt is

omitted

but they can not

be made

wear

satisfactorily or to

look so well even in the beginning.


braid tacked on
portion, so
flat to

An

ordinary skirt
the

the under-side

of

pleated

that its

edge extends only just below the


edge of that hem.

hem

will protect the

TRAINED SKIRTS

A
an

pattern must

be provided
it

when

trained skirt

is
is

to be

made and when


It

has

been

cut, the

making

art in itself.

must be lined with

material to

correspond with the fabric employed for the trained


skirt.

That

is

with silk of a contrasting or harmonfinish of

izing color.

Nothing but the neatest

the
it

under-side of a trained skirt will be satisfactory, as


is liable to

become

visible at any
of
is

moment.
or

For

trains

made

heav}' silk

woolen materials,
for soft silks, soft
it

no extra stiffening
crinoline

required, but

may be used

as an interlining to give
it

the

requisite body.

However,

should be used with the


is

greatest discrimination, as the soft train


taste

in the best

and an undesirable stringiness

is

all

we wish
to

to

avoid.

Tapes must be adjusted on the under-side


front
to hold the fulness of tlie

draw the

and sides back into their proper places, as well as


back
together.

Our

illus-

tation on

page 36 shows

this finish.

44

HO IV TO MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


THE BALAYEUSE
balayeiise is a flounce

The

sewed under the edge


It
is

of the

skirt, instead of
itself, or to

above

it.

can be sewed to the skirt


then sewed to the
skirt.

band which

little

time ago the

white

halayeiise

was uniindoors,

versally

worn

but of late this has been

superseded by the
flounce of taffeta or any
soft
silk,

cut

on

the

straight or the cross,

and on

TO MAKE THE BALAYEUSE


to the

pleated

or gathered

hem.

Dressmakers should learn


it is

how

to set a

balayeusc well, as

never entirely put aside, and has

lengthened periods of great popularity.

REEDS
Extenders, or bustles
pleasure.
flat in

come and go

at

Fashion's
are

There are ladies, however, who


it is

very

the back below the waist-line and

an improvethe

ment for them to always use one


skirt

reed or steel in

about ten inches below the waist-line.

casing

must then be run as indicated by A, B, (See illustration

page

30, )

through which the reed

is

passed. At

its

ends on either side a

tape must be fastened and when

tied the reed is distended

and the back drawn together.

Trained skirts seldom require this reed.

There are a few most important points

it

seems well

HOW
to recall
in the
I

TO

MAKE DRESS SKIRTS


order to
fix

45

more

briefly, in

them more firmly

mind.
that

St,

you should pin or tack together the breadths

of the skirt, at the top, before

you begin, that you may

not chance to put in more gores on one side than the


other
(if

there are gores), or find that the back-breadth

comes

to

one

side.

2d, that

you should, while thus arranging the breadths,


is

look very carefully that no one


out,
if

turned wrong

ide

there are two sides

or, if

figured, with the pat-

tern upside

down,

3d, that, as the

uppermost edge takes up the most,


over your finger, and as the cut edge

as your

work

lies

stretches

more than the selvage, you should, pin from


begin
to

top

to

bottom, before you

join

them, the
is

breadth on which you are employed.


sure

This

the only

way

of

avoiding puckering.

4th,

that

you should, as often as possible, begin your


top, that,
if

run

at the
off at

there
it

is

any
is of

left

over,

it

may

go

the bottom, where

the least

conse-

quence.

You can do
at the

this in every case

but

when you

have

to

join a cut edge and a selvage, and then you

must begin
uppermost.
5th,

bottom, in order to have the selvage

that

you must remem.ber that gored


turning in of the
the

skirts

hang

lower at the bottom of the gores than either before or


behind, and that the
be, therefore, laid
skirt.
first

hem should
of

rather deeper at

sides

the

46

MO IV TO MAKE
may wear

D^E.^S SKIRTS

6th, that

you should make your fastenings so good


out before they give way.

that the dress

This

is

particularly important with regard to the pocket-

holes and the placket opening, which should be well

secured by stitching, or a bar at the turn.


trying to a lady to find her skirt
first slit

It is

very
the

down behind,

time she slips her gown

over her head, or

her

pocket-hole give wa}' before she has put her hand into
it

half a

dozen times.

CHAPTER

IV

HOW
ING

TO MAKE A BASQUE
THF,

AN ORDINARY BASQUE

PATTERN
FITTING

FIRST STEP IN MAK-

BASTING

THE LINING

THE LINING FIT-

TING THE BASQUE


STITCHING SEAMS

CUTTING OUT STRIPES

AND PLAIDS

FINISHING SEAMS PRESSING SEAMS

FINISHING CLOSING EDGES.

AN ORDINARY BASQUE

The

best advice to
is

be

offered a beginner in dress-

making

to practice
fit.

on round waists.

Thej' are not


of darts

so difficult to

The proper adjustment


cutting and fitting of

and

seams extending only


ing.

to the waist-line, is not perplexits collar

The proper

and

sleeves need not drive her to desperation.


in this
to

However,

instance time and space will


as the hints

not be devoted

them alone

on basques properly include

round waists.

THE PATTERN

Few

ladies have the time


of dress

or

inclination

to learn a

good system

cutting, consequently they


of greater or

must

depend usually upon patterns


47

less excel-

48
ence.

HO]V TO MAKE A BASQUE


A
very good pattern ma}' be secured by going to a

first-class

dressmaker and having a basque


fit.

cut, insisting

upon

a perfect

This may cost


it

$5, but the pattern

you may cut from


and

will cost only a little care.


of teachers of

Again there are plenty


will cut
fit

systems who
after

a lining

which will ever

serve

as a pattern.

However, there are many sewers who


These are cut
possess them.

can not afford to pursue this course and for them there
are

the tissue paper patterns.

to

fit

perfect forms and but few

women

The
3'ard,

same
used.

difficulty

appears when marked waist linings are

These linings may be purchased by the


is

on which

traced the entire waist and

it

can soon be

cut out and basted together and alterations


If

made
fit

in

it.

the latter are numerous,

when
it

a perfect

has been

obtained, cut a pattern from a

for

future

use and cut

new

lining.

THE FIRST STEP

IN

MAKING
is to

The
lining

first

step in

making

basque

lay out the

smooth on the
cutter

table.

On

this lay the pattern.

An economical

will lay

out the entire pattern

before cutting one piece.

In laying on the pattern the

grain of the cloth must be carefully considered.


perfect
fit

The

of

the

basque,

sleeve,

or collar

depends

greatly
pattern.

upon the weave being


Never attempt
fit

just as indicated by the

to

economize by twisting the

pattern into spaces to

the piece of lining.

How

TO

MAKE A BASQUE

49

HOW TO LAY ON

A BASQUE PATTERN

50

HOW
The preceding

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
manner
of

illustration gives the best

laying a basque pattern on the cloth, forty inches wide.

Pin each piece securely in position as soon as they are


all

arranged.
perfectl}'

Then with

the sharp shears cut them out

with

smooth edges.

Mark with

a pencil

any

perforations or notches in the pattern.

When
is to

this

lining has been cut

out, the

next step

carefully baste the pieces

together, as the mate-

rial of

the dress proper should not be cut until the lining


fitted.

has been carefully and perfectly

BASTING THE LINING

Basting

is

the foundation of good dressmaking.

Its

importance can not be too highly appreciated.


ably only one dressmaker in
properly.
ten can

Prob-

baste a basque

The

first

rule

is,

do not be afraid of stitches.

Run
first.

a basting thread along the waist-line of each piece,

In joining the different parts of the basque

which there are generally eight


the waist-line.

of always begin to baste at

This will prevent the the basque from


First join the sidebody to the back.

being lop-sided.

Begin

at the waist-line

and sew down and again sew


careful
in

from the waist up.

Be very
its

handling the

sidebody not to stretch

edges.

Join the under-arm

gore to the front by beginning again at the waist-line

and basting

first

down and then

up.

Join the sidein the

body and under-arm gore, proceeding


ner.

same man-

The

curves of the darts in the front of a basque in

HOW

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
all,

51
a

themselves show the

artist, therefore,

when you have make

pattern 3'ou will use at


indicating the darts.

adhere
is

closel}' to the lines

If it

necessary to

alter-

ations to secure a perfect

never change the darts.

the waist-line

fit make them in some seam, The darts should be joined at and basted down and then up as are the

seams.
Join the backs together
close the shoulder seams.
tight
in the

same manner and then


all

Fasten

basting threads
if

enough

to

stand

fitting.

Before fitting

the

lining does not

seem entirely

firm run a basting thread

along the edges of the neck and armseyes.


FITTING THE LINING

Now

you are ready

for the

fitting.

upon the manner

of underclothes worn.

Much depends Some women

wear such shocking underwear, misfitted corsets and


so

many knots and bunches of gathers, no one could make the modern dress fit over them. Well fitted corsets, a

smooth vest or corset-cover


fit.

will greatly assist

in a perfect

Put on the basted basque with the edges

of the

seams

outside, pinning the fronts together, not over each other.

The novice
She
will

in

fitting

must not grow wearied


off

easily.

probably have to put on and take


or ten times.
of a

the gar-

ment eight

There are several sacred seams


alterations should

basque in which
First

never be

made.

the

darts

should never be touched and second the seams joining

52

HOJV TO MAKE A BASQUE


These
in

the sidebodies to the back.

good pattern
hair's

are given perfect curves and to

change them a

breadth

is fatal

to the gracefulness of the basque.

Some

dressm.akers hold the

same regarding the middle-back


to

seam.
mal,

Unless the form


all alterations

be

fitted is

unusually abnor-

can be made in the under-arm and


of the fronts

shoulder seams.

The curve
is

may

also be

made

to

conform

to the figure's outlines.

When
if

the basque

pinned on,

if

there are wrinkles,

work them out


possible.
is

into the shoulder

and under-arm seams

If

the back wrinkles between the should-

ers, it

too long.

Loosen the shoulder seams and


If it

take up the length there.

wrinkles at the waist


let

loosen part of the under-arm


there.

seam and

them escape
of

Wrinkles also come from an insufficiency

notches.

Have plenty along

the sides of the seams at

the waist-line and cut them as deep as possible with-

out cutting the threads of the stitching.

When
of the

the figure fitted

is

slightly stooped or round

shouldered, which

often occurs, the curves at the top

back pieces must be omitted and the neck there

be cut straight across to prevent the collar drawing


out from the neck.
fronts around the

In such

case the curve of the

arm must

be altered to allow a free-

dom

for the arm.


it

In fitting the lining allow

to

be at least one-half

inch too long at the waist-line.


a

This may be laid in


fitted

pleat while

it

alone

is

being

but

must be
lin-

arranged in fine gathers along the seams when the

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
ing
is laid

53
fine lines

on the dress

fabric, as is

shown by

in the

space between

and B, shown

in the illustra-

tion on page 54.

Alterations should

be made with the utmost care.


in

Very often the shape and style are ruined


them.

making

Remember
is

that in taking in a seam, an-eighth of


if

an inch

frequently sufficient whereas


troubles are produced.

a half inch is

made new
lies

Patience must be
of

used to strike that happy

medium

correction that

between perfectness and utter


the lining has
it,

ruin.

FITTING THE BASQUE

When
Then
half.

been

fitted,

trim

off

even

all

edges of one-half of
rip

before taking out the bastings.

the entire basque apart and cut the second

half to

exactly correspond with


It is

the
fit

first

or

trimmed

exceedingly risky to

and trim either side

independently of the other.

There are very few forms but require some padding


into perfect shape.
bust,

Perhaps

it is

onl}' a little

over the

perhaps a hoUowness under the arms or over the


filled in.

collarbones must be
to give a

Wherever

it is

required

smooth

surface, baste cotton-batting into place


its

on the
is

lining,

with

edges uneven, before the lining

laid

on the outside dress material.

Afterward lay each piece of the lining on the outside with the cotton-batting between.
It will

be found

economical to lay

all

the lining pieces on before bastIn laying the lining

ting or cutting any one portion.

on the outside material attention must be given to the

54

HOW
of

TO

MAKE

A BASQUE
of

grain of the

cloth.

The threads
not done the

the

lengthwise
of

weave

one should correspond exactly with those


If this is

the other.

bodice

is

likely to

twist to one side or the other.

When
tration.

this has

been done, run a thread basting them


illus-

together at the waist, the line marked L. in the

Then ran

a line of

basting from

the top of

each front dart straight to the lower edge of the basque,

holding in the extra length of the lining in

fine gathers.

There are
ric

tricks in basting the lining

SHOWING GATHERS IN LINING and dress


all

fab-

together peculiar to different workers,

agree,

howit

ever, in basting tailor-fashion


is

on the

table,

because

the simplest.

Stitch the dress goods well and baste


lines,

through the dotted


over but not
full

keeping the lining easy

all

any place except between the lines

and B.
wearing.

This easy allowance provides

for the strain in

no IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
To
From
baste the front, run
first

55
line

the basting

down

the middle of the darts, then along the lines

and B.

the line

to the

bottom

of the basque, pin the


it.

lining straight but do not

stretch

In basting the
lines
to the

remainder

of the fronts follow the dotted

hair's width,
ric

making the
lining.

stitch short

on the dress fab-

and long on the

Be

careful in taking

up the
down.

fulness between the lines


It

T and B
It is

not to pleat

it

must be equally divided and taken up more


above the line

as gathers
little

or shirring than as pleats.

usual to have a

more

of this fulness

than below

it.

The

space between

and

should be about three inches.


portions.

The same rules should prevail for the other The material for the sidebodies should not be
as
it is

stretched

partially bias

and

if

pulled, will wrinkle

when

made

up.
all

When

the lining pieces have been basted onto

the outside, carefully cut them

out of the cloth with

even edges.

That done,

baste, using No. 60 cotton.

Baste close
lap.

and baste on the table

never
number

in

your

Many
profess

women, and among


to

that

are those

who

understand the business, baste over their fingers.


result is ruinous, for that

The

makes the upper piece


becomes lopsew anything

shorter than the under and the garment


sided.

To

repeat former advice, don't

over your finger.


In joining the six gores of the basque together,
ber to begin
all

rememsew

the basting at

the waist-line and

56

HOW

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
to the waist-line

down

to the bottom,
to the top.

and then return

and baste

This will prevent the garment


In a basque properly

from being lop-sided.


basting of
all

made

the

seams

will

run just inside or just out-

side the line of stitching.

This avoids the possibility

of catching the basting thread in the stitching and of

breaking the thread used in stitching when the bastings are

drawn

out.

Start

with the front-gore, pin

the darts together at the waist-line and baste

the bottom

then, beginning at the top, baste

down down

to to

the waist-line.

Join the under-arm to the front by pinning the waistlines

together

begin

at this

place and baste


first.

in

the

basting threads, sewing

down

Then commence

again at the waist-line and sew up, stretching the under-

arm a

trifle at

the waist.

Join the sidebody to the back, beginning at the waistline,

sewing down, and again from the waist up.

Be

very careful in handling these gores not to stretch che


edges.

Next join the sidebody and under-arm by pinning


the waist-lines together, keeping the edges even

and

basting the traced line, sewing


the waist up.
to hold for a

down and then from

Fasten the basting stitches strong enough


fitting.
if

Try the basque on and


you are ready

no alteration
if

is is

necessary

and there should be none


fitted,

the

lining

properly

to stitch the seams.

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
CUTTING OUT PLAIDS AND STRIPES

57

When
rial it

cutting a bodice from striped or plaid mate-

requires a great nicety of adjustment to get the


fit

different parts to

neatly and properly together. There

are several rules

which must be followed exactly or


First the

the bodice will be absolutely unpresentable.


stripes or

plaids

must exactly correspond on either

side of the middle-back


front closing.

seam and on

either side of the

M^

m m

TO CUT PLAID GOODS

They may be
come together

cut on the bias of the goods or

in the

usual straight up and

their lines

this only requires care

down manner, but where they must exactly match. To do and attention. The lining must

58

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
exactly
it.

be

fitted

and

the

seams distinctly marked

upon
ric

Then

lay each piece of lining


lines

upon the
the

fab-

and see that the

of

one piece of the back


lines
of

exactly
piece,

correspond with

the

opposite

when they

are laid with their right sides

upon

each other.

Our illustration indicates as nearly as we can the manner of laying one-half the lining pieces on a plaid material. The other half must correspond.
In the fitting the lining the exact waist-line should

be indicated by a creased line in each portion.

In layis

ing the portions on the cloth one line of the plaid

followed by this crease.


line just

In this instance

it is

the white

below

B.
its

First lay the back lining on the fabric with


line just

waist

below

B.

Baste
its

it

in

place

all

around.

Then

lay the sidebody with

creased line just below

A B

also, taking care that the top of the

armseye cor-

responds with the part of the


reaches lines

back's

armseye, which

F.

Perhaps
will

at first the curves of the

back and side-back


the
fabric

not

exactly correspond

but

may be

turned and even slightly twisted on to the lining until


they
fit

together exactly.

When

this has

been carefully
is

adjusted, the under-arm piece of the lining

laid

on

the fabric with


line

its

creased waist-line also just below

B.

The
it

line

D
the

must also come

in

the

same

position for

as that line does for the sidebod}-.


fabric so

Place the front on

the

cross

stripes

HOW

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
The
stripe

59
at the

correspond with those of the under-arm piece


waist and armseye lines.

down

the

front

must also be taken


It

into consideration.

looks best of course, to have this stripe curve par-

allel

with the front closing line but with

full

busts

this is impossible.

However,

for

ladies

of

moderate

development the stripe may be curved


without injuring the
fit

sufficiently

of the bodice.

By

following these directions the plaid will match

exactly excepting at the darts, under-arm and shoulder

seams.
In cutting a bodice from striped material the work
is

less

difficult.

Still

great care
in

must be taken

to

have the lines match


the sidebodies
stripes hitting
fit

the middle-back

seam and
the front

into the curved

back seam with the

exactly.

The

stripes

down

closing should be curved as suggested above, in every

possible instance.
twisting effect will
It is

If the .lining is
all

properly fitted the


in

disappear

the dart seams.

best where

it is

possible, to have a stripe to


It

run
only

down between
nearly the

the darts.
is

looks better than

if

one side of the stripe

shown.

By keeping

the darts

same

size, the bias effect often

seen in the

second dart back will be overcome.


STITCHING SEAMS

The seams
will

of the
;

basque must be stitched

in

abso-

lutely straight lines

wavering, irregular machine work


fit.

ruin the otherwise perfect

In stitching the

curved seams joining the side-back and back portions,

6o

HOW
"

TO
and

MAKE A BASQUE
it

always nave the back underneath and the side-back next


the "presser-foot,
is

well to hold the piece well

up

at

each end of the "presser-foot," otherwise the sideis

back

likely to pucker in the sewing.

When

stitching

the shoulder seams, have the front above and the back

beneath

as, if

there

is

any difference, the front should

be stretched on to the back.

Leave the shoulder and under-arm seams


last to

until

the

be stitched.

before.

The front closing should be finished The garment may require a slight loosening or
it is

tightening at these seams before the collar and sleeves


are

added

much

easier to

make such changes


Beside such altera-

before the}' are machine


tions leave

sewed.

marks which can not always be removed,


FINISHING SEAMS

especially from silken fabrics.

Finishing the seams of a basque

is

a matter of time
is

and

taste.

Although the modern dressmaker


embellish

good

enough
busy

to

them with bright ribbons, the


and running the

woman

will find that turning in

edges will make quite as neat a seam, wear just as well,


take less time and answer every purpose.
lial If

the mate-

used

is cloth,

silk or

any other fabric that will not

ravel, the

edges can be notched or pinked, a finish


tailors.

popular with

In

thin

or

wash

fabrics

the
is

French

fell

is

used for most seams.


the

This finish

made by placing

wrong

sides of the parts together

and stitching them

in a

narrow seam.
oft

Then when

the

edges have been pared

even, turn the

parts at the

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
another seam.
in

6i

seam, so that the right sides are together and make

This leaves

all

the raw edges turned

and firmly sewed.

Another way

of finishing

such fabrics

is

to

make

the

ordinary quarter-inch seam, but at


in a

the same time sew

narrow bias binding-strip


is

of the

goods.

When
binding

the seam

made, pare it down


it,

closely, turn the

strip over

and also turn under the loose edge of


fell it

the strip and

down along

the seaming.

In gar-

ments made
process
is

of partly

embroidered fabrics this binding

used along the seamed embroidered edges,

even where a French


edges
;

because

it is

made along the almost impossible to make


fell
is

plain
a suc-

cessful

French

fell

along an embroidered edge.

PRESSING SEAMS
After the basque
it
is

stitched and the seams finished,


little,

must be pressed, not a

nor in spots, nor with

a cold iron, but all over, with strength and with irons
as hot as can

be used without burning.


goose, the

Tailors are

adepts in the use of the

needle

and the

shears and should be regarded as the


er's

home dressmakyou
(if

models.

If

you follow

their example,

will take

a press cloth of clean muslin,


fabric is

dampen

it,

the dress

woolen) will lay

it

along each seam in turn


perfectly dry.

and press until the cloth

is

Afterward

press the bare seam, running the iron under the edge
to

prevent outlines on the outside.

The shoulder and

dart seams are also treated in this

62

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
When
fit

manner, the greatest care being taken to retain their


desirable curves.
all is

done the basque should


are used

be tried on and should


smooth.
only to

without a wrinkle, absolutely

The bones which are added later make permanent that smoothness.
FINISHING CLOSING EDGES

The

closing edges of a basque are finished either for


or
for

buttons or hooks and eyes

lacing.

In

each

instance a special finish must be used.

When

the closing of the edges


its

is to

be effected by

buttons, the left side must have

curved edge finished

by a deep

facing.
of

This should be a quarter-inch wider


the button-holes, and
it

than the size

should not
of

be

cut bias but show the same grain

cloth

as

the basque edge.

The

facing should be turned and

basted over evenly and


side.

hemmed down on

the wrong

The
is

right closing edge should

be cut an inch

wider so as to extend under the button-holes when the

basque

closed.

tape stay should be stitched on

the under side along the line for the buttons.

When
left side,

hooks and eyes are employed for closing, both


only the hooks and eyes should be sewed on

edges should be finished as described above for the

so

as to just touch the outer edges

and a neat facing

then sewed on over them, to finish.

Thousands

of

nicely drafted

basques are spoiled

because the fronts are uneven.

They

will

measure the

same, but the hooks and eyes not being opposite, the

HOW
collar is

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
It is

63

made crooked,
unbalanced.

the dress gaps and the whole

waist

is

not an exaggeration to say

that not one


erl}^

woman

in fifty

can button a dress prope3'es


it,

and not one

in twenty can sew hooks and

directly opposite each other.


it is

There

is

no trick about

simply a matter of

correct measurement.

Use a

piece of chalk or a colored pencil and


at regular intervals
is

mark

off

each side
the waist

with an inch measure.


it

If

pinned down so that

will not slip, the spacing can-

not be inaccurate.

These are some

of the little points

in the finishing of a dress that are so

perplexing and

on which so much of the style depends.

An

extra
It

facing of the cloth of the basque must be added.


is

attached to the right side and should be wide enough

to

extend well under the line of closing.

When
for

a cord lacing
e3^es,

is

used the edges are finished as

hooks and

except that eyelets are worked


care

instead.

The same

must be taken

to

have the

eyelets even and opposite.

The

extra facing should be

attached on the right side and extend under the lacing.

CHAPTER V HOW TO MAKE A BASQUE


(Continued)

BONING A BASQUE ISHING EDGES WEIGHTS

SCALE FOR PLACING THE BONES

FIN-

TO

FINISH A TAILOR

GARMENT

LEAD

BONING A BASQUE

The boning

of a bodice is a particular

matter and a

tedious one as well.

Few

dresses are properly boned.

Some good

rules followed,

remedy
is

all

mistakes usually

made, and when the work

properly done the bones

or stays add a great deal to the beautj^ of any bodice.

They

are generally added before the collar and alwa3's

before the sleeves are attached.

A bodice is likely to
the work

be

twisted and handled a good deal in inserting the stays

and that

is

the best reason

why

should

be

done as soon as the seams are otherwise finished and


before
facings, collar or sleeves are added.
in

Covered steels and whalebones


stays in vogue.

casings are the


in

There

is

a great deal of difference

the varieties of each to be purchased.

The
is

best will

be found the cheapest in the end and


64

it

pretty gen-

IfOJF TO
erally

MAKE A BASQUE

65

conceded that the old-fashioned whalebone can


Before using
water for a

not be excelled for either wear or grace.

whalebones they should be soaked


couple of hours.

in hot

This process makes them pliable

and easily cut and pierced.

They

also

need shaping

and this can then be readily done.


will reveal

A moment's thought
reveal

the presence of curves described by the


It will also

lines of the figure.


of putting straight

the absurdity

bones or steels in a garment intendlines.

ed to follow these exquisitely curving

To be
They

sure, being flexible, they will to a certain extent shape

themselves

to

the figure, but not accurately.

must be shaped beforehand.


are a part of the

In other words, the stays

garment and the garment must be

given the

fit

it

must make the


put on.

figure

whether

the
fit

woman
in

is

shapely or shapeless.
it

You should

see the

the basque before

is

Consequently, when the whalebone has been soaked

and cut the right length,


iron, to follow the

it

must be curved with a hot


For some seams when they

seam.

run on bias lines,

it is

not always possible to get the nice

curve with wide bones and they must be whittled down.

This should not be done with a knife or shears, they are


likely to split the

bone which

if

good

is

very fibrous

but a piece of ordinary glass should be used and with


its

sharp edges the bone can be neatly shaved into

shape very rapidly.

There should also be bored or


bone
in three or four

punched holes
5

in the

places to

66

HOW

TO
at

MAKE A BASQUE
each

sew through, those


ant.

end being most import-

When When
inserted.

steels are

used they always come covered and

are easily bent into the proper curves.

bones or bare steels are used,

it

is

necessary

to stitch along each

seam casings
is

in

which they can be


Galloons

Whatever
fulled
for

used for these casings they


in gathers.

must be

on almost

may be

purchased

these casings, which answer every pur-

pose, and are neat in

appearance

however,

hemmed

muslin or silk like the lining used, makes very good


casings.

Full them on by hand, stitching them close

on each side over the seam.

The

casings full and the


of

bones tight will straighten the seams


defy wrinkles at the waist.

any bodice and

In sewing bias strips of

lining to the seams for casings several

methods may be
Cut
are

employed, one or two of the best being here given.


the strips just wide enough so that-

when they
far

sewed on they

will

tightly hold

the bones or stays.

One plan make the


it

is

to

turn under the edges

enough

to

casing of the desired width, and then crease


latter

through the center so that the


to follow the

may

easily be

made

seam

then

fell

or neatly run

the

sides of the casings to


catch-stitch

position, or, with fancy silk,

them

in place.

The

latter

method produces

a very neat effect.

Or, after the casing has been folded


it

and creased, run


turn
it

along the crease at one side, and

over the seam

and

fell it

down on

the other

side, taking care to

keep the center over the seam.

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
Where
putting
galloon
it

67

a casing

is

bias there will be no necessity for


as in the straight casings
it

on very

full,

when

is

used because

will give with the

seam and

for that reason will neither

bind nor draw

it.

SCALE FOR PLACING BONES

Here

is

scale for

the

correct
is

placing of bones.
In
the

The one up

the back

seam

not necessarj*.
a half
;

side seams let the bone run

up four and

inches

above the waist-line and two inches below

the bones

under the arm must not come nearer than two inches of
the sleeve.
In the darts have the bone end one inch

below the casing.


basque and tack
it

Run

the bone to the bottom of the


at five different

by sewing through

places above the waist-line and two places below.

Of

these seven sewings have two one-half an inch on either


side of the belt. At the top of the casings tack the bone in
place, half

an inch or so below, so as

to

prevent

it

breaking or pushing through.


will be
it is

If properly soaked there

no difhculty

in

sewing though the bone, and

this

sewing that will support the figure and sus-

tain the shape of the bodice.


If

hooks and eyes are used, bone both front closings.


a

Run
it

stitching

along the edges the

width of the
linings,

bone and insert the bone between the


as high
as

having
to

the darts and extending

down

the

bottom

oi the facing.

As before

stated,

if

properl}^ cut

any waist will

fit

if

abundantly and tightly boned.

The bone must be

68

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
to

whole

afford

the pliability desired and

must

be

securely fastened by strong sewing.

There is a use to which steel stays are rarely put, but one which deserves general adoption
or evening waists having no front and, also those
in finishing

low-necked
of the

seam

at the center

whose upper edges do not closely


of the wearer
at

enough follow the


of the top.

figure
is

the center

The waist

boned
sta3's

in the usual

manner,

except that no bones or

are added to the front

darts, as their addition is liable to


effect

produce a bulging

where the other stays


is

join.

these darts

held smoothly to the figure by this


steel stays.
at the

The waist between new


enough
to

arrangement of

Two

stays, long

extend from the point


to

lower edge of the front


to the

little

more than half-way

tops of the
at

darts,

have their adjacent edges fastened together

the point, and are spread so that they will extend to


the dart and are felled to position on the lining after the latter
is

well stretched

under them.

Two

other

stays are joined to the upper ends of the lower stays

and are felled

to the waist-lining

and reach the top

of

the waist about an inch from the center at each side,

where they are firmly secured

to

short stay extend-

ing along the top of the waist over the space between

the front darts.

The top

of

the waist

is

turned

over this short stay, from which the covering

down may be

removed, and an extra facing

is

added

to

give a neat

and firm

finish.

It will

be at once understood that a

waist thus fortified will present a close, smooth effect

HOW
and
of
at the

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
for the
tlie

69

same time secure

wearer that peace

mind which comes with

consciousness that her

waist will

follow the outlines of her figure as closely

when she is seated as when she is standing. Whalebone may be used for the diamond-shaped arrangement
of the stays in
at the

place of steel, but for the


is

cross-piece

top a steel stay

decidedly preferable, though


if

whalebone will serve the purpose fairly well


after being

bent

heated in water.

MODE OF FASTENING

IN A

WHALEBONE
of

Our

illustation

shows two modes


is

fastening

in

whalebones.
ence for stays.

The fan-shaped mode

used in preferpiece of whaleto-

hole

is

bored

in

bone with a strong bodkin, previously

slipping

it

in

and the stitches are put in so as to form a fan both on


the right and on the

wrong
also

side.

The cotton

or silk

used must be thick and of excellent quality.

The other mode


on the right side as

is

used.

not bored, and the stitches take

The whalebone is just as much material


firmness, but no

will insure their


little

more, for they must be as


long sitches being
all

seen as possible, the


side.

on the wrong

70

HOW
The lower edge

TO

MAKE

A BASQUE

FINISHING EDGES
of a

basque should always be given


It is

a silk

facing, cut bias.


silk,

absolutely necessary to

provide

no matter what the material of the garto line its

ment, for facing the bottom of a basque and


collar.

Any

other goods will produce a clumsy finish.

INSIDE OF A FINISHED BASQUE

When all seams have been sewed,


of the basque,
if it is

pressed and finished

and the closing edges also completed, the lower edges


a plain one, should be turned

HOW
is to

TO MAKE A BASQUE
If a
is

71

over and neatly basted.

simple machine stitching


often found desirable, that

be given this edge, as

should be done and then attach the facing by hand.

Cut the silken the bias and hem


it

it

on the bottom holding


its

easy.

Gather in the fulness of


it

lower edge rather


rather

than pleat

down.

than loose as the strain otherwise

The sewing should be firm may break it.


In

But the facing

of the

bottom varies in depth with


deeper round

the length of the basque's skirt.

basques the facing should be cut wide enough to reach


the belt, that
is five

inches wide perhaps.

The
in

habit
front

basque, which

is

short on the hips, pointed


tails, calls for

and finished with

a special facing, nar-

row

all

around, with the tails faced to the waist.


it

Cut

the lining on the bias and don't pleat


If

in any place.
to

5^ou

hold

it

properly

it

will

adjust itself

the
as
its

edge of the basque.

Silk also for these while not


is

durable as farmer's satin,


softness.

preferable on account of

The

sleeves and collar of a basque are treated of

at

length in the next chapter, so

we

will

only add

here

that the neck and armseye edges should always be fin-

ished by a narrow bias facing or a


preferred.

ribbon binding

as

TO FINISH A TAILOR GARMENT


It is

when we come
rises

to the finishing of basques that

tailoring

to

such pre-eminence over

ordinary

dressmaking methods.

Every means

is

followed to

72

JIOIV

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
will

overcome wrinkles, which

appear in the most per-

fectly fitted dressmaker's garments.

When

the seams have been stitched, before touchis is

ing the lining, which

tacked to each piece well away


a great deal to be done.

from the seams, there

The

seams must be notched where they describe an inward


curve, for each

seam must be ironed open and


perfectly

flat.

They must be pressed very smooth and notched


into

well

the seam until they will


is

la}^

flat.

As

cloth

very stubborn, a very hot and heavy iron must


it.

be banged on the cloth, not merely passed over


facilitate flattening, the cloth

To

may be smeared

before

ironing with a piece of dry soap, on the parts where


the notched edges of the seams fold back on the inside
of

the

bodice.

With

thick very stubborn


tailors

cloth

the

soap

is not sufficient

and then

use thin paste

of flour

and water, which they lightly apply with a small

brush in minute quantities as described for the soap.

With

the paste the seam flattens perfectl}-.

You

will

probably crease the lining in


as each

ironing the seams

but

seam

is

pressed, iron afterward the two pieces

of lining into place smoothly over each other.

When

the bodice

is

ironed and boned, turn in the edge of the


of

upper portions

lining, tack

each neatly and easily


together, taking care
to

on the under part, and


to

hem them
and not
all

sew the lining

only,

interfere with the

cloth in any way.


iron

When
make

the

hems

are complete

them

flat,

putting a cloth over each seam, so that


the lining shiny and unsightly.

the iron does not

HO IV TO MAKE A BASQUE
Before boning and hemming your seams
advisable to finish the fronts of the basqiie.
it

73

would be
direcof

Our
more

tions are for a double-breasted corsage, with a

row

buttons up each side, because


It

it

requires
the

finish.

hooks down the centre


buttons
the

of

front,
left.

and then

the right front

over on
of

the

There

is

seam

down

center
fit

the

double-breast

or

plastron to render the

perfect,

and the space between


to-

the two rows of buttons

must be lined with packing


as a board.
is

make
fit

it

as

smooth and

stiff

Hence
in

it

must

perfectly.

The packing

kept

place

by the
left,

buttons on the right, and the button holes on the

and

its

two portions are tacked firmly down the center


plastron.

over the seam of the

Down

this

line

the

hooks are used.

The basque must be


It will

lined with packing, from

one

inch of the lower edge to an inch above the waist-line.

have to be done
is

in small

pieces because no

crease

permissible as the packing follows and accen-

tuates the curvings of the basque, and the pieces

must be

securely sewed together

packing tacked upon


ing,

it.

when the whole basque has the You must leave an inch f orturninside over the packing, notch-

along the edge of the basque and up the edge of

the plastron.

Turn

this

ing the edge of the turned-in

portion where
this
of

it

shows

any tendency to
stitch
it

pull.

Tack

edge smoothly, and

down with two rows

machine

stitching.

This will make the


firm

basque and plastron

beautifully

and smooth.

74

HOW
Now
you have

TO

MAKE

A BASQUE
and basque with
silk

to line plastron

tack pieces of silk in place, very smoothly, and


a tiny round hole above

make
tooth

each hook, so that


cut
flush
to

its

can emerge.

The edge must be


nearest

with the
it

machine
closely

stitch

the

edge, on
silk.

which

is

and neatly hemmed with

The

lining of the

plastron must be in two pieces, that of the basque at


least in four, as
it

would be endless trouble


;

to cut the
left

exact shape in cloth on the cross

and the edges,

raw but

neatl}' cut,

must be hemmed over each

other.

INSIDE OF FINISHED TAILOR-MADE BASQUE

When

the cloth

is

adjusted and seamed,

the bones

must be inserted, the tapes being sewed to the inside


of the seams.

Except the bone

in the

middle of the back,

MOJV TO MAKE A BASQUE


all

75

bones cease

at the waist-line,

and the upper end cased

in tape is left free

from the seam for about an inch to

avoid indicating from outside the exact spot where the

bone ceases.

The boning done, hem over your

lining

and hem the lower edge over the cloth basque just above the waist-line so that the belt when sewed carefully inside

above each bone, conceals where the lining

of the corsage

and the cloth lining


neatly

of the

basque meet.

The

lining

is

hemmed

over the plastron lining.

Press the finished basque with a very hot iron, covering the inside with a cloth as above described.
is

This
will

a delicate operation, for

if

you crease them you

have to replace the packing and do your work over Now sew on the buttons and make the buttonagain.
holes,

which

last is not

easy to do well through the two

thicknesses of

cloth and packing.

The

sleeves are lined like the corsage, independently

of the cloth,

and when the sleeves are sewed


is

in,

the

upper edge of the lining

neatly

hemmed
are

over the
in.
;

seams before the

dress preservers

put

The

parements are simulated by rows of stitching they button up at the elbow seams, and are stitched, lined
with packing
first,

and then with hemmed-over

cloth,

exactly like the plastron.

The
are

collar

is

similarly made.

The packing and lining Then the to the neck.


of the corsage.

seamed inside the corsage


of

cloth
is

the collar

itself

is

drawn over the seam, and

hemmed

to the silk lining

76

JIOIV TO

MAKE A BASQUE

CLOSING WORDS
It is

customary with French modists, who are so very

successful in

making

silks

and light woolen

fabrics, to

use two wide steels of nine or ten inches to hold the


front and back of a basque down.

These steels which come


Although not

covered with soft white kid, are incased in ribbon and


felled in the dress

along the two seams.

very flexible they are wrinkle-proof and hold the waist

down
tic of

as nothing else will.

They were introduced

after

the lead weights were retired and they are characteris-

the French system modistes.

Every basque should be provided with an inside


belt secured to every

seam (but not

to the front darts).

This holds the garment in place on the figure, prevents

drawing up

in

the back and takes the strain

off

the

front portions.
belt ribbon,

This belt

is

best

made

of the

regular

which ma}^ be purchased

in

any shop, by
Inside

the yard.
belts

The best
of

quality has a corded edge.

made

lining goods and the material of the

dress stitched together are cheaper, but their clumsi-

ness can not be denied and the ribbon will be found

more economical

in the end.

They should be

finished

to fasten in front with

two small hooks and

eyes.

LEAD WEIGHTS

When

the basque

is

postillion in shape

at the

back
it

or is given

long tails of any other description

is

almost absolutely necessary to weight their lower edges


to

keep them

in place.

Nothing

is

more disfiguring

than to have the lower edge of a basque at the back

HOW
sta)'s

TO

MAKE A BASQUE
down
in
it.

77

or front turned up always after sitting

The

used

in

the

fronts

of

basques usually prevent


weights will be found

this there, but in the back, lead


its

best remedy.

of different styles

They can be purchased for a song, and sizes. They should always be

carefully covered with silk and then slipped under the

facing and securel}^ tacked so they can not get out of

place with wear.

Tabs on the sides

of

basques or

bodices of any style, should be leaded also on figures

where the hips have any tendency

to

push them up.

CHAPTER

VI

SLEEVES AND COLLARS


DRESS SLEEVES MAKING A COAT SLEEVE SEWING IN A SLEEVE JACKET AND CLOAK SLEEVES STANDING COLLARS TURNED OVER COLLARS REVERS COLLARS PLAS-

TRONS
DRESS SLEEVES

The proper
for

fitting of a sleeve is

almost as intricate
is

as that of a bodice.
a
tight, plain
affair

Whether

the sleeve
is

fashioned

arm covering, or
matters but
little

a voluminous,

ornamental
done.

in the

work

to

be

In a tight fitted coat sleeve there are takes to be avoided


if

several mis-

a perfectl}^ fitted sleeve is desired.

To make such
the dress
is

a pair of sleeves for a dress, the lining for


fitted before the fabric of

each sleeve should be cut and


touched.

This will be found a great saving


at

of time, patience

and material just as when

work

upon the basque.

When

the sleeve
it

is

one
78

for

a jacket

or cloak and

requires no lining

will always be

found good policy

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


to cut a sleeve in

79
fit

some inexpensive material and

it

over the arm into the garment.

When
it

this sleeve has

been made

to

fit

the

arm properly

should then be
be really

used as a pattern by
used.

vi^hich to cut the cloth to

This course will be found truly economical.


cloth
or

Expensive, wide

even

narrow, but

equally

costly velvets and plushes


rials

which are usually the matetoo valuable to

used for jackets and wraps are

try

experiments upon.
lining

In cutting this

the

greatest

care

must be

taken to lay the pattern upon the cloth with the weave
or grain of the latter running correctly.

Ladies cut

out sieves with their outline edges just like the pattern,

they declare and yet the sleeve does not

fit.

It

twists on the arm.

The

inside

seam
top of

in

some mysteThis

rious

way

will crawl over the

the arm, or de-

scribe a spiral curve from the elbow to the wrist.


is

only because the straight

line,

always found in good


to lay
it

patterns given to indicate

how

on the goods
is

has not been followed.

Sometimes there

strong

temptation to deviate from this rule, when you find


that

by moving the pattern over just a half-inch further


right,

to the left or

you can save several inches in


so.

length, but

it is

an economy never to do

The

entire

sleeve will be ruined


f^nd.

nine cases out of ten, you will

However, these rules need only apply


of a sleeve.
If it is

to

the lining

cut correctly the outside

may be

8o
cut bias
tion.
if

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


desired and the lining will hold
it

in

posi-

Another error comes from taking


sleeve too deep.

in the

seams

of a

There

is,

of course quite a strain

on

the seams of a sleeve and they must

be

made wide
in

enough

to

withstand that.
at

Wide seams

sleeves

must be notched
seams require
it

the elbow, however, just as waist

where they introduce curves.


a

The seams same manner

of

sleeve

should be finished in the


If

as those of the waist.

the

latter are
;

bound with ribbon, bind the sleeve seams


are overcast only that
will

also

if

they

answer
their

for the sleeves

and

sleeves always

fit

well

when

seams are

laid

open

and the edges loosely tacked

to the lining.

It is also very important that all

seams and facings

should be thoroughly and carefully pressed with a hot


iron.

large strong bottle

wrapped with smooth


for

linen,

makes an excellent ironing board


between
and the hot
iron.

sleeves.

Press

on the right side of a sleeve, with a


it

piece of cloth

The
that
is

fit

of a coat sleeve for a small


is

arm, or an arm
a

not smoothly rounded


of

much improved by
to

layer

wadding extending from the elbow

the

shoulder.

Some good dressmakers


it

use

it

for all lined

sleeves as they find


set of the sleeve.

gives a desirable firmness to the

For

all

long close sleeves which

fit

the
it

arm
is

tight

below the elbow and extend to the wrist,


leave either one or the

best to

other seam open at the wrist

SLEEVES AND COLLARS


for

8i

two or three inches.

This

finish
at

will

be found

convenient and quite ornamental


It is

the

same time.

often found comfortable to

turn back the sleeve

by

this

means

as a cuff,

when long

gloves are put on

or bracelets added to the toilette

itself.

The

sleeve must always be faced up to a line above

this opening.

MAKING A COAT SLEEVE

When
trimmed
all

the
off

lining
to

has

been

fitted

and

the

edges

correspond with any changes, rip out


tack on the wadding
(if it is

bastings.

Then

used).
four

Lay
them

the lining on the outside fabric and baste


sleeves into
is

all

pieces of the two


out.
If

place

before

cutting

the fabric

striped or figured see that

the opposite upper portions correspond.

Then

cut each out accurately.

Join the edges along

the inside seams, and finish them with ribbon, or overstitching as has been decided upon.

Then

press these

seams

flat

with the hot iron.

Afterward lay the wrist


flat

of the sleeve

with the right side

upon the material

provided for facing the sleeve.


inches deep and to
fit

Cut the facing four


of the sleeve.

this

end

Stitch

them (the

lining and sleeve) together across the

whole

lower edge and along each side for three inches.


join the edges of the

Then

outside seam terminating the

seam

at

the

seams made by joining on the facing.


it

Turn over the facing and tack

down by hand.

When

the edges of the outside seam are finished and pressed

82

SLEEVES AND COLLARS


entire sleeve is
of

over the bottle, the

finished.

It is a

most simple and neat piece


desired

work.

Any trimming

may be added

after the sleeve is turned.

SEWING

IN

THE SLEEVE
garment
is a

Sewing the sleeve


must be placed

into the
too.

thing which
the sleeve

must be done caretuUy


in

The seams

of

their positions and then extra ful-

ness can be laid in pleats or gathers according to the


prevailing fashion.

While basting the sleeve


very good as a

into the

armseye hold the sleeve toward you always.


the sleeve in by hand
is

Sewing
will

machine

often disarrange the gathers or pleats.

Tailor-made dresses
sleeves with
linings

of

the best style

have their
ail
is

made

separately and

seams

turned inside.
into the

In such cases the lining only


full

seamed
sewed

armseye while the

outside fabric

is

on

to

the waist by invisible stitches.

Such sleeves

require

considerable

skill

to

make properly and we


first

would not advise

a novice to attempt them.

In any case the sleeve must ing the sleeve towards you.

be basted
it

in,

hold-

Fasten

into

the arms-

eye by pinning in their correct places the front and the

back
there

(if
is

there

is

one) seams and arrange any fulness

over the shoulder.

Try the garment on before

machine

stitching the sleeve into place.

JACKET AND COAT SLEEVES


It is

advisable to line even the heaviest cloth sleeves.

Even

when

the

remainder

of

the

garment

is

not

SLEE VES A ND COL LARS


lined, a

83

smooth

silk or silk finished lining

can not be

too highly

recommended
is

for the

sleeves.

Aside from

the

fit its

omission

very trying upon the patience of


lining allows the garment to
off.

the wearer.

The smooth

be so easily slipped on and

Then

light colored

dresses are not exposed to the dye of the cloth that


soils in

even the best woolens.

The smooth
the

lining
of

prevents straining and stretching


sleeves and shoulders.

seams

the

These linings should be cut the same


cloth but

size

as the

must be made and pressed separately.


together with
their

They
seams

should be put
inside and

respective

the

armseye seams should be covered by


it.

felling the lining of the sleeve over

At the wrist

the sleeve should be cut long enough to be turned up


inside an inch and the lining
that
is

also felled

down

over

raw edge.
STANDING COLLARS

For an ordinary round standing


a waist should be

collar, the

neck

of

neatly bound by a narrow piece of


it

bias silk.

In other words
if

should be completely

fin-

ished just as

there were to be no collar added.

Howwill

ever, this is not always

done and other methods

be explained further along in the chapter.

A STANDING COLLAR

The above

illustration

shows the correct proportions

for a standing collar.

It

must be cut out

of straight

84

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


lining
or

cloth, that is the

foundation must

be

the

outside

may be

cut bias or in any fashion desired.


for the interlining

Canvas or buckram must be used


or foundation
lighter
ness.
stiff

of all

standing collars.

Crinoline or

materials will

nut give the desired firmstiff it

standing collar should be so

will not
inter-

with ordinary wear wrinkle or crease.


lining
first

Cut the

and baste

it

firml}^

on the outside

fabric.

The width

of the collar

must depend upon the


taste of the wearer.

style

in present fashion

and the

There

must, in cutting, be an allowance

made

of a quarter of
in.

an inch

all

around the collar for seams or turn

Every
with
silk,

collar unless a very thin one should be lined

This should be cut

to

correspond in size
inter-

with the interlining.

Turn down together the


of

lining and outside (which have previously been basted

together)

all

around the depth


place.
:

deep seam and

baste this fold in

Then baste upon the underits

side the lining of silk


fell

turn in

edges

all

around and

them down

neatly.

This makes a much neater

collar than to

seam the three pieces together and turn


which process also wrinkles the canalmost impossible to press the collar

them inside

out,
it is

vas so badly,

into shape and

smoothness again.

Every

collar

must be thoroughly pressed with

a hot

iron with a cloth between.

When

this has

been done

place the middle of the collar at the middle-back waist

seam and sew

it

on from that point toward each

front.

Use strong twist and back-stitches on the under-side of

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


lining of the collar but

85

the waist. These stitches should pass through the inter-

must not be seen on


the edge

its

outside.

Under no circumstances must

of

a collar

be stretched but sometimes the neck

may be given an
fit

imperceptible extension and a more perfect

in the

curves of the neck and shoulder be secured.


this is

However
after

hazardous and should only be practiced


experience
in

considerable
acquired.

dressmaking

has

been

Another method

of

making

a standing
of the

collar is

to

seam the ends and upper edges


ing

cloth, interlin-

and lining altogether and turn them, and press.


joining the middles of the cloth and
interlin-

Then

ing at their lower edges to the middle back


the waist at
fell
its

seam

of

neck, seam the

collar

on.

Afterward
the raw

the lining of the collar


It

down covering

edges of the seam.


with the hot iron.

must then be thoroughly pressed

Either of the above methods of sewing on a standing collar


is

preferable to the old one of sewing on

all

lower edges of the collar to the neck of the waist and


a bias
felled

facing

in

seam

after

down over

the raw edges.


all

which the facing was This was clumsy

fashion and not at


fect

permissible in these days of per-

and close

fitted bodices.

TURN-OVER COLLARS Both jackets and basques are frequently finished


the neck by turn-over collars.

at

They

are

cut

in

two

portions with their front edges on the straight of the

goods.

86

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


This illustration shows a turn-over
collar.
to the
first

It

should never be sewed on


of a waist but
to
it

neck

should be
straight

joined

band

of

cloth

and
all

attached to the neck.

When

the seams have been sewed

and pressed and the

waist put on,


it

turn over the collar and press

with

TURN-OVER COLLAR ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^


than pressing
it

^j^^p^^

^j^-^ j^ ^^^^^^

before

it

is

put on.

This style

of collar
in color

should be given a lining of silk with the cloth and an interlining

harmonizing
of canvas.
if

Crinoline

may be used

instead
is

of canvas

found more convenient, as there

not so

much

firmness required for this style of collar as a standing


one.

Where

the turned over collar

is as

wide as as the
fin-

one illustrated, the ends and lower edge are often


ished with a wire.

The

turn in the front

is

thus kept

in its upright position.

REVERS COLLAR

This collar
to

is

the most difficult of

all

make.

Some

authorities go so far as
a

to say

no one, but

good

tailor

should
double-

ever attempt one. But for

many
no

breasted jackets and basques they are

indispensable and

we

see

reason

why with care and good rules to follow' a woman may not accomplish even this
collar.

REVERS COLLAR

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


When
seams
is

87
joined

the

collar

is

cut in
it

three

pieces

by

at the

notches,

is

easily made.
a

The

cloth

joined at these seams and

lining of silk

and an

interlining of canvas is provided

and they are seamed


cloth
the
is

together at the outside edge.

Then the

seamed
After
the

along the edge of the cut-away neck of

garment,

with the seam on the right side of the

latter.

which the lining

of the collar

is

felled

down over

raw edges of the seam.

But more often the three-cornered part


which comes down over
the front of the garment
over.

of the collar

the
itself.

bust

is

continuous with
the front turned

It is

This makes the collar more


first

intricate.

In such

case the

thing to do

is

to

baste over this part a


it

layer of canvas and then top face


that is used for
it

with the material


Join to

the remainder of the collar.


of

the cloth of the back portion

the collar in the

short seams and join that portion to the neck of the gar-

ment

itself.

When

all this

is

done and thoroughly

pressed by the hot iron nothing remains to do except


fell

on a lining with a canvas interlining

for the

back

portion of the collar.

PLASTRONS

But
owing

little

can be said on the trimming of bodices,


fluctuations
in

to

the

fashion.
it

Full

draped
to

bodice fronts are very pretty but

requires skill
it

handle a folded piece of cloth and lay


pleats.

in

artistic

The

aspirant

is

cautioned against attempting

88

SLEE VES AND COLLARS


too

much.

Even

to

copy a fanciful design


can be more

requires a long and faithful apprenticeship.

But plain plastrons and


isfactorily

cuffs

sat-

managed.
a

double-breasted
to a

front gives

desirable

style

basque,

whatever the prevailing fashion.


illustrated

The one
It

may

serve as a guide.

can be

cut

on

three sides over the outlines of the


It is

button-hole side of the basque.

joined

along the one side


A PLASTRON
of tlic
it

to

the button-hole side


length.

basque

its

entire

Along

its

outer edge

may

be finished in scollops, or simply

completed straight, slanted or narrowed toward the bot-

tom

of the basque.

It

may be

fastened

down along

that

edge bv buttons or by hooks placed on the under-side. But as that edge must be necessarily bias, hooks and
eyes do not close
it

securely.

Pieces

like

this or

other

revers

and sleeve
at the

cuffs

should always be lined with silk and

same time

be given an interlining of crinoline.

CHAPTER

VII

JACKETS AND CLOAKS


ladies' TAILORING
ITS

DIFFICULTY

THE

PATTERN

SPONGING CLOTH FINISHING SEAMS

CUTTING

CLOTH

LINING A WRAP

ladies' TAILORING

Tailoring varies from dressmaking principally in the

methods

of cutting

and finishing.

In cutting a gartailor

ment (always done by measurements) the


the pattern on the material
tern,
itself,

draws

using no paper patIn tailoring,


finish
;

and

cutting the lining


is

Afterward.
as

the lining

merely put

in

a
fit

neat
of the

it

has
it

nothing to do with the set or

garment;

is

seamed when the garment


neatly

is

sewed and boned, by being

hemmed

over on

itself.

Hence

tailoring only suc-

ceeds for cloths and heavy materials, because light fabrics

need the support of a lining

to give

them firmness
lining and

and substance.

On
fit

the

other hand,

when

material are seamed together, as in dressmaking, the


tailor's exquisite
is

nearly impossible.
be, the

No

mat-

ter

how

careful

we may

lining and

material

go
will

JACKETS AND CLOAKS


never exactly correspond, and then one

may

give

or stretch

more than the other;

in either case wrinkles,

no matter how small they may


Tailoring
is

be, are inevitable.

marked by

its

perfect accuracy, its firmIt


it is

ness, strength

and durability of workmanship.

is

naturally heavier
style of

work than dressmaking, but


for

work adapted, and indeed requisite

heavy
inces-

materials.

The home
of

tailoress

will

find

an

sant need of hot, heavy irons in the course of her work,


die

work

the iron being assisted by the action of

soap,

water,
is

and even paste as

is

elsewhere shown.

But there
for
it

something satisfactory about the work,

looks so beautifully neat and firm


ITS

when

finished.

DIFFICULTY
that the

The novice should understand


task a sewer can undertake
is to

most

difficult

make

a jacket or cloak.

The ordinary dressmaker

is

not usually modest regard-

ing her ability but she has been forced to confess she

can not handle cloth like a


for this
is,

tailor.

The only reason

she does not understand the value of bast-

ing and pressing as he does.

Did you ever


upon
it?
It
is

see a coat while a tailor

is

at

work

always absolutely covered with white

bastings and he works with his hot goose within reach


of his hand.

The

tailor also

cuts by the square and

rule but certain systems of dress-cutting are modelled

on the same principles and there are patterns that will

answer every purpose.

JA CKE TS AND
What makes
is

CL OA KS

the contract also a very serious matter


it

that usually

is

expensive material that must be


little
is

risked.

Unless you are a


tried pattern

experienced in cutting
a

and have a
tailor a

it

good plan

to

pay a
If

couple of dollars to cut the garment.

the

cloth

is

not cut with the correct curves and outlines


it fit

no power on earth will ever make

properly.

THE PATTERN

However,
perfectly
it

if

yoM have

basque pattern that

fits

you

will

answer for a jacket with modifications.


cut a half-inch wider than for a

The seams must be


a dress waist.

dress and the armse5'es cut one-half inch lower than

This extra allowance

is

required because

of the thickness of materials used

and because the

garment

is to

be worn over another waist.


is

For basques two darts are used but a jacket


supplied with only one, and
half-fitting or loose,
if

usually

the jacket

is

cut tight,

one dart

is

usually indispensable.

However,
are better.
line.

for

women

tending to Embonpoint two darts


lines tend to lengthen the waist-

The seam
this is

Further along suggestions are given for lining

wraps but

seldom done, and the


it is

fitting

can not
if it

be done in that as

for dress waists.


fit

Consequently,
of the pattern

there are an}^ doubts of the perfect


is

the better plan to take

some inexpensive muslin and

first fit it

after the pattern.

When

that has been done

use this muslin as a pattern for cutting the cloth. This


will often save
tion.

you many dollars and much

mortifica-

92

JACKETS AND CLOAKS


SPONGING CLOTH

There are very few woolen cloths but require sponging before being used.

Perhaps the salesman from whom


does not need sponging,
authority.

you purchase
but
it is

it

will tell you, it

not safe to trust so unreliable an

All cloths

showing

gloss on

the

surface will

spot
will

with the least drop of water.


ruin a jacket

light rain

shower

made up

in

it

without sponging.

Some women
selves.

think this sponging of cloth a most

mysterious process and a thing they can not do for them-

And when

the cloth

is

taken to a dye or cleaning

house, there will be a charge of twenty-five cents per

yard for the sponging.


for the service.

This

is all

out of proportion

The work can be


of

easily

done

at

home.

Before cut-

ting the cloth, wring out of clear water a sheet or a strip

muslin and lay

it

between the folds


not

of the right side


lint

of the cloth.

Towels, that do

shed

may

be

used for the same purpose.

Roll up the cloth in these


to wait a half

wet cloths and allow

it

hour and then

remove the muslin and press the cloth on the wrong


side until
it

is

perfectly dry.

The wet
be done

cloths should

be wrung out

as

drv as can

b}'

hand before
will take

being placed on the cloth.


off

This sponging

the objectionable gloss and at the

same time
yet

will

sufficiently shrink the cloth.

Some
is

wait until a

damp lowering

da)',

when

it

not raining and then

they hang out in the air for

two or three hours, the cloth they want sponged.

This

JA CKE TS AND
plainly
the
is

CL OA KS
Another way
it

93
is

not a safe expedient.

to lay

damp muslin on
it is

the cloth and iron

with a very

hot iron until both are dry.

This

is

certainly a safe

method but

also a very laborious one.

CUTTING CLOTH

Upon
there
is

the surface of the


of velvets,

smoothest woolen cloth as


plushes and similar fabrics

well as that

always a nap.

By brushing
its

the

palm

of the

hand lightly along the surface


can be readily detected.
the cloth,
it

general direction

In laying the pattern upon

should be done in such a manner that the

nap always runs or turns down.

This rule should be

followed even at the expense of the quantity of cloth


used.

These rules hold good with regard

to velvets

and

plushes used for the same purposes, although there

have been those who held that their nap should run

in

the other direction, to give them a desirable full look.

But the best authorities do not agree

to

it.

When
fit,

you

are sure

the pattern at hand

is

good
fit

cut your cloth but never before.


first.

As suggested,

cheap muslin

Then

lay all the

portions on the

cloth before cutting out one of them.


that the

Lay them on

so

weave

of the

cloth

corresponds exactly with


the nap of the cloth

the weave of the pattern.

Then

must

all

run downward.
allow for generous seams.
In

Alwaj^s

an

experi-

mental garment they are safeguards.

The only change

94

JA CKE TS A ND
Is

CL OA KS
the length
of the

which
waist.

likely to be required is in

If it is

too long

it

may be remedied by
be cut down.

taking

up the shoulder seams when,


armseye seams will have
fitting

of course, tlie collar

and
in

to

However,
in

make
away

as

few changes as possible

the cloth.

To

cut

a half inch before

you are absolutely sure

the change

is

required will often ruin the whole garLINING A WRAP

ment.

Lining a jacket or cloak and lining a dress are two


very different and
distinct

things.

For

a bodice the

dress material and lining are seamed together.


jacket or cloak two distinct garments are made.
is

For a

One
of

the cloth and the other the lining of silk

or satin.

The only
the edges.
are

points of connection are along the lines

The

sleeves of the wrap,

if it

require sleeves,

made

in the

same manner.
inter-lining

Their cloth and lining

are only joined together at the wrists and the shoulders.

For cloaks an

is

frequently used.

It

gives the garment a certain desirable style to place can-

vas over the chest and across the shoulders and makes
it

set well.

Again
for

flannel is sometimes, introduced in

the same
ate

way

extra warmth.

These inter-linings
silk

sewed together with the cloth seams, but the


always remains separate.

lining

The seams

of

each
flat

portion must be laid open,


before they are laid together.
Pock'^ts are

notched and pressed

among

the most difficult things to

man-

age in making a jacket or cloak.

Their openings are

JACKETS AND CLOAKS


cut in the cloth and they themselves are cut and
to lay flat.

95

made

They

are always put in before the lining is


it

attached and do not appear in

at

all.

The pocket
There
is

welt or opening must

always be stayed.

no

cloth,

no matter how excellent that will

stand the strain of a pocket welt without a stay.

strip of canvas or silesia sewed in the fold of the welt


is all

that

is

required.

FINISHING SEAMS

In heavy woolen garments, such as cloth jackets and


cloaks,

where the seams are

to

be bound with satin,


is

silk or farmer's satin,

and the garment

not lined, the

binding

is

sometimes
is

put on before the

seam

is

stitched and

cut wide

enough

to

extend

just a trifle

beyond the basting of the seam.


stitched through

It is

applied by the

usual binding process at each side, and then the seam


is

the binding as well as the fabric.

Seams
row

finished in this

way

are not pressed, of course,


;

until the binding has

been added and sewed in


be

and a

of stitching

may

made along

the rolled edge of

the binding on the upper side of the

seam edge.

A safer

way

is

to baste

the binding on, after the seams are

pressed, by the rolled

method

just

described, turning

the binding under on the


of

under-side, so that one


it

row

machine-stitching will hold both


Silk, satin

and the

roll of

the basted edge in place.


cut in bias strips are

and farmer's satin


kind of binding.

employed

for this

CHAPTER

VIII

PLAIN SEWING AND FANCY STITCHES


OVER-HAND SEWING
BACK-STITCHING

FINE STITCHING RUNNING HEMMING HEM-STITCHING

HAND-SEWING

SEAMS
FELLING

FRENCH FELL GATHERING SHIRRING OVERCASTING TUCKING GUSSETS PATCHING SEWING ON STRINGS

Since the advent of the sewing machine, stitching

by hand

is

considered a sad waste of energy.


of

At the

same time the beauty and delicacy

sewing done by

hand can not be equaled by the best machine work.


Dainty linens and cambrics hemmed, felled and tucked

by hand

will

always be preferred and,

in

the market,

demand a better price from purchasers. Our grandmothers were taught needlework
were taught
their

as they

A, B, C's and every

little girl

and

woman
work.

to-day enjoy knowing the rules governing such

For hand-sewing the foremost need


is

of the

work-basket
of needles

a needle-book well stocked with

all

sizes

of the very best

make.

They may be long


96

or short as

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


and good large eyes.

97

the worker prefers but they must have sharp points

The
off

best needles have eyes


to their size.

as

large as possible in proportion

When
it

a
it

needle's point

breaks

or

becomes bent throw

away

at once, there is

no econom}^ in preserving

for

possible emergencies.

The work-basket should also be supplied with cottonthread of each number. Then in sewing be particular
to use the sizes of needle

and thread best adapted


be
sewed.

to

each other and

to

the

fabric to

large

needle carrying fine thread will pierce a hole too large


to

be

filled

by the thread, thus, making

an

uneven

stitch.

thread too coarse for the needle or fabric


hole
or will

will

make an uneven ragged


is

draw the

weave

of the fabric out of place.

An emery bag
sory.

also a requisite work-basket acces-

This
trifle

is

best

homemade

as the fascinating straw-

bery

sold

under that name often contains a spuri-

ous

filling.

However, when sewing by hand, when the


its

needle loses only

smoothness, running
it.

it

through

your hair once or twice restores


the hair
is

The

natural oil of
refractor}'

powerful lubricator for both

needles and pins.


flexible a piece of

For making the thread smooth and


good white wax
is

always valuable.

OVER-HAND SEWING

Our grandmothers spent


weaving narrow widths
of

their youths

spinning and

linen

they afterward fash-

ioned into sheets requiring a torturing seam their entire lengths.


7

It

was upon these overhand seams

little

98
girls

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


were given their
first

sewing lessons.

We hope

it

will

be upon shorter seams our reader will learn the task.


will

Overhand sewing
if

be found a very simple lesson,

you avoid "puckering".

That word

is

the

synonym

of

woe

to

many

a spectacled

dame
girl.

of to-day.

pucker

in her

seam meant ripping and doing over many a long


little

seam, when she was a

OVER-HAND SEWING

Two
from

selvage

edges

for

overhanding are

basted

together and the sewer must stitch them over and over
left to

right.

The

stitches

in
is

seam

of

this

kind must be even in depth; that


of threads

the

same number

from the edge must be taken up by the needle

in each stitch.

To make
whether

the

seam perfect the worker


at

must always introduce the needle


It

the

same

angle.

matters

little

it

be continuously straight
or slanting as
desired.
If

over and over as in the


in the second.

first illustration
is

Uniformity

the

thing

this is followed persistently, precision soon

becomes

so natural as to require no effort.

The

fabric should be

pinned to the lead pincushion


in

or table and held, straight

the

hands, not

drawn

over the

first

finger of the left hand.

The thread should

not be drawn too tight over the selvage edges to allow

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


the seam to press out smooth
in the third illustration.

99

when

finislied, as

shown
same
first

Seams with raw edges may be sewed


manner.
be turned down on the wrong side.
FINE STITCHING

in

the

In such cases, however, the edges must

The orthodox method


needle

is

to

sew

the fabric together by putting the

back
of
it

two threads behind


its

the place

last

insertion,

STITCHING

bringing
latter.

out two
this

threads
in

in

advance

of

the

Continuing

line of

makes each
the fabric.

stitch

only the length of

two threads

Our

illustration

shows more plainly than


sewing, but

any explanation the way the needle must be inserted.


This
is

is

the most exquisite of hand

it

seldom done, never except on the

finest of infants'

clothing and then stitches guided by the eye are dainty

enough, without the strain of the exactness of counting threads.

KUNNING SEAMS

Running
needle

is

similar to stitch-

ing with the difference that the


is

never put backward.

Several stitches

may be

taken
the

RUNNING STITCH
thread
is

upou

the

needlc

before

drawn through the

fabric.

Two

threads of the

fabric are taken

up by the needle and two threads passed

06

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


This does not make a seam
of

over.

any great strength,

but

it is

used for skirt breadths and tucks sewed by


materials do

hand.

All

not allow of a thread being

drawn out

easily to guide the needle, as is indicated in

our illustration.

Even when
taught

thej^ do, it

would often

be a considerable waste
ing must early be

of time,

and children learnto

never

waste time.

piece of light cardboard or thick paper folded double

and cut

of the exact

width

of

the

seam

will serve the


of

same purpose.
the left

Being held firmly under the thumb


it

hand and slipping with

along the edge as

the

seam goes on, the needle being always carefully


its

inserted by the side of

lower corner, the straight

line will be quite correct.

BACK-STITCHING
Back-stitching must not

be confounded with fine


stitching.

They

are alike

with the exception that the

number
BACK-STITCHING
er stitch is twice the

of threads
,

taken
r

up

m advance of the form.

number taken behind


in

it.

Or the

needle
tion

is

inserted two threads behind the former inser-

and brought out four threads

advance, or six

threads are taken up, on the needle.

There

is a

seam which
It

is is

much used made up


For
this,

of

back-stitch and a run.

not a very artistic seam


four or five

but

it is

stronger than a

run.

running stitches are taken, the thread drawn through

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


and then the needle
is

loi

inserted two threads back and


five stitches is

another run of four or

made.

HEMMING

The preparation
for

of

hem
be

sewing

is

very important.
first

The raw edge must


HEMMING
which conccals

turned under and the extra fold


it

must be

laid.

These folds should not be crimped between the


but pressed together smooth and even.
usuall}^ pressed into position

fingers

The

folds are

by the thumb, while others

rub them up and

The
of

stitching of

down against the edge of a table. hems seems like a very simple form
is

sewing but carelessness


is

only too
in

common and

nice garment

often

cheapened

appearance, by
to left, the

slip-shod

hemming.

Working from

right

stitches of a
of the fabric.

hem

should be taken up every four threads


be. too long

They should not

but only

enough

of both parts of the

hem should

be taken on

the needle to secure the hem.

Cloth and thick materials are often finished by being


turned over and stitched down.
If

hand-stitched, this

kind of

hem need
is

not be tacked, but for sewing machine

work

it

best to do so.

Few
hem
is

finishes for muslin dresses are prettier then the

stitched

hem.

For children's

dresses,

the

stitched
in color,

often worked with a silk


effect

contrasting

which gives the

of a

Russian braid.

Tarletan

02

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STI TCHES


look admirably, and are thus trimmed at trifling

ball dress flounces, stitched with white, or with colored


silk,

expense.

Another mode

of

hemming used by dressmakers


is

is

called by French dressmakers "half hem," and


for

used
the
is

keeping

the

lining of dresses
apart,

in

position;

stitches are

taken very far

and the needle


least

inserted slanting so as to take


time, in order not to
is

up the

piece at a
side.

show on the
on thin

right

This

easy enough on thick fabrics, as cloth, serge, rep,


difficult
silk,

and poplin, but very


is

when, as

it

not possible to prevent the stitches

from showing

on the right side, the stitches are much closer together,

and

set at exactly

even distances.

HEM- STITCHING
Hem-stitching
at

one

time entered largely into


fanc3'-work
only,

but to-

day

it

is

used for hem-

ming, sheets, pillow cases,


towels

and

some

table-

HEM-STITCHING

^i^^j^g^

UapkiuS,

doilieS

and

other

household

linen.

For

hem-stitching,

measure from the edge of the fabric the space the


will require.

hem

Then draw

out at that distance from the

edge

Then turn under a fold of the edge and baste the hem down to the drawn threads. Holding the wrong side of the hem towards
five

threads of the fabric.

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


you work
in regular

103
left.

hemming
Repeat

stitch

from right to
five

At each

stitch run the needle

under
this

of

the cross

threads of the fabric.

the

second time,

passing the needle through the edge of the


In this

hem

also.

way you

will find the ravelled

stripe

of cross

threads of the fabric

are
is

divided into strands at the

same time

that the

hem

sewed down.
is

When

only

a few threads are

drawn out the hem


a

worked on
it

one side only;

if

number

of

threads are drawn

should be worked on both sides.

FELLING
Felling
It is
is

hemming

a seam.

used for finishing a seam

with neatness
It
is

and [strength.

seldom used except for


linen or silk
,

cotton,

muslin
.

FELLING
derwear.
first

when they
for

are

made

into un-

The seams

shirt

or night-gown are

sewed together

in a

seam by hand or by the maedge.

chine,
is

allowing a good

The under raw edge

then cut one-half narrower than the other and the


is

wider

turned under like a fold of a


flat.

hem and

afteris per-

ward hemmed down


fectly neat

To make
in of the

seam that

when

felled, the

edges must be seamed even

and narrow and the turn


pressed

wider

edge neatly

down on

the fabric.

FRENCH FELL

The French

fell is also

much used

for

muslin under-

04

FLA IN SE WIN G A ND FANC V S TI TCHES


wear.
It

has the great recommendation of

being

quickly done, either

by hand or

machine.
together

The edges
first

of a

seam are run

with the raw edges coming

on the right
FRENCH FELL

side.

When

they have been


as will be
it

trimmed even and

as narrow

consistent with strength, turn the seam and run

together on the wrong side taking in the raw edges.

This manner

of

closing a seam has been called the


If

"pudding-bag seam."
are

the seams, as in other felling

result.
fine

made even and narrow, a neat, strong seam is the All ready- made underwear, unless especially
has
its

seams finished by the French


GATHERING

fell.

To

gather a

ruffle correctly,

the old rule was to take


of the
to

up on the needle two threads In these days it means three.


ric in
it

fabric

and pass

simply run the fab-

an even line with a thread strong enough to draw

together.

When this has been done,

push the needle

through the fabric at the end of the gathers and wind


the thread back and forth over the needle securing the
gathers.

Then

fastening

the end of

the cloth to a

leaded pin-cushion, with a coarser needle stroke each


stitch into position,

pushing the straightened stitches

between the

first

finger

and thumb
SHIRRING

of the left

hand.

For

shirring, the line of

gathers

is

repeated again

PLAIN SEWING AND FANCY STITCHES


and
again.

105

These

lines
of

should be an eighth
inch
apart.
It
is

an

not re-

quired to stroke the stitches


for shirring.

SHIRRING

OVERCASTING

Every seam should have

its

raw edges finished


several

in

some manner. Chapter IV. gives


mentioned as before indicated
are

ways

for finish-

ing dress waists and the ordinary and French fells are
in this chapter, but there

many seams
This
is

requiring only a neat overcasting as a


the term used for the far apart
over-

finish.

hand stitching which binds together raw edges. Care must be taken not to draw the thread too tight in overcasting.

TUCKING

The

great

Benjamin Franklin once gave

this rule for

io6

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


to

measuring a tuck
tuck so as to
all

his
its

daughter.

"In measuring a
at

make

width mathematically even


is

points, the best

way

to cut a

piece of

stiff

card

the

depth needed

for the

tuck,

marking the space

between the tucks.

Little triangular nicks in the card

can be cut to indicate these measurements.


card in the
right,
left

Hold

the

hand with the notched edge toward the

and move it along as you baste or mark. The tuck must be folded and basted. Machine stitching is best for tucks, but some will use only hand run
tucks for infants' dresses.
In cutting cloth to be tucked

twice the depth of each finished tuck must be allowed


in the length.

GUSSETS

There are two kinds


illustrate
is

of

gussets.

One which we
let in

square piece of fabric

to

give

more

fulness to a sleeve or any other part of a garment.

A GUSSET

gusset of this kind

is

always

cut

square.

It

is

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


first

107

joined on one side to the side of the sleeve by a

felled seam.

Then the other


to the gusset

side of the sleeve

is after-

ward joined

and felled like the

first.

The

gusset thus apears cornerwise in the upper part of the


sleeve, as is

shown.
of gusset
is

The other kind

alwa5's small

and cut
It is

square or three-cornered (a square cut in two).

placed in the opening of sleeves, of nightgowns, blouses,


etc., to

prevent the tearing-open of the seams.


these gussets are not cut square, the edges

When

are turned in

on

all

the four sides, then the gusset


a

is

folded in two, so as to form

three-cornered
overcast

piece

which

is

sewed

in

its

place, in

stitch, the

needle taking together, at each stitch, both turnings-in


of the piece
is fitted.

and the side

of the

opening

in

which

it

If

the

gusset

had been

cut three-cornered,
all

turn-

ings-in are also folded

down on

sides of
is

it

the corin over-

ner which forms a straight angle


cast stitch, half-way

sewed

in,

up each side
then folded

of the

patch. the

The
wrong

remaining part

of

it is

down on

side of the garment and

hemmed around

neatly.

PATCHING
Patching must be done with great care, for
be as invisible as possible.
the fabric which
All the
it

must
of

worn out part


shape

may surround

the rent, must be cut

away

into

square

or rectangular

following

exactly the thread of the fabric.

The patch

is

then cut of the same dimensions

as

io8

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


or
half-

the cut-out piece, allowing an extra quarter


inch, according to the fineness of

the

fabric, for

the

turnings-in.

PATCHING

At each corner
a slanting stitch

of the space cut out of


is

the material

made

just half as

deep as the extra


in.

space given to the patch, and the edges are turned

The
of the

material

is

then folded
is

down

all

round the edge

patch which

sewed

in in fine overcast stitches.


fit

(See illustration.)
for
so.
it,

It

must exactly

the space left


to

and neither pucker nor cause the material


surely
fit

do

It will

in

if

care

is

taken

to

give to all

the turnings-in.
If

the patch has been put in woolen material


is

or in

a dress, there

nothing to do but
\

to flatten the

seam

with a

warm

iron

but

if it

has been put in linen, the

turnings-in must be neatly

hemmed down.
is

For linen there


neater
still.

is

another kind of patching which


is

The patch

put in with a felled seam,

the felled part of the seam being ahoays formed by the


patch, but the corners are very difficult
to

make

per-

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


fectly straight

109

and even

none but experienced needle-

women
is

will
is

do them neatl)\
another

There

mode
is

of

patching cloth.
of the piece

The patch
which has
It is

cut of the exact dimensions

been cut out, as there


the needle never going

no need of turnings-in.
fine

sewed in on the wrong side with


tli

silk

or cotton,

rough the cloth, but taking in

only half

its

thickness.

When

the patch

is

entirely

sewed

in,

the nap of the cloth

must be slightly raised


of

on the right side of the


needle.
will
If

seam with the point

the

the

work has been neatly done the patch

be quite invisible, especially after having been

ironed down.

SEWING ON STRINGS

We give two illustrations


to plainly indicate the

two

ways
the

of

sewing on strings!

first

shows

string

sewed on
No.
I

in the plain cloth

where

it

can not be seen

on the right side

of the

garment and

it is

No. 2 simply stitched on with as unobtrusive the second shows the string stitches as possible
;

attached to a

hem

or

seam on the edge

of the material.

CHAPTER

IX

PLAIN SEWING AND FANCY STITCHES


(Continued)
SLIP-STITCHING

DARNING
STITCH

WHIPPING BINDING CORDING PIPING CHAIN-STITCH^CROSS-STITCH HERRING-BONE


LOOPS

BUTTON-HOLES

SEWING

ON PEARL AND

SIMILAR BUTTONS
SLIP-STITCHING
Slip-Stitching
is

so

termed because the needle must

be slipped under the right side of the material without


getting through
it.

The work

is

held in the hands as

when hemming

or sewing a seam, but the

way

of insertstitch.

ing the needle resembles

more an overcasting

ii"iilMliiti|.iHiMiiiiinniiii)
[

Slip-stitch

Slip-stitch Finished

This

is

much used
the

in
in

dressmaking
millinery
entirely no
it

for
is

fastening on

made trimmings and

indispensable.
the thread

To make

stitches

invisible

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


should be drawn as tight as
ing the fabric to pucker.
silk
it

1 1

is

possible without caus-

This stitch may be used on


is

and other thin materials but

more

easily

on a

thick fabric like velvet.

WHIPPING

Whipping much used,


net,

is

not

but for

gathering fine muslin

gauze

or

soft
it

woolen
is

materials

found convenient

and neat.
WHIPPING
is

As shown

in the illustration, the

edge of the material

rolled

down by

the

thumb

of the

left

hand

as the

work proceeds;

it is

sewed

in overcasting stitches

with

cotton strong enough to force the


ers

material into gath-

when

it is

drawn straight through.


BINDING

There are two ways

of

binding.

One, chiefly used

in plain sewing, consists in

simply folding the bind, as

the braid or ribbon the material and


to insert

is

termed, in two over the edge of


or stitching
it,

hemming

taking care

the needle through both sides of the braid.

(See illustration).

The
down,

other, used in

dressmaking and for thick matefirst

rials, as it
is

must be

sewed on and then turned


is

more elegant and

often used

as

a sort of

112

PLAIN SE WING A ND FANCY S TITCHES


For
this

ornament.

way

of

binding, the braid

is

laid

on the right side of the material as low under the edge


as the binding
is in-

tended to be broad.
It is

run on just

at

the edge then turned

down and hemmed


on the
other
side

No
ble,

stitches are visi-

and

it

forms

neat edge.

In bindcare
suffi-

BiNDiNG

ing

scollops,

must be taken, when running the


scollops would curl should
tight.

braid, to

make

cient allowance for the subsequent turning over, as the

the braid

be drawn too

good precaution, when using woolen braid, conpreviously soaking


it it

sists in

in

hanging
it is

out to

dr}'.

It will

warm water and then shrink then as much as

liable to do,
it

and
will

will

do so no more. remain
flat,

When

sewed

on afterward

always

and will not

cause those puckerings which are so great an objection


to braid bindings.

CORDING

Cording

is

generally

used

to

prevent
it

stretching.

Around the armhole and whenever


two pieces

is

placed between
carefully

of material, the strips of material

cut on the bias, are folded just in two, a piece of piping

cord

is

slipped

in

and the

strip is neatly stitched in

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


together with both pieces of material.

When

the cordstrip

ing

is

placed on the

edge of the material, the

must only be folded half-way


insei'ted

down, and the


hem.

cord

within

this allows for the

Beginners had best tack

down
terial

the fold of the ma-

over the cord, but


is

that

unnecessary for
hands.

practised

The

strip nuist then be placed

CORDING
side of

on the edge
the corded side

of the right

the

material,

downwards,
strip is

and be stitched close under the cord, then the


turned

down
side.

so that the corded

edge alone shows on

the right side of the material, and

hemmed on
is

the

wrong
the

When

the garment thus corded

lined,

hemming must be done with


first

slip-stitching, so that
side.

no stitches are visible on the right

Our
ing

illustration

shows cording put on

at the

edge
cordin

and partly
is

hemmed down.

Another variety
It is

of

frequently used as a trimming.

shown

our second illustration and


sists in

con-

inserting

between

two
of

materials one or more rows

DOUBLE CORDING

cord more or less thick and stitch-

ing them down, forming in this way a series of orna

mental

ribs.

PIPING

Piping

is still

another style of cording that has, under

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


name, been often in great favor
dresses.
for
It
is

that

trimming
put

on
is

plain or double

and

generally

employed
or

to

edge

bias

straight

te
^^^-x.^>&xv^_^vv^.^ws.<i..^.^^_^^

bands

of material.

The

illustration
ly the

shows piainof

PIPING

manner

making

and putting on pipings.


DARNING

Darning requires
tion.
It also

a great deal of patience

and

atten-

requires neatness, and a little practice


it

will soon render


ing.

easy,
is

if

these qualities are not want-

When

the darn

required

to repair

an acci-

dental tear or hole, great care must be taken to render


it

as nearly invisible as poscible.

For

linen, cambric

or any other material of

which the ravelled threads are

strong enough.

It is

best to darn with them.

The needle
the needle.
tle

is

inserted in and out of the material

taking alternately one thread over and one thread under

At the end

of

each row of stitches a


left,

lit-

loop of cotton must be

and the thread must

never be drawn very tight, otherwise the darn would be


puckered.
ular,
If

the edges of the hole are jagged and irreg-

they must be neatly cut out.

Great care must be

taken on continuing the darn on the other side of the


hole to insert the needle between the very same threads
of the material.
is

When
work

one side
is

is

completed the cotton

cut

off,

and the

begun

in the opposite direc-

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


tion, also

beginning some distance from the torn place,

taking care never to miss one thread or to take two at


once.

In the next row, the threads missed in the pre-

ceeding are taken up, and those which were taken up

must be missed

in their turn.

This rule must always

be observed, as well when working over the material as

when

actually darning

the

hole.

loop of cotton

must, as before, be left at the end of each row.


transparent materials, such as muslin or cambric,
these loops must be cut
off

On
all

when

the darn

is

completed.

The

great art of darning

is to

repair the darn by lay-

ing the threads very equally and regularly, not loose

nor tight but just even, and then to take these threads

up with perfect regularity so

as to as

much
and

as possible,

restore the material to its orijinal state.

To darn

cloth, silk thread is used

it is

run along
It is

in the cloth,

without any stitches showing.

very

easy to darn cloth in a neat manner.

CHAIN-STITCH
F

"

Regularity
chief

is

the
the

beauty

in

chain-stitch.

[
'

quantity

....
01

The same
material

il^^r^^^:>V^.j::..,i^

should be taken on the


needle
at

CHAIN-STITCH

each

stitch.

The thread must be kept under the needle at each stitch, the left-hand thumb being placed upon the loop formed by the thread when the needle is in-

1 1

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


in

serted

the

ver}'^

hole from which the thread came

out

for

the

last stitch.

Care must be taken


otherwise the
is

not to

draw the
marking

thread

too tight,

material

will be puckered. of
cloth.

This stitch

the simplest

manner

Take

a pencil

and draw on the ma-

terial the initial

and work over with the chain-stitch.

CROSS-STITCH
Cross-stitch is the best stitch for marking cloth and
it

ma}' be done in silk, cotton or woolen thread.

Experi-

enced workers become able to


out, but
it is

outline an initial withof

better to use

a piece

coarse canvas

when marking, after which it may be drawn out by threads. To make the cross-stitch as shown in our
illustration the needle

must be inserted upwards from


a

under the material,

knot having previously been

made
other,

at the

end

of the cotton.

Each

stitch is double,

being composed of two slanting stitches crossing each

and must cover the threads of the material in


All the other stitches

each direction.
in the

must be crossed

same

direction, and the crossing go slanting

up

from

rie:ht to left.

When

two or more stitches have

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


to be

made

in a row, half of
all

each stitch must be made

at a time,

then they are

crossed at once.

HERRING-BONE STITCH
This stitch
is

often used in dressmaking for fasten-

ing into place pieces of the linings or for tacking in

place a seam's edges.


facings are
also

The seams

of skirts

and

skirt
It
is

often

finished by
flannel

herring-boning.

much used on
worn not
lined.
of

and cloth garments which

are

The edge
are

the material being folded

down

ojue

small straight stitches (the stitches used for running)

made

alternately above

and under the edge.


stitch

Workcrosses

ing thus, and always backwards, each the preceeding one.


stitches
It is

superfluous to say that the


of the

must be made very regular,

same length

and with the same interval between them.


LOOPS

Loops

are in

many

cases

used instead of button-

holes, especially for the smaller articles of apparel.

They should be made


for

rather thick,

they break easily, and should be

fastened firmly on the edge of the


material.

Like

button-holes,

the

loop must be

made

of a size exactly

A LOOD
exactly the

corresponding with that of the button


it

is

meant

for.

The

stitch

is

same

as the

button-hole stitch

described

below.

1 1

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


BUTTON-HOLES

There have been many inventions presented the sewing world, for cutting button-holes, but nothing has

been found
of

to

be better for general


sized
scissors.

utility,

than a pair

sharp

medium

For cutting rounda

ended or eyelet button-holes a cutter having


and sharp blade combined
with a sharp bodkin and
are
at
is

punch

sometimes preferred but

a pair of scissors better results

generally obtained.
right

Button-holes are usually cut

angles with

the

edges they close and they

should always be properly spaced and marked before

being cut.

tape-line

is

the best

measure that can

be used for spacing, although some prefer a card of


the size of the

space between the button-holes.

By

placing the edge of the card even with the edge of the

basque the button-hole can be marked with chalk or a


pencil, or

even cut immediataly, along

its

edge.

The

proper distance from the closing edge to the front end


of the button-hole a perfectly

may be

indicated on this card and


is

marked button-hole
front

the result.
size
of the

This disbutton to
set

tance varies

somewhat with the

be used.

While the

end should always be

back one-half inch from the closing edge, when a large


button
is

used, the distance

must be a few threads

more than one-half the diameter of the button. When button-holes are worked in cross-barred or
plaid
fabrics,

they should

be cut to follow parallel

with the cross bar or plaid, even when a slight deflection from a right angle to

the closing edge

is

made.

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


The same thing may be permissible when
edge
is

19

the

closing

considerably curved.
cutting a button-hole which
is

When
three or

to

be made over

more thicknesses, there

is

great difficulty in

getting
are

them
and

all

cut exactlj' alike;

when

the fabrics

thick

elastic they are likely to

slip.

There

have been various methods tried to prevent


best
lines
is

this.

The

to baste

them

all

firmly together along the two

made by

the front and back ends of the button-

holes, before they are cut.

Another method, which, however, has


able features
is to

its

objectionof shellac

take a mild mucilage


this

made

dissolved in alcohol and with

paste the fabrics

together where the button-holes are to be worked.


alcohol soon evaporates,
still

The

fabrics are very likely to

become smeared

or

their

colors will

run

together

when the pasting is done. Another way of holding fabrics together while cutting and working button-holes, is to mark the button-hole
on the cloth and machine stitching though
thicknesses on each side of the mark.
all

the

These stitchings
allow the cutting

should be just

far

enough apart
between.
is

to

of the button-hole

Whatever method

chosen, as has been before stated,

in cutting a button-hole great care

must be taken

to cut

the underside exactly like the upper.

To do

this

where

there
is

is
it

any thickness
is

is difficult.

When

the

punch
the

used

pushed through sharp and direct at one end


rest

and the sharp pointed scissors make the

of

20

PLA INSE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


when
the scissors alone are

cutting a simpler matter, but

used, one sharp point must be depended


as

upon
a

to

do

good work as the punch, but

this requires

very

steady hand.

No.
No.
1

No.

BUTTON-HOLES

We
I,

illustrate the three kinds

of

plain

button-holes
first,

used in ladies' and childern's garments.


illustrated is the button-hole

The

or No.
lin-

made
2, is

in cotton

and

en fabrics, the second, or No.

the customary but-

ton-hole for dresses and similar garments, while the


third, or

No.

3,

is

the cloak or

wrap button-hole.
must be stayed.
like

When
For

the button-hole has been cut, before proceedit,

ing to work

as

it

is

called, its edges

a button-hole like

No.

i,

a single thread run

a bar along each side will be sufficient.


at

single stitch

each end of the button-hole^will give you this bar.

When

you commence

to

work the button-hole begin


No.

at

the back end and

work

to the front edge of the


in
i

garment

always.

The button-hole shown


This
is

is

barred at
bit of the

each end.

done by taking up a tiny

material on the needle for five or six stitches across the


end, then turning the goods and working to the other

edges of the button-hole back


a similar bar
holes, Nos. 2
is ?*-itched

to the

other end where

as a finish.
is

For the button


barred.

and

only the back end

For No.

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


2,

121

which
is

hole

used for dresses the front end of the buttonjust simply worked around in regular stitches.
is

The loops along


should be regular
If

the opening

are, of

course
of

closely
stitches

crowded together, but the intervals


at their outer edge.
is

the

one round end


is

required as

is

shown

in

No.

3,

punch

the best thing to use and in connection with

the sharp scissors, but

when

the punch

is

not at hand,
the circular
cir-

take up one or two threads on a pin at

end and cut the pin


cular place to

out.

This will leave a small

work around with the same

stitch used

on the

sides.

All button holes should be


will permit) after

dampened, (if the material they are worked and then thoroughly
Large ones
like

pressed through a cloth.


in stiff lined cloth

No.

3,

worked

should have their edges drawn together


After the press-

with a basting thread before pressing.


ing
is

done, the round punch should De run up and


the eyelet or round end to give the proper shape.

down in

After which the bastings of the

button-holes

may be

removed and the appearance


It

will

be as above. go into the details

seems almost unnecessary

to

used in working button-holes, but for the benefit of any reader who has never seen it done we
of the stitch

give a minute description.

Draw
at the

the

needle with a

single thread through the cloth from

the under to the

upper side
ton-hole.

of the cloth

and

back end of the but

In ordinary cloth the stitch should be taken-

about three threads in from the cut button hole edge.

122

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHE


stitch
out.

About two threads further along take another


This gives a twirl
to the thread of the stitch

holding the thread below where the needle comes

and

this

must be held

in place along the button-hole's edge.

The

repetition gives the

desirable cord-like finish to


is

the button-hole which covers raw edges and

very

durable.

Care must be taken to make the stitches the

same
to

size

and the same distance apart.

It is

best not

draw the thread too

tight at each stitch.

THE BOUND BUTTON-HOLE

The bound button-hole is much vised for heavy cloths and for garments made with interlinings, as well as
ordinary lining.

Our

illustrations give
a

making

one an idea bound button-hole and again

of the process of

just

how

it

looks

when

finished.

When

the garment

demanding

bound

A FANCY BUTTON-HOLE

button-hole
all

is

lined and interlined,

it is

best to baste

around where the button-hole

is to

be cut so as to

PLAIN SE WING AND FANCY STITCHES


hold
all

123

the parts firmly in one position in relation to one

another.

In cutting the hole use your sharpest scissors,

or the sharp chisel can be


to advantage, for
a

employed

in this

instance
is

clean even cut clear through


a

most

essential.

Then take
whatever
it

narrow piece of

silk,

satin, lasting or

is to

be used for binding the


all

button-hole, and sew


ing.

securely

around the open-

Draw

the binding as tightly around the ends of

the hole as possible in this sewing.

Then
flat

fasten the
it

two ends

of the

binding together and turn


its

through

the hole and

hem

other edge

down

on the under

side of the garment.

A FANCY BUTTON-HOLE

We

also illustrate

two button-holes which are worked


are simply ornamental but can

in fancy stitches.

They

be readily worked from the plain pictures presented.

HOW TO SEW ON PEARL AND


Insert the threaded

SIMILAR BUTTONS

needle on the wrong side of the


is

cloth to

which the button

to

be attached,

at

about

three-quarters of an inch from the place for the button

and

slip

it

between the goods

to

the required spot.


side,

Then bring

the needle out on the

wrong

and

after

124

PLAIN SEWING AND FANCY STITCHES


through to the right
side.

fastening the thread securely by two or three stitches,

pass

it

From underneath
hand lower hole

put the needle through the right

of the button

and then through the

left-hand upper one and through the cloth, thus mak-

ing an
place.

oblique stitch

and drawing the button into


of

From the under side


through
the left-hand

the cloth

pass

the

needle through the right hand upper hole and put


it

thence

it

lower

hole

and draw
so

out through the cloth on the wrong side, and

complete the cross-stitch.


four or live times more.
right-side of the

This should be repeated


the needle to the

Then pass

cloth under the button and wind the

cotton several times around under the button to form a


stem, which raises
it

a little

from the cloth and also

strengthens

it.

Fasten the sewing on of the button


of

by three or four repeated stitches on the wrong side

the cloth and, then slipping the needle to the right side,

cut

off

the thread.

CHAPTER X

UNDERWEAR
MATERIALS CUT, FIT AND MAKING CHEMISE DRAWERS DRESSPETTICOATS NIGHTGOWNS CORSET-COVERS ING-SACQUES WRAPPERS APRONS

MATERIALS

The

articles

composing
must
of a

suit of ladies'

underwear

vary according to the dictates of fashion.

The

stjde

and make
the style

of a dress

to a

certain extent control


it.

and make

the garment worn beneath

For instance, under

basque made to

fit

the form as

close as the skin of the wearer, a full chemise gathered

on to a band and with


not be worn
in the
is
;

full

puffed

short sleeves, can

neither can a full round dress skirt hang

most desirable manner when a petticoat beneath


fit

gored to

tight over the hips.


'8o's a set of ladies'

Before and up to the

underwear

consisted of drawers, chemise, petticoat and skirt with


the addition of a
are
still

gown

for night wear.

These

articles

and will always remain


125

in vogue,

but they
as then.

are not so absolutely

worn by every woman

126

UNDERWEAR
of

The wholesale manufacture


neatness of their
their
fit,

woven

underwear

revolutionized the fashions in such

garments.

The

their admirable wearing qualities,

comparative cheapness and their unlimited variety,

quality, design

and size appealed to every women.


to stay

They have come


year.

most probably.

Indeed

it

seems they only continue

to increase in favor year after

They come
sorts
of

in

silk,

woolen, linen and cotton.

In
all

shirts or vests, long

and short sleeved, high and


In

low necks.

drawers
in

of

different

sizes,

shapes and lengths and

the combination garments

which

var}^ as

much

in style

and make.

Even

the

much

abused tights are

in the highest favor

among

the most

modest and best dressed women.

These woven garments mean


in clothing

minimum

of

weight
of the of

and the

freest use

and development

muscles
the

of the entire

body.

For the development

trul}^ artistic in

dress they are of the highest import-

ance.

They do not destroy

the outlines of the

human

form but are made and conform to the rules which are
in

accordance to the truest

lines.

The
care
to

greatest obstacle
is

reformers

of

woman's dress
do not

encounter,

that the majority of their sisters

be conspicuous by any innovation.


of this elastic
so.

But the

wearing

and well

fitted

underwear does

not render them

However,
of,

in connection

with and often independent


if

these

"first

principle garments,"

we may term them

UNDERWEAR
so, are the additional pieces that

127
for

must be provided

every well dressed

woman

viz

the drawers, chemise,

corset, corset-cover, petticoats

and the night-gown.

For

these, silk, linen, lawn, percale, cambric,

mus-

lin, flannel

and other similar fabrics are used according and taste of the wearer.

to the season, climate

Fashion
by way of

sometimes seems

to exhaust itself in novelties for underin


it

wear and then she suggests colors

variety, but, the best taste never accepts such an edict

and

it

as regularly dies a natural death, without a ripple of consideration.


is

much
|

more than

The

first

law that

should govern underwear

purity,and dyes even of the

best quality do not give this nor do garments dyed even


in the

most delicate shades

of color suggest purity.

The

fad at one time prevailing of entire suits of black under-

wear was certainly revolting and anything but wholesome.

The
most

use of the delightful China silk

is

responsible for
of the best qual-

of our colored underwear.

When
even

ity this silk

washes

like cotton,

in the

most

fragile

colors as well as the white.

Some
fabric,

fastidious

women
and

prefer silk to

any other

even

fine linen,
tell

for all the

different pieces,
for

while others will

you they can only use linen

everything except nightgowns,

when they choose


is

the

China

silk.

Cotton cloths in turn have their devotees.


thej^ are

Of course

cheaper which

recommendation
silk

and they certainly do possess equal softness with

when

as fine,

and they wear as well as good

linen.

128

UNDERWEAR
CUT, FIT

AND MAKING
fit

Whatever

the material, the cut and

of these gar

ments are usually the same.


cut and sewed in just the
is

That

is,

a silk

chemise

is

same way

cotton chemise

done.

In the long ago,

when our grandmama's made


and

their chemises, they used all the material possible


fulled
it

on to bands around the neck and arms, with


the waist.

about two yards width around

Drawers

and

skirts

were equally voluminous.

well dressed

woman
snugly

should have her under garments as neatly and


fitted as

those worn over them.


is

In cutting out the garment, a good pattern

about as

indispensable as one for a dress.

Still
if

another gar-

ment that
cises care

fits

well can be utilized,

the cutter exer-

and

common

sense.

Each garment should be basted together, tried on and alterations carefuU}' made unless the pattern used The daintiest underwear has often been used before.

made by hand but very good garments and very made hy machine entirely. The chief objection one can make to machine made underwear Too is that it is usually over trimmed and too fussy.
is

pretty ones are

much tucking and ruffling is vulgar. Delicate daintily made pieces of comparative plainness are to be alwaj's Whether preferred to over decoration poorly done.
done by hand or machine
are stitched and felled.
all

seams with raw edges

In the chapter immediatel}^ preceeding both plain and

French

felling, as well as other stitches are

explained

UNDERWEAR
at length but for

129
tlie

the convenience of

reader
flat fell

we
is

repeat.
to

The

best

way

to

make

the ordinary

sew the two edges together


off

in

an ordinary seam and


its

cut

the edge of one side one-half

depth

then

turn the uncut edge over the cut or narrower edge and

then fold them

down

flat

and stitch them into position.


is

Ready-made underclothing
the French
as neat and
is fell for all its

usually
It

made by using
which

seams.

does not provide

smooth
flat,

a finish as the ordinary fell


is

perfectly

but

a trifle

more rapidly done and

wears very well.

To make the French

fell

lay the

wrong

side of the pieces


off

together and stitch them in a narrow seam, pare

the edges smooth and close to the stitching, then turn


the pieces at

the

seam so that the

right sides

are
as

together and on the wrong

^de make another seam


This makes
all

deep as the edges enclosed.


covered and firmly sewed.

raw edges

THE CHEMISE

The chemise

will

probably never pass entirely out of


it is

style although at times

not generally worn.

They

are certainly bidky garments unless neatly fitted and

made.

They

are

made with
what
is

the fulness required in

the skirt, gathered into a band over the shoulders or

they are

made

in

known

as the

sacque shape,

which

is

a very neat,

comfortable undergarment

and

adds nothing to the size of the wearer.


shapes are cut to
front
fit

These sacque

without fulness over the back and


to

and four darts are introduced below the bust

130

UNDERWEAR
it

shape

into the waist

there.

The armseyes

are not

supplied with sleeves and only finished by embroidery


or lace.

ton on and

Some chemises have shoulder straps that butmay be removed when worn under a low

corsage
it

the garment being so closely fitted by darts

does not need to be suspended from bands over the

shoulders.

The trimming
itself is

of the

chemise must be limited to the


of

neck and the end.

Embroidery done

the

material

the most durable trimming but

Hamburg and
of the chemise

Russian embroideries, Valenciennes, and Torchon laces


trim in an exquisite manner.

The end
to

may be
or

finished

by a
to

hem two
six

four

inches deep

by

ruffles

two

inches wide, which

may

be

edged with

lace, tucks or

embroidery according

to the

material and the taste of the wearer.

Ribbons add a great deal


wear.

to

the beauty of under-

They

are used in

narrow widths run through


itself or

casings of the material


ings which

through woven headlace

may be used with both

and embroidery.

Then narrow ribbons are drawn through and tied in Bows and rosettes of wider ribbons coquettish loops.
are set about on the shoulders or in front on chemises
at the will of the wearer.

In making a chemise
the seams and,
if

when

it

has been cut, baste up

there are

darts try the

garment on
and

before
fell

stitching.

Then sew up

the

side seams

them down.

Then hem

or trim the end after

which

finish the

neck and armseyes.

UNDERWEAR
DRAWERS
If

131

any difference

is

shown, drawers should be made


than any other
strain

of heavier linen,

cambric or muslin
is

piece of underwear, as there

more

upon them.

When

closed drawers are used they should be

made
the
best

with a deep yoke

over

the

hips, thus
stiff

bringing

closing at the back below the

corset.

The

patterns for open drawers have an overlapping


at the

band
draw

back and the seat


not

is

cut longer

in proportion.

If this is

done the drawers are likely

to

apart and not give the needed protection.

The lower

part of the drawers admits of considera-

ble trimming.

Clusters of tucks separated by feather

stitching, insertions of lace or

embroidery and lace or

embroidered

ruffles will all


first

be seen on one pair.


all this

In making drawers,

do

trimming on each
If

leg and then stitch together and fell each leg. are closed drawers,

they

seam and
are

fell

the legs together and

then put on the yoke or band.


ers, after the

If

they are open draw-

legs

closed, face

each side with a

straight piece of the

material and then join to the


flat

band.

Use medium sized

pearl buttons

for

the

closings.

CORSET-COVERS

corset-cover should

fit

as

perfectly
for

as a

a basque

and no better pattern can be found

corset-cover

than a tried and true basque pattern.


Corset-covers are cut high or low neck as the wearer

chooses and a great number are high behind with open

132

UNDERWEAR
front.

V-shaped or square-necked

Sometimes

very

small sleeves are added or else the armseye isfaced, or


scolloped or a narrow embroidered or lace edge finishes

them.
over
is

The
a

corset-cover can not be comfortably worn


silk,
lisle

chemise, the woven

or

wool vest

its

proper accompaniment.

It

should be cut in the same number of pieces as a

plain round basque;

which

consists, for a

medium

sized

woman,
extra

of front,

back and under-arm gores.


is

When

an

side-body piece

required to give the proper

curves at the waist to a basque, they must be added to


the corset-cover
It
its

worn under

it.

should be basted together

neatl}'

and

fitted before

seams are stitched.

During

this

fitting
if it is

the neck

should be cut into the desired shape,


a high-neck cover.

not to be

After a good

fit

is

obtained, stitch
flat fell

the seams and


or the

fell

them.

Either the ordinary

French

fell

ma}' be used the former being decidit is

edly the better method, because

a flat finish.

The
This

front closing edges should be curved like a well fitted

basque and will in that case require to be faced.


facing should be

made wide enough

to take a

button-hole

and the cover should be closed with small pearl buttons and button-holes to correspond, about two inches
apart.

The bottom

of

the corset-cover should

be neatly

finished by a narrow half-inch

hem and

the neck should

be given a half-inch facing unless the trimming gives


the necessar}^ stay.

When Hamburg

embroidery

is

UNDERWEAR
half inch

133

used, the top of the corset-cover can be turned over a

and then stitched down on the embroidered


the same as a facing but

edge.

This

is

when

lace is used as the

to trim, the facing of the

same material

cover

must be supplied.
NIGHTGOWNS

The

style in

nightgowns varies more than any other


but
the

under garment,

gown made with


is

the

long

breadths gathered into a yoke


square, round or pointed yoke

always in favor.

The
For

may be

cut over a basque


fit

or high-neck corset-cover and a good

obtained.

serviceable and inexpensive gowns, fine muslin simply

trimmed with tucks and


passed.

a lace

edging can not be sur-

on the

The yoke should be made double with seams shoulders and a closing in front. The shoulder
should be stitched together so

seam

of four thicknesses

that the

seam

is

within.
felled.

gown should be
in this case

The seams of the skirt of the The French fell can be used

without inconvenience. The sleeves should made and completely trimmed before they are inserted in the armseye. The front of the gown should
be
be closed with small pearl buttons and button-holes
four inches apart.
are used
Silk,

For more luxurious gowns ribbons


of buttons

and tied instead

and button-holes.

batiste,

cambric, mull

and other materials are

make very luxurious nightgowns. Ladies who suffer from cold, wear gowns made of fleeced muslin or piqu^ which are made with but little fulness
used

and

134

UNDERWEAR
ruffles in

and with only scolloped


sleeves.

the neck, front and


are

The sacque-shaped gowns


pointed yoke

best for these

with

placed as an under-facing for


PETTICOATS
fitting

extra warmth.

Short petticoats are usually made with a yoke


perfectly over the hips and

stomach and closed with


breadths
fall

buttons at the back.

The

straight

just

below the knee and whether made


or silk have but little fulness. are

of flannel,

muslin

The

best flannel skirts


as
to
it

made of flannel which is half cotton shrink when washed. These seams are
cross-stitch
skirts

will not

be sewed

by hand and laid open, tacked into place by the simple

done

in silk thread.

The bottoms

of these

are

usually embroidered.

Scolloped edges of

embroidery do

not wear well

and the hem-stitched


little

flannel edges with

embroidery above and a


is

lace
full

run along beneath


part of the skirt
is

the prettiest finish.


it is

The

gathered where

joined to the

yoke.

Short cambric petticoats are sometimes made with


a

yoke

also,

but

not always.

They
not

are

often elabor-

ately trimmed with lace, embroidery and hand-stitching.

This

is

permissible as they do

receive

the hard

usage the longer petticoats must.

Trained petticoats should never be worn

they soil

immediately and never follow the train of the dress

and are generally


for

all

around nuisances.

The

petticoat

wear under the ordinary walking

skirt is cut three

UNDERWEAR
inches
It is

135

shorter than

the

dress-skirts

worn

over

it.

made with front and side-gores and straight back The top is finished by a yoke when the hips breadth. The seams should be are large enough to require it.
stitched and
finished

over-cast

and the bottom of the

skirt

by a two-inch hem.

The

petticoat

should

measure around the bottom two and one-half yards, for


a

medium

sized

woman.

The trimming

of these skirts

should be done on deep flounces of scanty fulness


tucks, lace
alone.

and embroider}^ being used together and


is

The same ornamentation

applied to

silk,

cambric and to cloth walking length petticoats.


DRESSING-SACQUES

A
that

dressing-sacque

is

best

made with
pattern for

close fitted

back and a loose


fits

front.

An

ordinary basque pattern


tliese sacques.

may be used

as a

However,

in cutting the front parts

do not curve

the

closing edges and the darts

need not be cut out or This gives the desired


Neverthe-

taken into consideration at

all.

freedom
less

for the

arms and body generally.


first

some

ladies use the

dart to

draw the garment

in a little to the figure.

Whatever the
as

style

desired in that respect, cut the


silk,

sacque out of 5^our material,


it

wool, cotton or lace

may

be,

and baste up the seams and lay the hem

down each

side of the closing in front.


if

Try the gar-

ment on and
sewed,

alterations are necessarj^,

make them
fell

before stitching the seams.


if

After the seams are tightly


a

the material

is

cotton or linen fabric,

136

UNDERWEAR
neatly.
If heav}' silk or
is

them

some similar material

that will not fray

used, the edges of the seams

may

be notched in fine notches and the seams themselves

should then be pressed


flannel and

open

flat.

Cloth, cashmere,
in

most woolen fabrics are finished


the sacque
is

this

manner.

When

made

of

China

silk the

seams should be finished


Generally
full sleeves

as are

cambrics

and mull.

held in by a band

at the wrists,

or simply flowing sleeves complete these garments.

Perhaps the daintiest dressing-sacques are made


white

of of

nainsook and

are

trimmed with insertions


laces
in

both lace and


gathered
lace.

nainsook embroidery and an edge of

Torchon and Valenciennes


Ribbons

are

always the prettiest and wear best.


or some bright becoming shade
of

white

color are knotted

and tacked on according to the taste of the wearer.

Sometimes
gives too

belts of these ribbons


to

are

added but this

much primness

garment which should

be free and loose to be a typical dressing-sacque.

WRAPPERS

The garment
fering

called a wrapper conveys so widely difit is

meanings that

difficult to

give definite sug-

gestions concerning
fitted

its

development.
is

The comfortably
the best
t3'pe

princess

dress, however,

of

wrapper and upon this the various changes

of

loose

fronts, Watteau backs, long and walking length wrapThere are two faults into which wrappers are rung.

pers

may

fall,

they may be

made

to

be entirely too

negligee to be worn except

as a dress for the

bedroom

UNDERWEAR
and they
dinner

137

may be made as elaborate as an evening or gown and so lose all characteristics of comfort.
is

But there

no prettier house

toilette a

woman

can

provide herself than a neatly

fitted

princess wrapper

made
to
fit

to touch the floor several inches at the

back and

neat.

A pretty becoming
it

color and

enough trimall

ming

to give

certain

daintiness are

that are

required.

Cotton cloth wrappers are seldom lined and the seams


are

long

and often

bias,

consequently they must

be

securely stitched and stayed.

French cambric makes the best lining when the


wrapper
is

made
is

of silk

or woolen

fabrics.

The

bot-

tom

of the skirt

may be
required.

faced with the same.

Nothare

ing heavier

The

sleeves and neck


If

finished just as a

basque should be.


to
fit

the front of

the wrapper

is

made
it

snug, then

its

closing edges

should be curved as those of a basque, and must be


faced, but

when

falls

loose, the

straight

hemmed
for bath-

edges are easily finished.

For invalids and

robes there are blanket wrappers


fine colored blankets,

made
is

of

thick and

with the woven border serving as

the only trimming.

The border

usually only

suffi-

cient to appear on the lower edge and as the pockets,


cuffs

and

collar.

very thick woolen cord and tassel


robe in
at the waist.

are
is

added

to hold the

This wrapper

usually cut with as few seams as possible.

APRONS

The simplest cooking apron one can make

is a

long

138

UNDERWEAR
hemmed on
the bottom, gathered at the

square apron

top and fastened

around the waist by a narrow band

which ends

in strings

which are

tied at the back.

Two
it.

widths of gingham

or linen are

required to

make

To make

the apron one yard long, two and one-quarter

yards of gingham are required.

Cut

off

two lengths,

each thirty-nine inches long and gore one of them,


so
that
it

makes two gores out

of

the

one.

As

gingham

is

alike on both sides, this will give a side-

gore on each side of the other width which will be used


for the front of the apron.

Join the gores at the

top

to the straight breadth,

with their respective bias edges,

thus leaving their selvage edges for the back edges of


the apron.
Stitch the two seams and over-cast them,
off

then pare

even the lower edge of the apron.


stitch

Afterit

ward baste down a three-inch hem and


place.

in

Gather the top of the apron, make a band of

the six inches of cloth remaining and join the gathers


to
it
it,

for eighteen inches in the


all

middle

of

it

and

fell

down over

rough edges.

This apron can be made


If a

with a sewing machine in an hour's time.


is

pocket

added on the front

of

the apron

and a square bib


of material

above the waistband, another half yard

must
the

be provided and then a most complete apron


result.

is

Narrow, straight aprons made


cambric, silk or

of

one width of

linen

mohair are often made into and edges of


Dainty
little

quite dressy affairs by adding insertion


lace or bands

and edges

of

embroidery.

aprons made of fancy towels and large sized handker-

UNDERWEAR
chiefs are
also easily concocted,

139

and the lace-striped

Swisses and piques,

knots of bright

make most bewitching aprons when ribbon are given them on the bibs

and pockets.

CHAPTER
INFANTS'
HOW TO DRESS BABY
IT

XI

WARDROBES
HOW TO MAKE
SUITS.

A SIMPLE LAYETTE

CAPS

AND CLOAKS

NURSE s'
BABY
is

HOW TO DRESS
In dressing baby the best

rule

the golden rule

every time.
dressed
if

Dress the bab}' as you would like to be


little

you were a

one.

Heaven

lies all
it

about us

in our infancy,
to

we

are told, but

how can
two

be seraphic
a

be put through a summer, bound up


diaper,
a

in

bandage,

pinning blanket,

skirts with
It is

bands
no use

like

bandages and a long double* gown.

talking, a

baby can not be angelic when he can not kick


toe.

one pink
it is

In such rigging as

enumerated above,

no wonder he protests with his lungs.

It

seems strange that

in

everything else but dress-

ing baby,

but when
ation

we have progressed beyond our grandmothers, it comes to that, we find our bump of venerenlarged.

wonderfully
in

Grandmother
flannel,

dressed

mother

bands and loads of


140

hence the new

baby must be made uncomfortable.

INFANTS' WARDROBES
All

141

honor

to our

grandmothers, they did admirably

in the light
girls of

they had, yet

to-day can do
tight

better.

we must protest, that our Grandmother dressed

baby too
"But,
"

and too much.

says the old lady, "the baby must be bandaged

or he will be out of shape.

AN INFANT'S WARDROBE
Trust the shape of baby to nature.
her work in a careless way.
tic

She never does


wall
is elas-

The abdominal
and
if

and intended

to distend,

allowed to expand

evenly there can be no rupture.

Then
skirts.

confiscate the

pinning blanket and so

many long

The

objec-

tion to these is that they clotlie the chest

and legs too

142

INFANTS' WARDROBES
Avith

warmly and leave the shoulders and arms


nothing.
In our changeable climate
it

almost

is

a difficult

thing to
of cool

dress the babies properly to meet the

demands

nights succeeding hot days, and sudden changes within

an hour.

However,

if

they are

neither over-dressed

nor under-dressed,
It is

much can be
all

done.
lovers of babies note

with genuine pleasure

the increased enthusiasm on the subject of comfortable by clothes.

The

idea of "Reformed

clothes for

Babies" has taken as firm hold of the feminine com-

munity as has the "Reformed Dress


mothers are putting their
while they buy

for

Women," and
the
rest

common
be.

sense to work and,

many

pieces, they

make

or

have them made as they should

The
It
is

principle of such dressing


to

is

extremely simple.
the

have nothing that


is to

frets

or binds
It
is

small

bunch

that

be kept warm.

innumerable colics and griping pains


tight pressure of the flannel

now held that are made by the

bands about the tender body,

which

really also occasion too

much warmth, and which


good
for

the old-time nurse thought

nothing

if

not
if

bound with
they would
strength.

a grip of iron about the little bowels, as


fall

to

pieces but

for

its

maintaining
can no doubt

Many

a rupture in later life,

be traced to the use of this heathenish garment, which,


if
it is

not yet abolished altogether,

is

treated in a very
of soft

different fashion, being


elastic

more frequently knitted


stout

wools,

than

stitched in

flannels,

and

INFANTS' WARDROBES
allowed to
support.

143
to

give

warmth and not expected


in the

yield

The long skirts, too, who are more careful


vanities, are
it

hands

of those

mothers
of their

of

their

babies

than

going the way of the old fashions, and

is

no longer demanded of the tiny limbs that they


uphold
all that

shall

hanging weight of embroidered

flannels
little

and tucked cambrics and wrought work


still

poor
the

limbs that have often been

futher maltreated

by never being allowed temporarily to support do so when the child has become so heavy as

weight of the child, until they are suddenly called upon


to
to

almost

surely

bend them by the weight.

Nowadays

the petis

ticoats are shortened very early

and the baby

never
its

found less lovely nor less able to rule the house in

pretty shoes and stockings than in its cloud of draperies.

A SIMPLE LAYETTE
Every baby should have provided
wool
shirts.

for

it

at least three

These are now


of

to

be purchased woven

in fine ribs,

excellent shape, with close neck and


are very elastic

long sleeves.
easil3\

They

and

slip

on and

off

They

are long

enough

to

the body and provide

sufficient

come warmth and protection


well
at

down over

from stray

drafts.

Two

soft flannel

skirts with

bands fastened

the

back and straps over the shoulders and as many cambric skirts

must

also be provided.

Six slips of cambric, cut sacque shape, are properly

144
for night

INFANTS' WARDROBES
wear but likewise serve
at first for

day dresses.

fine flannel

wrapper and two

soft

cashmere sacques

shcul-d also appear, as well as


a )^oke.

one cambric dress, with

dozen squares of linen diaper and a few pairs


or boots

of knitted socks
layettes.

complete

the simplest

of

HOW TO MAKE
The
flannel skirts are

IT

made

of

two lengths

of

white

flannel, seven-eighths of a

yard long.

They

are

seamed

together with silk thread, the seams neatly pressed

open and catch-stitched down.

A deep hem

secured

b}'

a pretty fancy silk stitch should finish the bottom.

At

the top the breadths should be neatly shirred and joined


to

band twenty inches around the

bod}''

and four

inches deep.

This band should be provided with two tape bands


pass over the
it

to

little

arms.

Safety pins are used to close

at the back;

buttons and button-holes can not be used


of the tiny

to

advantage as the size

body

will vary-ever}^

day.

The

little

cambric skirts are made

in the

same way,
top of the

except that the hems are felled into place and a row
of gathers
is all

that

is

required

at

the

breadths.

The slips are made open in the front the entire length. The four seams, two shoulder and two under-arm seams,
should be neatly
small and
soft.

felled.

These

fells

must be "made
finish the fronts

narrow hem should


as

and bottom

of the slip as well

the

small

sleeves.

INFANTS' WARDROBES
The neck must be
cambric and a
it.

145

faced with a narrow bias piece of the

fine

drawing-string should be run through

Four small pearl bottons with corresponding but-

ton-holes, placed two inches apart beginning at the neck


are all the closing required.

Below them the


skirt beneath.
is
all

slip

may

hang

free over the

cambric

little nar-

row lace on the neck and sleeves


allowable.

the

trimming

These

slips should be,

however, made with

the daintiest

neatness.

When made

by hand alone

they are most in keeping with lovely bab3'hood.

The flannel and cashmere wrapper and sacque are made with as few seams as possible and they should
be pressed open and catch-stitched with silk.

Their

edges should be button-holed or pinked in small scollops.

The wrapper should be sacque shaped and one


the

yard in length only.

Some mothers make


even the lightest
tints.

mistake of using colored


Don't use
stain

flannels or cashmeres for

these garments.

The dyes
is

are

likely to

the tender flesh and white

the on/y thing for baby-

hood.

The

first

cambric dress should have a yoke


it.

of

fine

tucks and a skirt one yard long gathered on to


tucks and
skirt

Fine

lace-edge should

finish

the bottom of the


It

and sleeves and the neck

of the yoke.

should

be closed at the back by knots of white satin ribbon.

The cambric sash sometimes added


appropriate.

is

not pretty or

The

finest

cambric, lace and needle-work

146
is

INFANTS' WARDROBES
much work

not out of place on this garment, but too


are.

and lace

The

linen squares are simply squares the size of diaper

width.

They

will

have two selvage edges and the


flat,

other two must be finished with

soft

hems.
If
is

Always keep

soft socks

on the baby's

feet.

allowed
liable to

to rub his bare feet together constantly,

he

have crooked or bow-legs.


tendency
is

If

already so inclined, the

greatly increased.
or bootines

These socks
in

may be made
they

of

cashmere, cut

one piece with a felled seam running along the sole


toes, or

and up over the

may be

knitted or

cro-

chetted in Saxony

wool.

In every case let them be

pure white.
CAPS AND CLOAKS

Caps

for infants to

wear outdoors are made

of

muslin

or of silk.

They should never be worn indoors. Pretty French caps are made of fine India muslin with tucks in the center and shirrings to draw them into shape
around the face and head.

Simple

little frills

of

the

muslin edged with lace are the trimmings, with a


rosette

made

of the

same, placed on top.

These are

made quite warm by adding a lining of China silk, or still warmer by a quilted silk lining. Cloaks are made in both cape and sacque shapes. The sacques with round or square yokes are perhaps
most
popular always.
Silk,

cashmere,

flannel

and

repped piqud are the materials used and lace or embroidery are the appropriate trimmings.

Knots and

INFANTS' WARDROBES
ties of

147
dainti-

white satin ribbons add

much

to their

ness, whatever the material used.

nurses' suits

nurse's suit consists of a cap, apron and cloak to

be worn over a plain dress.

The cap has

mob crown

of a white swiss or India muslin, plain or embroidered.

Some
row

erect frills of the

same material placed across


is

the front are the regulation style, but a gathered narruffle

on

all

the edge

also used as

a finish and

strings to tie behind are


is

added generally.
of

The apron

made

of

two straight breadths

wide Victoria lawn

with two or three broad tucks across the bottom, or

some wide
a
It

embroidery may finish

the

edge.

The

breadths of lawn are gathered at the top and joined to

band that has ordinary strings


should

to tie

at

the back.

always

be long enough to reach to the

bottom
is

of the dress over

which
in

it is

worn.

The
It

cloak

made

of cloth or flannel
is

brown, maroon or gray


should

generally, and

of

deep circular shape.

be as long as the dress and shirred from the neck to


the shoulders or gathered on to a round yoke.
It

should

be completed
or neck-tie,

at the

neck by a
a

full

white muslin scarf

Hemmed by

narrow hem along the sides

and

deep hem-stitched hem on each end.

CHAPTER

XII

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
AMERICAN

MOTHERS

SHORT

CLOTHES

SMALL

BOY's

CLOTHES

DRESS FOR GIRLS

AN APRON

AMERICAN MOTHERS
In no country
to the dainty
ica.
is

so

much

attention paid by mothers

costuming

of their little

ones as in Amer-

French women are

as a rule too vain

and

frivo-

lous to care

how

their children are dressed,


it,

and when
impossible

they do think of

they array them

in

garments often low-necked and short-sleeved and with


ballet like
skirts
little

reaching

to

the

knees,

and their

unformed

bodies are cramped into tight-fitting

spider-waisted bodices, the counterpart of the whale-

boned ones

of their
is

mammas.

In England, where the


in

rising generation

kept strictly

the

background,
is

sensible but homel}^ and


rule,

inexpensive dressing
little

the

and English children are generally


stuff

frights

in

brown Holland pinafores and


is
148

gowns.

In Ger-

many economy

paramount, and a dark woolen or

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
linen garment which will not "show dirt"
is

149
the ordi-

nary attire of the flaxen-haired


of this

little

maiden.

In spite

marked tendency

to

simplicity,

we owe much

of the picturesque

beauty of the modern child's dress

to

the clever English

woman, Kate Greenaway, the


nursery rhymes.

illustrator of the familiar

Dress the

children prettily, but do not


refers

make
;

dolls of

them

(this

mostly to
is

little

girls)

childhood, like "beauty

unadorned

adorned the most."

child that

is

be-

decked with silks and rare laces loses that chief


of childhood, simplicity, of

charm
Jenny

and one ought as soon think


of

dyeing the

russet

gown

the dear
in

little

Wren.
but
taste

Few children are unattractive many are made so by the lack of


shown
in their dress

themselves,

good, sensible
in

by those having them


child
silks
is

charge.

neatly-dressed

pleasant sight,
is

but one loaded

down with

and laces

really to
dress,

be pitied.
it is

To

be sure, for a best or

company
is

allowed to have as rich a material as


the parent, but
it

consistent

with the purse of

is

this over-dress-

ing during play or school hours that

is

harmful to the

child both physically and morally.

Physically, as she
of

can take but


ions

little
is

part in the

games

her compan-

when she
;

afraid of

soiling

or rumpling a nice

dress

consequently, she loses that exercise the lack of


effect

which, in after years, will have so damaging an

upon her constitution, leaving

it

fragile
little

and
girl,

delicate.

We
in

have

in

mind

the case of a

beautiful

both face and disposition, who, having lost both

I50
parents

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
when she was but two
to

years of age, and not

having any near relatives,


to

at least

none that appeared

want

take the

care

of

her,

was adopted by

wealthy lady.

This

woman

never had any children of

her own, so she could scarcely be blamed for trying to

make

the child happy, as she thought, by clothing her

in the richest

kind of fabrics, trimmed with rare laces

and ornamented by broad, heavy sashes.

During the
in cool,

summer months, when

other

little

ones, clad

loose-fitting garments, played about, she sat or

walked

with the nurse-maid in the shade, and watched them


wistfully.

She could not take any part


her clothes, and after a
join

in their

merry

games, for she was loaded with finery and must not

crumple or

soil

little

while she

had no desire

to

them, but would walk by them


gait, in

with uplifted head, manner and

imitation of

some popular
sensibly.

society belle.

Yes, dress the children


for

The world has no place


j

miniature socichildren.

ety belles

it

wants natural, lovable

little

SHORT CLOTHES

The first short dresses for boys and girls are usually made alike. They are yoke slips just long enough to The same reach to the ankles when the child stands. materials may be used for them as are used for the long dresses of infants. These are put on when the
child
is

six

months

of age.

When

it is

eighteen months
dresses although
child
is

old, belts

may

be inserted in these

little

the slips are often continued until the

three

years of age.

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
or short but just here a protest

151

Fashion dictates whether their skirts shall be long

may be

entered against

the long ones.

There

is

nothing more conducive to the health and

happiness of children than the free use of their limbs.

When

the long

unfolding

skirts are

worn they are


not kick, the

hampered

in every way.
little

The baby can

two year-old

ones have their motion impeded and

the four-year-old child can not run because her clothes

hold her back.

SMALL boys' clothes


Bo3's should wear trousers as soon as

they begin

to run easily.

The Knick-

erbocker skirts must be retained until


they are large enough to run around out
of doors but after that time

small boys

should be given

all

the freedom of move-

ment

consistent

with

the

necessary
fear listen

warmth. Mothers may without


to the requests

of

the little fellows to


It is, of

give up the kilted skirts.

course,

from the commendable desire


boys beg for trousers, but
are bothersome.

to

be

men

that the small

it is

also because their skirts

The
which
tical

pretty little sailor suits with the long


fit

trousers,

snugly above the knee and are given a nau-

spread at the ankle, are the more sensible and

the prettiest suits for small boys.

The union

suits of

152

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
obtained
in qualities to

underwear, can be

suit

the

various seasons and are the best underwear that can

be provided.
give with every

They are as pliable as Jersey cloth and movement of the body. Long stockings

held by straps which pass over the shoulders and broad

spring-heeled shoes are the proper covering for the


feet.

Little boys' overcoats and hats or caps

should corgiven a cape

respond.

The smaller

boj^s are generally

over the shoulders of their overcoat but boys from nine


to twelve discard this

and wear long sack coats but-

toned up in single-breasted fashion.

As regards dyes
are

for either

boys or

girls light colors

more healthy than dark, since they contain


matter,

less

coloring

and

fast

dyes are safer than those


is a

which fade rapidly.


and
is

Indigo-black

very "fast" dye,

therefore better than blacks obtained from log-

wood.

Logwood has
it

a peculiar effect well

known by
there
is

dyers, in that
ing.

deprives the skin of the sense of feel-

Dyed

materials are least injurious

when

least perspiration
for dresses to

and they should be

especiall}^

avoided

be worn during exercise. White, therefore,


is

besides being the prettiest,


for

the most healthy color

summer and

other dresses.
color, applies particularly
all

This matter, with regard to


to

underwear, but where

it

can be done economically

children's clothing should be white.

The

little sailor suit

shown on the preceeding page


white serge or flannel,
as
is

is

very pretty

made

in

also the little girl's dress

shown

opposite.

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
DRESS FOR GIRLS
In choosing materials for
ing
care should be

153

girls' cloth-

taken

to

secure

warmth without adding weight.


so that the child

They

should also be inexpensive and strong,

may

not have to be
its

forbidden healthy play lest

clothes

should be spoiled.

No

really

loving

mother

will

prefer the welfare of the

clothes to the welfare of her child.

Woolens
according to the
children's dress.

of lighter or greater

weight
for

season

are

the
of

best

materials

Aprons made

white cambric and


dirt.

pretty ginghams afford all


Girls

needed protection from


twelve
years always

and

misses

up

to

look

well and sufficientl}^ fashionable in dresses

made with
full or

round

full

skirts

and round waists with long


are

coat-sleeves.

They
a

easily

made
quite

and

readily

laundered.

For such
together.

dress

the skirt

is

straight,

com-

posed of two or more widths of material firmly run

The bottom

of

it is

finished
it

b}'

hem about
number
of
at the

four inches deep, and


tiicks,

above

may
in

be a

grouped according
deep,
is

to taste.

The opening
the

back, six inches

made

midde

of the

width, hemmed and wrapped right over

left in

the

ordinary way.

The top

of

the skirt

is

gathered and

sewed oh

to the

waistband of the

body.

The body

consists of five pieces, viz., one front, two backs, and

154

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
The seams on
scissors,

two sleeves.
the are

the

shoulders and under


stitched, the

arms are neatly and thickly

raw edges

trimmed with the

and overcast either singly

or in the double.

The backs
as

are strenghened by a one-inch deep hem,

and fastened with excellently worked button-holes and

many

little

buttons.

The bottom
of fulness

of the front

is

gathered for a short distance on each side of the middle to give a small

amount

over the chest.

The neck and

the waist

are

finished

by a half-inch

band, often put on with a piping, which greatly adds


to the strength as well as to the neatness.

These bands

may form
up so as
to

cases for tapes by which to draw the body


fit

each individual wearer.

The armeyes
The

are

carefully curved and roomy.


to

They measure

large around

permit free movement of the arms.

sleeves
if full,

are gathered both at the

top and bottom, and


at the

form a pretty
into a

puff,,

and the fulness

bottom

is set

narrow band.

They

are firmly stitched into the

armeyes, the
overcast.

raw edges are pared and then thickly


AN APRON

A
or

child for

all

ordinary occasions never looks neater

more

attractive

than

when wearing
dress.
It

a pretty little
is

pinafore
pretty in

apron

over

her
is

simple
It

yet

shape and

easily arranged.

may

be

made
They

of

print, cambric,

checked muslin, diaper, holabout


at

land or any similar


are always

fabric
to

thirty inches wide.

made

button

the

back.

They

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
are

155

hemmed

in a

narrow

hem

all

around and tied with

strings fastened in at the sides, in a

bow
it

at the

back

which forms a modest


trimming sewed on

sash.

little

strong lace or other


neatly.

all

edges finishes

SUMMARY

The choice
left to

of

children's
outfitters
;

clothing should never be

nurses

or

but

the

mother, be

she
it

never so rich and


herself, so as to

fashionable, should
that

superintend

be sure

every garment worn by

her

little

ones
let

is

both

healthy and comfortable.

We
out-

must never
grown.

children wear clothes

they have
to
fit,

Boots must always be made

by good

makers, and of the expensive material called glove-kid,

and each child ought

to

have two
in

pairs,

which should be

worn on alternate days,


boot,

order to prevent that mold-

ing of the foot to any peculiarity in the shape of the

which may happen


little

if it

is

worn constantly.

The

ones must have clothes suitable for every


so
that

kind of

weather,

they

may never be kept


fit

indoors because they have nothing

to

go out

in.

They must have changes of clothes in case they come in damp. And last but not least, however great the damage may be to clothes, nothing must induce us to
interfere with the little one's

romping

play.

From
to

the foregoing

it is

clear that the first principles

be obeyed in the clothing of children are the preven-

tion of

undue

loss of animal heat b}^ the use of apparel


it

so contrived that

shall not

hamper

their

movements

and cleanliness.

Both these principles may be obeyed

156

CHILDREN'S CLOTHES
:

equally by rich and poor

for

clothes

may be made
in

even more

easil}'^

on a rational plan than

the com-

mon
sive
;

way, and soap and water are decidedly inexpenbut people must devote time and thought to the

subject.

CHAPTER XIII DRESS TRIMMINGS


BIAS

BANDS

PLAIN

BINDING AND FRENCH

HEM

ROUND AND

PIPING

BANDS

CORD-EDGE DOUBLE CORD-EDGE STRAPS FUR TRIiMMING FLOUNCES PLEATING


BIAS

BANDS

Bias bands and rouleaux are modified or perfected

bindings and cordings.


cross, or bias,

They

are

always cut on the

and form very neat and eleganttrimmings


silk materials, but they are not at all nice

for for

woolen and

washing materials, because they

and always be flattened out


ing.

will often shrink, * of all elegance in the iron-

Very great care must be taken


for

to

cut

the

material
the

bias

exactly on

the

cross,

folding

together

selvage

and raw

edge of the material, then cutting


care
to

along the corner piece thus formed, taking

measure accurately
This can

all

along the width of the

first bias.

afterward be pinned over the material as


as there are strips
157

many times

wanted

they will thus

158

DRESS TRIMMINGS
exactly alike.

be

all

The

strips are next

sewed together
flat.

along the selvages and the seams ironed

beginners,

The sewing on of bias is no easy task, when the material is soft and
puckering or stretching.
is

especially to

limp.

It is

then necessary to pin or tack the bias very carefully


to avoid its

When
must be

the bias
laid

meant

as

border or binding,

it

upon the

right side of the material


it

wrong
neces-

side uppermost, as low under the edge as

is

sary for the intended width of the bias.

It
is

must be
turned
side.

run very straight and even, then

the

bias

down and hemmed


taken not to stretch
allow
itself to

in slip-stitch

on the wrong

In sewing the bias band on the dress, care must be


it,

for

being on

the

cross

it

will

be stitched
It

entirely out of shape with

the slightest pulling.

must be eased

in

sewing

enough

to

make

it

lie

easily but without puckering.


its

Lay

the band with

right

side

against the
it is

right
to be
tc the

side of the skirt or tunic, just above where

when

finished.

Run

the ^ower edge of the


straight,

band

garment
the band.

evenly and

and

without pulling

When

this is done, turn the the


in

band over,

tack

it

smoothly

place, and

hem

the second edge

(now

the lower of the

two) under, on the wrong side


illustration,

of the garment.
site page,

The second

on the oppo-

shows the band run

to the skirt

and turned

over in place.

The lower edge must be turned under

and

hemmed

at the back.

DRESS TRIMMINGS
The
stitched bias band
is

159

made

of a bias

band with

its

two edges

turned in and
Stitched Bias Band

tacked together
It is

one below the other.

then

sewed

to the

garment with the

machine, the mathine stitching following the line of


tacking.

Anothervariety of stitched
bias trimmingis illustrated,

made
Bias Band IN

in

two
half
tO

materials.
is

The upper
Two Materials

doubled

and tacked
of the

the garment.
is

Over

this the

upper edge

second band

tacked

wrong
over,

side upwards.
its

Afterward this band

is

turned

lower edge turned under and tacked in place

as illustrated.

As

a rule, bias

trimmings should be made

of

differ-

ent material than that used for the garment trimmed.

Velvet and silk

make

beautiful trimmings on woolens.

Velvet should never be put on velveteen and woolens

do not look well on woolens, unless they are of vivid


contrasting color or elaborately figured or embroidered.
PLAIN BINDING AND FRENCH

HEM

To make
on the
ing.

plain-binding, you must cut a strip of silk,

bias, of twice the


it,

width you want for your bindit

Double

and run

on the right side of your


to

flounce or

cuff,

keeping the raw edge of your binding

the raw edge of your flounce.

Then

turn the binding

i6o
over,
let

DRESS TRIMMINGS
and
fell it

down on

the

wrong

side, taking care to


side.

no stitches be seen below the run on the right

PLAIN BINDING (nO. I)

The reason why


it

this

binding

is

made double
flounces,

is,

that

so

stands
is

off

with a
for

handsome roundness.
bows and

This

binding
light

most used

and other

trimmings,

while the French hem


i|flfP^ifif

suits better

PLAIN LIXDING FINISHED (nO. 2)


for finishing a

dress at the
of

bottom, or for edging a

cape, or the

front

plain cloak.
that
it

French hem
has a cord

is

made
side

like plain-binding, except

at

the upper edge.


of

This cord

is

run

in,

on the right
is

the article to be trimmed, and the strip

then turned over, and felled

down

at the back.

>/^SS

TRIAIMINGS

ROUND PIPING

Round piping
ter IX.
It is

looks simple enough

but

it

is

far

from easy to make properly.

It is illustrated in

Chap-

made

of a

strip

of bias about

an inch
till it is

wide, doubled and folded, and

folded again

round,

when

the edge

must be hemmed down.


twisting, so that the

The

difficult}' is to

prevent

its

hem winds
and
of

round and round the pipe.

This can be prevented only

by carefully cutting the


This kind

silk

on the right
it

bias,

an even width, and by folding


of

with great regularity.


for

trimming

is

sometimes convenient
at

covering hems and joins, for finishing sleeves


wrist, etc.

the

Sometimes

it

is

used for embroidering the

bottom

of the skirt, or the front of the

body

of a

gown

or cloak.

CORD-EDGE

The
cut on

strip of silk or satin of

which cord-edge
called
:

is
is,

made

is

the cross, or

bias, as it is

that

neither

straight

along

by the selvage, nor

off

the breadths,

but between the two.

Cut

in

this

manner, the strip


this

stretches easily, and can be turned

way and
It

that,

without

puckering, as
is

straight

piece

never does.

This strip

generally about an inch wide.


;

should be

quite evenly cut

and several lengths should be joined,

before you begin to

make
silk

the cord-edge.
is

The black

or

white cord, of

the
<si

length required,
;

laid along the


is

middle
folded

of the strip

the upper half of the silk

down over

the cord, and the two thicknesses of

62

DRESS TRIMMINGS
tacked
together, so
as
to

silk are

enclose the cord


to

between them.
that

What you
are

have chiefly

look to

is

your joins

neatly

made, so that they will


an}^ of

neither give way, nor

show

the white

of

the

selvage

and that the two edges

of the silk are

kept so

even as that the cord shall never be


the upper or under side.

left bare, either

on

You

will also avoid leaving

long thread-ends, which will annoy those


the cord-edge.

who

are to use

Cording edge
is

is

illustrated

on page
of

113.

When
or
of

the cord-

to

be

made

merino,
to

any twilled

material,

care

must be taken
running

cut

the strips

on

such a bias or cross, as that the twill


the

may
it.

lie

across
first

cord

instead

of

along

The

looks neat, the latter particularly ugly.


tation,

It is a

temp-

when small
of

bits of silk are lying about, to take


for

any that are on any cross,


the

making cord-edge.
one cut from
left,

But

same piece

cord-edge should be made of strips


cross.

cut all on the


to right,

same

Two

bits,

left

and the other from right

to

may have
if

quite a different shade

they did not come

off

the

when joined, so same piece.

as to look as

DOUBLE CORD-EDGE

learner does this by tacking


a
little

together two single

cord-edges, leaving one

below the other,

more experienced hand makes double cord-edge with


less waste of

time and of

silk.

She cuts the

strips

rather wider than for a single edge, runs

a cord into

each edge, and then, in using the edge, sets the two

DRESS TRIMMINGS
cords on together.

i6j
illustrated on

Double cording

is

page

113.

STRAPS AND BANDS

Straps and bands have


piece of buckram
the silk
;

commonly
on
at

to

be stiflened.

is

therefore cut of

the

same

size as

a cord-edge is set

both edges, and turned


then to be lined with
straps, intended

down on

the

wrong

side,

which

is

a ribbon, or bit of silk.

Some corded
and from

to confine the fulness of the sleeve or

body
this,

of a dress,

are

made without
difficult

stiffening

from being

very narrow, and from being always on the cross, are

more

to

make than waistbands,

which are

always stiffened, always cut the selvage way of the


sil'k,

and sometimes made without cord-edges.

Broad

or narrow,

you must be careful

to

keep your strap or

band

of exactly the

same width throughout.


FUR TRIMMING

The
a

fur

which

is

used to trim the different parts of

dress, cloak, or shawl,

comes

into

the dressmaker's

hands so prepared, that she has


on.
It is

little to

do but

to fix it

sold by the furrier in the proper shapes and

sizes for collars, flouncing,

and bordering.
only at
its

A
If

fur

flounce

is

fixed

upper edge,

b}'

being felled

down,

the lower edge remaining

free.
it is

the fur be in the form of bordering, for edges,

felled

down
fur

at

the

inner edge, like


is

flouncing, and

the lining of the garment

run against the other edge.


lined with
silk,

collar

has

generally to be

164
before
it is

DRESS TRIMMINGS
set on.
It
is

slightly

wadded,

to preserve

the silk from being rubbed

and worn by the leather.


in,

The raw edge


is

of the silk

being turned

the

lining

then run with a double running, against the back

of the fur.

The

collar is

then stitched to the cloak,


is

and the lining felled down, or the join


stout ribbon.

backed by

FLOUNCES Flounces form such


skirts,

a pretty

becoming trimming

for

they

are

alwa5's

regaining lost ground


for

some newer fashion has turned them


from the
possible^
field.

when moment
pinked

There
in

is a

great variet}' of
or with

flounces

trimmed

various ways,

edges

if

the fabric admits.

Gathered flounces on the cross can be

hemmed

or

edged with
of

a bias

band

of another material.

flounce

cashmere cut on the cross looks very pretty edged


silk to

with a bias band of


shade.
silk.

match, or of a contrasting
of
is

The

bias

band could be
bands

striped or fancy

This ornamental binding

put on exactly in

the

manner

of the bias

as explained above.

Flounces on the straight, gathered or pleated, are


very effective bound with braid, a method often pur-

sued for serge dresses.

Gold braid on white cashmere

and

silver braid

on pale blue or pink, has also the


evening dresses.
PLEATINGS

happiest

effect for

Pleatings of

all

kinds must be cut on the straight

of

DEESS TRIMMINGS
the
fabric.

165
material
will

No

pleats

made

of

bias

remain

in their folds.

Cut the strips

for

the

pleating

as

wide as desired
long as the
if

across the goods, and three times as

fin-

ished pleating will be.


ing
is to

In

other words

the pleatthe strip

be one yard long

when completed,

for pleating
in

must be cut throe yards long. Join together


seams,
the

narrow

breadths of goods required to

give this length.

The lower edge


a

of the pleating

may be
or

finished

by

hem,

either

machine stitched

blind

stitched

according to the material.

Silk pleatings should never

be machine stitched, while some woolen fabrics look

much better finished may be hemmed or


of a neat heading.

in that
it

manner.

The upper edge


to

may be

overcast

keep

its

threads from fra3'ing and then turned under the width

There are many patented contrivances by which

made in a very exact and rapid manner, but when they are made by hand, the way is simply and
pleatings are
easily learned.

When

the seams joining the breadths

are stitched they should be pressed

open

flat.

Then

the

hem must

be laid and stitched and the upper edge

turned over and basted.


flat

These should then be pressed


iron.

with a mediumly

warm

Then
"treat

lay the lower

edge

in regular pleats the desired size

and baste them


the upper edge

in place

with

finer

thread.

Then
its

in the

same manner making

pleats correspond with

those of the lower edge.

For pleatings narrower than

66

DRESS TRIMMINGS
all

eighteen inches these two bastings will be


necessary.

that

is

When

this is

completed the

final

and

all

important
is first laid
it,

pressing follows.

A damp

piece of muslin

on the pleating and the hot iron passed over


dry pieces of thin muslin
is

then a

laid
is

on instead

and the

iron used until the pleating

pressed perfectly dry.

The bastings
ment.
It is

of the pleating
is

should not be drawn

out until the trimming

secured in place on the gar-

the best policy to leave the basting in the


is

lower edge until the garment

about to be worn.
pleatings.

There are many

varieties

of

The

fine

knife-pleating, the ordinary side-pleating and the different sized box-pleats are all familiar trimmings and

they are

all

treated

in

the

same manner.

often caught together in fanciful

They are ways and make novel

garnishments, but as these vary with prevailing fashions,

we can

not give space to them in a work of this

kind.

CHAPTER XIV
SPECIAL COSTUMES
RIDING HABITS

CYCLING COSTUMES

BATHING SUITS

DRESS FOR BUSINESS WOMEN


DRESS

ARTISTIC

AND REFORM

TO DRESS FOR THE PHOTOGRAPHER


RIDING HABITS

Many improvements have


dress
for

taken

place
habits

in

ladies'

horse exercise.

The long
when

formerly
:

worn were

alike objectionable

and dangerous

for they

become

soiled and splashed


;

riding on wet roads or

across country

and by catching against chance objects

frequently led to the rider's being thrown or injured.

In case of accidents, also, they were very

much

in the

way, entangling the rider's limbs,


the horse's

and embarassing

movements

if it fell.

The
feet
sible.

skirt should be longer

than just to cover the


light as pos-

and the material chosen should be as

habits

From tweed or serge, much more comfortable can be made than from heavier cloths, and the
is

waist

thus saved from the drag of a


167

heavy

skirt.

68

SPECIAL COSTUMES
of the skirt

For the same reason the upper portion

and

trousers should be well shaped to the figure.

The
wool.
flannel,
tailors.

best authorities declare

that

for riding, as for

other exercise, the body should be clothed entirely in

The The

habit

should
is

invariably be

lined

with

and this plan

successfully adopted by

many
thus

trousers as well as the jacket

may be

lined throughout, and

when
is

it

is

done,

all

the undersuit.

clothing that

is

required

woolen combination

There are many styles of riding habits but


short,

in all, the

scant skirt

is

used,

as

is

also

the

extremely

plain bodice, and the trousers are long enough to strap

under the boot or else short knee-breeches are used


with top-boots.

The bodice
throat, or else

of a habit that will

be always

in fashion

ma)^ have high standing collar


it

buttoning close to the

may have

the "step collar," notched


a man's

and open

at the throat (precisely like that of

morning

coat), for

wearing with a white chemisette


are perhaps

and necktie.

What

the

most acceptable
are

bodices, button ciosel}^ up to the throat, and

can-

vassed throughout, the front edges curve outward, are


double-stitched, and are further rounded

out or fash-

ioned by the tailor's iron.


the cloth of the bodice
is

When made
fitted to

in tailor fashion
is

the wearer, and

bound

in all the
is

lengthwise seams.

The

satin or flan-

nel lining

then

made up

separately, and all its seams

are concealed, as they are set inside.


to

A good
in the

plan

is

add a "corset belt"

in front,

sewed

under-arm

SPECIAL COSTUMES
seams
at

169

at the waist-line; this is

pointed like a girdle

top and
is

bottom

in

front,

has several whalebones,

and

laced closel}^

The
at

close coat sleeves have two

[)uttons

and button-holes

the wrist.

The high

col-

lar is stiffly interlined.

Two

buttons define the waist

line in the back.

The
when

habit skirt

is

about eighty inches broad


fit

at its

greatest width, and the top should

without a wrinkle

the rider

is in

the saddle;

it

drops within two


It
is

inches of the floor

when she
fit

stands.

shaped by

curves and cross cuts to


to

over the right knee, and


Inside the under half

allow room for the pommel.

of the front is a

loop in which the right boot of the


;

rider is thrust just to the toe


is

on the back

of the skirt

another loop, which


;

is

fastened under the heel of

the left boot


liold
it

these loops keep the skirt smooth and

in

place.

The long

trousers are

seated with

chamois, and are attached to a wide satin waistband

shaped out over the hips, which laces


give greater latitude.

in the

back

to

Short breeches have a similar


to

waistband, and are

made long enough


buttoning

button just

below the knees, each leg

differently, that

worn on the right

leg buttoning inside, while that

on

the left leg fastens outside, so as not to


the limbs and the saddle.

come between

and V,

the

reader

will

By referring to Chapters IV. find many suggestions which

will be helpful in adjusting tailor-made habits.

The tweed
weight, and

habits for the country are very light in


cooler for

made

midsummer by having

the

I70

SPECIAL COSTUMES
;

open-throated notched collar


postilion at the back.

they also have a pleated

School-girls have tweed habits


of

made with a Norfolk jacket


the
stiff

narrow

pleats, instead of

bodice worn by ladies.

plain linen collar and simple brooch

accompany
worn
in the

the riding toilette.

The high
of
is
it

silk hat
felt

is

Park, but Derby hats


country.

black

are

worn

in

the

The

hair

arranged in a very small twist or


is

coiled knot or else

in slender plaits placed

round

and round close against the head.

The

thick double-

stitched gloves have gauntlets added, or else they are

closed at the top and buttoned at the wrist, or they

may

be the loose glove, which

is

drawn on the hand


of heavier cloth

easily,

worn large and

is

without buttons.

Hunting habits are made

and should

be especially thick and strong enough to carry the rider

through brambles and over fences without a

tear.

A
is

gay collar and vest


bright scarlet

of

"English pink" cloth

which

are

sometimes added
CYCLING COSTUMES

to hunting-habits.

Cycling
dress of

is

having a salutary
for to ride

effect

on the general

women,

comfortably the dress must

be light and easy in every part.


ing

Heavy

skirts

hang-

from the waist would inevitably produce back-

ache, and tight stays

would be too painful

to

be borne.

Neat, dark cloth costumes, ulsters or jackets, with small


felt or

cloth hats to match, are suitable for cycle

wear, or dresses of those brownish materials which do

not show the dust of the road.

Until cycle riding has

SPECIAL COSTUMES
become more common
will hardl}' care to
for ladies in

171

great towns, tliey

go about in such bright costumes


carriage wear, as by so

as

one uses

for

doing they

would obtain more notice from passers-by than would


be altogether agreeable.

There have been many inven-

tions presented of costumes peculiarly adapted for cycling.

They

refer

almost always

to

modifications in

skirt, the object


all

being to have a skirt which will look


or walking but

right

when standing

which

will also

allow extra fulness over the knees

when
of

seated

and
at

running a wheel.
the right side of
these,

The
the

first

of

these

dresses

show

skirt
is

some bows

ribbon, and

when

the wearer

walking, hide the secret of


all

the dress.

When
is to

she mounts her iron steed,

she

has to do

unfasten some buttons which are cun-

ningly concealed

beneath

the

bows, and at once she


for
C3'cle riding.
It is

has a skirt

perfectly adapted

constructed on the same principle as the riding-habit

now worn, with room


skirt

for the raised knee, so

that

the

does not draw up with the movements necessary


the wheel.

to

propel
is

The

part

which

is

buttoned

over

cut with a deep curve, so that

when buttoned,
in

the bows, which are seen on the right side are

the

center of the

skirt.

The
it,

part

that

was folded over


is

gives extra width to

and the curve which


it

now

in

the middle accommodates the knee as


the riding habits

rises.

Like
lined
is

mentioned, these dresses are

with flannel,

and the ideal way of wearing them

with woolen combination suits next the skin, a stayed

172

SPECIAL COSTUMES

body, fitting closely to the figure to take the place of


stays,

and buttoned on

to this a pair of

knickerbockers

or trousers of cloth to

match the

dress.
;

Of course,

these unmentionables do not


in this

show

but a lady clothed

way

is

better able to

face the risks of accident

than one in petticoats, which are liable to hamper her

movements.

Moreover, this method of clothing gives

a sense of lightness

and freedom which can never be

enjoyed by one dressed in the ordinary way.

Another wheel dress


upper part
plain skirt
of
is
it is

is

more

like a cloak or wrap.

The

made

like a Norfolk jacket to


;

which a

attached

deep kilting

is

inserted the

whole length

of the skirt in front.

When
chic

the wearer

is

seated the pleats are free and


knees.

allow extra room for the

There

is

something very

about this dress,

and
it

it is

suitable for rather cold or wet weather,

when

may be used

as a winter mantle, or to take the place

of that valuable

but ugly contrivance

the waterproof.
dresses are

Although so
all

different in appearance, these

made with

the

same design, that

of providing

com-

fortable and healthy costumes for lady riders.

Tight-lacing must be banished from

the

mind and
;

body

of the

woman who would

ride the iron steed

but

since dresses for cycling should be


as

becoming as well
be

healthy and

comfortable, although room must

allowed to give perfect freedom to every movement, a


really accurate
fit,

such as can only be given

b)^

great

care

is

required.
dresses, while suitable for cycling

These

when made

SPECIAL COSTUMES
in

173
riding,

becoming colors answer as well


Boots or shoes

for

walking

tours and travelling.


for C3'cling should be

made

to

fit

the

shape of the

foot, so

as

to

be perfectly comfortable,

not according to the present absurd fashion, which,


instead of allowing that

movement

in

the toes which

should take place in walking, cramps them together into


a

mangled and deformed mass.

The

chief points

to

be observed in getting boots or shoes are that the toes

should be broad, to allow


foot
;

fidl pla}^ to

the toes of the

the heel,

if

any are worn, should be low and

broad, and under the natural heel, instead of being a


sort of

peg pushed forward right

in

to

the middle of
of the

the foot, like the fashionable heels.

The waist
it

boot, answering to the arch of the foot, should be to a

certain extent, elastic

and the boot, though

should

not press in the slightest degree upon any part of the


foot,

should not be too

large, or

it

will

chafe both

stocking and skin.

BATHING SUITS
Nav}' blue flannels or serges that do not hold

waterare thefavorite materials for bathing


flannels

suits.

much White

and serges are also used, and there are comand revers-colpale blue

bination suits that have a skirt, vest,


lar of striped

flannel, especially pretty in

and white

stripes, or else

dark blue and red, but dark


suit in

sea-blue flannel
is least

makes the quiet

which the bather

disagreeably conspicuous.

Rows of mohair braid,


for

a fourth of an

inch wide, are put on

trimming

in

174

SPECIAL COSTUMES
Four or
six

white, pale blue, or red.

rows are placed


Still

around the

collar, cap, belt, skirt,

and drawers.
is

another pretty trimming for a blue suit

a border of

white flannel two inches wide, with a fence row pattern stitched above this,
of

and

still

higher up are blocks

the

flannel

two inches square.

Sometimes the

edges of the skirt and drawers are cut out in squares,

piped around, and made


contrasting
color,

to

fall

over a pleating of
or white imder blue.

such

as

red

The Breton

vest and revers are

much used with rows


Sometimes
suit,

of white or red braid in clusters across the vest, while

the revers are braided in lengthwise rows.

the entire vest

is

of white or of red wool in a blue

and the belt

is of

a color to match.

The
a belt

favorite bathing suit consists of a long

garment

with the waist and drawers in one, joined together by

on which the

skirt is buttoned.

The neck
is for

is

cut

high, with a sailor collar, but the preference

short

sleeves that leave the arms free for


is,

swimming.
in the

There
sleeves

however, the

choice

of

several kinds of

given with most suits,

viz., the

mere cap

armto

hole, the short sleeve, the half-long,

which reaches

the elbow, and the long coat sleeve extending low on


the

hand

to protect

it

from the sun.

The cap

sleeves

are narrow at the top and lapped

there, but are wider

underneath, and turned downward, so that no matter

how the arm is lifted the armpits are well covered. The waist with a yoke and box-pleats extending
a belt is

to

one

of the

best designs, with

ample fulness

SPECIAL COSTUMES
for concealing the figure.

175
cut \ftxy deep

The

3'oke

is

and
to

square
the
front

across
of

to the

arm and may be confined


while the back has
to

the

garment,

three wide box-pleats from the neck


is

the belt, and

covered at

the top

by the large square-cornered


are
;

sailor collar.

The drawers

sewed

to

the

lower

edge

of the belt of the waist

the front, and are

knee, and plainly


to a

down made large and quite straight at the hemmed, instead of being gathered
they are buttoned

band as they formerly were.


falls just

The

skirt

is

about

two yards wide, and

below the cap of the knee,

and the drawers extend two or three inches below the


skirt.

There should be an inside belt lining

to the

skirt (like that in children's kilt skirts) supplied with

button-holes for the buttons on the belt of the waist.

The outside of the belt does not show the buttons, and may be made of a contrasting color of flannel, or else
trimmed with rows
of braid
;

and

this is so prett}^,
it

and

so effectually holds the skirt, that


to

is

not necessar}^
indis-

wear the canvas belt sometimes considered

pensable.

Beside

the

suit described, bathers

who
are

are

well-

dressed, wear long stockings, either black or matching


in color the suit.

Striped or fancy hose

never in

the best taste.


for those

Ordinary bathers wear no shoes, but


feet

whose

are

tender or

who

desire

to

be

shod, regular bathing shoes

made

of

duck and similar

materials are always to be purchased in cities near the


sea.

The

oilskin cap,

which

is easil}^

procured,

is

the

176

SPECIAL COSTUMES
for ladies
this,

proper head covering


hair to get wet.
of hat or

who do

not wish their

Beside

one requires some sort

cap that will shade the eyes and face.


flat tied

pretty straw

under the chin but with no trimand


is

ming does
water.

this

effectually

not injured by the


prettj^

Ladies

sometimes show very

muslin

bonnets shirred on reeds for the front and with short


capes

and

full

crowns that are very pretty.

These

require to be rinsed out and ironed after each wearing


to be

really presentable.

large full circular cloak

of cloth or flannel
a

should also be provided to complete

bathing

outfit.

This necessarily need not be exactly


suit
itself in

like the bathing

color,

although
is

if

they

correspond,

it is

in better taste.
is

This

worn on the

beach when the bather


aside from
all

not really in the water and


is a

questions of modesty

desirable pro-

tection from

undue exposure and


and

chill.
ver}'^

Little girls wear bathing suits


of the ladies in

similar to those

material

make.

Some machine

embroidery, or else rows of bright braid, trim them.

For boys and very small row

girls, are

one-piece suits with


of stockinet in nar

waist and trousers together,

made

stripes, or else of flannel.

DRESS FOR BUSINESS

WOMEN
engaged
of
in

So

large a

number

of

women

are

daily

commercial pursuits, that the question


has become an important one.
is to-daj^

their

dress

The
it

practical tendency
is

strong in

all

women and

forcibl}- illus-

trated by the popularity of the tailor-made gown.

The

SPECIAL COSTUMES
needs of

177

women engaged

in professional

and commer-

cial pursuits

have undoubtedly been prominent factors


introduction
of this

in the successful

style

of

hand-

some, practical garments.

The tailor-made dress has really been a boon to Its neatness and its durability have business women.
been the greatest possible good to them.

A woman
furbelows.

who

goes to a place of business every day needs to be

well dressed, yet she can not bother with

She needs the assistance of looking well, yet her dress

must not monopolize too much


and strength.
and
ter.

of

her precious time

Consequently,

it is

best for her to adopt

certain set features


it

which

will individualise her dress,

then becomes a very

much

less perplexing

mat-

There are a few general rules which must alwaj'S


:

be adhered to

in the first

place, a
;

business woman's
;

dress must not be easily soiled


it

it

must be well made


in

must
it

fit

it

must not be obtrusive


ver)^

cut

or color,

and

should be of
of

good quality.

There are some

features

so

called

dress reforms that

advantage be adopted, but we can not advise

may with women


is

who

are busy earning their bread to

make themselves
a

conspicuous.

The

first

law

for

sucli

woman

to

be conventional, and assist in reform movements simply


as side issues.

First of all she should decide

upon one color


This

for the

prevailing tint of her whole costume.

IMany do already
is

go to the extreme and always ^\ear black.

not

178

SPECIAL COSTUMES
itself,

an objectionable thing to do in

although one can

be as truly economical and tasteful in browns, grays,

greens or blues, and at the same time not so somber.

The

idea

is,

always wear different modifications and


color,

harmonies of one
as will

and select only such accessories


it.

combine and blend with


Let
it

Let us take brown

as an illustration.

be so arranged that the long


can not do
better

wrap

for

business

woman

than

wear a long wrap, summer and winter


the hat are

the
be

dress and

brown.

Then never
it

let

her

tempted

into buying a color in gloves

that will

not look well

with brown.

When
let

comes

to

underwear, brown hose,

brown
ters.

flannel, cloth or silk

petticoats and

brown

gai-

Never

her forget,

when making
is in

a purchase

or giving an order, that she


find herself

brown, and she will

equipped

for

any emergency.

Then when

she comes to hurriedly dress she can proceed almost

haphazard, and will not in the end find she has arrayed
herself in all colors of the

rainbow, because she has


a heterogeneous

not had time to


lot of clothing.

make

selections from

There

is

another

idea

some

ladies
is

have adopted
always
to

with comfort and pleasure, and that


the

wear

same st3de of dress, with little or no variation This we can not recommend. It is too likely to grow tiresome to both the wearer and her associates, although
one
little

woman

looks well in a round skirt and waist

tied with a ribbon sash,

and another, who-happily has

SPECIAL COSTUMES
beautiful figure, has

179

worn

a princess style of
first

gown ever

since the princess

dress

came
are

in.

There
and that

is
is

one idea we should like


that

to

see exploded,

women who
Trim

out

almost

all

day

should wear

"good, heavy shoes."

They should do
weight
fine

quite the reverse.

fitted, neat, light

boots are what every

woman who works


day in a pair

should wear.

To
too

be in an
stiff

office all

of thick soled shoes,


is

to

allow the natural bending of the foot,


;

too harrowing

and when
it is

it

comes

to

walking six or

eight hours in them,

quite enough to exhaust the

strength of

an

Amazon.

To keep up

her spirits a

woman
a well

should be light and sprightly in her step, and

she can not be that in cork-soled boots.

Let her get

made boot

of

fine

kid with
in

lighter soles,

and
she
her.

wear rubber "footholds"


will see

damp

weather,

and

how

light hearted her light steps will


is

make

A
wear

bonnet
;

scarcely adapted to
It

a business

woman's

a hat is far preferable.

protects the eyes and

complexion, and can be made handsome, though plain.

For wear
dially

in cold

weather a bonnet can not be too corfor


it is

condemned,

so slight a protection
for the

that

it is little

more than the cause


and catarrh.
ARTISTIC

twin afflictions

of neuralgia

AND REFORM DRESS


are

The earnest efforts of would-be dress reformers now directed after a method that begins to tickle
fancy of
ers or

the

women.

Prett}^

women

never took to Bloomin

Dr.

Mary Walkers, but when reform comes

i8o

SPECIAL COSTUMES
No woman
it

the shape of becoming, naj', even enhaacing garb, they

stop to consider

it.

pines to have the


limits,

backache or to only breath within tightened


but any of them will endure

rather than to be a fright.

There are some very dreadful things said about

women

to-day,

and perhaps most dreadful ones about


and corsets.

their petticoats

We

often feel

like chlo-

roforming some of the cranks who prate in regard to

how women

dress.

Take away her


some awkward

corsets
waist,

and she has

to

substitute

stiff

which

is

simply murderous.
left to

Take away her


but trousers?

petticoats and

what has she

wear

She
is

is

likely to get a right to the ballot-

box before she

given the right to appear in them.


agitation will probably end in the

However,

all this

adoption of some modern dress reform, and the giving

up

of Parisian modistes' concoctions.

It is in

the

new tea-gowns
there

or house dresses that

we

see

the influence or fore-shadowings of these newer reform


robes.

Even

we do not
controlled

find

decided indices,

only premonitory symptoms, most evident only in contrast.

The gown
is

by the old established

rules

long-waisted and tight, and witli beautiful long

lines decorated in braid

and cord.

The reform

points

appear
hiding,

in loose, languid folds over the chest

and limbs,
waist-line.

while suggesting, the unconfined


are treated after the

The limbs

same methods, no tapes


delicious

or tie-backs being allowed.


cotton, wool or silk

Soft, clinging materials like

crape in

mauve,

terra-

SPECIAL COSTUMES
cotta or marine hues delight in a reposeful

i8i

manner the

observer's

e5'e.

"We
women

cannot dress artistically," on every hand, plump


are heard deploring.

There never was a more


the beautiful in
is

mistaken conclusion.

While studying
to

dress one soon learns that lean


the art.

estheticism

not

all

You have but

glance at the

women and
to paint

their costumes that


to

Rubens and Titian loved

be convinced there

may

be refined grace in ample

proportions.

A woman

above the average weight and


to

below the medium height need never aspire


a sylph,

appear

but her attire


if

may

strike the

educated eye

pleasantly,
effects,

she adopts tunics showing longitudinal


esthetic colors, and preserves pleasing
is

uses

dim

outlines.

But there
if

one assured

fact,

she will never

please artistically

she squeezes the flesh about her

waist into heaving billows around her hips and shoulders

and pushes her arms into sleeves that remind you

of stuffed sausages.

London struck the new note in the esthetic moveof some years ago. It was pilloried by ridicule at the time, and in some sense it deserved it. So
ment
grotesque and exaggerated were
that

many

of

its

phases,
untid}',

whatever in women's clothing was loose,

ill-fitting,

and of no particular color, was claimed as

"esthetic" and laughed at as the result of diseased or


erratic

imagination.

The power
at its

of the

small school

of worshippers

was

height several j-ears ago, but


After awhile

was then confined

to a very small school.

82

SPECIAL COSTUMES
who

it

ceased to attract attention, and the Philistines,


if

are nothing
that
it

not orthodox and conventional, believe

has been sneered and ridiculed out of existence.


;

But an idea can not die


flourish
if

it is

bound

to
it,

live

and

it

has

spark

of vitality in

and the
it

esthetic idea flourished to

such an extent that

has

created a revolution, and

now dominates every


divides
or

other

fashion in women's clothes, except one, and with that,


the "tailor-made" idea,
it

the honors.

Both
by

these

predominant

lines,

veins,

were

struck

English enterprise
tially

and originality.
the

Nothing essen-

new has come from


is

French since Worth


it

invented draperied dresses, and he,


bered,

must be rememFashion

an Englishman.
has been the lack of ideas.
to

The

difficulty

must have ideas

work upon

to

produce novelty,
to

and others not being forthcoming, was obliged

adopt

the tailor-made idea and the esthetic idea, and b3'experi-

menting upon them, adapting them and applying them,

produced wonderful

results.

By
The

the

new system

of esthetic reform, four

garments

are to be worn, instead of fourteen under the old system.

four articles of apparel are the tights, the vests, the


It

combination garment and the dress.


ments.
line of
It

means fewer

gar-

means garments
body, but
are

that do not destroy the out-

the
It

made
means

in

accordance with
use of

them.

means garments
necessary for

that will allow free


It

the muscles of the body.


of clothing

minimum weight
It

warmth.

means dresses

SPECIAL COSTUMES
suited to varying conditions
ing, traveling, walking,

183

and occasions, as climbfishing, etc.

promenading,

The
are

beauty and advantage claimed for the


that
tlie

new system
is

four garments can be purchased in

dry goods

stores,

and can be easily washed.

There

no band

about the bodv, and constriction from corsets or collars is out of the question.

The weight
freedom
of

is

distributed
in

evenly, and there

is

perfect

movement

every part of the body.

The
They

tights to be

worn with the reform dress cost


each, and

about ten
breaks.

dollars

are not like silk hose,

should last two years. which ravel when a thread


is to

In winter a

lisle

thread sock

be worn

The second garment is a little black silk or inside. The combination garment resemlisle thread vest.
bles the

ordinary drawers
is

and vest sewed together.

The
in

dress

not so great a departure from the con-

ventional ordinary dress.


the evening dress, as

The problem is not so much in the home dresses and street


is made The weight

dresses that will not be too great a departure from the

conventional.

Roughly described, the dress


like the

up something
is

Mother Hubbard.

on the shoulders and not on the hips.

In winter

equestrian tights of

wool are

to

be worn like the old-

fashioned leggings, only that they extend to the waist.

With

thin dresses in
slip,

summer

is

to

be worn a simple
of

white or black

which consists

waist and

Some may wear ecru equestrian five breadths of silk. tights, to which black stockings may be attached.

84

SPECIAL COSTUMES
things are helping this
art

"Two
the

movement

greatly

study of

and

the

study of science," says an


are beginning to understand
all

ardent advocate.

"Women

and apply more broadly the principles underlying


art.

The second cause is the greater demand that is being made to-day upon woman's strength and the
public
character, so
to

speak, of her work.

She

is

coming
she can

into direct competition with

men, and she

finds

that, in order to

keep up with her stronger brother,


herself unduly.

not

hamper
is

Our

first

and

strongest point

the appeal

to the esthetic

and the
to be.

endeavor

to

educate
their

women
for

as to

what ought

We

next

call

attention

to the

manufacture of
First, that

undergarments,

working

two points.

garments should be manufactured so that we could

buy them

as

man buys
to

his

garments and not be

troubled by having them individually

made

at

home.
will

And then we endeavor


Our
third endeavor

have garments that


of

more nearly follow the outlines


was
development.
health side.

the
of

human

figure.

in the line

better ph3^sical

We
The

have not ignored the hygienic, the

fashions of the past have been fully


ugliness

discussed

and special

pointed

out.

That

which was good


upon, and
it

in fashions of the past

has been dwelt

has been shown


the

sistently applied to

how such could be conThe most dress of to-day.


difficult task to

important and perhaps the most

accom-

plish has been the education of the dressmakers."

SPECIAL COSTUMES
TO DRESS FOR THE PHOTOGRAPHER
First decide

185

upon the

style

of
full

photograph you
length.

will

have, bust, three-quarters or a

The
must

larger

the size the


full

more elaborate the


picture
requires
a

toilette

be.

length

fresh,

perfect

gown.

Wear and hard usage show


graph.

very plainly in a photo-

The gown need not be


it

of expensive or

handsome

material but

must be comparatively new and unworn


photograph.
it is

to get a satisfactory

So

far as color is

concerned

rather unimportant.

Black, dark
nearly the

green, crimson,

brown and yellow take


light shades of

same shade and white and

color reproduce in a similar manner.

The photographer
circle,

will probably request

you not

to

dress the neck too high or too tight, or in an exact

with the fore part of


for,

it

lying

close

under the

chin,

of
is

all

things, the
to

high mode of dressing

the
It is

neck

distressing

an artistic photographer.
a short

done because the lady has


it is

neck or a long
It

one, or
is

thin and the cords must be concealed.


it is

done, for

the fashion.

This

is

all a

mistake.
it,

You
there

are surprised
is

when

the photographer says


tone.
of

for

a touch of bitterness in his

He

illus-

trates his

meaning by winding the lapels

his coat

tightly around his neck.

"You
It

see,

madam,

the effect

on a long face like

my

own.

overhangs and becomes

almost deformed, while a round face becomes buttonshaped, and none of the
or expression can
little
it.

tricks

of

hair-dressing
a

remedy

No;

it's all

mistake.

86

SPECIAL COSTUMES
is

If

your neck

short, as

you

say,

do not lose what


judicious bor-

you have, lower the drapery, do a


rowing, and, presto
oval.
all
!

little

the face that was round becomes

In any case the neck must not be hidden, for

the action and grace of position in a bust portrait

centers there."

dress cut low in the neck always

seems much

higher in a photograph than to an observer.


is

masculine face

softened
of

and refined by a

soft

neck dressing, a bit


stiff

lace

being preferable to the

standing collar.

It is

always best to secure in advance a time

for

your
the
it

sitting,

when making
to

the

appointment

consult

photographer as
is to be.

your

dress.

Let him know what

use.

It

He
of

will

You may be undecided which of several to then may be a choice in color or in cut, etc. you at once which is best. He may tell

request you to try more than one, and in the absence

such invitation, you will be expected to pay extra

for the experiment.

While you
he
also

are talking with

him

about dress, he

is

studying your face, expression, and be an


artist

form generally.
enced,

If

and expericustomary
strange

he

may

see at

a glance that your

way
as
it

of dressing the hair is

not becoming,

for,

may seem, comparatively few women have the ,knack of arranging their hair in the mode demanded
by their
face.

While he knows

that the portrait


in

must

not be ruined by the hair being done up


miliar way, he
gestions.

an unfa-

may

yet give you a few invaluable sug-

For

instance,

he

may

request

you

to

be

SPECIAL COSTUMES
more
careful in dressing the left side
left

187

than the right,


is

thus signifying that the


ter.

side of the face

the bet-

Few have both


or a little
lid

sides alike.

There

is

often almost

as
is

much much

difference as between
to

two persons.
;

The nose
is

one side
;

one eye
is

smaller,

because one

droops more

there

depression

over that spot where a tooth has been extracted.

The

uneven shaping
side of the face

of

the lips alone

may

decide which

should

be

prominent.
there

You laugh
is

rather to

one side

and

by-the-bye

always

something pretty about such a laugh

and
of him.

you have
But, as

developed a dimple, which, sad experience teaches


the photographer, will be
it

demanded
fail to

happens sometimes, he may

detect the slightleft,

est difference

between the right and

but he

still

requests you to take special pains with a certain side


of the hair, as

he prefers to show that side of the


in

face.

This

is

because

every atelier the light


at the other,

is

better at
is

one end

of the

room than

and he

accus-

tomed

to place his sitters there. to


sit, is

Now, and not when

you come
you prefer.

the time for you to tell him what


a three-quarter face, or a front

You wish
;

view, or a profile
of

j^ou

have studied the idiosyncrasies

your face for years, and have so decided.


searched out

He
all

lis-

tens respectfully, but his eye has


little secrets of

the

anatomy, and fathomed your hidden


so.

reasons for thus and

In keeping your appointment be punctual.

few
late.

minutes too soon

is

better than

one minute too

88

SPECIAL COSTUMES
yours, strictly, until you return from
justified in locking the

The toilette-room is
your
sittings,

and you are

door
with

and retaining the key.


you, but do not use
it,

Take your own powder

unless you have studied "mak-

ing-up" for the stage.


will

good theatrical "make-up"


trifle

photograph well

rouge and a

of

darkening
in bring-

around the eyes, especially the eyebrows, aid


ing out the features, and do not show.

Under ordinary
will

circumstances,

however, the
better than

photographer

use

your powder
it

much

you can.

If

he uses

at all,

it

will

be upon the hair alone, which generally


it

takes several shades darker than

is,

particularly with

yellowish or auburn casts.

Remember
you can have

that a bright sunlight


for a

is

the worst light


if

photograph.
;

Choose,

possible,
excellent.

a day with an overcast sky

snowy day

is

The

early part of the day


a.

is to

be preferred, say between


then the light
is

the hours of lo and 12


actinic,

m., as

more

and the photographer has not been wearied.

CHAPTER XV
DRESS FOR HOME AND FOREIGN TRAVEL
DRESS FOR HOME TRAVEL DRESS FOR THE FAR

DRESS FOR SOUTHERN TRAVEL EAST DRESS FOR OCEAN TRAVEL


for

DRESS FOR HOME TRAVEL

traveling costume

wear

in

the north, east or

west of the United States, has long since ceased to


differ

from one's shopping


seen

gown.

The fashionable
are

woolen dresses

on

our

streets

admirably

adapted to ordinary traveling.

The most important matter in regard to a travelinggown and which is often overlooked is a comfortable fit. The bodice should be especially easy fitting. The arms-

eye and the sleeve should be sufficiently large and roomy The linings of both bodice and not to bind the arms.
skirt should
silk

be of the lightest weight, and consequently


are

linings

especially

desirable

for

traveling

dresses.

The
what

color of such a costume

should be governed by

is

becoming

to the wearer's

complexion, although

go

DRESS FOR HOME

dark shades of gray and blue have been found to stand


the dust and moisture better than other colors.

Brown we

are told,
it

is

a most serviceable

color but
of pleats in

experience declares

grows faded on the tops


of

and spots with a good deal


finest

alacrity even

the

and most expensive

fabrics.

Black, except in silk does not


ing dress
;

make

good
is

traveltryis

it

grows dusty and rusty and

most

ing costume to a tired


the freshest.

woman, unless her skin

of

Women

with chestnut hair and fair complexions can

always wear the pretty shades of blue.


very serviceable.

This color

is

In darker shades shot with lighter


it is

color or striped with hair lines in clusters,


lent choice.

an excel-

Sand grey
and
is

is

another color which wears admirably

usually becoming.
it is

With

bag, strap and belt

of russet leather

an elegance.

DRESS FOR SOUTHERN TRAVEL

Unless one goes out prepared for certain peculiarities


of the

Southern climate and customs, she


to grief.

is

sure to

come
This
very
cold

There prevails

in the

North

a poetical

notion of the South as the land of sunshine and flowers.


is

true in

summer, and

in winter the

South has

warm days but it has intervals of cold. These days are so damp and so pervasive in their
to bear

dampness, they are harder


of the

than the cold days

North that are so brisk and sharp.


is

There

no Southern climate which

is

continuously

ND FOREIGN TRAVEL

191

as a whole, the

and evenly warm during December and January. Taken South during those two months and
first

the

half of February is rainy, chilly,

foggy any-

thing and everything but "sunny."


olinas,

Georgia, the Car-

and the

rest of the

middle Southern States have

nights almost every winter

below thirty-two degrees.

when the mercury drops The spring months from


are ideally pleasant
;

March

to the

middle of

May
warm

but
for

the Northerner going South should be prepared


cold, carrying plenty of to ers

clothing.

It is

well also

have a few rugs


are very frugal

in a party, for

Southern hotel-keep-

with their blankets and but few Southern houses are provided with chimneys, so that one could have a fire in her room. Consequently, the traveler South wants to be supplied with extra flannels

and with light weight woolen dresses and fur wraps. Cashmeres and light weight cloth, in light colors and
white make the most tasteful and comfortable dresses, and soft India and other silks are among other fabrics,
tourists in that part of the

country have found most

useful and popular.

One has always


are

to consider

that stout, loose

shoes
of the
it

most needed
is

in

Southern

travel.

The land
it

orange
is

the land of sand.

Where

is

not sandy

muddy.
DRESS FOR THE FAR EAST

We
in

are indebted to one


for

who has been long

resident

China and Japan


for the

an extended account of dress

required

far

Eastern countries.

"Few," she

192

DRESS FOR HOME


have spent some time
in

says, "unless they

China and

Japan, realize the difficulties attendant on the selection


in

America and Europe

of a suitable

wardrobe

for the

peculiar cliniates of those countries.


is

The

difficulty

much enhanced by

the variety of climate each of the


hints

foreign settlements offer, but a few general

may

prove useful.
are brides,

Generally new-comers
bring from
at

who

among the ladies home such a trousseau as


to

they

would require

home, only

learn

by sad

experience that
less.

many

of their prettiest things are use-

In

Shang-Ha'i the winters are cold, also in Yokofind

ama and Kobe, where one woidd


Indeed, the winters
of

furs

agreeable.

may be

fairly

compared with those


in

Baltimore

and Washington

temperature.

In

Canton, Hong-Kong, and the south of China heavy

autumn clothing only


more feeling
of cold
of the country than

will be necessary

hardly

that

coming from the great dampness


from the temperature.
In Japan

furs are always agreeable in the winter, although

snow

and ice are exceptions.

The spring and autumn need not be considered, as, like the dawn and twilight, Nature has omitted them
from her time-table.

For summer

number

of

washable lawns, muslins,

nainsooks, or batistes and ginghams, simply

made and

without linings, are the best.

Any
it

dress that can not

be done up by the
unless the lady
is

home

laundress must be omitted,


herself; and for the

willing to do

AND FOREIGN TRA VEL


same reason
fine laces

193

should be avoided, embroidery

being the most serviceable trimming.

Again one needs a much larger

suppl}''

than at home,

as the intense heat renders frequent changes of dress

necessary.

These washable white dresses are usually


all

worn

in

the smaller settlements at

dinners and
;

evening entertainments in the hottest weather


larger settlements all

in the

entertaining

is

abandoned because
and comfortabl}'.

of the difficulty of dressing elegantly

One

needs several light white, pink, or pale blue nun's

veilings or cashmeres for cool weather tennis and calling, or afternoon

teas
ball

some

ladies

wear nothing

else.

For evening or
or grenadine,

dresses one or two lace, gauze,


silk or velvet for winter,

and one heavy

are all that are needed.

Dinner dresses should form


other

the pieces de resistance of the wardrobe, as dinner-giving


is

by

far the

most general way


between.
find
it

of

entertaining

entertainments, with the exception' of tennis


are few

parties,

and

far

Most ladies
ones, to

advisable, especially

the elder

make

the dinner and ball dresses mutually

convertible.

In the large ports, such as


is

Hong-Kong,
and gay

Shang-HaT, and Yokohama, there


society,

a large

and there one needs as elaborate a wardrobe


will allow, but
is

as her

means

in

the smaller ports an


;

extensive wardrobe

mere

folly

and

most ladies

confine themselves to two or three simple evening or

dinner dresses, and wear them continually until worn


out
;

for in a small place

one meets the same people

194

DRESS FOR HOME


so, as in a family, little

morning, noon, and night, and


regard
is

paid to

the number and

variety of dresses.

As there

are few or no concerts, theatres, etc., and


the}' are

when they occur

attended in

full

dinner dress

without bonnet, the number of street dresses should be


limited, one or two
for

the

season

being

an

ample

supply.
It

should be remembered in making selections that

such conveniences as the professional cleaner and dyer


or the fine

French laundress are not

to

be had, and

that the freights to and from America and

Europe are

too high to admit of sending anything but gloves


to be

home

done over.
is

In hats for winter wear one's choice

unhampered,
the wearer,

and only governed by the suitability


but the choice for

to

summer

is

not so
all

free,

owing

to the

great heat and glare, so that


as

much

as

possible large

who can should wear brimmed or sailor hats.


is

Curled plumes should be avoided, as the hot


the

always

damp

season, and the plumes soon lose their crinkle.

large

supply of pretty fancy ribbons for dress

loopings, and sashes for


useful and necessary.

wash

dresses, hats, etc.,

is

very

Gloves are one

of the

bugbears of the far East, the

climates as a rule being so


not stiffen and crack,
it

damp

that

if

the kid does

is

apt to mould.

Great care,

however,

will

avoid

both

misfortunes.
for

The

writer
in

having kept gloves successfully


following way, can confidently

two years

the
pre-

recommend these

A ND
cautions
of
:

J'

ORE J GN TRA

'1

95

Wrap

the gloves in tissue-paper, with a layer


its

paper separating each glove from


sunning them well.
fits
it

mate or neighin a tin

bor, after

Then put them

case the cover of which


inches, and so

over the box about three

closes
lid

air-tight,

having previously
all

baked the box and


insects or fungus

in

hot oven to destroy

germs

the}'

may have

contained, and

allowed them to cool open.

Close the gloves in this

way, and repeat the operation

once in six months,

and gloves will keep.

One needs a selection of street and evening Suede kid gloves, some dog-skin walking gloves, for mountain
or country

wear

chamois-skin
of silk

gloves are equally good

and
to

good supply
and evening.

gloves for
it

summer wear
is

in street

After wearing,

better

to

keep gloves

in a light basket, unrolled, as

they are apt

mould

in a close

box or drawer.
of life in

Shoes are among the weightiest problems


the East, and the
'welly

number
is

of

Chinese who can make a


light
of

good shoe'

astonishing in the

the

universal complaint.
boots, house

A good

supply of strong walking

and dancing shoes, and slippers, can not


as

be too strongly urged, as well

the

precaution of

leaving one's measure with a competent shoemaker at

home.

The measure
as
all,

left at

home should be made


warm months
is

for

loose shoes,
feet swell so

without exception, find that the


of the year as

during the nine

to

make

a formerly good-fitting shoe extremely

uncom-

fortable.

Strange to say, the swelling

more notice-

196
able the second

DRESS FOR HOME


summer than
in
in the first.

All

unworn

shoes must be kept


described.

the

tin-lined

chest

hereafter

Anything

pretty

in

stockings

and handkerchiefs

forms an untold addition to one's comfort, as only the


simplest of those articles can be bought in these countries at

anything but extravagant prices,


at all.

if

they can

be had

Fans, parasols, and umbrellas should be chosen as


unlike as possible to the Japanese styles, as the old

adage regarding the "honor

of a

prophet in his

own

country" was never more forcibly illustrated than in


this matter.

One should

strictl}^

avoid

all

pseudo-Chinese or Jap-

anese styles in selecting the wardrobes, for the important


reason that living in a country with as marked schools
of decorative art as the

Chinese and Japanese, one


b}'

is

inevitably and unconsciously strongly influenced

the

all-pervading stvle, and so anything which differs from


it

forms a pleasing and refreshing break


Again,
it

in the

monot-

ony.
styles,

if

one must have Chinese and Japanese


until

is

better to wait

the articles can be

chosen in the best markets, where varieties and beauties

undreamed

of in

America and Europe can be had

at half price.

Owing

to

the

intense
is

heat, a

dozen, at

least, of

everything in underwear

advisable.

Muslin or linen
;

for the drawers, chemises,

and petticoats

heavy merino

AND FOREIGN TRA VEL


vests

197

and drawers
for

for winter,

and the thinnest wool

gauze vests

summer, are required.


is

For summer under-skirts, nun's veiling


material.

the best
is is

In

all

under-clothes fine lace or puffing

troublesome to have done up.


cheap,
it is

Although washing

hard to get
is urgentl}?'

fine

work done.
;

One
to find

thing

recommended

that each lady


It
is

bring witli

her a well-fitted waist-lining.


tailors

easy
the

native

everywhere who
sailors'

will, like

Chinaman who copied the


utterly unable to

breeches even to the


3^et

patch in the seat, copy a dress exactlv, and


fit

are

a person without a pattern.


care, as
all

Rubber goods should be chosen with


a very short time.

some-

thing in the atmosphere rots and cracks

rubber in

Every lady must expect


her
arrival

to provide herself

soon after

with

a tin or
to

zinc

lined

camphor-wood
from

chest, long

enough

hold her best dresses unfolded.


for

Such boxes can be made by native carpenters


seven to twelve dollars (silver).

From
ders,
is

the wardrobe to the toilette


for

is

but a step, and


of

the recommendation

good supply

face
if

powone

soaps, cologne, and perfumes, especially


to use
onl}^ special

accustomed

kinds

may
;

be par-

doned, as well as the following.


Stationary,
is

much and varied,


or, as

is

a necessity

everj^thing

done by notes,
unlimited

they are called, "chits;


of

hence

an

number

notes,

invitations,

regrets,

acceptances,

inquiries, thanks,

etc., are

always being

ig8

DRESS FOR HOME


;

exchanged even the orders


those
is
;

to trades-people necessitate

so that a varied assortment of papers and cards

a comfort.

Most notes are sent by private messen-

ger in a chit, or receipt-book,

which

is

returned.
it

Custom-house duties being merely nominal,


easy to
France,

is

import

all

that

one wishes from England,


the

Germany,

and

United

States

by

the

steamer lines running


rials for

to those countries.
oil

All the mate-

drawing, painting in

or water colors or on

china,

embroidery or fancy-work, and music of any

kind, must be imported."

DRESS FOR OCEAN TRAVEL

Woolen
with as
rect

dresses

made

in the prevailing

fashion and
the cor-

little

ornamentation
ocean
travel.

as

possible are
is

gowns
it

for

If cloth

used for

the

dress

should be more than carefully sponged before


that

making up, so

dampness can not


is

affect

it.

Flan-

nel treated in the

same manner

also an excellent fabcloth,

ric for these dresses,

Tweed, cheviot and suiting

in not

too heavy quality,

make

the

finest

and most

dressy ones, however.

The

best dressed ocean traveller will provide herself

with a wrap of the same material as the dress.

This

may be

a long close

fitting

coat

or

it

may

be only a

jacket just as the wearer considers most

becoming and
be required
all

most fashionable.
Other heavy wraps and rugs
for the V03'age,
if

will also

the voyager

is

not confined

the

trip to her state-room.

But

for pleasant bright

days

AND FOREIGN TRA VEL


the jacket or coat, as tbe case
is

199

may

be, will be all that

required for the daily promenade on deck.

soft

felt

hat or Tarn

o'

Shanter cap

makes the
at

proper headcovering.

This can be thrown aside

will, or drawn over the eyes, to one side or the other

of the

head as the sun or wind demands. An ocean steamer is not a good place to indulge
boots.

in

worn

Neat, snug fitting ones are quite neces-

sary, as the feet are as


ter as the tidiness of

much an index
revealer
of

to

your charac-

your hands, and the deck of an


them.
afford

ocean steamer

is

a great

Woolen
the

underwear and black

silk petticoats

most

protection during the voyage and do not soil easily.

There

is

no need

for

on board ship.
regular

traveling

One gown
it

other dress
to

many changes of dress while may be added to the


be carried in
the
little

steamer trunk, but

will probably never see daylight,

as ladies are not expected to


toilets.
It

make dinner

or evening

need only be carried for use


first

in case of seri-

ous accident to the

gown.

A pretty dark woolen wrapper or tea gown will be required for use in your state-room only, and be sure
have a large number of fresh handkerchiefs and your full supply of toilet appointments.
to

When
little

traveling in
is

variation

England or on the continent very made in dress. It is the same one


However, the matter
matter.
of

requires in America.
is

luggage
those

much more important


baggage
are

The charges on
to

extra

enormous compared

in

America, and the traveller should be governed thereby.

CHAPTER XVI

MOURNING
MOURNING FOR WIDOWS MOURNING FOR A PARENT, CHILD OR SISTER children's AND SCHOOL-GIRLS' MOURNING COMPLIMENTARY MOURNING SECOND MOURNING FOR THE NECK
MOURNING FOR WIDOWS

The mourning worn by middle aged widows


deepest worn by any woman.
rials

is

the

Fashion dictates mate-

from season to season, but lustreless cloth heavily


is

trimmed with crape


families

the orthodox fabric used.


is

In

where
stuffs

crape

considered

unwholesome

woolen

without lustre, such as serges and camels-

hair cloths, are used.


either.

They

are not so costly as crape

For winter these serges and cloths are deep


for

mourning, while
veiling and

warmer seasons, tamise

cloth, nun's

iron-frame grenadine are proper fabrics.


this

Widows wear
years,

deep mourning for one year, two


according to circumstances and

and often

for life

their

own feelings on the subject. The severe designs denominated tailor-made are The plain especially suitable for mourning costumes.

MOURNING
round
is

201
to
fit

skirt

and pointed basque, made


style.

perfectly,

the design always in

Around

the

bottom

of

the skirt deep folds of crape are added.


this fold or

For widows
introduced on

band

is

sometimes as wide as half the


Folds
of crape are

depth

of the skirt.

the bodice and sleeves


to the taste

more

or less profusely according

and age

of the wearer.

The more
ings.

elegant of mourning dresses arc

made
lin-

over silk foundation skirts

and with

silk

bodice

Wraps
made

to be

worn with

first

mourning dresses are


Jackets, long

of the

same material

as the dress.

cloaks or short mantles are alike in good taste for such

garments.

For winter they must be warmly wadded

and lined.
taste.

Any trimming except


of

crape
or

is

not in good

Fur or embroidery

silk

passementerie

should never be used.

In the coldest climates of the

United States fur garments are absolutely required but


fur-lined cloaks are to be preferred to sealskins in such
instances.

The widow's bonnet

varies

in

shape as

do other

.'ashions l)ut its characteristics

should always include


in

small size and the utmost simplicit}'

make and
of

ornamentation.
front to

The widow's

veil

is

long enough in
the

come

to within eight

or

nine inches

bottom
behind.
deep.

of the dress skirt

and to hang half

this length

The hem The most

sliould be fifteen to eighteen inches

costly and

handsome

veils are of

crape, but they are not the

most durable.

Nun's

veil-

202
ing
is is

MOURNING
liked and

much

used.

It is

much

lighter

and

not so easily affected by dampness and dust.

MOURNING FOR A PARENT, CHILD OR SISTER


For mourning
the
as
for a parent, child, brother or sister
for the first

same materials are employed


use.
It differs

mourning

widows
it

from the widow's dress in

that

may

follow prevailing st3des in cut and trimis

ming.
terie is

Crape

used as velvet, ribbon or passemen-

on colored costumes.

The mourning bonnets

should not be so severe in shape and the veil worn


will be

much

shorter than for the widow's mourning. In

these cases the veil extends only to the knees in front

and

to the waist at the back.

This mourning for a parent,

brother,

or sister

is

worn

for

one year when

it is

lightened by black silk

without crape.
child
it

When

it is

mother mourning

for a

should only be worn nine months, and during

only three months of the nine should the crape, less

deep than

for

widow, be worn.

Then

for

the six

months following black dresses only should be worn.


children's AND SCHOOLGIRLS' MOURNING

School -girls in their teens have seldom more than


the
first

dress

trimmed with crape and afterward wear trimmed with


braid.
It is

flannel, serge or cloth

always

most deplorable when childhood must put on mourning


and
it

should

at all

times be

made

as light

and

of as short

duration as possible.
of

Their dresses are simpl}' made

serges and homespuns, without the fragile crape

MOURNING
unsuitable
for

203

trimmings that are so soon defaced and are always


children.

Their black hats of

felt or

straw are always trimmed with black feathers or jaunty ribbon knots in as coquettish a manner as their little
friends wear in colors.
or jackets should

Custom demands

their cloaks
little

be black and with very

orna-

mentation.

COMPLIMENTARY MOURNING

The mourning worn


nections

for distant relatives or for

conis

by marriage, complimentary
all

mourning,

merely

black garments \\orn ordinarily by those

who

kind, cashmere

mourning at all. For dresses of this trimmed with braid or silk, grenadines and lace or silks trimmed with jet ornamentation, are
are not in

mourning by wearing pure white dresses for pretentious occasions. Rich lustreless silks are those perferred by elderly
this

used.

The younger women vary

women for

the

same purpose and trained


such
toilettes.

skirts

add much

to the dignity of

The same

rules hold

good
this

in regard to the hats

and

bonnets worn during

period.

Felt

and

straw-

shapes with lace, feathers and other fashionable accessories are permissible, although black must always be
their hue.
it is

Crape

is

not used in such instances unless

otherwise fashionable.

SECOND MOURNING
Strictly speaking, second

mourning consists

of the

same mourning assumed

for

complimentary, but the

204

MOURNING
Is

dead black

soon relieved by the adoption

of

gray,

purple, lilac and heliotrope.

These colors are more

generally preferred to combinations of black and white

which are also

in

accordance with the

strict

rules of

second or half mourning.

For very elegant second mourning

toilettes, jet
is

and

embroidery are sometimes introduced but lace


second mourning when lace

never

considered mourning in any sense of the word.


in light
it is

Even

is

used over white,

not in the truest idea mourning.

Gold ornaments

should never be worn with any kind of mourning.

While we can not sympathize with those who demand


black underwear as necessary to complete deep mourning, still
it

is

in the best taste to discard

white petti-

coats, substituting black silk or worsted ones.

FOR THE NECK

White

is

often

worn

at the
it

neck and wrists in the

deepest mourning, as

is

considered by some very

unwholesome
small
flakes

for black crape to


its

come

in contact

with
the
a

the skin, on account of


that

dye, and because


it.

of

escape

from

Widows wear

Byron collar and deep outside


with a

cuffs of

white organdy

hem

an inch deep
in

these, with a small white

tarletan cap
only.

Fanchon shape,
worn by those

are used

by widows

Two

or three bias folds of white canvas or of


are
in

crepe lisse

mourning

for parleaf

ents, brothers, sisters, or children.

There are also

scollops of lisse in two


folds.

or tliree

rows, and plain piqud


for the neck,

Those who

insist

upon black

how-

AWURNING
ever, use bias folds of canvas grenadine or of silk
lin in preference to crape.

205

mus-

Common-sense and decency should


gradual discarding of mourning.

characterize the
lisse
at

Crepe

the

neck and wrists leads the way to second mourning.

lighter veil succeeds the heavy crape one, before the


veil
is

absolutely discarded.

And

in

such

gradual

transition the changes should

be effected.

CHAPTER

XVII

BRIDAL OUTFITS
SEASONABLE GOWNS THE VEIL BRIDESMAIDS' DRESSES FOR QUIET WEDDINGS THE BEST DATE BRIDES' TRAVELING DRESSES THE GENERAL TROUSSEAU

SEASONABLE GOWNS

The morals

of fashion in
taste. at a

weddings should always be

governed by good

There should never be anymarriage ceremony which can

thing done or worn


in

any way make the ceremony light or ridiculous.

The

dress and attendants of the bride should be in


in society.

keeping with the season and her position

At a June wedding the dress of the bride should be


of the thinnest

and lightest material.


it

If

she has a

great deal of real lace, let

be put over

the thinnest

white crape or gauze, and her veil should be pinned

on so that

it

will not be too

heavy on the head.

As
laces

for the bridesmaids,


;

they can not have prettier

dresses than white lace

the white dotted or imitation

which can be washed make very pretty and not

too expensive dresses.

BRIDAL OUTFITS
But the fashion
country,
is

207
in the

for

June weddings, especially


eccentric, and

always

somewhat

permits

dresses of percale, brilliantine, muslin, and other sum-

mer
tier

materials.

Round

hats crowned with flowers and


in order.

little

bonnets are also

Nothing can be pret-

than a bridal group arranged by an artist so that

every bridesmaid makes a picture by herself.

The

old

fashion of hiding a silver coin, a thimble, and a ring in


the cake has been revived.
will be
is
first

married; the

The one who gets the ring one who gets the thimble

assured of single blessedness; the fortunate possesor

of the coin will

have great wealth.

At a December wedding the bridesmaid carries a


large

bunch

of holly with glossy leaves

and red

berries,
sister of

the flowers then in season, just as the eldest


this bride

might choose Easter

lilies for

her maidens, in

Easter week.

For the midwinter wedding the ten ushers


for

might wear white hyacinths


satin scarfs,

bcutonnieres, white

and pearl scarf-pins; their pearhcolored

gloves have wide stitching in pearl-color, and are precisely like tnose
a

worn by the groom.

The

bride carries

prayer-book with soft white leather cover and a "posy"

of

long-stemmed Parma

violets.

Her gown being

of
a

white silk muslin over

satin,

the tulle veil

may have
for

wide lace border.


Satin, soft repped
silk

and lace are used

the
in

most luxurious wedding dresses.


her
life

At no other time

docs a

woman want
if

to

be better dressed than

on her wedding day and

she has wealth and social

2o8
position,
it is

BRIDAL OUTFITS
perfectly proper to wear as elegant
as

and

beautiful a

gown

money can
it

provide.

Yet an extravais

gant display, where

cannot be afforded,
in social life.

one of the

most unseemly spectacles

However,

costliness

in

dress does not alone

make

beautiful bride, there are


tiful fabrics that

many simple, yet most beaumay be used for her robe. Mull and
Tulle dresses are often sug;

crape are both available.


gested for the
costly and
crape.

same purpose

but

if

well

made
either

the}' are

more
is

easily spoiled

than

mull or
belongs

Where
its

there

a lace flounce in the family,

it

to the bride, as a matter of course, but for

young women,

omission

is

never noted.

THE VEIL
Tulle veils are preferred for very young brides.
veils are
if
it.

Lace

seldom becoming, but,

like the

lace flounce,

there

is

one in the family, the bride generally wears


yards and one-half wide

The

tulle for veils is three

and should be long enough


train.
Its

to reach to the

end of the
If

edges are evenly cut and not hemmed.


is

the train of the bridal dress

cut rounded, that end of


train.

the veil

is

curved to follow the outlines of the


the veil
is

small piece of

generally worn over the


of
is

face until the

ceremony iscompleted when, the maid


in raising
it.

honor assists

The

fulness of the veil

massed
It is

in a small

space just over the bride's coiffure.

fastened by either jeweled or simple long pins.

In

Germany

the tulle veil

after

the

ceremony

is

BRIDAL OUTFITS
divided up and carried away
to
b}^

209

the

unmarried guests
in

dream

on, as

we do on wedding cake
bridesmaids' dresses

America.

A
style
It

bride alwa3^s suggests the dresses for her bridesis

maids, and the greatest latitude

allowed in their

and material.

may

be she will decide to be accompanied

b}'

two

small girls,

who walk just

before her to the altar.

They
Or she

should be dressed in quaint and picturesque fashion

and be supplied with

fresh, delicate
little

flowers.

may have
to

instead,

two

boys, dressed as pages,

either to walk immediately behind as train-bearers, or

precede her, as

if

to

make way

for the bride.

But the
importance.
is

stately

grown-up bridesmaids are of more


finely dotted net called point d'sprit

The

a beautiful material for

their

dresess, at

least

for

the skirts, while the waists

may be made
This net

in silk, satin or

some other heavier


sive

fabric.

is

very inexpen-

and

is

very effective trimmed with either lace,

ribbon or flowers.

China

silk

and the China crapes which always drape so

beautifully are delightful

gowns

for bridesmaids.
it

Where
colors.

there are six, eight or ten maids


ion to have

is

an effective fashdifferent

them assume
violet.

in

couples,

For instance two maids


two blue and two

ma}''

wear pink, two yellow,


carry flowers of

They should

their respective hues.

Large hats or picturesque bonnets are sometimes

worn by the bridesmaids with beautiful


14

effect,

and again

2IO

BRIDAL OUTFITS
the bridesmaids prefer demi-trained dresses, short
of
tulle are

when
veils
skirt.

worn reaching

half

way down

the

They

are usually fastened on with pins and no


hair.

flowers are

worn on the
of the

Fashions

day must dictate regarding the gloves


an'd

and shoes worn both by the bride


slippers

her maids.

Still

made

of the material of

the dress worn and

undressed white kid gloves will alwa)'s be unobtrusive

and elegant

in their effect.

Slippers

made

of the dress

material are not expensive and any city shoe shop will
get

them up

for less than five dollars.

FOR QUIET WEDDINGS

For

brides,

whose

tastes

are

more subdued, when

no maids are
is of

to

be in attendance, the question of dress


solution.

much simpler

She may wear her

trav-

elling dress, or a simple light house dress and be pro-

nounced a most beautiful bride.

Widows who

are again marrying, also seek something

not ostentatious.

There

is

no law against young widis

ows being accompanied by maids but society


erned by unwritten edicts often and this
is

gov-

one of

them.

Brides

who

are in mourning, should cetainly throw

aside black

for

the marriage at least, even

when they
con-

resume

it

soon afterward.
ladies

Young
sider
dress.
better.
it

who marry widowers, sometimes


not very young, this
is

etiquette to be married in a
If

bonnet and high


perhaps

they are

BRIDAL OUTFITS
THE BEST DATE

211

Romans, June was considered the most propitious month for a wedding. Whether the marthe
riage of

Amongst

Juno
the

to

Jove gave them any great reason

to

think so or not
true to

we cannot
of

ascertain.

But they were


paid her
all

Queen

Heaven, and

the

honors.

Nothing can be more

lovel}'

than a June wedding in


is

England on
house.

a great estate,

where the church

near the

First

come

the singing boys out of the church

chanting an epithalamium.
tor and his
assistants, all

They walk before the


to pass.

rec-

robed in white, to the door


is

through which the bride

Then out

of the
;

house come

the child bridesmaids, scattering flowers


;

then the stately grown-up bridesmaids


;

then the bride

then the boys strike up a new on her father's arm song, and precede the whole party to the church. After
the ceremony the bride comes out
first,

and the

girls

of the Sunday-school, all dressed in white, precede her

with songs, to her door scattering flowers


the party follow.

the rest of
is

And then

the

reception

held in

her mother's favorite room, generally where the old

family portraits are hung.


brides' TRAVELING DRESSES
It is

not at

all

necessary a bride's
;

travelling

dress

should be fine and rich


really unsuitable.
fitting
It

a splendid

dress would

be

should

be only fresh and well


better.

and the simpler always the

212

BRIDAL OUTFITS
the consolations of religion

That famous or infamous young woman who declared


she found nothing in
all

equal to the comforting consciousness of being well


dressed, might insist

upon a splendid

toilette,

but her

followers are rare.

Traveling dresses for brides in


often very elegant.

England are

also

Velvets, satins

and embroidered light woolens are often used.


their railway trains are less dusty than ours

But

and more

secluded and then there,


the bride in
country-seat,
fine carriage,

the

groom generally drives


to

his

own

carriage

some neighboring

where they spend the honeymoon.


with four horses,
all

decked with white


in light col-

favors
ors in

is
it

a pretty sight

and the bride dressed

with the happy groom makes


in

it still

prettier.

However,

America,

our railway coaches


regard
for
to

have

become

so perfected with
a
toilette

ventilation, one

may wear

suitable

the drawing-room.

Indeed, the days of taking a worn out dress in which


to travel are past

and one's station


by the clothes

mined quite
eling.

nearl}^

may be deteryou wear when travin life


is

Consequently the going-away gown of the bride


generally

tailor-made
for
it.

and some

fine,

dark cloth
or

is

employed

For

a winter bride, velvet


in

some
the

similar fabric

may

be employed

combination, but

neat stitching or plain well pressed edges


cloth

make

gown

in the best

fashion

for Fall

and Spring

seasons' purposes.

The

hat should be a small fash-

ionable shape, just sufficientl}' handsome to correspond

BRIDAL OUTFITS
with the gown.

213

The

traveling hat

is

frequently

made

in part or altogether of the material

used for the gown.

The

traveling toilette
If

is

never complete without a

seasonable wrap.
long coat

the weather permits, a jacket or

made

of the

same material

as the dress

is in

excellent taste but in winter, the sealskin or cloth

wrap

provided for general wear

is all

that is necessar)'.

THE GENERAL TROUSSEAU

The
enough

old fashion

of

stocking

bride with
of

clothes
life

to last her the

remainder

her

natural
is

haspassedinto history.

That foolish idea

banished.

A young woman
complete and good
have
at

should only provide herself with a


outfit of clothes
life.

such as she should

hand

all

her

This

outfit

should be fresh and well made

and

not

lacking in necessaries, but that does not

mean

a dozen

dozen
filled

of

each piece of underwear and a dozen trunks


It

with frocks.

means rather

just

enough

cloth-

ing to last the bride one year, at the furthest.

No woman

with real womanly pride wants her pros-

pective husband to provide her trousseau, and no

wishes her husband to be put to


diately.

woman much expense immeit

Yet

it is

not best to leave

too long before

allowing him to provide something for

her comfort
it

and adorning.

He

will

take a pleasure in doing

and such harmless pleasures should not be denied him.


It
is

difficult to

discriminate or to

make

positive

general rules that will be useful but for a young


in

woman
circle

moderate circumstances, moving

in a

modest

214

BRIDAL OUTFITS
may be given and from
that others

of society, a hint

ma}^

draw information.
a bride will require but

Such

one half-dozen night

dresses, the

same number
of petticoats,

of drawers, undervests, cor-

set-covers and

dressing sacques.

She

will

want the

same number

with two flannel short ones,

one white and one colored.

A
six.

long black silk petticoat should be

among
of

the

first

She

will

need the same number

hose, two

pairs of walking boots and as

many house
and lace

shoes.

She

should have six to ten pairs of gloves and plenty of


collars and pieces of ruching
for her dresses.

Handkerchiefs may
sufficient.

be unlimited but one


a winter

dozen

is

There must be

wrap and one


will

for

spring and autumn wear.

Three hats

be required,
for even-

one for the best, one


ing wear.

for general

and another

By way
dresses, as

of

gowns, she must have two woolen street


silk visiting

many

or

dinner dresses, one

evening dress
if it is

at least

not too

her wedding gown will answer, elaborate two simple and pretty house
for

dresses and a heavy and a lighter wrapper or teagown.

She should be provided with good brushes


toilette

the

and

all

the other necessaries for the same.

CHAPTER

XVIII

FANCY AND THEATRICAL DRESSING


MATERIALS FOR STAGE DRESSES EFFECTS OF COLOR WAISTS AND SKIRTS SOME FANCY DRESSES

MATERIALS FOR STAGE DRESSES


Materials
for

stage

dresses

are

almost

limitless.

There was a time when actresses wore gaudy gowns made of the cheapest and flimsiest materials. But the
circus
of

the

nineteenth century would not

tolerate

them now.

Indeed, in these days of luxurious stage

dressing, the richest fabrics are often employed.

Perhaps there
shop,

is

no better department

to visit

in a

when hunting

for materials for stage dresses than

the upholstering department.

the heavy brocades and the


for

The soft drapery silks, handsome trimmings used

draperies
for

effective

and furniture coverings are found very Miss Ellen Terry was stage dresses.

among

the

first,

we

believe, to patronize these departartistic

ments and no actress has worn more


than she.

gowns

They

are

always remembered as distinctly elegant


215

2i6

FANCY AND THEATRICAL DRESSING


These
fabrics

and appropriate.

make

picture dresses

that belong to the "impressionists" school rather than


to Meissonier's

where

detail

is

more thought
delicate

of.

But

one

soon

finds

that

fabrics, refined

"arrangements" of lace and minute details, that would


be appreciated in the drawing-room are lost sight of

and wasted

in distant stage effects.

For instance, not long since

Spanish g3'psy dress


opera "Carmen."

was required

for a cliaracter

in the

A dainty

rose silk was elaborately

trimmed with black


exquisfor the

lace of fine quality

and cut

jet.

itely beautiful off the stage.


first

The dress was The lady wore it


a

time with her sister in the audience to take notes.


failure.
It

She immediately recognized the dress


was not ugly but
all.
it

was inane.

It
it

would never do
was treated

at

Before

it

was worn again,


gilt.

to a

strong dose of red and

wide sash of
of

soft red silk

was draped over the

hips.

The ends

the sash were

plentifully ornamented with loose gilt sequins.

Pendent
and the

loops of red ribbon finished like the sash ends were

mingled in the black lace flounce

of the skirt

bodice and sleeves were trimmed past recognition in


the red and
gilt.

The

dress then proved most effective

while not at
ienced

all

too gaudy.

However,

if

one

is

an exper-

purchaser, there are cheaper materials which


fine effects

produce

and many actresses employ them,


runs

for pla5's

of

short

and

for incidental occasions.

Foreign draperies make


but no intrinsic worth.

artistic fabrics of great

beauty

They

are,

however,

difficulty

FANCY AND THEA TRICAL DRESSING


to find,
it

21

takes time and patient shopping to unearth

them generally.
But stage wear
goods which are
is

very hard upon

materials, and

frail

and easily wrinkled are scarcely

worth purchasing and making up.

The simple wear


it is

on the stage

is

not worth mentioning, but

the put-

ting on and off every night for weeks and the packing
in trunks for traveling that

make

stage clothes

grow

passe.
little

The
it

actress' life is a

busy one and she has but


in

time for repairing or freshening up a gown


really often requires.

use, as

EFFECTS OF COLOR
Select your colors in a strong gas or electric light.

Bear

in

mind those
garden

to

be worn by others in the same

scenes with you, as well as the scenes themselves.

For
the

wood

or

scenes,

where

a vivid

green

is

prevailing tone, your costume should be of dull neutral


tints that will

be restful to the eye.

No

greater mis-

take can be

made than employing very


as

vivid colors and


;

glaring effects on the stage of the present day

colors

may be
ball or
to

as carefully chosen

though for a private

boudoir tea gown, but certain conditions have


criticall}'

be

considered, which in a drawing-room

would be

of

no consequence whatever.
effect of paititcd scenery is to

For example, the

change

the tone of certain yellows, blues, and greens.

A
off
;

more
those

intense yellow can be worn on the stage than

yellows inclining to

/5;7y7t'//

requiring something to light


lost
;

them up, or the yellow tones are

deep damask

2i8

FANCY AND THEATRICAL DRESSING


and blue in

will bring these out, white nullifies them,

any shade must not approach them.


to best advantage with a clear

Brocades show

ground and some pre-

dominant

color, but in

such a case there must be a


is

"rule of three" observed, which, indeed,

useful in all

costuming.

For example,

if

red predominates in a
let

brocaded over-dress or polonaise,


be employed twice
at least in the

us say, red must

remainder of the cosin a

tume

as a lacing

which shows occasionally,


in

knot

of ribbon

on the shoulder or elsewhere,


;

frilling,

or even in the stockings a rule very generally to


stockings

and here we might say that


be remembered
in the
is

that

the

ought to repeat some color

upper part

of the dress.
It is

impossible to say why the following of these


be
productive
of
is

rules

should
it

harmonious

effect.

Subtle as

seems, the fact

indisputable, and will professionals

repay
are

attention.
in

Many costumers and


habit,

most careful
of

following these unwritten laws from but by studying


the

mere force

question

many new

ideas suggest themselves to the mind.

Incongruities in the color of such articles as jewelry,


fans, parasols

and flowers are

to

be carefully avoided
is

and

in this

connection remember that whatever

car-

ried in the

hand

is of

the

first

importance.
fix

The move-

ments

of the

hands

attract

and

the e3^e unconsciously


its

on the object held within them and

form and color

are for the time, the key-note of the general effect.


particular
is

So
one

one actress about

this point, that of

FANCY AND THE A TRICAL DRESSING


of her

21

most famous costumes she sent back the handker-

chief-bag, she

was

to

have carried, because

it

was lined

with green plush similar to that of her dress.


"But, mademoiselle,
ing matches precisely.
"

pleaded the modiste, "the

lin-

"That
see?
little

is

exactly

it,

"said the actress.

"Do you not

The eye
bag, and

will fasten itself


poiif!

on
is

the green of m)'

where
It

then
it

the effect of the


nothing.

greoi in

my

dress?

reduces
is

to

Line
the

the bag with whatever color


skirt,

most becoming to
it,

so

when

stand and

open

then

the

effect

will be

delightful."

And

the result proved as she predicted.

The
it

lining

of rich old

gold gave a starting-point, as

were, to

the impression of her green plush gown, and she certainly

opened her
is

little

bag with admirable

effect.

There

no question, perhaps, connected with thethat of costumfind


it

atricals so perplexing to beginners as

ing for stage

effect.

Old professionals
;

diffilit-

cult to be sure of results


tle details

so

much depends upon

and

to secure successful results, not only is

some technical knowledge indispensable, but judicious


criticism "from the front"
is

absolutely required.
is

For private theatricals where the stage


adjoining room or a small
raised and

simply an

screened platStill to

form, the difference need not be so marked.


dress for an audience as

one would

for

a drawing-

room

is

impossible even in society comedy parts.


this

No

clearer evidence can be given of

than seeing an

220

FANCY AND THEATRICAL DI^ESSING


the

actress in an evening company/, dressed just as in

scene she has quitted.

The costume

maj^ have seemed


in

very simple behind the footlights but

the drawing-

room

its

strong points are decidedly too marked; the

touches which has been so effective on the stage look


coarse and outre in the social scene to which she has
hurried.

WAISTS AND SKIRTS

For the professional stage there

is

no one

article

more

necessar}^ in the

wardrobe than the white waists


as "ballet shirts."

known
to slip

in the profession

They
is
is

are

used with

many costumes and


when
a

are a

great protection
fre-

en under a hired costume, which one

quently forced to don

change

of

bill

sud-

denly made.

The

ballet shirt is
silk.

made

of fine

white cambric, mull

or China

It will

require
of a

frequent washing

and

needs to be well made and


fabric.
It is

good quality
blouse

of either

simply a loose

full

made with

a drawing-string along its lower


it

edge which will held

in at the waist.

At the neck

it

may be
it

either finished

by a medium sized turn-over collar or


ered with

an edge on a
full

silk

tape also.

may be gathThe sleeves


to reach

should be very
the hand.

and

large, cut long

enough
at

They should be gathered

the

top

and

sewed

in to the

waist at the armseye, but gathered on

another drawing-string at the wrist.

With

this arrange-

ment, the sleeves

may be worn
drawn up

flowing, free
close
to the

from the
wrist, or

arm

they

may

be

FANCY AND THEA TRICAL DRESSING


they

221

may be
a

tied

up on the arm
half-length

just

below the elbow


Jackets

forming

puffed

sleeve.

and

pointed bodices

are

very

effective

worn over them,

indeed much more effective than when worn over closa


fitted waists.

The length

of skirts is

another

important factor in

stage dressing.

The

effect of distance

and the raised


If

stage changes the


short skirt
is to

effect

of
it

the

skirt's length.

be worn

should be short enough to

show the upward curve


there should always be

in the

limb above the ankle;

otherwise the limb looks awkward.


a
lace

With
soft

sliort skirts

or

mull

flounce

tacked on to the under-side of the skirt with the lace

edge falling
Skirts

jvist

below the

skirt's edge.

worn on the

street or in the
at the

house are always cut


in the front.

two or more inches longer

back than

But

for short skirts

on the stage, this should never be


the front
of

done.

The back always appears longer than when seen from "in front" when they are
a

even

length and an added half inch makes the skirt hang in


very objectionable

manner.

This

applies

alike to

petticoats and dress skirts.

As

rule

drawing-strings are used in stage skirts,

although yokes are preferable on stout figures.

The width
is

of

fancy and stage skirts and petticoats

also a trifle

arbitrary as they sluiukl be


a

made

quite

scant,

much more narrow than


is

round short

skirt for

a miss

usually made.

222

FANCY AND THEATRICAL DRESSING


SOME FANCY DRESSES
following are a few fancy dresses designed by

The
one

of the cleverest

French genre-painters
It is

The

first

represents a panther.

composed brown

of a short skirt

of yellow moire, striped with


tern,

in a

zigzag pat-

and

is

fastened on the hips with panther claws.


is

The low

sleeveless bodice

of

sealskin

and adheres
real

tightly to

the
is

figure.

court

mantle made of

panther skin

attached to the shoulders with diamond


of

clasps also in the shape

claws.

Brown

silk stock-

ings and shoes

made

in the

form of the animal's paws

with onyx heels and claws are worn with this dress,

and the

coiffure consists of a tiny panther's


flat

head with

emerald eyes, placed

on the slightly waved hair.

The second
is of

is

Greek shepherdess.

The

loose

gown

white crepe de chine, edged with silver arabesque.


galoon gathers the flowing soft folds of crepe

silver

in spirals

around the waist and

is

tied

on the

left side.

The hat made of

is

silvered straw, with a garland of wheat-ears

coral

around the low crown.

Flesh colored

silk stockings and silver sandals with pink coral heels

complete this simple but pretty costume.

The North Pole


site

is

another of the great


2^

artist's exqui-

compositions.

It is

four e a of shimmering pearl-

colored satin over which are gathered folds of soft and


extremel}' transparent silk gauze;
crystals cover almost every part of

diamonds and rock


the skirt and cor-

sage,

which are edged with swans-down powdered with


dust.

diamond

long square court-mantle of cloth of

FANCY AND THE A TRICAL DRESSING


silver

223

hangs from the

left

shoulder, where

it is

fastened

by

a dazzling

diamond

star.

Scattered

all

over this

mantle are snowballs made of swans-down and icicles


of rock cr5'stal

The

hair

is

powdered and

a scarf of
is

thinnest

white
it.

gauze spangled with silver

airily

thrown over
sapphires
is

great crescent

of

diamonds and

placed above the forehead and a chaplet of

icicles encircles the waist.

Last but not least comes a most ethereal mixture of


primrose velvet and
ros}' tulle
is

representing "Dawn."
of pale a

The

skirt

is

very short and

primrose velof

vet and rosy tulle

powdered with

shower

peach

blossom petals and buds, and

hemmed by
of

a thick gar-

land of peach-blossoms sparkling with dewdrops.


bodice
is

The

entirely

composed

peach-blossoms, over
tulle is draped.
left

which a delicate

veil of

dew-bespangled

A wood dove

with outspread wings clings to the

hip and another nestles in the powdered hair, forming


a delightful and novel coiffure.

Then, there

is

the

Polish

girl,

who must wear


blue

corselet with a slashed skirt of ruby velveteen, bordered

with

white

fur,

over

dress

of

vicuna cloth

wrought with gold thread about the edges.


with
its long ostrich feather, and

Her

hat,

her high boots are


fur.

also in ruby velvet

trimmed with white

ba3'adere

scarf

is

knotted about her waist, a necklace formed of


of gold

two rows
there
hair.
is

beads

is

clasped about her throat, and

bow of

blue ribbon fastening her long braided

224

FANCY A ND THE A TRIGA L DRESSING


will, of

The Roman contadina


merino
skirt,

course, have a black

and

a black velvet corselet,

above which

there rises a white linen chemisette elaborately woven


or

embroidered

in

many-colored threads, as

is

also the

square apron confined to the waist with a bright ribbon.

There are coral beads round the neck


is

the white

muslin head-dress
to the

trimmed with lace and fastened

head with small gold pins.


dress of the

The

Roumanian peasant made with


and flowing sleeves
is

straight

skirt, full waist,

all of

white linen embroidered in intricate designs with colored cottons and tinsel.

The

belt
is

is

of figured gold

galoon, with tassels, and the cap


ately embroidered to

of linen, elabor-

match the

dress.

The stockings
striking of

are cotton of

some striking color. The Albanian maid is perhaps the most


She wears
txmic
is of

the group.
silk.

full

knickerbockers in soft red

Her
is

blue beige crossed with inser-

tions of embroidery
fines
it

and the fringed scarf which con-

striped gauze of varied hues.


is

Over
of

a blouse

in tinsel

muslin

thrown a loose jacket

deep red

velvet.

The

daint}^ feet are incased in

red silk stock-

ings and little Turkish slippers in red morocco.


fez,

The
is

which completes
Tunisian

this

picturesque

costume,

thickly covered with gold sequins.

is

alwaj^s

an attractive member.

Over
rows

a short skirt of black nun's veiling, bordered with of gold braid, this

young person wears

a
of

blue cloth
revers

frock

made with

a bewildering

number

and

FANCY AND THEA TRIGA L DRESSING


lapels and
long, loose
tabs, all

225

wrought with gold thread.

The

sleeves are ver}' like the flowing "angel"

sleeves that

everybody wore twentv years ago. costumes belong

On

her

fluffy

hair rests a blue and gold cap.


to the peasants

Two
of
is of

pretty, bright

Provencal and Flanders.

The

frock of the

former

gray delaine or cashmere, edged with gold cord.


is

About the neck

stiff

collarette of lace

and muslin,
two pockets
the circular,

while the sleeves are trimmed with a double row of


lace.
is of

The coquettish

little

apron with

its
;

black silk edged with a lace frilling


is

somewhat forbidding cap


est of

"built" of black wired net,

with a goffered brim and a pleated aigrette.


stockings, blackest
of

The
a

whit-

shoes, and
a bit
of

tiny gold

cross

hung about the neck on


this costume.

black velvet

complete
is

even more elaborate.

The Flemish peasant's dress The frock itself is of maroon

serge trimmed with rows of narrow black velvet ribbon.

The
sette

tunic and the corselet, fastening over a low chemiof

white

muslin, are

of

cedar
is

brown wool
lace,
is

embroidered with gold.


as is

The apron
of

edged with

also

the

coiffure

tambour muslin, which


the Dutch

fastened with small gold pins.

quaint

little figure is

girl,

who
a

is

sure

to carry her

welcome with her


skirt of

into wherever she goes.

She wears a sober

brown beige, with

black

velvet stay laced with silver braid, rows of which also

appear upon her black


white muslin
15

silk apron.

Her chemisette

of

is

very simply made, and fastened with

226

FANCY AND THE A TRIGA L DRESSING


On
her yellow hair
is a

gold linked buttons.

wonderful

muslin cap secured with bristling cork-screw pins in


gold.

CHAPTER XIX

HOW

TO BE YOUR

OWN MILLINER

CORRECT TASTE TO TRIM A HAT HOW TO ISIAKE A STIFF CROWNED HAT OR BONNET MAKING DRAWN BONNETS OR HATS TASTE IN COLOR

CORRECT TASTE
It

would be interesting

to

discover
of to-day

how

man}^ of

the charmingly dressed

women

whose becom-

ing and stylish hats and bonnets constantly challenge

admiration in churches, theatres, in the Park, and upon


the streets, are actually their

own

milliners.
difficult

But

correct census would be extremely

to obtain.

Undoubtedly a number
authors of their
as a rule,

of

women

of fashion are the

own

dainty head-gear, but they do not,


their
to

acknowledge

handiwork.
their

While some
skill,

even take great pains

conceal

as for

example, when a hat-band bearing the name of some

London, Paris, or
fully cut

New York

house

of

vogue

is

carein the
all

from a discarded bonnet and inserted


article.

home-made

This silent witness


227

removes

necessity for repeated prevarication.

Even privileged

228

HO W TO BE
who
are

YO UR O WN MILLINER
admitted
to

intimates

the

sanctity of

my
new

lady's dressing-room, and see

the inside of

her

bonnet, can thus read for themselves where the "creation" hails from.

The woman who can do


of color

this

must have the sense


"

and form

of an artist,

and of an "artist-artisan.

She must be

gifted specially

who can produce


of the

beautiful

bonnets entirely on the strength of her own inspirations and without any

knowledge

technique of

the trade.

Some women
bons,
laces,

are born with a

knack for putting

rib-

and

feathers

together,

making

lovely

headgear out of almost any materials. They are born milliners and instinctively go to work the right way.
Others must learn the trade or not attempt to do the
work.

Nothing
materials

definite can be said

as to

the

amount
the

of

required.

This depends

upon

shape

chosen, the
used.

way
is

it is

made, and the kind of material


in a

Of crepe de chine three yards can be put


it

bonnet,

so

soft

and filmy.

The same amount

could be crushed in your hand.


a proportionate less

Of heavier materials
generally needed, but

amount
That

is

no rule can be given.

Do
of

not over trim.

is

one of the worst faults


taste

inartistic

millinery.

Nothing offends good


ornament
in

more than
tion.

a too lavish use of

any direc-

Every

artist seeks simplicity,

and you will find

HO IV TO BE
it

YO UR O WN MILLINER
stylish

229

true that the

most

chapeau

is

always one that

is

not greatly trimmed.

That American women are supremely endowed in At the same time this direction can not be denied.
the

thought occurs that

if

some
bit

of these

home bon-

net-makers would only be a


finish of their

more careful about the

work

if

they would only guard against

a certain carelessness of detail

which imparts an unmis-

takably "homemade" appearance to their efforts slight extra trouble thereby incurred would be

the
fully

atoned for, by the exquisite perfection of the result.

Neatness and not primness


however,

is

the thing to practice;


is

a hat or bonnet which


is

given too

many
but

stitches or

sewed

too

tight

is

never

artistic,

carelessness or rough unfinished work can ever be artistic either.

TO TRIM A HAT

An amateur

will not be wise to

commence by attempttrimming
a

ing an entire hat, but will begin with simply


a straw or felt shape.
to do.

This

is

much

simpler thing
felt
;

Let us take for example a round straw or


is to

hat that
that
is

be trimmed with velvet and a bird's wing

as simple as the making of any hat can be.

"The design, should always be thought out before


trimmings are handled;
said a milliner lately.
"I
that, at least, is

my

method,"

know

exactly
tell

before

give

my

orders and can

just

how it is to look how much of


is

each kind of material will be required.


to use

My suggestion
to

as

little

material as possible

produce the

230

HO W TO BE
effect.
;

YO UR O WN MILLINER
useless ends turned under or
effect.

desired

Have no

folded out of sight

they spoil the

Cut

off all

that is not needed and discard everytliing that is not a

part of the design.

There should be as
ends or coming
is

little

sewing as possible, but


that there shall be

all

must be firmly fastened, so


to pieces.

no loose

Nothing can look neat that

insecure.

On
stiff,

the

other hand, too


effect, so

much sewing

will

make

awkward

be careful to place
for securit)\

stitches only

where they are needed


place, in

In the

first

trimming a

hat, the velvet should

be purchased cut on the bias of the goods.


will sell
it

Every clerk
vel-

in that wa3^

Cut from one edge of the

vet a length one and one-half inch in width, as a binding


for the

edge

of the hat brim.


its

Lay

this along the

edge of

the brim
out.

upon

under-side with the velvet's wrong side

Stitch

it

on with a strong cotton thread taking

long back stitches, holding the velvet tight.


turn under the other edge of the edge of the brim and
joined,
will
fit

Then
it

the velvet

and

over

if

the ends of the velvet are

no further sewing
tightly in place.

is

required as the binding

If tlie

crown

of the

round hat
laid

is to

be trimmed with
it,

smooth band
on each

of velvet

around

cut the band

the required width allowing a good half-inch to turn


in

side.

Cut

it

bais the

same

as the binding.
fine

Baste in place the turn-under on each side with


cotton in long stitches and fasten
the crown of the hat.
tlie

band tight around

Then draw

out the bastings.

HO W TO BE YO UR
When we
tight

O WN MIL L INER
or

23

say

to

draw the bias bands


too tight, but close

binding
to

we do not mean

enough

make them lay close to the shape. Then come the loops, bows or knots
which the
stiff

feather

is

attached.

among These vary much


of velvet
in,
is

according to fashion's edicts but the loop about three


inches wide, and about as long when doubled

almost alwaj'S a part of the ornamentation.

It is

made
and

also of the velvet cut bias with its edges turned in

held in place by long slip-stitches.

When

they are

wanted

to stand erect, a

bonnet wire must be inserted


the

in the fold

and tacked

fast to

hat in the desired

position.

The application
or
a
flaring

of a facing to a

broad-brimmed

hat,

bonnet, presents the next difficulty for


learns to cut carefully from
felt,

conquest.

The apprentice
which
is

the frame, or shape, of straw or


in paper,

an exact pattern

then laid upon the material and the


it.

facing fashioned according to

This insures accur-

acy and prevents waste of material.

When
of

these

merely mechanical

parts of
all

millinery

have been mastered, then comes

the

adjustment

bows and
it

folds, frills, feathers

and other fripperies


of

and

is

best to learn

the knack

adjustment by

copying the work of others.


soon turns her
is

Then

the young milliner


if

own

graceful fancy loose, when,

she

the least bit of an artist in her trade, she will pres-

ently begin to produce original arrangements.

232

HOW TO BE

YOUR O WN MILLINER

HOW TO MAKE A STIFF CROWNED HAT OR BONNET Those who undertake to learn the trade of millinery,
find that wire

and buckram and foundation net repreC's of the art.


six

sent the

A B

The novice
to

in the

trade

must spend a good

months learning
and

form shapes from oth-

with thesematerials. She copies them at


er frames, then from plates,,
finally,
is

first

carrying out
able to

some written

or verbal description, she

model

the hat or bonnet without a pattern.

But there are shops where the most desirable "shapes"


or "frames" can be purchased ready

made and

it

is

pure waste of time to make them oneself.


the exact shape wanted

Perhaps

may
it is

not be obtainable, but


it

something very near

to

generally, and

will be

found by experience, a very easy matter to make alterations in


it.

For instance

if

the brim

is

too wide, rip

off

the wire
off
;

cord which finishes the edge and carefully trim

the

buckram or
to the

stiff

net of which the frame

is

made
is

then

in the long over-casting stitch, fasten the wire

on again
too narstiff

new and
is

shorter edge.

If

the brim

row,

it

almost as simple a matter to take some

crinoline or

buckram and lay

it

on the present brim

allowing

it

to extend to the desired size.


If

An

extra wire
is

should always finish this new edge.


found too small,
it

the crown

can be slashed
is

at the

back or side

where the greater room


all
it

required and a wire sewed

around the crown and over the opening will hold


in place.

Of course

it

is

well

understood that the

HO IV TO BE

YO UR O WN MIL L INER

233

frame or foundation can be bent, fastened up or down

on one side or the other and generally changed as taste


or fancy

may
is

dictate.
in a

There
fit

no comfort

bonnet which does not

easily and exactly to the head,

which

either hurts
first

the temples of the wearer, or falls back with the


puff of

wind.

You
make

will

learn

by practice how

to

judge of the size of the crown, and

the bend of the


the

frame so as to
wearer.

the bonnet

comfortable to
or

However,

all

enlarging

making smaller

must be completed before beginning


with the outside material.

to cover the frame

But when the "anatomy"


been mastered in
this

of the hat or

bonnet has
cloth
it.

way

the next step

is to

pattern must be cut for each part.

First, a pat-

tern for the top of the crown, another for

the sides,

another for the top of the brim and yet another for
the under side of the brim.
to cut patterns for the
It

may seem

superfluous

upper and under sides of the


will be found

brim separately, but

it

on the whole the

better course to pursue.

These patterns should be cut


stiff

by laying smooth, not too

paper, on

each

part,

and creasing

it

until
is

it

fits

the frame exactly.

The crown
paper
as

top

easily cut, but the brims

demand
piece
of

more patience.
gradually lay
ing pleats to

For them

take a

straight

wide as the
it

widest part of

the

brim and by
lay-

around the brim until


it

it fits,

make

do

so.

Fasten each pleat in


off

place with a pin.

After this has been done, trim

234
its

HO W TO BE YO UR
it

O WN MILLINER

edges to correspond with the edges of the brim

and then lay

on a large square

of

smooth paper and,


on the brim so as

allowing for seams on each edge, cut out another pattern without pleats in
to be sure
to cut the
it.

Lay

this

no mistake has been made.


under

Then proceed

brim pattern and

the sides of the

crown

in the

same manner.
all

When

the patterns are prepared lay them

on the
hat.

velvet, silk or cloth to be

used for making the

By doing

this,

much
front,

material

may be

saved.

It is

canon in milliner}^ to make coverings of brims and

crowns bias

in

even

if

they slope until quite

straight at the back.

When

the parts have been cut,


;

first

lay the

crown

on the frame smoothly

tack

it

in place with pins stuck


it

through just once and then stitch


with long
better

fast

permanently
these parts

back

stitches.

Cotton

holds
lay

than

silk thread.

Then

the

two brim

covers together with their right sides next each other

and seam their outer edges together.


over-lapping edges should be pared
possible.

All
off

seams and

as narrow as

Slip these covers over the brim, which will


little

require a
easily

bending of the brim

to

do, but

it

will

bend back into the proper shape.

very

much simpler way would be


is

to take a bias

piece of the material twice as wide as the brim and

almost twice as long as the brim

around, gather

it

on each edge and draw

it

over the brim, making what

HO W TO BE
is

YO UR O WN MILLINER
These
are

lis

called a fulled

brim.

always becoming

and

soft against the face.

For

this fulled brim, a roll


is

of soft

tissue

paper, as

large as your finger

tacked on the edge of the brim


is

before the gathered material

drawn over

it.

This

gives a desirable extra softness to the edge.

Let the inside edges

of these

brim covers extend up on

the crown and notch those edges until they set into the

frame properly.

After this

la}'

the covering around the


of

sides of the crown.

This must cover the raw edges

both crown and upper brim cover. Baste a turn-over on each side of this cover for the sides of the crown and

draw

it

tightly around the crown.


its

After

it is

fastened

together at

ends, the bastings


all

may

be clipped here

and there and

drawn
is

out.

The
gauze

last
is

touch

crown

lining, a
at the

double piece of

sewed by long stitches


exposed

edge of the crown


a

and then drawn tightly up


shred of frame
is left

at the center so that not


to

catch and

ruffle

the

hair of the wearer.

MAKING DRAWN BONNETS OR HATS

The

front of a

drawn bonnet

is

made

of a length of silk

cut the straight way;

that

is,

with the selvage going

round the outer edge of the front, to prevent the necessity of any joining, A broad hem is made, in which
there are three, four or five runnings, forming casings for

the wire or cords which are to be slipped


the outermost of these casings, a
stiff

in.

Through
is

wire

run, to
of cas-

give the right shape to the front.

Other

sets

236

HOW TO BE
of

YO UR O WN MILLINER

ings have to

be run in the front, according to the

number

drawings intended.
been slipped into

The

cord, or whalebones, having

The silk is the casings, must be fastened at one end. then drawn into shape, and the whalebones are fastened
at

the other end.

Whalebones

are often

purchased
is,

ready prepared for white bonnets,


with white paper.
silk the

that

covered

Supporters of wire, covered with


as the bonnet, or covered silk wires

same color

manufactured for the purpose, are fixed from the outer


to the inner in its

edge of the front to keep the whole firmly

shape.

the front,

The crown is drawn in the same way as and is made circular by being fixed to a

wired net.

Not infrequently the amateur milliner trims her bonIt is often the finest art which lets nets too much.
them
alone,

and a pretty velvet hat or bonnet, the

curves of

which crown or frame the face becomingly

gather up the brightness of Goldilock's tresses or rim


the dusky masses of a dark beauty's hair
slight adornment.
Still this

requires but
by prevailing
little

must be governed
in

a great deal
It

stjdes,

and practice

trimming.

takes a

time

to learn just

how

to twist the wires of flowers to

them lay close

to the hat,

and much patience

to

make make

an ostrich plume curve just the right way.

The hat-amateur

often

skips the preliminaries of


all

the trade and plunges at once into


of velvet, tulle, flowers, feather?

the perplexities

and furbelows.

Not

HO IV TO BE

YD UR O WN MILLINER

237

infrequently her experiments prove expensive failures.

She

is

pretty sure to waste a good deal of material,

and she

invariably takes several thousand times the


of

number

stitches

which are

really essential

to the

successful fabrication of the attempted headpiece, but

success awaits

her further on along the lane of her

experience, and she finally achieves a bonnet to feel

proud

of,

and acquires

degree of

skill

which

is

sur-

prising in one entirely self-taught.

But

if

she will carefully read the above suggestions

she can not go far astray.

We

ma}^ mention here that


to

milliners and dressmakers are subject

two troubles
but which
the

which would be
of the hands, in

trifles

to

any body

else,
is

are serious inconveniences to them.

One
is

warmth

summer
;

time, and in

all

seasons of

hurry and over-fatigue

and the other

the roughness

of the forefinger of the left

hand, from the skin being

perpetually broken with the needle.

The

heat of the

hands may injure some delicate colors, and take out


the stiffness from net or ribbons the fore finger
:

and the roughness


fine

of

may
If

fray satin

and

muslins, and

catch disagreeably at the blonde or net that you are

employed upon.
ever,

you have been well taught, howof

you

will have acquired a habit

holding your
touch more
If 3'ou

work
grasp

lightly in your fingers, so as not

to

of the material at
it

one time than


of
j^our

is

necessary.
it

in

the palm

hand,

is

impossible

that any look of


rial

newness should remain


is

in

your matefor the

when your work

done.

The only remedy

238

HO \V TO BE
warm

YO UR O WN MILLINER
is

inconvenience of
quently in

warm hands
water.

dipping
will

them

fre-

Pumice stone

smooth

off

the forefinger perfectly.

TASTE IN COLORS

Our success

as

milliner will

much depend on

the

knowledge and
arrangement of
sar}' in

taste

we acquire about

the choice and

colors.

good eye
it is

for colors is necesfirst

the dress-maker, but

perhaps the very

professional requisite for the milliner.


ft is

certain that

some

colors are naturally

more agreeinstance,

able

to

eyes

than

others.

Everyone,

for

relishes the bright green of the

meadows, and the shaded


of reds,
It is

greens

of

the

woods,

more than any kind


other colors.
colors are
to
of

unless the reds are mixed with


less true that
all

no

some mixtures

pleasing to

eyes,

and others displeasing

most.
;

Every one
lilac

likes to see lilac

and green together


;

and

and

primrose

red and dark green

fawn color and blue

brown and yellow and pale blue and pink.


blue and green

On

the

other hand, every one sees ugliness in a mixture of


red and yellow, yellow and pink,
If

lilac

and blue, and many others.


teach you this

your eye does

not

much

at the outset, in the

we should
If,

fear that

you would hardly excel


of the

more ornamental parts


however, your

work you

will

have

to do.

natural taste be ever so good, you will find that you

may

refine

and improve
If

it

exceedingly by observation

and study.
beautiful

you are

in earnest, every object in the

kingdom

of Nature,

every flower in the fields

HO W TO BE YO UR O WN MILLINER
and gardens, and every cloud
in the

239

morning and evenstudy of

ing sky, will give you lessons in the blending of colors.

And what
beauty?

lessons can be pleasanter than the

One
cle,

plain rule on this subject


it is

is,

to

make

the arti-

whether
among

gown, bonnet, or cap,

of

one preit.

vailing color, keeping the trimmings subordinate to


It is

unsatisfactory and painful

to the

eye to be dis-

tracted

a variety of colors,
If a

no
is

one prevailing
of a striped

for the e3^e to rest upon.

dress

made

or

checked

material, where
of

no

color

prevails,

the

trimming should be made


and one
of the soberest
;

one only of the colors,

so as to give to the dress the


is

predominance

of

hue which
is,

wanting

in the material.

Another plain rule


and

to arrange
is

by daylight the

col-

ors of a dress or a hat

which

to

be worn by day-light

to wait for gas-light to

choose the trimmings of

a winter
fully at

evening dress.
noon, sometimes

Colors which agree beautifail

miserably by gas-light,
or looking positively
is

either producing no effect at


ugly.

all,

Even

in matching, this

precaution
in

required.

That which

is

perfect

match

the morning

may

turn out something quite different in the yellow light of the drawing-room.

Such nicety is particularly necessary in matching black. The handsome appearance of mourning mainly depends on the entire dress being of a uniform black. Mourning, however new and costly, looks shabby if the gown be of "jet" black, the drapery" of "medium," and the trimming of "purple" black.

CHAPTER XX

THE DRESSMAKER AT HOME


THREE METHODS
PREPARING FOR THE HOME DRESSMAKER HINTS FOR MAKING OVER DRESSES

THREE METHODS

The woman who can with her own fingers make her own gowns is a very independent woman, and need
never look dowdy.
this
It is

to

furnish such knowledge


if

book was written.

Even

woman does
should

not
of

need or wish to devote her time to the business

making her own

or

other's

clothes, she

be
to

( possessed

of

the knowledge in

order to

know how
is

obtain good work from others.

Every woman who presides over


fortable

house that

comof

and homelike must understand the principles


dusting although she

cooking and sweeping and

may

never be required to actively engage in them.

There are only three ways


in order; first a

of

keeping ones wardrobe

woman

ma}'^

go to a dressmaker
it is

and

give an order for the

gown and when


240

decided that

THE DRESSMAKER A T HOME


it is

241

a street or

house dress that

it is

to

be blue, brown
of

or

some other
to

color, she

leaves the details


is

finish

and cost

madame.

This
it

alwaj's an eas}^

way out

of the difficulty

although

is

not alwa3's an entirely

satisfactory one.

In the second place, a

woman may bu}',

cut and
to

make
so,

her
if

own gowns.

This guide will enable her

do

she has

the time at her disposal and the


faculty
of

woman
own

who has

this enviable
is

fashioning

her

simple gowns

usually a better

dressed individual
twice the

than the helpless creature

who spends

money

on the gowns her dressmaker plans and makes

for her,

and which have

little

individuality or originality in

their arrangement,

and might be worn by twenty other


the one

women
In

as well as

who

pa3's

such enormous

prices for them.

the

third

place, a

woman may

secure

home
its

dressmaker and personally supervise the work in


detail, for
is

women who
to

can not do
half

all their

sewing, this
to

good thing

do when

worn garments are

be made over.

PREPARING FOR THE HOME DRESSMAKER


In such case to economi?^e time and expense,
sible preparations should be
all

pos-

made
be

for

the dressmaker
apart,

before

she

comes.

Gowns
new

ripped

cloth

sponged and pressed,


freshened, and
all

silk cleaned, laces for

trimming

materials to

be used bought

and

in the house.

Linings, sewing-silk, thread, twist,

whalebones, reeds,
16

hooks and eyes, braid, buttons,

242

THE DRESSMAKER A T HOME


all

should

be provided,

that

when
for

the
her,

dressmaker

arrives her

work may be ready


a stand-still.

and no time

need be wasted in sending for articles


everything
is

for lack of

which

at

All

goods to be dyed
least

must be sent

to

the dye-house at

three weeks

before they are wanted.

A
tcT

word

be amiss with
nicely, but
stiff
it

regard

dyeing.

never pays to dye a


to
it

caution may not Some woolens dye The crackling, silk.


of
it

quality imparted

by the process stamps

unmistakably.

Even

a fine silk looks cheap and com-

mon

after dyeing.

Garments may often be dyed without being ripped.


Waists are apt
but a skirt
is

to

shrink and stretch out of

shape,

not seriously altered.

Every grease spot


it is

must be sponged from the


dyers.
is

fabric before

sent to the
later,

If

not,

it

is

certain

to

appear

and

then almost impossible to eradicate.

The

task of ripping can be taken up at odd moments,

and a great deal thus be accomplished.


be a roomy receptacle for
or a large drawer
all

There should
Either a trunk
if

scraps.

may

be set aside for pieces, or

both

of these are out of the question, there

should be sevfor

eral piece-bags provided,

one

for

linings, another
for

wash goods, another


velvets,

for woolens, another

silks,

and plushes.

The remnants

of each kind

and

color should be

Smaller bags

made into neat rolls, pinned or tied. may hold buttons, hooks and eyes, etc.
The
habit of keeping but-

By

the practice of such a system as this, infinite time

and trouble may be saved.

THE DRESSMAKER A T HOME


tons from year to year
that has been
is to

243

be commended, as a set
a
street

worn one season on

costume

may do duty

later,

on a house-gown or a wrapper.
is fairly set-

When
tled at

the dressmaker has arrived, and

her work, the house keeper's period of

trial

begins.
to

She
all

is in

a strait

betwixt two.

She wishes
In
the

spend

the time she can with the seam tress.


it

addition to this,

is

an indisputable

fact,

be

reason what

it

may, that even the most conscientious


the
assistance

dressmaker, apart from

she

receives,

accomplishes more when she has


with her than when she
wife realizes this, and
of
is left

some one sewing

to herself.

knows

that to lessen

The housethe amount

time she must keep the "necessarj^ evil," and pro-

portionately diminish the bill for services rendered, she

should
brance

offer all the


is

help in her power.

Yet the remem-

fresh in her

mind

of the

masculine animadthe larder during

version upon the prevalent state of


the period of "making over."

To

achieve her desire


will

she

should

so

arrange

her

work that she


dressmaking
side

have few extra duties while her

is

on hand.

She should make no outShe


such
of

engagements that can possibly be avoided.


also

should

exercise

judgment
lie

in

selecting

dishes for the table as

within the

capabilities

her work, and yet guard against a plainness of food in


too

marked contrast
of

to the ordinary

mode

of

living.

There are plenty


fruit,

pretty desserts, notabl}' those of

that are

simply made, and do not demand the

244

THE DRESSMAKER A T HOME


in the kitchen.

presence of the mistress

Now,

too, is

the time to call upon the resources of the grocer, and


to

purchase potted and curried fowl, game, sausages,


fish,

kippered

and the many nice prepared puddings.


her work

As

well, the

housewife should guard against permitting


to cause

her absorption in

her

lapse

into

carelessness of house or person.

HINTS FOR MAKING OVER DRESSES


All through our preceding chapters on

sewing, the

necessity of careful, painstaking pressing with a hot


iron
is

emphasised, but

in

making over garments

it is

even more indispensable.


apart

When

the garment

is

ripped

each piece should be pressed and when

new

seams are sewed or new hems and facings made, the


pressing into final shape must be thoroughly done.

But before beginning these

details one

golden rule

may be
It is

laid

down
:

as appliable to every department of

dressmaking

this is simplicity.

quite

probable that the sewing-machine did


dress
its
;

much

to introduce fussiness into

but the

first
all

wild impulse, which rose with


the stitches possible

advent, to

put

on a garment, long
its

ago died a
then

natural death, though


to

ghost rises up

now and
of

haunt

us.

The ancient Greeks had no sewingmodels


artistic

machines, and their costumes are


beaut}^
fice

With them
the

there

was no temptation

to sacri-

grace to stitching.

It is

to put too

common fault much work on

of
a

the amateur dressmaker

garment.

fussy

gown

is

THE DRESSMAKER AT HOME


never a tasteful one
;

245

and a costume

is

often marred by

meaningless

details.

When women

sometimes spend

days or weeks on some elaborate design, which when


applied to the costume artistically ruins
sents time, strength, patience
it,

it

repre-

and perhaps

ingenuit}',

but not taste.

Hence

a great deal of strength is spent

without good results.


It is

There

is

safety in

plainness.

not so bad a rule to begin a dress with the idea


the trimming.

of leaving off

Though
it

this
at

may seem
result

to point to the in a

other extreme,

will

least

simple garment.

Coquetry

is

allowable in dress,

but fussiness, never.


In

combining two materials that have been used

before in a dress, the

home dressmaker

is

advised to
parts,

select a plain fabric for the

most important

and
also

figured stuff or stripes for the accessories.

She

is

warned not

to use too

much

of the figured goods, as a

preponderance of what should be the subordinate fabric detracts

from the elegance of the gown.

Three
effec-

yards of the contrasting material can be far more


tively arranged than
if

six yards

were used.

The home dressmaker


front of a partly

wlio wishes to furnish up the


is

worn corsage

advised that soft vests


are generally

or plastrons are easily put on, and


stilish than
is all

more

smooth

vests.

A single breadth of
may be used
of the

surah silk

that is needed, and this


dresses, and

alike for silk

or wool

may be

same

color or in

bright contrast.

Red

or white soft vests are


it

seen on
here

dresses of almost any color, and

may be added

246

THE DRESSMAKER AT HOME


is

that the crinkled silk Japanese crape

chosen for very


is

handsome vests instead


of the dress in front,

of

surah.
is

The breadth
fit

shirred across the top, which

curved to

the neck
of

and

is

sewed on three inches


neck,

the right side of the

dress
is

making the middle

reach the buttons, and

then lapped the same distance


disappears under a revers of

on
the

the left side,


dress
to

where

it

goods or velvet.
extend to

This vest may be long


even to drop
or else

enough
below
it

the waist-line, or
it

in a puff, or

may be

a short square

pointed to stop at the top of the darts, where a stomacher

may meet

it,

or the fronts

of the

dress

may

be

laced below or simply buttoned.

A
the

high velvet collar also freshens up a dress, and


the vest just described, should lap to

when made with


left side,

and be cut in a point there, or else held

by a small bow of ribbon.

bright yellow or

poppy red Japanese crape vest

is

liked for black silk or grenadine dresses, and with this

may be V
and
filled

spaces cut between the vest and sleeves,

with a puff of the crape.

The

sleeves are

then completed with a puff of the same, coming out


like an under-sleeve,
of ribbon.

which

is

gathered on a wrist band

A yard

of

beaded passementerie can be made

to retrim

a plain waist

and sleeves prettily by putting a row

down each

front from neck to darts, beginning an inch

below the button-holes.


with a point or a
tassel.

The lower end

is

finished
is

A row

of

the trimming

THE DRESSMAKER A T HOME


placed on the upper side of the
sleeve
at

247

the wrist,

and below

this is a gathered scarf of


is to

the dress goods.

If a dog-collar

be covered with the beaded trim-

ming, a yard and a half will be needed, and galoon


with straight edges should be chosen in preference to
the

vine patterns

of

passementerie.

Beaded

fringe

two inches wide

may be

cut in short strips and placed


If

crosswise each side of the buttons of a corsage.

the

lower edge of one row laps over the top of that below
it,

it

makes

a very effective trimming.

A
net,

black surah or gros grain basque can be tastefully


of a
full

trimmed anew with three-eighths


which
is

yard of jetted
plastron, square
left

gathered up as a

or in

shape, and there will be enough


cuff.

for

gathered scarf on each sleeve as a

Now,

in the

making over
they are

of

house dresses

it

must

be remembered that they are alwa5^s most attractive

and charming
particularly

if

made

in

light dainty colors,

the
for

woman who wears them would please if man she likes, and what woman dresses at home any other purpose? Men are the most gullible
the

creatures about dress.

They
street

are caught with

a color
in its

every time.
quiet,

Your new

gown comes home

refined

elegance, for which

you have paid a

perfectly scandalous amount, and the

man

for

whose
and

opinion and admiration you care


lordly nasal organ
to

most elevates his


angle

a very disagreeable

thinks the
tinted

gown is well enough. You wearsome lightgown that has been cleaned and turned and

248

THE DRESSMAKER A T HOME


made
yourself, or that a

dyed, that you

cheap home
it

dressmaker toggled together for you, you give


dash of gold somewhere, and, behold, the

man raves, and will have you wear nothing else. And so these simple gowns that the clever woman can make herself
will

be sure to satisfy the husband when he comes


to dinner,
if

home
lover

there are no formal

guests, or the

who drops

in unexpectedly in the evening.

CHAPTER XXI FABRICS, LACES AND EMBROIDERIES.


EMBROIDERIES LACES VELVET SILK LINEN CLOTH WIDTHS OF DRESS FABRICS OSTRICH FEATHERS

VELVET
Velvet
in
is

the handsomest
first

among handsome

materials
it

Europe, since the

centuries of our era,

was

considered as a sumptuous fabric and was called Samit.

About the year

800, the

famous

Caliph

Haroun-al-

Raschid presented the emperor Charlemagne with several pieces of beautiful Samit manufactured in Persia.

At a

later

period M^hen the city of Antioch was pil-

laged in 1098, the Crusaders seized upon such an enor-

mous quantity of Samit that many chiefs and made considerable money by selling pieces
precious material.

soldiers
of

that

Velvet was always called Samit


as,

in the eastern

countries

according
of

to

tradition,

it

was believed that the


the special kind

island

Samos only would produce

of silk purposely and exclusively employed for

manu-

facturing the Samit.


249

250

FABRICS, LACES AND


first

EMBROIDERIES
was reserved
in Saiiiit

At
dead

the

beautiful

texture

for

the

illustrious persons were wrapped


pall of

shrouds
coffin

and a
but,

the

same was thrown over the


a

some Mussulman princes took


it

fancy to Samit

turbans, and, henceforth,

was considered the richest


turbans.

material for

handsome garments and


taste

In Europe our great grandmothers of the eleventh


century,

whose

and elegance were equal

to

our

own, wore Samit costumes; these dresses were more


elaborate than the present costumes: the style consisted
of

a species
;

of long tunic

with large funnel-shaped

sleeves

this

had

a broad border richly

embroidered in

gold and pearls and worn over a narrow skirt


silk,
all

made with

and edged with heavy gold fringe

this skirt set off

the beauty of the Samit tunic.

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the


nobility of both sexes

had their coat-of-arms embroid-

ered on the dress

the various bright colors and gold

and

silver threads

employed on those emblazoned

gar-

ments produce
of the Samit.

a magnificent effect

on the rich ground

About the same epoch Samit was given another name


in
it

Europe, and called Velux,

Veloiix,

Velvet,

Velluyan;

was also adapted

to

other various usages, such as


for

hangings and coverlets


tresses
;

beds, also covering mat-

this

was an Eastern custom greatly apprecicentury Sainits were


cities in

ated by Sybarites.

Some time about


manufactured
in

the twelfth

Palermo and some other

FA BRICS, L A CES AND


Italy;
at the

EMBR 01 DERIES

25

Lucca was celebrated

for its velvet manufacture,

same time ornaments and

rich garments for the

church were made

with the utmost success.


right, could

"Knights alone, in their own


vet."

wear Vel-

A
Bold

dress reported

as

magnificent was worn by Mar-

garet of York on her marriage with


of

Duke Charles

the

Burgundy; she was

attired in a splendid robe

of white Samit edged with a very deep band embroid-

ered with gold, rubies, pearls

and emeralds; and

this

dress, very becoming to her style of beauty, fitted her


to perfection.

The end
fashion
of

of

the

fourteenth

century introduced the


series

blue velvet with

of gold fleur-de-lis;

history describes Charles VII. dressed in blue velvet;

even his saddle-cloth was to match.

Agnes
king,

Sorrel, the

"Dame deBeaute, "


of velvet
;

favorite of the

was particularly fond

in all portraits
;

she is represented attired in black or blue velvet robes


the shape being a kind of princess dress

trimmed with
she dressed

ermine; the corsage was laced

in

front;

always superbly and the ladies of the Court followed


her example.

At a

later period,

and

well worth

mentioning, was

the superb and immense court-mantle of royal purple


velvet, lined

and bordered with ermine and fastened by

wonderful diamond clasps, worn by Eleanor, the sec-

ond wife

of Francis

I.,

of France,

when she entered

in

state the city of

Bordeaux.

252

FABRICS, L A CES A ND
bridal dress of

EMBR OIDERIES
of Scots,

The

Mary Queen

when she

married Francis, the dauphin of France, was greatly


admired, her robe and court-mantle being of white velvet embroidered in white silk and precious stones.
It

was

in 1470 that the


at

first

manufacture of velvet
Six 5^ears later,

was establishd
the

Tours

in France.

Duke

of Brittany, Francis II., sent. for

some Flor-

entine mechanics, very skillful in their

art,

who took
by the

charge of a manufactory established


duke.

in Vitre

Subsequently, in 1536, Stephen Turgucti

?i.\\d.

Bartholb}^

omew Nariz, both from Genoa, were authorized,


ial

spec-

license of king Francis

I.

of France, to establish a in the city of

manufacture of silks and velvets

Lyons

from that time

to this present day, the

Lyons manu-

factures have maintained their unrivalled celebrit}^

The
of silk.

best velvet

is fine

soft

and pliable, made entirely

The nap

is sliort,

thick and even.

For

milli-

nery the narrow widths cut to the best advantage, but


for

dresses and wraps the wider varieties should be

chosen.

This because the

ble the better.

There

is

number of seams possino way of making them less


less

apparent, as can be done in manj^ other fabrics hy thor-

ough pressing.

To
dent.

be didactic, a study of texture will pay the stuIt is all

nonsense to buy cheap


nice.

stuffs.

The}' do
just

not pay.

They never look

They wear

as

long as a good fabric, but they are shoddy to the end.

cotton handkerchief will last as long as a linen hem-

FABRICS, LACES
stitched

AND EMBROIDERIES
with economy, and

253

and so

will

cotton towel, but one has to


the vio-

take the

shower of

fluff

lence done to taste and the loss of personal


vastly outweigh the gain in nione}'.

comfort

Don't buy velvet or any other fabric unless you can


afford
at
it.

If

you get a cotton back, the warp


night.

will stare

you day and


it

The frequency

of special sales

makes

possible for a

dress pattern

woman to get a very excellent now and then for a reasonable price.
SILK
of
silk

The manufacture

was

first

introduced

into
it

England during the reign


was an important industry
period.
far
It is

of
in

Henry VI.
China from
that

However,
a very

remote

spoken

of

in

country's records as
their

back as 2640 B. C.

But the Chinese guarded


most jealously.
Great,
it

secret of its manufacture

Still before

the time of Alexander, the island of Cos.

tlie

had penetrated

to

We

are

informed that Famphile,


first to

the daughter of Plates

was the

spin the wind-

ings of the cocoons, and subserve the labors of the silk

worm

to the

adornment

of

beauty.

Persistent efforts

have been made


Britain and

to stimulate sericulture in
little

both Great

America but with


and
Italy are

success.

The
silk

looms

of Persia

celebrated, but China,

Japan and the Levant continue the markets where


is

manufactured abundantly and permanentl)'


Silks that are weighted by dye do not wear well and

are never cheap no matter

how

small their price.


to

simple way of testing a black

silk's purity is

burn

254

^^-i

BRICS,

LACES A ND EMBR OIDERIES


Pure
;

a small quantity of its threads.


crisp, leaving a pure charcoal

silk will instantly

heavily dyed silk will

smoulder, leaving

yellow greasy ash.


of testing silk.
If the filait

There are two methods

ment
If for

of the cocoon can


it

be unwound from
and
is

as a con-

tinuous thread

is

reeled

called "raw silk."


it

any reason the filament can not be reeled


before
it is

must
called

be
in

The raw material spun. commerce "waste silk."

spun

is

LINEN

That mummies are frequently found wrapped


is is

in linen

sufficient proof of

its

antiquity.

In
it

fact its

origin

so ancient

it is

unknown.

But

is

most useful
It

and necessary addition to the clothing of mankind.


is

more cleanly and cool

fabric

than cotton, for the


dust and

latter presents a woolly surface that catches

absorbs moisture.

Linen cloths present


is

glossy smooth
is

surface that

as lustrous as satin, and that


it is

as pure,

and

deli-

cate as

healthful and pleasant to the touch.

Plain linens of heavier weight are used for shirts,


collars

and for bed linen, but the twilled linen includes

the dimity and

damasks

for the table.

There are also

the finest linens which

are used for handkerchiefs and

are called lawns and cambrics.

Very few linens

are

dyed or printed, although they


given

take colors perfectly and wear beautifully. In

Chapter XXII.

further

information

is

FA BR I CS, LA CES A ND
regarding household linens,

EMBR 01DERIES
accompanied with
keep them
in repair.

255
their

approximate cost and how

to

CLO'J'H

Under
the

the head of cloths used

for

dress

range

and variety

is

exceedingly great.

purposes Broad-

cloths are considered the most beautiful in quality and

appearance.

Some much
find
ties

of the
is

handsomest
as fine

street dresses are

made

of

cloth which

and supple as French kid and not


is to

heavier.

The
stiff

greatest beauty of broadcloth

it soft,

not

and board-like.

The

latter quali-

some

of the

most expensive cloths once possessed


wear

and they brought broadcloths as a class into disfavor


with
that

many women, who


wear
out.

will not

stiff

heavy gowns

have no other recommendation than that they

will not

But when the thin

fine varieties

were introduced ladies accepted them and


it is

unanimously

not likely the}^ will ever grow less popular.


camel's-hair cloths also form
fabrics.

Tweeds and
fine

some

of the

most popular dress

They

are

made

of equally

wools often but they are more loosely woven and


a rougher surface than broadcloth.
is

show

There

also another division

made

in cloths,

which

has been designated as worsted cloths.


the fabrics well

They embrace

known

as serges, merinos, delaines,

Russell

and

Bedford

cords, tartans, camelets, repps

and woolen sateens.

The woolen and process of making

the worsted
their

cloths

differ

in

the

respective

thread, they are

256

FA BRICS, LA CES AND EMBR OIDERIES


Felt cloth
is

both woven. ning


of the

made without

either spin-

or weaving but

simply by the mutual adhesion

woolen

fabrics.

LACE
Italy claims the

honor of

the

first

record

of lace,

when
to

in 1493

we

find in a

wardrobe

list

which belonged
piiiito

two
first

high-born
knotted

sisters,

mention

of

gropo
of that

the

lace

known.

The convents
it

country for a long time manufactured

exclusively,

and the making of lace in Italy has always been more


or less under the patronage of the church.
ro3'alty

Else where,
consideration

had considered
time to

it

not beneath

its

and from

time, kings, queens and princesses


it

have encouraged and fostered


their

with their time and

money.
is

Point lace
laces,

recognized as the most precious of


are eleven different

all

and there
are,

point laces made.

They

Venetian Flat Point, Venetian Raised Point,

Venetian Grounded Point, Spanish Flat Point, Spanish

Raised Point, Point de France, Point d'Ale9on, Point


d'Argentan, Brussels Point a I'Aiguille, Brussels Point

Gaze, Brussels Point Gaze Appliqu6.

Of

these, the art of

making Point I'Argentan


gaze.

is lost

and Brussels point a I'Aiguille has given place

to the
is

more modern point

The

point de

France

only produced by a few workers,

who endeavor

to pro-

duce the old patterns, and the Venetian, Spanish and


point de France are very limited.

Consequently there

are but three kinds of point lace in the market.

These

FABRICS, LACES
are point gaze, point

AND EMBROIDERIES
d'Alencon

257
point

and

Brussels

gaze and they rank in value in the order mentioned.

The great rivals of point lace, are the pillow laces. They are made by twisting into set patterns threads wound on bobbins. Point laces are made entirely with the needle. The most important pillow laces are Valenciennes, Duchesse, Point de Venice, Point de Flandres,

Genoa

Point,

Point

de Medici,

Old Brussels

Plait, Plait

Applique, Mechlin, Maltese, Cluny, Tor-

chon, Lille, Russian, Honiton, Trolly, Regency Point,

Baby Lace, Breton, Point


mont, Blonde, Guipure,

d'Esprit, Chantilly,

Gram-

Llama, Cashmere and Yak.

Of these

laces
of

many more

many remain always in use while very them come in for a time as very fash-

ionable and then comet-like disappear from use.

There are many beautiful laces made with lace braid

which are sometimes confounded with


real point laces are all

real

point, but

made
is

entirely with the needle.

Machine made
tated

lace

an important factor in our

markets as every kind of pillow lace has been imi-

by the loom.

Indeed they have almost super-

seded the cheaper productions of the pillow, but they


only add to the rarer varieties of
all

hand made
is

laces.

The machine made

lace

called

Nottingham

made

extensively in the United States.

EMBROIDERY

Embroidery

is

a very ancient

invention.

From
The

the

testimony of the old testament,

Homer and
antiquity.

Josephus,
best

we

find
17

it

was

of

the

greatest

258

FABRICS, LA CES AND

EMBR OIDERIES
first

authorities suppose the Phrygians

discovered and
for

employed colored

silk

threads

and golden wire

ornamenting their clothing.

The book
hand

of

Exodus

tells of the curtains of the tabits

ernacle and the garments of

priests

wrought by
describes

beautiful

needlework.

Homer

Penelope throwing

over Ulysses on his departure an


inci-

embroidered garment, on which she h^d worked


dents of the chase.
era embroidery

In the

first

ages of the Christian


to the highest degree

was early carried

of perfection for use in the

decoration of the churches.


of royal

From

that time on

it

was the boast

dames

that

they were skilled in handsome embroidery.

The royal Kensington school in England has done much to revive the interest in the truly artistic embroidery of to-day.

America has had the advantages


beneficient influence to-day.

of its

best teachers and her schools are well patronized

and

her

homes show

its

Egyptian embroideries are often a marked feature


in dress garniture.

These embroideries,

as given

us,

though

perfectl}^ in

accordance with the true scheme of


,

Oriental design and workmanship are, as regards form

and

color,

planned to meet the requirements

of

the

prevailing fashion of ladies' wearing apparel.

The Egyptian embroidery


and has the appearance

is

peculiar in character,
a

of being almost

solid

mass

of gold or silver work, graceful

designs of a conven-

tional style

being traced over cloth until the whole

surface

is

practically covered with the glittering threads.

FABRICS, LACES AND


Only the best quality
being untarnishable
of metal

EMBROIDERIES
is

259

used, and, indeed

we

are informed that the Cairo firms guarantee the gold as


;

the silver, though of the finest

make

procurable,

is

always more or less susceptible to

atmospheric influence, but under ordinary conditions will wear well, and the effects produced by its use

upon white, pale cinnamon, mouse grey, and smoke


blue cloth,
etc., are

so excellent that no doubt,

many

ladies will be tempted to run the slight risk

incurred.

In the beautiful embroideries produced by Japanese

found that almost invariably some one or more masses of closely laid gold thread are
it

workmen,

will be

introduced into and become an important feature of the


design, and no other nation has ever excelled the perfection with

which the craftsmen


In the

of

Japan manipulate

this material.

Kimonos and Fukusas, which


opportunity of studying
is

afford us

such an excellent

Japanese needlework, the precious metal

practically

ever present, even the painted crape robes, which are

ery,

merely touched up here and there by reliefs of embroidhaving a certain portion of their patterns filled

in with gold thread,

and Fukusas, the major portion


silk,

of

the design of which will be in


a

are yet sure to have

mass

of gold introduced.

OSTRICH FEATHERS

The
ed.

trade in ostrich feathers


of years the

is

almost unprecedentso small


to

For a number
the
raising

demand was
decreased

that

of

the

ostrich

the

extent of forty per cent; and

feather-workers had to

26o

FABRICS, LA CES AND

EMBR 01DERIES
But

turn their attention to other channels of industry.

now

the

demand

for skilled labor far exceeds the supply.

glance at women's toilettes, for the last few years,


explain the unusual demand.

is sufficient to

Hats are
boas and
are

piled with

feathers.

Bonnets are edged with bands


sizes,

and trimmed with clusters of varying


collarettes
of

&y^xy length, thickness

and color

shown

in all

the millinery, dressmaking and and dry


fact that not

goods houses, and costumes disclose the

only are cloaks, wraps and jackets trimmed with feathers,

but gowns also.

Carriage cloaks have huge yokes,

collars

and

cuffs of feathers,

supplemented with wide


front

bands

of the

same bordering the


with ostrich

and lower edges.

Frequently they are faced inside, some distance from


the front edge,
feathers,

the

fronts

be-

ing rolled back.

Even

in

ball dresses

the delicate
to

fabrics are festooned aroimd the foot

and fastened
of

other parts of the

skirt with

bunches

tips
of

long

plumes are coiled about the upper part


to take the place of a sleeve,

the

arm

while others garjiish the

corsage.

The garments

for little folks

also

often have their

share of the popular trimming, and faces are almost

hidden under huge

felt

and beaver
ruffs.

flats

covered with

plumes and with the feather


feather fans by the

Besides, there are

thousands, and countless pretty

conceits for the decoration of the hair.

Probably more than one-half

of the feathers

used in

America are imported

in the natural state

and prepared

FABRICS, LACES AND EMBROIDERIES


here.

261

South Africa
and

is

the principal breeding place of

the ostrich.
tralia in

Ostrich farms have been started in Aus-

San Diego county, California, but the


to the

supply of feathers from these sources sent

New

York markets

is

scarcely perceptible.
is

The

great dis-

tributing market

London, where auction


Feathers
fifty

sales are held

every other month, and are attended by buyers from


all

parts of the world.

sell

from

fifteen dol-

lars to

one hundred and

dollars a pound, the high-

est price

representing "blood primes"


tail of

feathers taken
when
four or
is

from the wings and


five

the male bird


of the

years old.

The plumage
all

female bird

con-

sidered less choice than that of the male.

At the pres-

ent time value in

grades are

fifty

per cent in excess

of those prevailing for several years.

Some

past seasons have been so prosperous that

many
five

manufacturers employed between four hundred and

hundred hands most


tory
is

of the time.

feather manufac-

not
floors,

very inviting
intense

place, with

great vats,

sloppy
is

heat and steam, but the work-

interesting through the heroic measures necessary to


its

evolve from the feather in


thing of beauty.
feathers are
of a

natural state the dainty


state

Tn

the

natural

most
to

of

the

dirty gray color, shading

black,

and of

all

lengths

from
quill

three
is

to

perhaps twelve or

more

inches.

The

thick,

and the flew (the

curly part) straight and lustreless.


are sorted for black feathers,
of colored tints, tied in

The darker shades


for those of

and the lighter

bunches

about two dozen,

262

FABRICS, LA CES AND EMBROIDERIES


in

and strung a few inches apart

sections about one

and one-half

yard in length.

To remove

the natural
in a strong

oil the feathers are

soaked for several hours

solution of soda and soap, and then scrubbed and thor-

oughly rinsed.

Those

for

light

colors

are

bleached

with chemicals before being dyed, but those for black


are only subjected to a triple dip in jet dye.

Shaded

feathers are

made by enclosing
color has

parts in rubber shields

after the solid

been acquired, and dipping


while
if

them

in a contrasting

dye and combing

wet.

They
or
in

are dried out of doors and in the sun,


a

possible,

room where the thermometer


fifty

registers

one

hundred and

degrees.

After

the starching and


is

another drying, each string of feathers

beaten against

wooden
starch.

tables,

or

partitions, to
is

remove superfluous
one expects to

So violent

this process that

see the plumes fall apart in a hundred or

more

pieces.

The only effect, however, of the rough usage is to make them look clearer and fluffier than ever. At this
point the work, which thus far had been done by men,
is

turned over to women, who, in another part of the

factory, begin the of


all

more delicate operations.

Feathers

hues, in different

stages of development, are

scattered over long tables.

The bunches
is

are separated,

and the
of glass.

quill of each feather

scraped thin by a bit

Afterward, they are sewed together to form

the various designs, steamedover boilers having numer-

ous spouts, and

curled with

an implement like the

blade of an ordinary jack-knife.

Although apparently

FABRICS, LA CES AND


simple, the task requires

EMBR 01DERIES

263

considerable skill to avoid


boas, and collarettes

breaking the flew.


are

Long plumes,

only slightly curled, the

ordinary tip

more

so,

while those called "Princess," and the narrow bands


for the

edges

of hats

and bonnets, are curled

in

fine

tight curls.

Preparatory to boxing, the tips are bunched


etc.,

and marked, the longer feathers, boas,


separate boxes.

having

WIDTHS OF DRESS FABRICS


Materials for dresses vary so

much
are,

in

width that the

beginner needs especial directions respecting the dimenions of


each.

Fancy names

however, given by
in

drapers to

certain

fancy goods
is

each season, and

man}' cases the same fabric

sold under
less

four or five

high-sounding

and more or

applicable names.

Special widths, too, in silks, cashmeres, velvets, etc., present other difficulties.

Yet there are certain time-

honored dress materials, the widths of which are un-

changed from year

to year,

and as these are also the


for

most useful and durable materials

dressmaking,

we

will confine our attention

mostly to them.
velveteen,

Silk,

poplin,

merino, cashmere, alpaca,

muslin, print, serge and vigogne form a sufficient

num-

ber of materials to learn to cut out upon.

Nearly

all

patterns are calculated for dress materials

of twenty-seven

inches wide, this being the ordinary


fabrics.

and accepted width for dress

As

a matter of

knowledge, the following table of widths of various


fabrics has been

drawn up

it

will,

we

hope, be useful

264
to

FABRICS, LA CES AND

EMBR OIDERIES

many, as even when rich fabrics

velvets,
list.

for in-

stance

are not
are

required often for dresses, yet small


often wanted for trimmings, and so
to

quantities

we

add

this

and other rich fabrics

our

Table of Fabrics and the Various Widths of Each


INCHES.

Alpaca
Batiste

30

36
30 28

27
25

Beige

Black and Colored Silks

22 36
38

26

54

Cashmere Cloth and Tweed Crape Gauze


Grenadine Merino
Mousseline de Laine

23

44 26
45

26
33 16

Muslin Plush Plush (Seal)


Poplin

54 30 24 18

Sateen
Satin

Serge
Velvet

28
18

Velveteen

27 27
(average)

Vigogne

Woolen Materials

27

46 21 24 32 27 30 27 32 20 24 28 44
42 less,

54

72

We have not considered


than 27 inches.

fancy materials like broches


all

pekins, crepe de chine, which are

very narrow,

CHAPTER XXII

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


IN

WHAT

IT

MUST CONSIST DARNING TABLE- AND LINEN THE LINEN CLOSET

BED

IN

WHAT

IT

MUST CONSIST

One can
collection

not help remarking upon the often meager


of

linen

in

households where

money

is

plenty for other expenditures; and yet exclusive of real


linen, which,

as

far

as

bed-linen

is

concerned, can

easily be dispensed with, a ver}^ fair collection can be

made
wife's

for

sixty dollars

and one hundred dollars

will

stock a large closet with excellent linens.

The house-

mother

is to

blame

for this

meager supply.

In this country the


their

majority of the

women consider
sufficient

daughter's

trousseau

complete when

personal apparel
cies of

has been provided for the exigen-

one or more years.


of

They do not
or
of

follow the
Conti-

customs

their

grandmothers,
give
the

ever}'

nental mother, and

daughter about to take


linen
for every

charge of a

new household

sufficient

emergency,

With

a collection dating from the nucleus


265

266

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


in a trousseau,

provided

and never deviating from the


is

rule of immediately replacing whatever

drawn from

the reserve stock, the shelves are always moderately

well supplied.

Exclusive of real linen, and more or less elaborately

embroidered sheets and pillow-cases, the amount of

money required
cost; and
if

to

make such
is

a nucleus

is

not large.

Of course the size

of the reserve stock will

govern the

the collection

but modest, no doubt a


to

scanty reserve will often


cover the

have

be

drawn upon

to

demands made by
making

sickness, or by the

pres-

ence of "strangers within the


deter no one from
a

gates;" but

this

need

a beginning.

We
to

here give

rough estimate of the amount required

purchase a

moderate stock of good quality;


else in the household,

for here, as

everywhere

cheap and coarse material prove


are

dearer in the end, and

unlovely while they last


;

six table-cloths (varied lengths), eighteen dollars

two

dozen napkins, four dollars


dollar and a half
;

one dozen tea napkins, one

two dozen towels, four dollars and a


six

half; six
sheets,

honey-comb spreads,
and
three-quarter
dollars

dollars;

eighteen

two

yards
;

by two

and

one-half, thirteen
pillow-slips,
dollars
;

and a half

two dozen pair


seven

three-quarters

by three-quarters,

one dozen dish towels, one dollar and one-half;

one dozen glass towels, one dollar and a half; onehalf

dozen bath towels, one dollar and a half; one-half


;

dozen kitchen hand towels, ninety cents

four roller

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


kitchen towels, one dollar and a half
sixty-one dollars and forty cents.

267
in
all

making

Of course with the above estimate a household, say


of four

persons and a servant will be able to lay aside

only a small reserve stock.

On

the basis of three beds,


quilt,

each requiring a honeycomb

two sheets, and

two

pillow-cases,

six

sheets and twelve pairs of


;

pillow-slips can be

reserved

two bath towels

(for the servant will use

probably six towels and the kitchen


;

hand towels

in her

room) can also be spared

while

two table-cloths, a dozen napkins, half a dozen glass and half a dozen dish towels would make a good showing on the upper shelf. You think the reserve
stock too insignificant to be called such?

We have

not

taken into consideration the fact that most households

have already some stock on hand, and in such cases more of the linens can be added to the reserve or if
;

it

be a

new household

just

sprung into existence, and


alone, less linens

the family consists of

Adam and Eve

are required in use, and the reserve


increased.

is

correspondingly

And
that
it

granting that the reserve be small,

remember

can be gradually increased, and an


bill,

occasional five-dollar

judiciously

invested, will
shelf.

make

a respectable addition to a scantily filled

Perhaps you have noticed that we have made no allowance for seamstresses' charges?

We

have taken

it

for

granted that the housewife, for the sake of enlarging


her stock,
is

willing to save that expense and do the

sewing

herself.

The saving by

this

means

is

quite an

268

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


;

item

though the seamstress ma}' charge only a few

cents for

hemming

napkin or a table-cloth,
the bill

}'et

when

the pieces

number dozens

counts up rapidl3^

DARNING TABLE AND BED LINEN


Chapters VII and VIII give
full directions for

hem-

ming and marking linen and there is no daintier


pleasant work for a

or

more

woman
to

than

this.

Articles of wear-

ing apparel are best repaired by neat patching, but bed

and table linen ought


it

be carefully darned.
time,
it

When
be
fre-

has been in use for some

should

quently examined, and the thin places strengthened to prevent their becoming holes.
It

often

happens that
taking them

sheets and pillow-cases are either torn at the wash or

by being caught on hedges or bushes


in after drying,

in

and table cloths are sometimes cut by


It is, of

the thoughtless use of knives at meals.

course,

desirable

that

such

injuries

should

be

so skilfully

mended
ble.

as to

make them
way
to

as little observable as possi-

very simple

mend

a hole is

by a darn.

It
all

should extend for


sides,
It

at least

an inch beyond the hole on


of the
it

and the loops everywhere must be

same
is

size.

ought not to be made square, because


if

much

stronger

the edges be either


a

irregular

or wavy.

diamond

is

good shape

to

form.

Of course small

holes only are

mended

in this

way, larger ones should

be patched.
First carefully cut

away the rags from the edges


hand

of

the hole and beginning at the left

side, thickly

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


darn across
it,

269

drawing the needle out gently each

time to avoid pulling up the threads of the material.

Changing the position


before the bottom
cross
it,

of

the work, so

that

what was
left side,

of
fill

the

darn

is

now
a

the

and thus

the hole with

thick lattice of

threads, which

closely correspond with

those of

the

surrounding

fabric.

To darn

a three-cornered or

hedge

tear

is

rather a

te-

dious thing to do, but careful!}' tack upon a card,


distance of an inch on
all

at the

sides of the tear and with

some

sewing cotton gently draw the edges as nearly as possible into their original position.

Then darn backwards


about double the length

and forwards from


and width of the
threads
flat

left to right,

rent, taking pains to

keep the broken

under the cotton during the whole time.


as

Then

turn the work round

before,

and repeat the


complete,
of
If

process in the

opposite

direction.

When

the tear will form

two sides of a square


it

crossed

darning.

Then remove
is

from the card.

properly

done, this darn

sccarcely noticeable,

THE LINEN CLOSET

The

ideal

linen

into a niche in the

we have in mind was built bedroom wall, and its identity was
closet
;

concealed by a mirror set into the door


circle of brass betraying the

only the small

Yale lock led one to sup

pose the mirror was other than a toilette accessor)\

Unlocked and swung open, one could


the closet,

see

behind

it

whose

floor

dimensions were about two


half,

feet

and a half by one foot and a

and whose height

270

"

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


It

equalled that of the room.

was shelved

in regular
filled

spaces from top to bottom, and completely

with

snowy

linen.

There were

in

all

seven shelves, and

these were covered with ordinary bed-ticking, held in

place by carpet tacks, under the edges of which were

twice a year strewn Persian insect powder to prevent

any entrance of vermin


possible
cloth.

above
laid
lace,

this, so

as

to

exclude

dampness were

strips

of

white glazed

Two-inch cotton

which by hanging down


be basted along the

conceals the wooden shelf,

may
if

front edge of the ticking, and

washed twice a year


and

always looks fresh and white

this is inexpensive,

makes

a pretty finish to the

shelf.

On
/.

the two upper

shelves were kept "reserve" stock;

e.,

such table and

household linens as are not yet taken into use.

Guarding either end

of the top

shelf

was

pile
piles

of

neatly folded sheets, and between


pillow-cases.
in front,

them two

of

The
all

heavily folded edges only appeared


loose ones were turned toward the

and

back.

And

this

reminds us that whoever would possess a


all

neat linen closet must see that


ironed, that the sheets

pieces are uniformly

when

folded will be of the same

length and width, the pillow-cases alwaj^s folded alike,

and

all

edges turned inward.


sheets

The

numbered
;

six to

each

pile,

and the pillow-

slips six pairs

this nearly equalized the height, and

each set was separately bound together by a bright


ribbon.

Where

the narrow ribbon ends

met

in a small

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


bow
it.

i^i

a label

was hung descriptive

of the articles

behind

This

label, consisted

simply of a piece of white


all

muslin,

stiffly

starched, and edged


;

around with nar-

row

Italian lace

it

was oblong, and measured perhaps

seven inches in length by two and a half in height.


Plain
cross-stitch
letters

worked with

red

marking

cotton formed the necessary


Sheets," "Muslin
etc.

names

of

each; as "Linen

Pillows," "Quilts," "Dish Towels,"


labels,

Reading the
were
muslin.

we saw

that the sheets and

pillow-slips on the right were linen, and those on the


left

On
first

the second

shelf

were table-

cloths of different lengths, napkins and towels.

Here, as on the

shelf, the

bright ribbons and

dainty labels performed their pretty duties.


shelf

The

third

was heavily laden with Marseilles and honey-

comb quilts, vying in snowy purity with the glistening damask above them. The fourth shelf contained in neat arra}^, the sheets and pillow-cases, some plain and some
embroidered, which were in daily use, the descriptive
label

pinned
piles.

to

the uppermost piece of each of the


the
fifth shelf

four

On
sixth

lay
for

towels,
cribs

bathing

towels, sheets,

and pillow

slips

and single

beds.

The

contained towels and bed linen for


the
as

servants' use,

together with

colored table-linen.
perfectly
as

On

the seventh shelf,

ordered

their

superiors in rank, lay dish towels, glass towels, cheesecloth dusters, Avindow rags.

When

your linen closet

is

well stocked and in order,

allow no one, not even the best of servants, access to

272
it
;

THE HOUSEHOLD LINEN


when
the week's

wash comes

upstairs, put

j'our

linen awa}^ with 3'our

own hands,
to

the fresh

pieces at

the top of each

pile

which they belong, and when

others are required for the regular changes, take those


that are at the bottom.
in rotation,

In this

way

all

reach the wash

and none grow yellow from being too long

unused.

CHAPTER XXIII LAWS OF CORRECT DRESS


CONSIDERED FROM THE POINT OF
ECONOJiIY

CONSIDERED

FROM THE POINT OF BEAUTY


DRESS FOR STOUT WOMEN

DRESS FOR SLENDER WOMEN

INDIVIDUALITY

IN

DRESS

DRESS FOR RED HAIR

DRESS

FOR BLONDE HAIR

DRESS

FOR BROWN HAIR

DRESS FOR BLACK HAIR

DRESS FOR

GRAY HAIR

JEWELS

GENERAL REMARKS

CONSIDERED FROM THE POINT OF ECONOMY


One's garments should be selected with a due regard
for the eternal
fitness of

things,

and common sense


in fact

should govern the device of our wardrobe, and


it

should be the watch-word

in

all

matters which perin

tain to health

and grace which should go hand


as they often are

hand,

and not be divorced

by the origina-

tors of pernicious fashions.

A woman may
if

dress well without being extravagant,


in

she will employ forethought


materials for her

her buying.

She
the

who purchases
fall

of
i8

the preceding year, or


is
273

summer gowns in who provides for


to

her

winter outfit in the spring,

able

secure her cos-

274

^^ ^^^5* OF CORRECT DRESS


if

tumes much more reasonably than


thing in
ever, she
its

she buys every-

season.
select

When

she follows this plan, how-

must

goods of quiet color and unobtru-

sive design, avoiding striking patterns or peculiar col-

ors that are

likely to

become passe before they

are

made into dresses. Indeed, it is wise for the woman who will probably have to make her dresses do service
for

more than one season,

to

choose

tints

and fabrics

for qualities that will wear.

mistake frequently made by


to dress well to

women who
of

are

am-

bitious

and who have small means with


it,

which
imitate

accomplish

is

that

endeavoring to
materials.

rich

costumes

in

inexpensive

cheap velvet or plush or

a flimsy silk is as

poor an

investment as one can make.

A good

tricot,

cashmere,

or serge that does not pretend to be anything remark-

able looks better

than
is

the more pretentious fabrics.

Consistency in dress
to

always admirable.

The attempt

dress beyond one's

means

is

not only wrong, but

absurd.

To-day

is

the harvest time of the

home dressmaker.

All the expensive novelties in dress material and decoration are reduced to prices approximating their actual
cost

and compatible with the possibilities

of a

moder-

ate allowance.

The

fortunate

woman

with happy in-

tuitions and inspirations in designing, and with clever


skill

in

materializing her designs, can revel


that

now

in

a wardrobe

would dazzle the Queen


glory,

of

Sheba

more than Solomon's

and

all at

comparatively

LAIJ'S
small expense.

OF CORRECT DRESS
gown with

275

Not

that the unprofessional dressmaker


its

shall attempt the swell street


skirt

sweeping

faultless with hidden fastenings and pompous sleeves, any more than

and mysterious bodice, seamless and

a school girl might essay an epic poem, or a baby copy


a Corot with a
slate

and pencil.

The

style, the

fit,

above

all

the indescribable something about the perfect

street dress that

we

call "the air," in lieu of

something

more expressive,
work
ator with genius,

are,

and must

of

necessity be, the

of the professional artist

endowed from the CreBut the dainty house


of soft bright

and
in

this genius sanctified, developed,

and made perfect

long service.

dress, the fascinating little


silk,

house bodice
all

the attractive evening toilet,

manner

of luxuri-

ous tea gowns, and those extremely pretty simple dresses

which are now worn, not only


modiste

at

the "tea" but

all all

through the evening, unless the dinner be formal,


these the amateur

may make with no

appre-

hension.

Their success depends upon their coloring,


material, and

decoration, and

the leading motive

in

them

all is

simplicity

simplicity idealized to
a
little

elegance

by the use of rich material and rare ornamentation.

An economist who must make

mone}' do a

great deal should choose plain w^oolens instead of those

with figures, stripes, or bars, or the bordered pattern


dresses that attract attention by their

showy designs,
or that will

and she should find the best and newest shades of the
colors that are

most becoming

to

her,

276

LA JVS OF CORRECT DRESS


a

combine well with


satisfactory.

color that has hitherto

proved

High

colors,

prominent stripes or figures are

less

genteel as well as less sensible than plain materials in


quiet colors and exquisite quality.

Brown

in

all

its

shades has been popularized in America as well as

London, by the Princess

of

Wales, whose exquisite

taste has realized its possibilities in her


toilets in tints
this,

own
in

beautiful

her favorite color.

Tan

countless
is

and combinations with brown or green


is

much
to

used, blue

well worn, gray

is

affected

by the few

whom
them

it

is

becoming, and a peculiar dull shade of


is

green in combination with black


all.

most striking
which

of

A woman,
has pleased
ter

whatever be "that state of

life to

it

God

to call her," will find life a little betif

worth living
lot

she provide herself

first

of
b}^

all,

not

with a

of gorgeousness hustled together

cheap

dressmaker into a shoddy imitation of a rich reception


or theatre gown, but a simple cheviot or serge simply

made. The sham

skirt is cut

and

fitted carefully,

and the

drapery or outer skirt, plainly


laid in fan-like pleats,

hemmed, has

a full back,

and a

straight, scant, seamless

front laid

up

in two or three circular folds about the


is slight,

hips

if

the wearer

or simply pleated

lengthif

she is wise or gored away at the top to fit be hooked up on This skirt may or may not stout.
plainly

the

bodice.

If

it

is

hooked up on the bodice

it

should be plain and severe, and made

either single

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
or

277
tlie

double
is

breasted.

Marketing

or

shopping,,

housewife

well dressed in the snug

little

gown

that
is

defies wind and weather, and the business

woman

never

so well, so

comfortably, and

so

appropriately-

gowned, whether she write or teach, heal the natives,


or sell ribbons

and bonbons, as

in this exquisitely neat,

serviceable dress.
the well-dressed

The next most important gown


in

to

woman

winter

is

a cloth

handsomely
and

made,

as

faultlessly

fitted, as rich in material

decoration as her means will allow.


receptions,

All sorts of teas,


itself,

matinees,

even the theatre

every-

thing except the solemn functions of a ceremonious


dinner, a ball, or the opera, call
for

handsome
and

cloth

gowns. There are no limits to the gorgeousness involved


in
its

decoration.

Rich

braidings

stitchings,

splendid
costly fur

cloth-of-gold

waistcoats and gauntlets,

and

bands and

jet

passementeries are considered


of cloth

quite the suitable

accompaniment

gowns.

The

sensible and economical

woman

avoids high-priced and

conspicuous novelties in cloth, which are sure to look


passed after a season.

A
last
it

dress that

is

entirely suitable to the occasion will


it

much

longer before

looks old-fashioned than


it

if

be worn at times and places for which

was not

originall}'

designed, and though more gowns

may be

required at the outset, they will last

much

longer and

look

much

fresher to the end

than

if

they were worn

in season and out of season.


strict

Of course, when very

economy

is

necessary, a

woman who

has

the

278

ZAIFS OF CORRECT DRESS

instinct of dress will so arrange that almost every govv^n


shall be "contrived a double debt to pay,"

and chosen
If

so as to be suitable whenever

it

is

worn.

she can
it

only afford one evening dress she will choose


reference to balls, dinners,
visiting

with

and

"at

homes,

_^

and her

gown

will

be neither too gorgeous nor too

plain
all

while in bonnets

and hats she

will,

above

things,

show her

wit, and, to quote the old

poem

once more, prove "For every season she has dressing


fit
;

for winter, spring,


of

and summer.
all

The fashion
been
a blessing

buying
in

things ready-made has

many ways,

but

it

has

deprived

women
their

of the necessity of

thinking out their clothes for


of

themselves,

and investing them with some degree

own

personalities.
set

The

"esthetic set" were right

when they

their faces

against this

custom, and

declared that every woman's dress should be an expression of herself;

but

the

mania
and

for

full

bodices and

skimpy
defeated

skirts,
its

huge

hats

little

handkerchiefs
of

object, for all the

maidens and matrons

the esoteric coterie were arrayed in the

same

fashion,

so that, while the individualit}' of their set

was asserted
entity

energetically by their attire, their

own personal
it

was more disguised thereby than

would have been

by the most French and elaborate of ready-made costumes.


it

A woman who has the instinct of dress, shows when she buys a gown "off a peg" just as much as when she plans and arranges every detail of a costume after her own fancy. That a frock is pretty or quaint

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
or fashionable
it;
is
it

279

no reason that she should purchase


is,

her test of

"does

it

look like me?" and though

she

may somtimes
of

take a

new

departure,

some new
she has

freak

fashion,

which

is

unlike anything
itself to

worn, but that yet approves


suit her, she has the wit to

her as likely to
it

know whether

will really

mold

itself to her.

A well-dressed woman
dummy
for

always wills

that her clothes shall be part of her,

and utterly scorns


the display of

the idea of being merely a


a Mr.

Worth's

last creation.

CONSIDERED FROM THE POINT OF BEAUTY

When
trail

one of "Ouida's" miraculous great ladies, who


quote polyglot
that,

old laces on their balayeuses and

scraps

about

most

things

under Heaven, says

even

if

she were poor and reduced to wearing dimity


still

and serge, she would


so that Giorgione or

have her garments fashioned


in

Gainsborough might delight


is

her, she speaks what sounds, and

good sense

and
with

yet there are

many

reasons which prevent


following
so

women
idea.

slender

purses from

out

her
that,

when they have

a taste

perfect

Even given money


in the grace

and time, they might eclipse most women

and harmony and richness

of

their

raiment, the "res

angustadomi" means being

careful and
for a

cumbered over
living

many

things.

If

woman works

she

is

likely, at the present rate of pressure and stuggle, to

be too weary to pay more than a


attention
to

fitful

and careless

dress

and the careful consideration of


one garment to another

harmony and

of suitableness of

28o
is

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
mind by matters
to

often pressed out of her

of
so,

more
but
it

importance.
is.

Perhaps

it

ought

not to be

The small refinements and thoughtfulnesses


it,

of

dress which give

as

it

were,

its

grace and wit,


care
;

maybe
and so

cost little money, but a

much thought and


of

woman who
if

is

keenly sensitive to beauty of raiment


the instinct, and
;

often shows little sign

is

dreary,

even

neat, in her attire

she

has

so

many

other

things
out."

of

which

to

think that dress gets

"crowded

And

yet

it

is

a pity
a

for to

most women dress

is

pleasure,

and

right

one

and when the feminine

instinct is crushed or lacking in a

woman,

so that she
in her

does not care Itow she looks,


nature.

it

shows a want
of

We

are

not

speaking

slovenly
all

women
of the

they are rightly an abomination in

eyes

but

women who, from economy


time or
taste, or

or carelessness, or want of

from religious opinion,


neat, painfully neat, but

may be and
whose gowns

most

likely are

are dreary, dull, unfitted to


of

the wearer, or possessed

no individuality whatever.
DRESS FOR SLENDER

WOMEN
enough
to be

Few

figures are

considered

perfect

displayed in a plain untrimmed waist.


be pretty, but
if

The
if

bust
the

may
lines

the

chest

is

hollow,

about the arm are


inent,

flat, if

the shoulder-bones are prom-

some

fulness or drapery will be needed to cover


If

these defects.

the

model

is

spare and bony, shingle-

breasted and slab-sided, then trimmings must be resorted

LAWS OF CORRECT DRESS


to,

'

281

while on the

other

hand, a

case

of

middle-age

stoutness,

while

requiring

trimming, will

need

an

entirely different arrangement.

thin

woman

can be

plumped up
ery,

with folds variously


fronts

shown

in artistic drap-

surplice

and

full effects.

Lace, pleated

or gathered
bretelle

chiffon, is

also filling and a yoke-vest or


net,

made

of fur, jetted or jewelled

flowered

silk, velvet,

plush or chinchilla, will round out a thin,

spare figure.

Another trick of making slimness look


the use of ribbon, braid or guipure, sewed

plump
in

is in

rows round the neck and collar or round the waist,


to the belt.

from the corsage

To complete
at

the descrip-

tion, stitch the cuffs


b}'

round also and increase the width

having the sleeves puffed

and below the shoulder.


is

Suppose the woman we consider


and young,
pert
for
it

slender and fair

gowns

of her

is she who wears best the simple, own manufacture. The middle-aged

woman must aim for stylish and rich effects, the elderly woman must clothe age in elegance the smart young woman and the slight, fresh girl require only pretty col;

ors,

dainty materials, and simplicity.

But

this prett}^

woman will the woman


waist
of

be as
to

fair to the

man who

loves her as was


if

whom

Paris

gave the golden apple,

she pours his coffee in the morning in a simple

little

made
left

of a bit of pale, blue

cashmere, a remnant

China

silk,

or perhaps the best of an old drapery of


last

challie

of

summer's wardrobe.

The main
with the

point will be to have the materials very

soft,

waist fulled on the shoulders and about the neck. Again

282

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
may have
ecru
a history.
It

this particular bodice

may have
that

been the remnant of an

surah
it

gown

had

done duty on many occasions before


into this little

was pieced out


one

morning waist which

will convince

simple

man

that he has the prettiest wife in the state.


of the bodice

But the dainty grace and becomingness

may
row

consist in the broad, full

frill

of pale yellow chiffon

that falls back softly from the


belt of

open throat and the nar-

dark brown velvet which accentuates the

slenderness of the willowy waist.

DRESS FOR STOUT WOMEN

A
tic

stout

woman

can not wear well any of the fantas-

seamless bodices, but should retain each seam decid-

edly, with

an extra side-form under the arm,

if

the

waist measures more than twenty-six inches.

Neither
cir-

should the stout


cular trimming for
est

woman

attempt long coats, or


it

the skirt, unless

be the narrow-

band

of a

darker color than

the dress

extending

about the extreme edge of the

skirt.

No
ming

stout

woman

can afford to wear horizontal trimAll lines should run down.


If

or figured goods.

she selects a fancy braid, narrow ribbon velvet orgaloon,


let

the design start at the neck or shoulder and extend


it

down, graduating
Strips of

to a point at the

bottom of the

belt.

ribbon running from the under-arm to the

front or back

seam

will tend to slope off the hips.

Hip

trimming
in the

of every sort

must be avoided, but

a pleating

back or a narrow bow with long streamers will

break the line where the waist and skirt meet.

Long

LA
basques,

JVS

OF CORRECT DRESS
at

283

sharply pointed back and front, should be

selected by stout

women

all

seasons regardless of

the changes of fashion.


sleeves,

High
left

collars
to

and high puffed

which have a tendency


to

swallow up short
slim

thick necks should be


like the

the

women, who,
throats.
tight,

famous Annie Laurie, have swan-like


the
sleeve easy,

By making
having
cal
it

though not

and

come well down over the hand, using


b}^

verti-

rows of braid, not too close together, in place

of

a cuff

you narrow the arm

lengthening

it.

Fleshy

women

can greatly reduce their size by wearing narrowin

striped goods or any plain cloth

dark colors, not


patterns

necessarily

black.

Figured

and

flowered

unless very, very small should be

let entirely alone.

Short jackets should never be worn by stout women,


long close-fitted coats are their most becoming wrap.

Shawls are essentially the most feminine of wraps, but

women who have

not sufficient height and a graceful

carriage should never attempt to wear them.

A woman

with a large face should never wear a very


if it is

small bonnet, and

too short avoid trimmings on

the sides of a hat or bonnet as that tends to widen the


outlines.

Place

the

ornamentation on

top in

close

upright lines.

Stout

women

often have short, too

plump

feet,

in

which

case, all

ornamentation of bows or rosettes of

ribbon on shoes or slippers should be avoided.


only

make

the foot

more shapeless.
and
it

They They should never

wear colored shoes

is

very graceless to accept

284

ZAJVS OF CORRECT DRESS


foot.

shoes too tight for the

For a very

fat foot,

the the

wearing

of the size too long really adds, often, to


its outlines.

beauty of

INDIVIDUALITY IN DRESS

There are some women who look


advancing years make
suitably,

loveliest in a riding

habit, or cotton frock, or sailor's shirt; but with these,


it

more

difficult task

to dress

and they are apt


hat,

to drift into the short liair,


attire
;

wideawake
the

and pea-jacket style of

whereas

women whom
sober,

dainty and delicate prettiness suited

in girlhood, take easily to

more

dignified

and

richer, if
fuller

more

attire,

as their youth
is

turns

into

maturity.

And

there

a beauty

which demands

simplicity and severity of sentiment which any hint of

coquetry or consciousness in dress seems to degrade


or belittle, as a masquerade habit might do, and which
is

usually framed best in black or white, which enhances


It
is

the austere purity of look and feature.


ble to think of Shakespeare's

impossiafter
far-

Isabel as she

was

the play ended, Duchess of Vienna in rabato and


thingale, brocade and jewels
of St. Clare
;

the habit of a votaress

seems the only

fitting

garb for that "thing


is

enskied, ensainted," and aught else


a nun's
liant

as

unfitting

as

or widow's

garb would be to Congreve's


in

bril-

Millamant.

As Dorothea says

"Middlemarch,"

"Souls have complexions, too."

And
field^

the recognition of this fact

is a

leading part of
of

the instinct of dress with

women.
that a

The Vicar
suit

Wakelias

when he

tells

us

of

mourning

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS

285

transformed his coquette into a prude, and a new set of ribbons has given her younger sister more than ordinary vivacity, touches this neatly as he does the femi-

nine adaptation of character to


not chance to suit
at will at

attire,

when

attire does

the character, which may be studied


ball.

any fancy

How

far a

dress

may

aid

in expression

of personality, every actress knows, and


is

part that

well dressed

seems half-way

at

the

entrance to being well played. on the stage by no means signifies being splendid,
like

But to be well dressed


fated Villikins, "in

Dinah

in the ballad of the

ill

gorgeous array," any more than

it

does

in

real

life,

and the overdressing prevalent among


present time
is

actresses at the
art,

a crying sin

against

and one to

which an actress worthy the name

will not yield.

Balzac makes an odd classification of colors as indices


of character.
to

"Women

that wear black habitually are

be avoided," he says, "because they are suspicious, bad tempered, and jealous. Those who wear yellow

and green are over quarrelsome, and those who


white
are coquettes.

affect

The

gentle, thoughtful, pussy-

cat sort of

women
is

like to clothe

themselves

in

pink.

Pearl gray

worn by women

who think the world


is

doesn't do the right thing by them, and lilac

chosen

by beauties who have passed their prime."


DRESS FOR RED HAIR
It is difficult to class

women

with red hair into one


the

division,

as

the shades of hair vary and


it

eyes

accompanying

must be taken into consideration.

286

LA JVS OF CORRECT DRESS


blue
ej^es

When

accompany red

hair, colors

must be

worn that

will neutralize the blue in the eyes, so as not

to intensify the contrast

between the eyes and

hair.

Consequently

all

blues must be avoided in such a case.

Pale green, lavender and blueish purples must also be


tabooed.

Red

haired people should never wear scarlet


reds,

or other bright, decided

and the many shades

of

pink,

both the rose

and the violet pinks should be

avoided.

But

at the

same time they may wear

claret

color and dark rich maroons, as well as real

plum
one

color
the
said

and

its

modification, amethyst.

Green

is

of

best colors for red haired

women.

As we have

before, not light green but dark


tle-green,

invisible

green, bot-

rich

blue-green, olive-green and the

many
to

beautiful gray greens that our markets afford.

Red

hair,

accompanied by dark gray eyes tending

brown, never looks better than when clothed in dark

amber and browns tending


wear,

to

yellow, and for evening

such

women may
real gold color.

choose creamy white,

pale

amber and
to possess

When the owner


brown

of red hair is also fortunate

enough

eyes, she

may wear

all

the colors sug-

gested for other eyes and add to them black which will

be found becoming by day or gas-light.

DRESS FOR BLONDE HAIR

There are two


in

t3^pes of blondes, differing

not a

little

many

respects.

with blue, green or

The golden blonde brown eyes is much

haired

woman
These

rarer than the


tints.

blonde with light brown hair showing drab

LA

JVS

OF CORRECT DRESS
would

287
black-

different types should dress as diverselj^ as

haired and blonde haired

women. The golden haired blonde with blue eyes and the
is

white transparent skin


colors.

delightful in delicate

refined

She can but never should wear red

or the yel-

lows and the yellow browns.

She ma}^ wear black and dark green but


grays, pale

for the

most

part she should choose heliotrope, purples,


lilac,

lavender,

green, blue
tints

white

and pale violet


to her, as

tinted pinks.

These

belong peculiarly

no other type can adopt them half so well and,


this reason, they possess a peculiar elegance.

for

The golden blonde with green


be delicate and
reds
evasive.

or

gray eyes should


all

She also should avoid


but she must
as

and yellowish

browns,

well

discard purple, blue white, lavender and blue greens.

Her
the

best colors are cream and


all

transpaient whites,

all

yellow and olive greens,


turquoise

gray blues and blue grays,

and peacock blues and she may wear

made up too heavily, or heliotrope and mauve. The golden blondes, with the rich full blood and the dark brown or hazel eyes, are among the rare and radiant women who may affect the gorgeous and almost
black not
barbaric
surely put
ful

in

colorings.

However, they must


tints

just

as

away the leading

and colors so delight-

when worn by
lilacs

the preceding types.

The lavenders
They would be

and

and blueish grays, the mauves and pale cool


all.

greens do not belong to them at

most uneffective

in either.

288

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
reds, rich
of

But they may don warm, flaming


and red browns.

yellows

The long
all

list

turquoise blue,

amber, cream white, purple, violet, fawn color,


grays and greens are
at their best in

warm

theirs

by right of always looking

them.

The

fair

haired blondes are the onl}^ variety that

retain their blondeness with the

passing years.

They

generally remain the same even

when
when

the years usually

crowned by gray hair come, but the golden hair grows


darker
gradually up to thirty
its
it

is

difficult

to of

distinguish

tawny

brown locks
colors

from

those

decided brunettes.

Gradual

changes

in

must

consequently be

made, leading
This
is

to those

adapted to darker haired women.


the most admired, the

a type of

woman among
b}'

golden

tint retained

the brown

shade

is

generally

accompanied by an ardent, strong and


tion, fine full
e5^es

vital constitu-

and strong white

teeth, as well as

a clear

warm unblemished complexion.

DRESS FOR BROWN HAIR The brown haired woman with warm brown complexion and brown e}^es has a rival worthy of her, in her sister who while still brown haired has steel-gray eyes

and a
color

fair

skin which generally shows


or enthxised.
revel
in all

considerable

when animated
first

The
all

type

may

the rich, gorgeous

reds and

blues of color.

She may wear amber and


of

the yellows, in

brown and maroon but the pinks

delicate tones and all pale cold blues, greens and grays

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
do not belong
she
to her.
If

289
quietly

she wishes

to dress

may don browns

(never black)

and

tans, but

she

will never look inelegant in

the strongest contrasts of

reds and yellows because they harmonize with her

own

warm

tints.
is

There

a rare

type in this class

in
;

whose dark
is

brown hair

artists find purplish

shadows she

accomrose

panied by a creamy white skin and she


pink and black.

may wear

The chestnut haired woman with blue eyes may


wear almost any color she
pale greens and mauves.
fancies,
if

she avoids too

Pink

will be found especially

becoming and the deep true blues are her own property.

Where with
colors

this

hair the eyes are green or gray the


less at

must be chosen
spiritless

random.

She must not

wear dull
or greens.

colors

nor too yellowish browns

DRESS FOR BLACK HAIR

True black hair with black eye However, when met with
and
is
it

is

seldom encountered.

is

very beautiful generally,

accompanied by a

clear, pale

complexion that

looks well with most colors of wearing apparel.


the complexion shows considerable color,

Where
grays

warm

with touches of red, as linings or tracings of ornamentation and finishing, are alwa3's

becoming and black

silk

and velvet with white


dull invisible reds are
ors.

lace, dull

gold oranaments or

among

their

most

effective col-

One
19

of

the most beautiful

types of

woman

is

that

290

LA

IVS

OF CORRECT DRESS
found with black
hair.

where

real blue eyes are

She
of

should omit yellows and reds from her catalogue


colors, but

may wear blues, pinks, white, purples and black. She is the woman above all others who should given diamonds and who may wear any quantity of be
them without appearing vulgar, especially
and slender.
DRESS FOR GRAY HAIR
if

she be

tall

There are many types


there are

of gray haired

women, but

two general classes under which they ma}^ be

considered.

They

are

the class of prematurely gray


is

young women and those whose hair


and indicates an honorable old age.

quite legitimate

For the
than

latter class there is

nothing more becoming

black with
laces.

ornamentations of either black or


is

white

Real white hair

usually accompanied

by black, dark brown, or dark gray eyes, as the blue


eyed

women grow

gray very slowly.

Consequently the
to

colors

we would suggest must be becoming

dark

rather than light eyes.

We would
dark reds.
that

suggest dark greens in both olive and blue

varieties, dark rich blues

and purples, as well as very

There

is

brown appoaching a fawn color

may

be worn, but as a rule browns are not becom-

ing to those with gray hair.

The

chief color that


is

all

gray haired
It

women

should

absolutely avoid
a pleasing result

gray.

can never be worn with

by them.

Neither can pale lilacs and


blues, be

greens

or

pale, evasive

adopted with any

LAWS OF CORRECT DRESS


propriety.

291
as

Creamy whites can sometimes be worn,

can white muslins and lawns in the

Summer

time.

JEWELS
Jewels are a legitimate adjunct to woman's dress.

They should not be worn


to the

in

an obtrusive manner, but

they should be selected with design and with reference

remainder

of

the dress.

They should not be


of a

worn
nor

in a

way

to give the least sense of overloading,

is

there any good effect obtained by the use


of

number

comparatively inexpensive ornaments.

Sapphires, pearls, moonstones, mosaics and chalce-

dony are the jewels the very


should wear.

fair,

blue-eyed

blondes

Black haired

women may wear

gold ornaments and


in

diamonds and another brunette looks best


pearls.

creamv
find

There are brown haired women who will

amethysts, amber, topaz, rubies and garnets their most

becoming ornaments.
ornaments are
first

The golden haired


if

blonde's
is

pearls, after which,

she

not

superstitious, opals, then topaz, amethysts, turquoise,

amber, and the lapis-lazuli.

monds and turquoise


shows-

Gray haired women should limit their jewels to diain settings where but little gold
GENERAL REMARKS
Solid and plain colors have a greater richness than

mixed shades.
give

If

combined

tints are used, they

should

only be such as harmonize well, and in the full-length


figure

good personal

effect.

Probably more

292

LA \VS OF CORRECT DRESS


getting good

ladies err in

general effects than in an}^

other

one particular.

They have various garments,


5^et

pretty enough, possibly, in themselves,

which do

not harmonize well together, either in material, color


or cut, or possibly with their particular style of figure

and shade
skirt will

of hair

and complexion.
of

For example, the

have one style

trimming, the waist another,


suit,

the bonnet

may

look exceedingly well with one


of

and be quite out

keeping with another.


tall

short

dumpy

person will wear flounces, a

slim one stripes,


exquisite

while some red-haired

woman

will fanc}' an

shade of pink, when green or brov/n would have been

much more becoming. No woman should make


certainly not

herself conspicious by wearat,

ing such articles of dress as are laughed

possibly,

worn by any other persons

in the city or

country in
dry goods
to carry the

which she
dealers,

may

belong.

Manufacturers,

milliners,

and

dressmakers,

try

day with a high hand.

Yet there

is

alwa)'s

some

choice, and as, thanks to our civilized habits, a


is

full-length mirror

obtainable by most ladies, given


the most and best of themselves,

the resolution to

make
of

the greater

number
the

women

can so study the art of

dressing well, as to produce some excellent results.


First of
all,

woman who would

be a successful
of

dressmaker must cultivate her powers


in

observation
all

every

way

possible.

She should be above


single

an

observer of dress.

She should

strive to take in at a

glance and

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
to

293

remember accurately every

feature of every

costume

she sees.

The

dress of every

woman

she meets should


things to

be to her a study of things to imitate or


avoid, just as little Jennie
in

Wren, the

doll's

dressmaker
all

Dickens' novel of "Our Mutual Friend," makes

the great ladies of


her.

London unconsciously
a very good

"try on" for

The

theatre
of the

is

school for a

modiste.

Women
dress,

stage usually have excellent ideas of


toilet

and not a few of our best

suggestions have

been derived from them.


going too
born, to
far to call
it

An

innate talent

it

is

not

genius
less

for

dress seems
in

to

be

greater
it it

or

extent,

every
in

French
French

woman, and
actress.

finds
is

its

culmination

the

But

not alone for origination of


credit
in

new and
dress
is

beautiful ideas that

the matter of

due

to the

women

of the stage.

To

their

good sense

and personal independence we owe the reformation and


final

extinction of

many

foolish

fashions.

The

quiet

dressmaker then, will do well to

visit the theatre often.

Every woman can modify, and arrange, and simplify,


and that without becoming
It will

eitlier ultra or

conspicuous.

take time.

That cannot be helped, yet possi-

bly the saving in comfort and expense

may

fully

com-

pensate for the few hours spent in studying her

own

dress with the mirror before her and with the deter-

mination to make the very best and most of herself.


It is

best

to

make your own

individual style gov-

ern your dress, although more frequently the style of

294

LA WS OF CORRECT DRESS
woman.

dress influences the manners and actions of the

When
ulster
is

woman

dresses in a

mannish fashion, with

or with jacket having convenient pockets, she

very apt to put her hands in her pockets and to tip


stiff

her

Derby

or sailor hat a trifle to


is

one

side.

But when she

most interested
full

in

esthetic loose
trailing

flowing dresses, with

lanky sleeves and

"yellery" skirts, her eyes and the poise of

her head

take on the languid, languishing roll and curve.

But these
pass with a
freshness and

eccentricities

are only

momentary
of

they

breath, and

general

rules

neatness,

suitableness are the only ones leaving

lasting influences on the


If

mind and

character.

we

learn to seek beauty in these higher forms

we

can not but find our characters, or general individuality uplifted

and improved by what we wean


of the

Let no one rob us


seek
it

beauty of dress, but

let

us

in the highest form.

Some people have many

possibilities of

form and color, but most people must

study and develop them by special treatment.

little

woman who
light,

is

small

and without marked

beauty of either face or form will look charmingly neat

and fresh in

cheap woolens and muslins while

had she been rich and donned heavy dark velvets


and satins she would always have appeared a
faded
tired,

woman

of little attractiveness.

CHAPTER XXIV

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


INCONGRUITIES

CORRECT DRESS FOR THE MORNING

COR-

RECT DRESS FOR TEAS, MATINEES AND AFTERNOON RECEPTIONS

CORRECT DRESS FOR DINNERS

CORRECT DRESS

FOR LAWN PARTIES

CORRECT DRESS FOR DRIVING AND


FOR WEDDINGS AND WED-

COACHING

CORRECT DRESS

DING ANNIVERSARIES
TIES

CORRECT DRESS FOR DANCING PAR-

CORRECT DRESS FOR MOURNING

CORRECT

DRESS

FOR SERVANTS
INCONGRUITIES

Some women
That
a certain

are

said

to

have

a genius for dress.

woman knows
we

just

what

to

wear

for

every occasion, does not,


that she possesses this
ult}'

think, so

much

indicate
fac-

knowledge through a special

as that she is

experienced in society.

Unless a

woman
can she

has attended a fashionable dinner or two,

know what

other

women

generally wear?

how The

same

is

equally true of other entertainments,.

There

are certain arbitrary rules governing society with

which

only the initiated can be familiar.


295

To be

sure natural

296

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


for others

modesty and consideration


and that goes
far

may be

possesed,

toward introducing oneself pleasantly

and appropriately.

We

can not

know what

to

wear without experience,


fitness of things

but an appreciation
taste in colors
to others.

of the

and good

may be instantaneous to some while not Some women have a moral lack of taste
at
if

and wear startling colors and look as though their


clothes had been hurled

them by

heavy wind,

while others will look as

their clothes were a part of

themselves or

at least
little

had grown on them.

However, a

attention to the study of costuming,

together with as

length mirror will teach a


acts in dress.

much study of herself before a full woman to avoid criminal


owe
or
at

We

this

study as a duty to our-

selves, certainly, but there is also a debt


ety, to dress well

we owe

soci-

least

inoffensivel}-.

We

can

not depend upon those


dresses for us
;

who make our


it

hats, cloaks

and

we must work
dress.

out for ourselves.

Avoid conspicuous
to gain a

Individuality

in

dress

can not be too highly recommended, but never seek


kind of reputation by the odd choice of attire

or

b}^

seizing

upon the

first

caprices of fashion.

Never
ball-

go upon the street


room.
in
It is

in a dress suited only for

the

ridiculous to trail silks, velvets and laces

mud

or dust.

Preserve a general harmony in your

costume.

Don't wear diamonds and an expensive new

hat with a worn, frayed street suit.


invited to a quiet evening at a

Suppose
of cards.

3'ou are

game

Do

not

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


iashion
rather wear

297

patch together some old silk and brocade in a careless


;

one

of

your perfectly made cloth

visiting costumes.

CORRECT DRESS FOR THE MORNING


Propriety requires that a
in a cleanly,
If

woman

should be dressed
in

and becoming manner

the morning.

she has to

cook her own and other's breakfasts, she

should provide herself with clean,

washable dresses
at the

which she can


she

slip

on hurriedly but which

same
she
is

time will look complete.


If is

a tardy riser for

only breakfast
best

itself,

should do the same, and

the

plan always

to

leave the bed in ample time to wash and dress properly for

the entire

morning.

Otherwise neglect

to

take

off this

morning dress
self

as soon as possible, is to

expose one's
ful

to

embarrassments often very pain-

and

to the
it

appearance of a want of cultivation.


well to impose upon yourself a tule to

Moreover,

is

be dressed at some particular hour (the earliest possible), since

occupations will often present themselves

to

hinder your re-dressing for the day.

Disorder of
occurs rarel)%

the toilet can only be excused


or for a short time,

when

it

as in such cases

it
;

seems evidently
but
if it

owing
daily,

to a

temporary embarrassment

occurs
negli-

or constantly

if

it
it

seems the result


is

of

gence and slovenliness


larly in ladies,

unpardonable, particuless

whose dress seems

designed for

clothing than ornament.

To suppose

that great heat of weather will authorize

298

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


the
toilet,

disorder of

and will permit you

to

go

in

slippers, or with

your legs and

arms
is

bare, or to take

nonchalant or improper attitudes,


with but
little

an error of

women

selfrespect and no regard for their friends


in their

who must remain


Above
matter
all

company.

Cold and rainy

weather can not be made excuse

for similar liberties.

other things never go upon the street, no


quiet and retired
it

how

may be

in a

neglige
calls

toilet, albeit it

may

be an elegant one.
will not

Morning

upon even intimate friends


proceeding.

warrant such a

CORRECT DRESS FOR TEAS, MATINEES AND AFTERNOON RECEPTIONS

Dressing for afternoon teas and lunches was


time
a

at

one

matter

of

small

consequence.

The

hostess

received in an ordinary house dress and her guests

wore their

street or

shopping gowns with their bonnets.


assist the hostess,

However, where several ladies


adays,

now-

handsome reception dresses


a

are

worn and the


There
is

gas

is

lighted to give an evening effect.

no

sight prettier to the eye than

young

girl

dressed in

some

light

becoming dress
color.

of pink, yellow, lilac or


is

blue presiding at a tea-table which

decorated in a
are not

harmonious

The

elder ladies,
tea,

who

now

asked to preside and pour


the ladies

wear dark gowns, while

who

receive are attired in dinner dress.

In France and England were introduced for afternoon


teas the luxurious garments yet
Silk,

known

as "tea gowns".
intro-

satin

and cascades of costly laces were

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


duced
for

299

them.

but American
thing for a

women
in

They were wonderfully becomingj did not find them the proper
which
to receive indiscriminacely.

The

tea

gown gown is

really a

boudoir dress, although the


for
it.

handsomest materials are used

The afternoon reception


dress
is

differs

but

little,

so

far as

concerned from the afternoon

tea.

The

refresh-

ments are generally more elaborate and there are no


pretty girls pouring tea.

But the dresses

of the hostess

and the ladies assisting her are the same.


attend receptions have

Ladies who
street-

found that very heavy

gowns

are dangerous.

They wear them


terrible

into

rooms

heated sufficiently for the ladies in lighter garments,

and when they come out a

cold

is
is

the result.

Consequently as light a dress as possible

now worn
in the hall call
is

under a street cloak.


or
is

The

latter is

removed
hat

some appointed convenient room and then the

made

as long as is desired.

The

or

bonnet

retained and consequently the dress must correspond

with

that.

In Washington society the afternoon

reception

is

marked

feature of the cit}^


is

An

afternoon reception in
cit}'.

Washington

unlike

reception in any other


receive every one
in

The

ladies in official life

who chooses
to be to

to call,

and you can attend


to

your travelling dress


3'our
is

and are not expected

remove

wraps or

introduced to any body.

Your name
is

announced

the hostess and nothing else formal

demanded.

Washington

is

also about

the

only city in America

300

THE ETIQUETTE OE DRESS


up to-day the pleasant old custom
of hold-

that keeps

ing rceptions on
is

New
It

Year's day.

Much magnificence

permissible for these receptions both in dress and

the decoration.

should in this regard be limited

only by the purse of the receiver.


receptions as well as for
all

However,

for these
also,

others

and for teas

the hostess should study general effects.

The
as her

dresses of the ladies receiving with her, as well

own gown should be

in

pretty contrasting

or

harmoniously blending colors as regards each other, and


also

when considered with

the furnishing

and decora-

tions of the rooms.

The proper

dress for matinees

is

something similar
it

to a reception dress

although generally

need not be

quite so elaborate.
If

a lady

is

going to an ordinary theatrical performis

ance, a cloth street dress that

not too

warm answers
a

every purpose.
ical or

But

if it

is

an operatic matinee or

mus-

dramatic matinee given in some private house,


delicate

more

and pretty costume with a bonnet or


be worn.
is,

hat to match

should

The same thing


of
a

is

demanded when she

by invitation, one

box-

party at an ordinary theatre matinee.

CORRECT DRESS FOR DINNERS


Dinners have long been considered among the most
important and stately of social fimctions
in

England

and Continental countries and


steadily growing into the
tried to delude

in

America they are


Americans

same

estimation.

themselves into thinking they could "live

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS

301

without cooks," could "live without dining" but experiep.ce makes them false to such principles.

Woman's
contention.

dress for dinner has also been a matter of

An acknowledged
this

authority in the social

world says regarding

subject,

wearing low-necked dresses at dinner

"The fashion of has become so

pronounced that the moralist begins to issue weekly essays against this revival as if it had never been done
before.

Our virtuous grandmothers would be


cut

aston-

ished to hear that their ball-dresses, never

high,

were so immoral and indecent.


sleeveless gown, cut in a
of a

The
a

fact

remains that a
is far

Pompadour
is

form,

more

revelation of

figure than

low-necked dinner-

dress properly made.

There

no line of the figure so

dear to the artist as that one revealed from the nape of


the neck to
the

shoulder.

beautiful

back

is

the the

delight of the sculptor.


fine art

No

lady

who understands

low

it

of dress would ever have her gown cut too The persons is ugly, besides being immodest.

who bring discredit on fashion are those who misinterThe truly artistic modiste cuts a low necked pret it.
dress to reveal the fine
lines
of

the

bacjs:,

but

it

is

never in France cut too low in front.


heat of

The

excessive

an American dining-room makes

this dress very

much more comfortable than


had a goitre which she wished

the high dresses which princess

were brought in several years ago, because a


to disguise.

"No

fulminations against fashion have ever effected

reforms.

We

must take fashion

as

we

find

it,

and strive

302
to

THE E

'1

'IQ

UE TTE OE DRESS
not slavish!}^ adhering
to,

mold dress
all

to our

style,

but respectfully following, the reigning mode, remem-

bering that

writings and edicts against this sub-

ruler of the world are like


wall.

sunbeams

falling

on a stone
stone
wall

The

sunbeams vanish, but

the

remains."

The young married woman


a light silken

in

every instance wears


at the throat,

house dress cut square

and

the young girls admitted to dinner wear dainty evening

gowns with
manner.

their hair dressed

in

the

most becoming

CORRECT DRESS FOR LAWN PARTIES

The acceptance
party means, for

of an invitation to a

lawn or gardentrip

people

in

cities, a

by

rail

or

some other public conveyance and


arranged accordingly.

one's dress

must be

The garden-party proper


the open
air.

is

alwa5's held

entirely in

In England the refreshments are served


in the

under a inarquee

grounds, and in that inclement


it

clime no one seems to think


of rain

a hardship
fine silks

if

shower

comes down, and ruins

and beautiful

bonnets.

But

in

our

fine

sunshiny land we are very


like to

much
finery
colds,

afraid of
an}'

rain,

and we do not

ruin our
risks
of

more than we enjoy running the

and their attendant unpleasantnesses.

Consequentl}', the hostess generally receives in


large

some
low,

room looking out on

the

lawn,
of

through
course,

accessible windows.

The

hostess,

imder

such circumstances, wears a

house dress.

However,

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


when
the party
is

303
air,

given entirely in the open


a

she

wears a bonnet or
guests.

becoming hat

in

receiving her

The lady

guests invariably wear bonnets and

keep them on indoors and out.


dresses have been
the sensible

Short light or silk


fashion hitherto, but

longer skirts for the lawn creep in

when

trains

are in

fashion for other daytime functions.

Indeed a long

dress looks very pleasing under the trees on the grass.

Where

the entertainment takes on more

of a tennis

party order than a garden reception, the dress must be

governed accordingly.

If

it

is
if it

the latter, one must


is

dress very handsomely, while

an

affair just "to

have a good time" and play tennis or archery, croquet


or

some such games, pretty


the

flannel

dresses
to wear.

the purpose are

proper

gowns

made for Round

straw hats or flannel caps will be the proper head covering.

The matter
worn
as
to

of shoes is also an

important one.

For

the reception, light kid shoes or walking boots

maybe

correspond with the remainder of the costume,


is

where there

a possibility of

dampness, the hos-

tess will provide rugs

on the ground.

But tennis shoes


expect to be

or thick boots are

required

when
of

)'ou

exposed

to the for

wear and tear

outdoor games.

Costumes
day
rial,

picnics, excursions

and

trips

for

the

to the lake or seaside

should be of a strong mateSerge, flannel and


for

simply cut and of plain color.

tweed are excellent.


trips,

Never wear a wash dress


charming and

such

you may

start out

fresh, but will

304

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


many
hours, even on a sunshin}^ day.

not remain so

CORRECT DRESS FOR DRIVING AND COACHING

Our grandmothers dressed


habits,

in

heavy broadcloth riding

when

traveling in coaches

we

are told.

The heat

and distress must have been something awful, but they

do not excite our pity more strongly than do our dear


sisters

who

think they must drive in thin laces and


is

gauzes, through which the sun

also

uncomfortable.
in

Of course a woman need not be so severely plain


her carriage or coaching attire, as
street,

when walking
is

the

but quiet elegance in color and design

abso-

lutely

demanded

in

both situations.

CORRECT DRESS FOR WEDDINGS AND WEDDING ANNIVERSARIES


In Chapter XVII., while giving
tion the etiquette of

some other informaa

wedding dresses has been rather

thoroughly discussed.
ding

3'oung bride

at

large wed-

may be gorgeously
In
this,

arrayed in white satin, laces

and orange flowers, and her bridesmaids may be almost


as

magnificent.

day weddings do not

differ

from evening weddings.


dresses in a travelling

For quiet weddings the bride


dress and hat and departs for
trip.
b}^

her mysterious wedding

A widow
riage.

should never be accompanied

brides-

maids, nor wear a veil or orange-blossoms at her mar-

She should

at

church wear a colored silk and a

bonnet, and should be attended by her father, brother,


or

some near

friend.

If

married

at

home, the widow

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


bride
nia}'^

305

wear

a light silk

and be bonnetless, but she


first bridal.

should not indulge in any of the signs of

The
ings.

guests at weddings should always be dressed in

as festive a

manner

as is consistent with

the surround-

The

respective mothers of the bride and

groom

should wear handsome silk or velvet dresses and the


children of the families are always admitted to weddings.

Their gay

little

dresses

are

often

marked

special feature of the occasion.

For weddings
occurred,
all

in families

where

death has recently

friends, even the

widowed mother, should

lay aside their


in colors.

mourning

for the ceremony, appearing

It is

considered unlucky and inappropriate

to

wear black

at a

wedding.

In our country a

widowed
red,

mother appears
velvet or silk
;

at

her daughter's wedding in purple

in

England she wears deep cardinal

which

is

considered, under these circumstances, to be


is

mourning, or proper for a person who

in

mourning.

Dresses for wedding anniversaries need not be peculiar


to the occasion.

As to the dress of the bride wedded happiness, we should


black."

of twenty-five years of
say,

"Any

color

but

There

is

an old superstition against connect-

ing black with weddings.


steel

silver gray,

trimmed with

and

lace,

has lately been used with success as


Still less

an anniversary bridal dress. be white


;

should the dress


as

that has

become so canonized
it

the wed-

ding dress of a virgin bride that


for a

is

not even proper

widow

to

wear

it

on her second marriage.

The

3o6

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS

shades of rose-color, crimson, or those beautiful modern combinations of velvet and brocade which suit so

many matronly women,


dresses.

are appropriate silver-wedding

However, any dark

fabric

in

accordance with the

position of the family in society will be just as appropriate.


ially a
It
is

a pretty idea at such

receptions, especto

golden wedding, for the bride

receive
at

her her
a

friends arrayed in
first

some

article

which she wore

wedding,

if

any remain.

Sometimes a

veil,

handkerchief, or a fan (scarcely ever the entire dress

has lasted so long)


of the occasion.

is

worn and adds

to the significance

CORRECT DRESS FOR DANCING PARTIES

Dancing parties of^to-day are what were once termed


balls,

and they are the gayest of


Dinners
call for

all

gay social enterdressing, but a

tainments.

handsome
it.

dancing reception demands

Just as for dinners,


light,

however, the young and slender women wear

diaphanous materials while the heavier and elder ones


adopt velvets, brocades and stately
satins.

Trained dresses are always inconvenient

in

a ball-

room but fashion often absolutely demands them. However, when a young woman who dances can wear a short
dress she should do so.
It

adds to her youthfulness,

her lightness of step and to her general attractiveness.

Older women,

the

married
accept

belles,

and the young


dress
as of

chaperons
their

may always

the

trained

privilege,

but, at the

same time, the length

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


the
train

307

should

not

be unduly extended.
are not
a

For the
way,

stately square dances trains

much

in the

but to

undertake

the waltz in

long, heavy, velvet

train requires the strength of

more than the ordinary

American woman.
Jewels and flowers as ornaments are entirely proper
in a ball

room, although the intense heat soon withers

the latter.

We

quote again an acknowledged authority


in

who
to,

says

"For balls

this

country, elderly

women

are not expected to

go in low neck unless they wish

so that

the chaperon can wear a dress such as she


at a

would wear
cut in
lace.

dinner

either

a velvet

or brocade,

Pompadour

shape, with a profusion of beautiful

All her ornaments

should match in character,

and she should be as unlike her charge as possible.

Young

girls look best in

light

gossamer material,

in

tulle, crepe, or tarlatan, in

pale light colors or in white,

while a stout, elderly

woman

never looks so badly as in

low-necked, light-colored silks or satins.


look well in natural flowers, elderly

Young women
in feathers

women

and jeweled head-dresses."

CORRECT DRESS FOR MOURNING


Chapter

XVI

of this

book gives an extended account


for of

of the preparation of of a family

mourning

different

members
here

and necessarily much


"is

the etiquette govjust

erning mourning
will furnish a

included.

However,

we

condensed resum6 of the entire question.


to

This perhaps, will prove more valuable

our readers.

For when death comes, he

is

always unexpected and

3o8
a

THE ETIQUETTE OF DRESS


what
is

ready reference book, giving exactly and concisely

just

proper to provide will be a friend indeed.


is

Widows' mourning
It

worn

for

two years

in

England
and

and America; in France for one year and


consists of woolen
stuffs,

six weeks.

which are

lustreless

of crape.

When

mourning

for a parent, children


for

who

are

grown

wear the

same mourning

one year.

Younger children's should


than six months.

never be continued more


for

Mourning

a brother

or
is

sister,

for a grandparent, step-mother or step-father

also for

one year.
months.

In England this mourning lasts

only three

Mourning

for

children

should

be

crape-

trimmed dresses and


kid gloves are worn in
especially
if
it

last for

but nine months.

Mourning should be discarded by gradations.


first

Black
months,

mourning but

in six

be summer, silk gloves


is

may

be worn.
stage,

The crape on

the dress
jet

removed

for the

first

then trimmings of

and lace are taken up, and gradall

ually one drifts back into colors of

kinds, by

way

of

the grays and their kindred.

CORRECT DRESS FOR SERVANTS

A
at

neat-handed Phyllis
a clean

in

any family will always have


cap, hanging hand)^
is

hand

gown, apron and


This

to slip

on

in

an emergency.

true

where only
is at

one servant

is

kept and where a

full

retinue

hand.

Some

girls

show great

tact in this matter of

appearing
to

neat at the right time, but

many

of

them have

be

taught by the mistress to have a clean cap and apron in


readiness.

The

mistress usually furnishes these items of

THE ETIQUETTE OE DRESS


the mistress,

309

her maid's attire, and they should be the property of

and remain
conducted
at

in

the family through


at

all

changes

ol servants.

They can be bought


in the interest

almost

an}^ repositor)'

of of

charity or

they can be

made

home, and a dozen


an

them
in

in a

house greatly conduces to


appearance of the servants.

improvement

the

Servants should never wear woolen dresses when

at

work.

Calico and chintz are

good

fabrics

but seer-

sucker ginghams wear and wash better, consequently are


cheaper.
in the

They should be required


to step to

to

wear light shoes

house and trained

lightly.

The above
to those

remarks apply particularly

house servants or

who

are about

where they are seen constantly by mem-

members of the household, as well as by the stranger who rings the bell. The cook, the laundress and the nurse-maid are independent houshold personages, where
engaged.
all of

them

are

A woman who
is in

cooks,

prepares meats and


all

vegtables and

the kitchen

day need only be

required to dress neatly and allowed her


wise.

own way

other-

Cotton dresses and gingham aprons are however

her best regalia.


is

The woman who washes and

irons

She must not be allowed to wear day after day aprons and dresses think she can stiff with soap and the effects of dirty water, and cotton gowns are best for her also. The nursemaid is another important factor where she is a necessity. On page 147 full information is given on this subject, and we
given equal latitude.

can not devote further space to

it

at present.

CHAPTER XXV

TERMS USED
No
its

IN

DRESSMAKING

science,

no

art is

without a certain language of

own, a language which must be mastered by the

beginner.

For example, terms used


;

in

cookery have to

be learned by the novice

also

terms used in botany


difficulty of

and chemistry, presenting the extra


a

being

in

dead language

and musical terms, which are

chiefly

Italian,

cookery technicalities being French.

To

France,

then, as the great leader in the civilizing arts of cookery

and dress, do we turn for instruction

in the

alphabet of

dressmaking terms.
by beginners,
for,

These terms should be acquired


although we

endeavor
in

to

avoid

French words as much as possible


certain words have

this book, yet

become Anglicised, and


all

are accepted

and understood by

workers.

We

may

instance the

word Revers as one

of these terms, which,


is

being almost

untranslatable into English,


of

universally

made use
In the folthe exact

by dressmakers, modistes, and drapers.


list

lowing alphabetical
or literal

we have given ist,


;

meaning

of

the word
310

2nd, the explanation

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING


when necessary and 3rd, an example tion, also when necessary.
;

311

of

the

applica-

We
one
as

do not pretend that

this list includes


in

all,

or even
for,

half, of the

French terms used


continually

dressmaking!
so

novelties

are

arising,

words are

coined and become general in a short space of time


but the words most usually employed are here.

Some
used
in

ladies wish that "dressmakers' language" could be "put

into English," but

technical terms must be

describing the art of dressmaking as well as in describing


all

other arts.
LIST OF

TERMS USED

IN

DRESSMAKING

Agraffe.

Appret

A clasp; also applied to gimp fastenings.


I.

Finish; the dressing put into calicos,

etc.
2.

Ex.

Percale sans appret^ undressed cambric.

Also the trimming at the back of a bonnet, either a


lace lappet or ribbon bow, or any finish to a headdress.

Assemblage.

Tacking together the various portions of


Alms bag;

a*

corsage for trying-on.

Aumonie.

a small bag hanging from the

waist.

Whalebone. Bandeaux. Bands applied also to bands of Bas. The lower edge. Stockings. Basques. Applied to the ends of a jacket or bodice
Baleine.
;

hair.

I.

2.

fall-

ing below the line of the waist.


Biais.

Bombe.

Bias, on the cross. Rounded or puffed.


I.

2.

Crossways.

312
Borde.

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING

Borde a

Round; edged with. cheval. Edged with binding,


;

of equal

depth on

both sides.

Very thick walking boots. applied chiefly to house boots. Bo/thies. Boots Bourre. Wadded or stuffed a term often applied
Bottes.
;

to

quilted articles.
Calotte.

Camisole.

Crown the crown a cap or bonnet. A loose jacket applied dressing and morn;

of

to

ing jackets.
Capitonne.

Drawn

in like the seat of a sofa or chair;

buttoned down.

A hood on a mantle. Casaque. Corsage with loose, open of lace generally used Cascade. A
Capuchon.
fall
is
;

fronts.

in

speaking of

lace that
river.

made

to flow, with zigzag bends, like a

Belt, waistband, or sash. Boots and shoes. chemise de jour, day Chemise. Shift
Ceinture.

Chaussure.

chemise

chemise

de nuit, night-dress
Chemisette.

chemise deliomme, a night-shirt.

Gauged

or pleated material filling in the


of a bodice.

open front or neck


Chiquete.
Clos.

Pinked out. Closed or fastened. Hairdresser. A head-dress manner of dressing the Bonnet kinds Confection, A term applied to made-up manCoiffeur.
Coiffure.
:

hair.

Coive.

lining.

all

of

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING


ties,

313

cloaks,

and jackets, and

all

outdoor garments.

Coques.
Cornet.

Looped bows of ribbon. The of a sleeve opening


cuffs

like the large

end

of a trumpet, larger at the wrist than above.

Coulisse.

Bodice. Stays. Costume. Complete dress. Small slipstitched band sewed


Corsage.
Corset.

on

to the dress

by

slipstitches, to contain a tape or

ribbon runner.
shell

Coquille.

Applied

to draperies fallin^g in zigzag,

folds.

Crenele.

Crenelated Lace. Scalloped

cut in square scallops, like battle-

ments.
Dentelle.

De niello.
Dents.

pinked-out.

Scallops; these can be pointed or square. Deshabille. Undress costume usually applied
;

to

elab-

orated robes-de-chambre.

Underneath. Above. Devant. Front. Dos. Back. Echarpe. A scarf applied also to scarfs tied round the
Dessous.
Dessiis.
;

hat.

Ecru.
Effile.

The color

of

raw

silk.

Fringe, generally a narrow one. Encolure. The opening at the neck of


arm hole

a dress, or the

En

biais.

On the cross.

314

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING


chale.

En
En En

Resembling a shawl
drapery.
;

applied to bodices and

coeur.

coquille.

Heart or V-shaped applied to bodices. Folded backwards and forwards in zigzags.

Shell points.

En echelle. Like a ladder. En eventail. Like a fan. En tablier. To look like or r


Envers.

imitate a tablier.

The wrong
off

side.

En- fouf-cas. Silk sunshade,

like

a small umbrella, to

ward
Epais.

the sun or rain.

Thick. Epaissseur. Thickness. Fendu. Slashed, cut open;


sleeves, etc.

applied to jacket-basques,

Fichu.

half-square, cut from corner to corner

any

small covering for the shoulders.


Flots.

Quantities
rows
of
guillee.

of lace or ribbon so

arranged as to
Flots de den-

fall

over each other like waves.

Ex.

telle,

gathered lace falling one over the other.

Frange

A rather deep fringe, with an open head-

ing, like

network.

Frances.
Gilet.

Gathers; Fronce' gathered. An undervest of a dress. Glace. Shot, materials with cross threads
more
colors.
Skirt.

of

two or

Garter. Jupe. Jupon. Petticoat.


Jarretiere.

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING


Lainage.
Lingerie.

315

Woolen materials. Collars and made either


cuffs,

of linen,

cam-

bric, or

muslin and lace

also underclothing.

Lisere.

Lisiere.

A narrow edging or binding. Selvage applied also the


;

to

colored edges of

silks.

Sleeve. Manteau. Cloak. Matinee. Elegant, loose bodice for morning wear. Moire. Watered. Mule. A heeless slipper. Noeud. A bow or knot. None. Tied or knotted. Omhrelle. Parasol. Packing. A coarse, loose canvas. Pardessus. Jacket, mantle, coat; any garment worn
Manehe.
Manchette.
Cuff.

over the
Parement.
Parure.

toilette.

Cuff on the outside of a sleeve.


of collars

A set

and

cuffs

applied also to a
etc.

set of jewellery,

passementerie ornaments,

Piping without a cord. The brim of a chapeau or cap. Passementerie. Embroidered trimming
Passant.
Passe.

of silk cord

and

beads.
Peignoir.

Dressing gown

dressing jacket.

Striped. Pelerine. A small mantle rounded Petti Side-piece.


Pekin.
cote.

like a cape.

3i6

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING

Placket-openifig.

The opening of a

skirt at the

ends

of

the waistband.
Plastron.

Breast-piece; Box-pleat.
in

a piece put on the front

of a

dress bodice, generally of a different color or material.

^//. Fold.
Pli Rond.

T'/w Folds.
Plisse.

Polonaise.

Pleating. Tunic

one with the bodice.

Ras-terre.

Just touching the ground.

Redingote.

Polonaise

or long coat, with long straight

basques open
Retaper.

in front.

To do

up a bonnet

or hat.

(Milliner's

term

only).

Robe.

Dress.
Dressing or morning gown.
of of

Robe-de-chambre.
Rouleaute.

Trimmed with rolled bias bands. crossway strips Rouleaux. Rolled trimming made
material.

Ruches.

Gathered or
;

pleated trimmings; called ruches

here.
Saut-de-lit.

Simuler.
Soulier.
Taille.

Dressing-gown. Simulate to imitate. Shoe. Waist or Tablicr. Front of tunic, covering the A dress or costume. Top-sewing. Overcasting
figure.
Toilette.

skirt like

an apron.

closely.

Tournure.

A bustle

also the general appearance of a

TERMS USED IN DRESSMAKING


a dress, costume or person.
guee.
Traine.-

317
distin-

Ex.

Tourntire

Lady-like appearance.
train.

A traine. With A Tresse. Braid. Tunique. Tunic. Tuyaux. Fluted pleatings.


Tuyaux
d'orgue.

a train.

Wide

flutings, like

the

pipes

of

an

organ.

Velvet. VeloutCs Soft, like


Velours.
F(?/^w^;//.

velvet.

Garment,

mantle.
frill.

Volant,

Flounce or

CHAPTER XXVI
TO CUT A BASQUE PATTERN BY MOLDING
THE FRONT
BACK AND SIDE-BODIES THE SLEEVE

EMBELLISHMENTS

THE FRONT

The system
is

of

molding the

figure
it

by the pattern, or
muslin or paper,

rather, taking a correct cast of a totally different

in

system from cutting the pattern


is

from precise measurements, and


as successful, as few

on the whole, quite

human

figures are perfect, or are

even exactly alike on both sides.

The method

of molding, as

we intend

to

show

it,

is

simple and practical, and does not


matical aptitude necessary in so
to-day.

call for the

mathe-

many systems taught


not every lady

Of course,
are

patterns

cut with mathematical


it is

precision

excellent, but

who
As
be
it

possesses

enough intelligence

to

grasp the system,


successfully.

or accuracy

enough
it

to

work

it

out
that

time

is

money,

is

necessary

what has

to

learned should be learned well

and quickly; so

is

our duty to smooth

difficulties
.318

rapidly and entirely.

TO CUT A PATTERN BY MOLDING


Dressmaking to-day
every
is

319
for

not a trade,

it

is

an

art,

woman

should be molded by her corsage.


it

As

no two busts are exactly the same


give a scale of proportion.

is

impossible to

The corsage must be molded


wear
it.

on the figure which

is to

We commence with the front. It is a properly shaped corsage with one dart. We have purposely chosen a
slightly fanciful pattern to
set to perfection
if

show

that

fanciful

details

molded

on the figure with the gen-

eral outlines of the corsage.

For half

of the

basque take three-quarters of a yard


or
silesia,

of strong m.uslin

and cut

off

the

two

selin

vages.

Pin this muslin on the bust to be molded

the following

manner

Place the one selvage

the centre of the front, keeping the material as

on the straight as
line of the figure.

is

consistent with the natural


first

down much wavy

Place the

pin at the collar,

leaving 10 inches of muslin above, and pin the muslin

smoothly

in place

on the widest part

of the bust.

Pin

the muslin round the collar to the shoulder-seam, cutting long rents in the muslin
place, taking care that the

above to

let

it

fall

in

muslin forms no pleat or

wrinkles.

Pin

it

round the armhole of the front in the


lastly pin
it

same manner, and


seam.
lie

along the shoulder-

Now the

upper part of the muslin front should


figure.
difficult.

smooth, without wrinkle or pleat, on the


half of the front
is

The lower
Pin the
is

little

more

dart, taking care that the line nearest the front

on the straight

of

the muslin.

In a corsage with

320

TO CUT A PATTERN BY MOLDING


will find

two darts you

that

the second

will be
in

the

longer, and will take

up the most material

any

average normal muslin front thus molded to the figure.

The
ing

object

is

to

keep the seam under the arm as much


is

on the cross of the material as


the
is

consistent with
flat.

mak-

muslin

lie

perfectl)'

smooth and

The

front

now

finished,

and the most

difficult part of the

molding done.
BACK AND SIDE-BODIES

Next commence the back.


figure,

Pin the muslin on the

keeping

it

on the straight as much as possible


back, and

in the

centre of the

leaving

about

three

inches of muslin above the neck so that the shoulder

can be formed.

Pleat over the edge of the muslin to


the centre

exactly correspond with the curved line in


of the back.

Pin the muslin smoothl}' across the back


it

without straining

or putting

it

out of the straight,

outlining the curved side which joins the side piece of

the back, and the hollow for the sleeve.


is

When
flat,

this

cut to shape enough to let the muslin lie

the

true shape being indicated by pleating over and indent-

ing the muslin with the nail,

mark out
smooth but

carefullj' the

shoulder-seam, which must

lie

easy.
;

Never

mind
differ

if it

looks too straight or too sloping


fit

shoulders

much, and the pattern should


all is

them

well.

When
lin

marked and roughly

cut,

unpin the musto

and cut out the back smoothly according

the

marks and pins on the muslin.

The

side-bodies are done in

the

same way.

The

rO CUT A PATTERN BY MOLDING


side-bod}' of the back
straight, judging

321

must have the material on the


for

by the eye,
;

both sides are

much

on the bias when cut


cided with the shape

do not push your muslin to coin;

keep

it

on the straight, letting

the lower part of the basque turn as

and the upper part near the sleeve as


as
is

much much

to

one side

to the other

necessary.

Always be careful

in cutting patterns

to leave sufficient

length below the waist line, or the


It will

whole

fit

will be spoiled.

be noticed that the


is

side adjoining the side-body of the front

less

on the

bias than that to be sewed into the back.

As
is

to the

side-body of the front,

when

the muslin

pinned on the

figure, the side joining the front

must

be as

much

as possible

on the straight

proceed as for

the rest of the pattern, leaving the basque very easy and

much on

the bias.

EMBELLISHMENTS

For embellishments the molded system


to

is far

superior

measurements.
fit

Revers and

collars, for

example,
figure.

never

well

unless

they are molded on the


for revers in soft

Our good mantle makers mold


send the pattern
fur.

paper

or muslin on the figure of the future wearer, and then


to the furrier to

be exactly copied in

Collars, whether standing or revers, should always be

molded either
paper.

in strong
is

muslin or strong but supple


to

There

no need

mold the whole


middle

collar,

half sufficing,

commencing

at the

of the back,

322

TO CUT A PATTERN BY MOLDING


therefore nearest the

that being the highest point and

upper edge

of

your muslin or paper.


collar

The standing
one to mold.
the back,

shown on page 83

is

a very easy

Pin your muslin

in place in the centre of

making the selvage the


slitting

central

line,

then

pin

it

round the neck,


muslin
lie

up the material below

to let the

smoothly

as you form the rounded

line at the

neck, pleating the material with your nail

into every curve, slitting the muslin beyond your collar

wherever any pull

is

observed.

THE SLEEVE

When we come
to
fitting

to the sleeve

we

find

molding inferior

good measurements.
sleeve,
fits

True, one can mold a perfectly

too perfectly

we ought

to

say, for

it

occasionally
play.

too perfectly to allow the muscles fair

Unless the sleeve be molded on a very well


after the

shaped arm,

molding

is

completed

it is

advisa-

ble to bring a few simple


if

measurements into

use, to see

we have allowed enough room


etc.

across the elbow, un-

der the arm,

Molding

is

excellent for finding the correct place of

the elbow (so variable in different arms), also the exact

curve of the upper edge to

fit

into the shoulder.


sleeve, along

Commuslin

mence with the upper


the elbow, cut
this

of the in

the line of the

shape,

and

pin

smoothly across
this

to the inner in the

seam, catting rents beyond


to allow the

upper portion

muslin

curved

inner

seam

to

lie eas}'.

Next

fit

the muslin into the

shoulder to get the rounded curve, which will be found

TO cur A PATTERN BY MOLDiyG


a
little difficult,
is

323

as the sleeve on

which

)'Ou

are moldin the

ing

gathered into the shoulder.

Take points
a straight line.

curve, about two inches apart, and pleat over the muslin

between these points


round
off

to

form

You
and
to

will be able to

and correct the tiny angles

thus produced

when

the

molding
done

is

finished,

form a firm sweeping curve.

The under
5^ou will

of the to

arm

is

in

the

same way, but


in

have
to

cut

rents

beyond the under part


lie

the muslin

make

the line under the arm


this,

easy.

Outward curves do not require


completes the sleeve.

but inward curves

need these rents to avoid pulling and straining.

This

The molding
to
fit,

is

now

done.

To complete

the pattern

compare the seams one with another where they are


and
lightlj^

shave

off

any excrescence and overlines, undis-

plus.

See that the scissors cut smooth


notches, for

figured by jags and


tern

when using

the patinside

you

Avill

forget whether the outside

or the

of the jags is your correct pattern,


of an inch tells in the
fit.

and every fragment

The

best

means

of

making
sides, to

the seams quite even

is to

lay together each

two

which are
the

to

be eventually
off

seamed together, edge

edge, and shave

lightly any irregularities at one

and

same
a

time.

For

very stout

figure three side-pieces

are

often

found requisite in place of two.


in the

They must be molded


the space between the
at

way described above, but

backs and fronts must be divided in three, so that

324

TO CUT A PATTERN BY MOLDING


three
side-pieces measure

the waist the

almost

the

same

across.
diffi-

In the case of striped materials, which are so


cult to cut well, especially
it

when

the stripes are wide


It is

is

as well to avoid the three side-pieces.

easy

to arrange the stripes

symmetrically at the back, but


it

the side pieces puzzle the cleverest and

is

next to

impossible

to

avoid in them the ugly, cut-up appear-

ance of innumerable stripes abruptly commencing and


terminating with no
real

beginning and no real end.

CHAPTER XXVII
CUTTING-OUT BY MEASUREMENT
INTRODUCTION
URES

MEASUREMENTS
DRAFT OF

HOW TO TAKE MEASVARIABLE

VERIFICATION OF THE MEASUREMENTS

MEASUREMENTS
FOR

PATTERN

OF A

DRESS

VERIFICATION OF THE PATTERNS FOR A BODY

PATTERN

BASQUE

DRESSING GOWN

LOW,

ROUND WAIST
APRON WITH

TRANSPOSING MEASUREMENTS

DRAWERS FOR A WOMAN


APRON

DRAWERS FOR A GIRL


STRAPS

PRINCESS

APRON FOR

CHILD
I

INTRODUCTION

The making up

of a dress or

garment
of

of

any kind con-

sists in joining together,

by means

seams, several

different detached pieces.


it is

To make

the body of a

gown

a good plan, before joining such pieces together, to


oneself,

cut

them out on paper patterns drafted by


to

and which have been drawn according


This method
system, devised

measurements

taken in the manner we shall hereafter indicate.


is

one taken from the standard French


Mdlle. Grand'homme.
325

b}'

326

CUTTING OUT BY MEASURMENT


to

In order to facilitate the drafting of such patterns,


it

has been found that the best plan

is

trace their

outlines on rectangular diagrams, excluding every useless detail.

Thus, for example,


a

to draft the pattern of

sleeve,
in

rectangular diagram

ABCD should

be

made,

which, following the measurements indicated,

the pattern of this part ot the dress should then be

drawn.

When
of

such a pattern

is

correctly drafted, nothing


it

remains to be done but to cut

out.

The attainment
of

this object, therefore, is the of cutting-out.

aim

the following

method
If

the person

who

is

to

be measured wears a dress

with a round waist, the lengths of the front and back


can be easily taken
;

on every other kind


It will

of dress these

are liable to be inexact.

be well, consequently,
run

in the latter case, in order to facilitate the task, to

ribbon round the waist of the

person, which wil

replace a waistband, and enable the precise measure-

ments

of the front, back,

and under part

of the

arm

to be correctly taken. II

MEASUREMENTS

To apply
1.

this

method

of

cutting-out, two kinds of


:

measurements are indispensable


Variable measures.

2.

Fixed measures.
I.

VARIABLE MEASURES

Variable measures aie so named, because they vary

CUTTING OUT BY MEA S UREMENT


according to the figure of each person
in
:

327

they are twelve

number
1.

Length

of the body.
of the shoulders, taken in front.
of the chest.

2. 3.

Width Width

4.
5.

Length underneath the arm.

Round
Length

of the waist.
of the back. of the back.

6.
7.

Width

{This measure must be taken

twice.

8. 9.

Testing

measure.
of

Length

arm.

{This measure

must

also

be

taken twice: the length on the inner,


outer side of the arm. )
10.
11.

and

the length on the

Size round the arm.

Size round the wrist.

12.

Length

of the skirt.

{This measure must be taken

three times: in frotit, on the hip

and

at the back.)
of the of

These measures serve


front, back,

to

form the diagrams

and side-piece, or additional piece

the

back, also of the sleeve and skirt.

Every length remains


is

in its entiret)', but every

width

divided into

two, except

the

fifth

measure,

the

round

of the waist,

which

is

subdivided into four.

2.

FIXED MEASURES

Fixed measures are conventional measures which


serve for the patterns of every figure; they never vary
for a

woman's

figure,

and indicate how many inches or

eighths of inches of the material must be cut away for

328

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


;

the round of the neck and slope of the shoulder


also

they

show the distance required between the

darts,

and

thus serve for the drafting of patterns.


Ill

HOW TO TAKE MEASURES


With manner
back,

the view of facilitating to learners the proper


of

measuring, we

first

give two figures {the front,

and part of
is

the skirt),

on which the inch-tape or


straight lines, and
figure.
is

measure

shown by small
it

placed

exactly as

should be on the living

Attached

to each of these

measurements taken upon the person,


to

numeral

is

found corresponding

the foregoing

measures.

I.

Length of the Body.

From

the

shoulder-seam, at

the neck, to the middle of the front, below the waist.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


2.

329
the

Width

of Shoulders,

taken

in

front.

From

shoulder-seam, at the right armhole, to the shoulder-

seam
3.

at

the left armhole.


Chest.

Width of

From the seam

under the arm,

at

the right armhole, to the


left
4.

seam under the arm

at the

armhole.

Length under Arm.

From the seam under the arm,


6

at the

armhole, to the hip.

5.

Round of

Waist.

The tape inch-measure


of

must be
slightly

passed

round the waist

the person, and

tightened.
6.

Length of Back.

From the

shoulder-seam, at the

neck, to the waist.

330
7.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


Width of Back.
:

This

measure must be

taken

twice

1.

From
From
at the

the shoulder seam, at the right armhole,

to the shoulder-seam at the left armhole.


2.

the seam

underneath the arm,

at

the

right armhole, to the


left

seam underneath the arm


This

armhole.

8.

Testing Meastire, or total size of the person.


is

measure
arms.
9.

taken by passing the tape underneath both

Length of Arm. This measure must be taken twice


1,

From

the shoulder-seam,

at
at

the armhole,

to

the wrist,

bending the arm

same time.

This

gives the outer length of the arm.


2.

From
to the

the top of the inner seam of the sleeve


wrist, stretching

out the

arm

at

same

time.
10.

This gives the

in7ier le7igth

of the arm.
the arm, at

Roicnd of Arm.

Pass the tape round


it.

the armhole, and do not tighten


11.

Round of

Wrist.

Pass

the

tape very carefully

round the wrist, taking into calculation the smallest


subdivision of an inch.
12.

Length of Skirt.
:

This measure must be taken three

times
1.

In front.

2.

On

the

hip*.

3.

At the back.
always necessary to count an inch

It is

and

two-

eighths more than the inches given, for the material

CUTTING OUT BY ME A S UREMENT


once
cut,

33

shrinks

cloth,

velvet,

and

merino alone

excepted.

IV
VERIFICATION OF THE MEASUREMENTS

The measurements when taken must be


I.

tested.

The second measure

in front

and the seventh measure


to

width of

shoulders, taken

first

width of back,

being
of

compared, ought
If

give the exact difference

2^

inches.

1^% be not found, the width of should;

ers,

taken in front, must be diminished or added to


first

but nothing must be changed in the

width

of back.

The number
It

of 2^^

is

required for the shape of the neck.

very often happens that the width of the shoulders

gives an excess of

5^

inches,

which indicates that the

shoulder-seams in the dress of the person

who

is to

be

measured, are thrown unusually


If

far

towards the back.

such a dress
1.

is to

be copied,

2.

The subtraction must give a difference of 4^. The use of the variable measure, the size

round the wrist,


3.

must
XII.

be changed.
of

For the fixed measures which form the slope


the shoulders in
front of

the

dress and

at the

back,

see Section

(Transposing

of

the

Measures).
4.

Add

together the third measure,


the seventh

and
Two
cases

measure,

width of chest second width of

back and

then compare the total obtained with

the testing measure.

may occur

332
1.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


The
It

testing

measure may be

less than

39J4^

inches.
2.
1.

may be more than 39^


be

inches.

If

the testing measure be not fully


to

39^

inches,

it

ought

i^

inch more than the adding-up of

the two measures, width of chest and second width of

back; but

if

the difference exceed

i^

inch,

it

will

be

necessary to diminish both measures in equal proportions.

The
2.

difference of
;

i^^

inch

is
it

peculiar to

the figure

of a child
If

in that of a

woman

may be

less

than if^.
39j^

the testing measure attains or exceeds

inches, the adding-up ought to produce the

same num-

ber exactly.

V
VARIABLE MEASURES

(Used as Supplementary

to the

Fixed Measures)

The second measure,


seventh measure,

width
width
7.Y%

of shoulders
of

first

back

and the when com serves


i^

pared, give the differences

inches {fixed measta-e).

The eighth measure


two purposes
I.
:

the
is

testing

measure

It

gives the exact size of


{fixed measure),

the person, and

inch,

allowed when the testing

measure has not reached 39^^ inches.


2.

Having joined the


back together,

front, the side piece,

and the

it is

necessary then to find from

the middle of the front to the middle of the back,

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


in

333

a line with the

armholes,

half
{^fixed

the

testing
).

measure,

plus

seven-eights

measure
is

Should more be found, then, whatever

over

and above must be taken


at the side-piece of back,

off

from the armhole

gradually to the bottom

of the pattern.

The
fixed

fifth

measure
;

round of waist
the

is

used with the

measure

when

number

of

eighths

which

should form the darts has been ascertained, then the


fourth part of round of waist must be taken, plus three-

eighths infixed measure').

The number obtained

will

give the measure of the body round the waist, with the
darts closed
;

what

is

over and above will serve to form

the darts.
Note.

When three-eighths have been taken


the back,

off

from

the side-piece of

seven-eighths,
to the

instead of
for

three-eights, -must be

added

round of waist,

the darts.

The
two.

tenth measure

round

of

arm

is

divided into

The eleventh measure round 1. The round of wrist, which


not be divided.
2.

of wrist
is

gives
portion of

measure that can

The number
the armhole.

of eighths for the front

Whenever
then

the back of the body contains a side-piece

2^

inches must be deducted from the number


;

given by the round of wrist

the remainder serves


is

for

the back portion of the armhole, which

finished

by

334

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


i^
inch
the back of the body be gathered,
in

the side-piece, consisting at the armhole of


(^fixed measure).
If

or has a straight

seam

the

middle, then
b}^

i^

inch

must be deducted from the number given


of wrist,

the round

and the armhole

is

drafted in

its entirety.

VI
VARIABLE MEASURES

(Not forming Rectangular Diagrams).


1.

The second measure

width

of

shoulders, taken

in front.
2.

The seventh measure

second

width of back

is

never marked on a diagram when the back of the dress


is

formed by the aid


3.

of a side-piece.

4.

The The

testing measure.

inner length of arm.

VII
,

DRAFT OF PATTERN OF A DRESS


a

To make
1.

woman's
front.

dress,

it

is

necessary to draft

the patterns of

2. 3.

4. 5.

The The The The The

back.
side-piece of back.
sleeve.
skirt.
I.

DRAFT OF THE FRONT

To form

the diagram of the front, take


of waist {length of diagraDi).

Length

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


Half-width of chest
{ividth

335

of diagratn).

Mark
Noie.

ABCD

at the four corners.


letters, in

These
of Neck.
to B,

general, serve

as starting

points for the fixeJ measures.


Slof>e

This diagram
a dot,

ABCD
inches
;

being formed

from

mark by

2^

from

to C,

3^
will

inches, and join both dots by a curved line,

which

form the slope of the neck.


Slope

of Shoulder.

To
it is

form
nec-

the slope of shoulder,

essary

I.

To

take half

the

width of the shoulders


dot 3^, at slope of neck
to measure the
;

from
then,

number obtained
it

horizontally, indicating
dot.
C"
2,

by a

From

line

AB

to

meas-

7^

"

^"

'0

ure verticall}^
of

3^

inches {fixed

measure), in the direction

the dot indicated by the

width of shoulders.
required
for

This

measure gives the slope


Join by a slightly

the

shoulder-seam.

curved

line,

dot

2^

to

dot 3^, to

form the slope of

the shoulder.

Armhole.

Take
it

the round of wrist, and from dot 3^^

(slope of shoulder), measure


tically,

the length obtained verto line

carrying
it

at

same time

BD, and

indi-

cating

by a horizontal line.

From

this line towards

measure three-eighths,

and join
;

it

by an oblique

line to the point thus


to dot

obtained

then join this point

3^,

the

slope of shoulder.

336

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT

Darts
the

To form the

darts,

go down ifs inches below


line

armhole, and

draw a dotted
body), on

horizontally,

which
line

will indicate the height of the darts.

From

the

AC

(middle of the

the

dotted

line,

marked 3;^ inches for the first dart; from dot 3)^, mark 2^^ for the second dart. From angle C to angle

take

54 inch
find

join dot

3^

to

dot i^^ by an oblique

line.

To

out

the nvmiber of eighths each dart

should contain, take the fourth part of the round of


waist, plus Y%{fixed measure)
;

carry the length obtained

from

to

D, and make a dot.


at

Whatever exceeds the


;

diagram

CD

gives

the

width of the darts


of the

divide

this width in

two for each

two

darts.

Between
;

the

darts there

should be a space of seven-eighths

join dot y% to dot

2^

and dot

2^

to

half the excess


dart.

marked on

line

CD,
2.

to

form the second

DRAFT OF THE BACK

To form

the diagram of the back, take


of

Length

back {length of

the diagravi).

Half the

first

width

of

back {width of the diagravi).

Mark ABCD.
Slope of the

Neck
to

The diagram
a dot,
of the neck.

ABCD
inch;

being formed,

mark from A

B by

i|4^

from

to C,

inch; join these two points by an oblique line,

which

will

form the slope

Slope of the Shoulder

From B

to

measure 4 inches,
line,

and make a dot; join by an oblique


\Y\, to

dot 4 to dot

form the slope of the shoulder.

C U TIDING

OUT BY MEA S UREMENT


ArmJwle.
wrist less

337
of

Take
2^
make

the

round

inches.

From

dot 4

measure

vertical!)'

the
a dot.

difference

obtained, and
inside
of

Return

the

diagram

infixed

and join dot 4 to dot ^. From C to D, mark yi {fixed measmeasure),


ure),

and

join,

by

a curve, dot

1/^

of

the armhole to dot

of

the angle

Note.

If

the back

of

the dress

be gathered, only

i^

is

to be

deducted from the size of wrist; and in


in its entirety.

such a case the armhole must be drafted

The same remark


3.

applies to a cape.
SIDEPIECE OF BACK

To form
Length
plus

the diagram

of the side-

piece of back, take


of the inner

side of arm,
of

ly^ {fixed measure) height

diagram.

Fourth

of

the round of

waist,

less three-eighths {fixed measure)

width

of

diagram.

Mark ABCD. The diagram ABCD being formed, from B to A mark \){ {fixed measure); from B to D ij^^ {fixed measFrom D to C ure). Join these two dots by a curve.
mark

{fixed measure). Join

i^

of

the line
line.

BD

to

dot yk

on the line

DC

by an oblique

From C

338

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


A mark i^, which i^ on the line BA.
4.

towards
dot

join

by a curved line to

DRAFT OF SLEEVE

To form the diagram of the sleeve, take The outer length of the arm (height of
gram).

the dia-

Half size round the arm (width of diagram).

Mark ABCD. The diagram


formed, from

ABCD

being

towards C, mark

iy% inches (fixed measure).


a curved line ending at

Draw
from

i^

angle B,

to

form the armhole.


A,

From

C towards

mark i^
Between
to

inch (fixed
the dots

measure).

3^

and i^, ought

be

found the number of eighths given by the variable measure,


inner length of the arm
half of that
it
;

the

take the

number and mark


and i^, which

by a
;

dot.

At

this

dot return within the diagram


\}^,

i^
will

join by a curve the dots 3^^,

form the inner seam

of

the sleeve.

From C
Join
of

towards D, mark
dot \y% to dot
the
sleeve).

4^

inches (fixed measure).

4^
To

by an oblique line (the bottom


of

indicate the position

the elbow,

take half the outer length of the arm.

From

angle

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


join this dot to dot
5.

339
;

toward angle B, mark the number of eighths obtained

4^.

DRAFT OF PATTERN OF A SKIRT

skirt consists of

many

pieces, the

number

of

which

vary according to the width of the skirt and of the


material.

To form

the diagram of the front of a skirt, take

ITS

Half the width of the


material

(width

of

the

diagram).

Length

of front of skirt

(length of the diagram).

Mark ABCD.
Note.

This
a

diagram
of

supposes

material
of

the usual width


inches,

27^^

which
the

is

divided

in half, thus

giving \zV\

inches for

width of

the diagram.

The

diagram

ABCD

being formed, from

A to B mark 4 inches, plus i^ (fixed measure) from A to C, J4 join dot ^


; ;

to

dot

i}{

by

slight

curve, this line forms the


front half of the skirt, the
1^4

plus

serves for

the little

fold

which hides the

340

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


From
dot

pocket.

i^ draw

line

which ends

at

D.

To form the diagram of the bias breadths, takeWidth of the material (width of the diagram).
Length
gram).
of skirt, taken
at

the hip (length of the dia-

Mark ABCD.

From A towards B mark 5^

inches (fixed measure)

CUUTING OUT BY ME A S UREMENT


from
5/^
;

34
to dot

to

1)4^

(fixed

measure); join dot


inches
;

i^
;

from

to

C mark 5^

join

by an oblique
the line

line dot 5^3

on line

which joins the dots


of the skirt,

AB to dot 5/^ on line CD 5^ forms the two bias


at

breadths

narrow

top and wide at bottom.


to

Note.

Should
it

any one wish

make two breadths


If

from one width of material, as the diagram shows, the


material must not have a wrong side.
there be a

wrong

side,

will be necessary, in order to to

form four
place the

breadths from two widths of material,

wrong sides facing each

other.

VIII
VERIFICATIONS OF THE PATTERNS FOR A BODY

(By the Eighth Measure


For
this

Testing Measure).
of back,

purpose join the back, the side-piece


of the

and the front

body

at the

seam under the arm.

The
which

three patterns thus joined form


is to

half the body,

be tested by taking half the testing meas-

342

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


To accomplish
this object, the inch tape
;

ure plus y%.

must be
us the

laid

on the line BD, underneath the armhole

the horizontal distance from

BD

to

AC

ought
the

to give

number obtained when taking


1/i.

half

testing

measure plus
If,

however, instead of obtaining this


is

result, half

the testing measure

found plus i^, recourse must

then be had to the variable seventh measure

the

sec-

ond width
a lesser

of

back

which

in

such a case ought

to give

number

of eighths than the first

width of back,
in

and whence
excess.

arise the seven-eighths

which we found

These must, therefore, be deducted from the


underneath the arm).

side-

piece of back at the armhole (at the seam which joins


it

to the front

But as the sevenside-piece

eighths thus taken

away from the

would
restore
of

make
them

the figure too tight at the waist,


to the front

we must

by measuring the fourth of round


of

waist, plus

i^, and by dividing the surplus


two equal
parts,

the

material into

which can be again

divided between the two darts.


Note.

The curves which join the back


at

to

the side-

piece must not be joined


the

top or bottom, because


shoulder-

arm and the waist


is

are

smaller, and the

blade

the most prominent portion of the back.

IX
DRESSES FOR YOUNG GIRLS AND CHILDREN

To make

dresses for young girls, the

same number

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


of

343
in

measures must be used as

for

grown persons, and


front

the

same way, except alone


the

for the
of

part

of the

armhole, for which

number

eighths given by

the size of wrists must be plus

3/^.

one whose wrist measures but 5^, and whose testing measure does not exceed 33^,
Note.
should, to draft her pattern, take the fixed

Every

measures
years

indicated on the plate below "For


of age!'
If

a girl fifteen

the age of the child for


is

whom

the dress

is

to

be

made
below

not found

in

the

tables, then take

the

age

for

which the fixed measures are given, but

never take the age above.


can,
fixed

And

to

be more exact, you

moreover, ascertain the difference

between the

measures of the age above that of the child and

those of the age below.

That difference
for the

will enable

you

to draft a third plate

intermediate age.

FOR A GIRL FIFTEEN YEARS OF AGE

Note.

The width

of the shoulders

must be

2^ more

344

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


than the
back.
first

width
fixed

of

the

The
b}'

measures
every dia-

are indicated in

gram,

numbers,

which

must not be increased, and


whicli help in

the drafting

of every pattern.

A CHILD ELEVEN YEARS OF AGE


Note.

The

width of the

shoulders, taken

in

front,

must be two inches more

than the

first

width of the back.

CHILDREN FROM ONE TO FIVE YEARS OLD


Children at this age are not, as a rule, very patient
consequently,
it

will be difficult

to take

on them the

twelve variable measures necessary in the case of grown

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


9

345

V:)ersons.
five.

We

must be

satisfied,

therefore, with

but

Example.

Variable
:

measures belonging

to a

child

two years old

Length

of bod}-

.....

9 >^9i

First width

of back.

Testing measure
Size round wrist

Length

of skirt

.... .... ....


.

...

%.

4.

15

^.

From

these five variable measures are derived the

seven others which

we have

not taken upon the child.

See the table of age, where the number of eighths


will be

found noted which the width of the shoulders,

taken in front, ought to

have greater than the

first

width of the back.

Example.
add

First width
which

of back, 9.

To

this

number

5/Q=gSyi,

will give the

width

of

shoulders,

taken in front.

The number given by

the testing measure will


;

give

us the exact size of the child back and front


correct, will be insufficient,

but that,

though be too tight across the chest, because, in the case of children, when we add up the width of chest and first
width of back, the
\n^ measure.
total gives is/g

and the frock would

more than the

test-

To

find the

width of chest and second

width of back, take a number equal to the first width of back=9j^, and the number given by tlie testing measure:z=2i',4^
;

from these two numbers sul)tract

346

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


21^
9
-|^/^

Example.

=:

9^

gives the second width

of back.

Remains,

xi.}^

\yi =: i3>^ chest.


to the

gives

the width

of

The

+0 + 1^

added

two numbers obtained,

give us the result which the adding up of the two variable measures ought to have

the

width

of

chest

and

second width of back

neither of which we have


of the

taken

upon the

child.
of the

The length The


waist

body gives the length

back

testing measure, less^, gives the round of the 2oi^.


to

The number given

us by the size of the wrist,


:

produces four variable measures


I.

= 4 inches. 2 Outer length of arm = three times the size of wrist + if^ =1^ 4 + i^ = 13^. Inner length of arm = twice the size of wrist + 2^ = ^x4 + 2^= loi^. Size of arm at armhole = twice the size round wrist + 1^=^x4+1^ = 9>^.
Length under arm
X.

3.

4.

Variable measures are used exactly in the same manner as for


the
:

body

of

woman's

dress, except

the

three following
1.

Size round wrist plus


the armhole at
its

three-eighths

to

form

front part.

2.

Size

round wrist minus two inches to form

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


the armhole at the back
piece.
3.

347
a side-

when

there

is

Size round wrist minus seven-eighths


the armhole

to

form

when
fourth

there

is

no side-piece

at back.

To form

the width of the diagram for the side-piece


part of round
of

of back, take the

waist, less

seven-eighths.

X
GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PREPARING A DRESS OR OTHER GARMENT BEFORE MAKING IT UP

When,

after

having taken the variable and the fixed

measure, the patterns have been drafted, tested, and


cut out, they must be placed on the
a

material, leaving

few eighths

for the turnings-in,


:

which should be parthe front of the body.

titioned as follows
1.

iS/z
1]/^

inch for the lap

down

2.

inch for the shoulder-seams, those of the

side pieces at back, and of the sleeve.


3.

yi inch for the slope of the neck

and the arm-

holes.

In order to keep in mind the turnings-in. put pins along the edge of the paper pattern, but only at the

seams where they exceed


of course, it is

half

an inch.

As

matter

unnecessary to mark the turnings-in at

the slope of neck or armholes, as they are only two-

eighths outside the pattern.

The pins which mark


is laid.
is

the

seams must

be.

put through the two pieces of material

on which the paper pattern

When

the material for the body and sleeves

cut

348
out,

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


and each pattern traced ont with pins, the paper
off.

patterns are taken

and the proper distance

Then the darts must be traced, marked between them on the

front of the body, with pins.


is

To

find this distance,

it

necessary to measure, with the inch-tape,

3^

inches

horizontally from the lap

down
;

the front of the body,

and to stick a pin


ure
2^/^

at this point

then again, to measpin,

inches, sticking in another

which marks
Their height

the distance

between the two

darts.

should be i5^ below the armhole.

At the bottom

of the

front of

body where the pins


ending

mark the

lap,

measure

i^

inch horizontally, stick in a


line,

pin, then with

more pins form an oblique


3^. number
of eighths

in the pin at dot

To

find the

which each dart should


to the

contain, see

what we have said as

second use of
(page 333).

the fifth variable measure

round

of waist

The
lightly

darts being traced, the two pieces of material are

tacked together,

and the lines traced by the

pins traced by thread, which operation ended, the pins

marking the turnings-in are taken

out,

being replaced

by the threads.

Each piece composing


and
lining are
laid
in

the body

is

then lined, care

being taken that the two different materials of dress


the

same

direction.

When

each of the pieces has been separately lined, they are


all

pinned
I.

to

each other.

The

darts, closely following the threads

by which

they have been traced, and beginning at the top.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


2.

349

The
line

side-piece of back at the curved line in the


the

back, beginning at

armhole.

The curved

must be kept on the side-piece.


front
of

3.

The back and


The
slope of
;

the body, great exact-

ness being necessary in the armholes.


4.

neck, back

and

front,
is

also very

exactly

then

the slope of shoulder


bias than

formed.

The back being more


be
sustained

the front, must


together.

by pinning the seam

When

the different parts of the body are thus

collected, they

must be basted together.


beginners to baste
trying on
a

We

cannot too strongly advise


;

with small stitches

otherwise,

when

gar-

ment, the stitches open, and the dress, when properly

sewed

later,

becomes too

tight,

necessitating

after

touches,

most

unpleasant to the worker.

XI
DIFFERENT DRESSES
(Dress with Basque.)

To
dress;

draft the pattern of a dress with basque, take the


of variable

same numbers
the

measures as for an ordinary


that

only difference being,


length
of

when writing
basque must

down

the numbers for

body, of back, and


for the

underneath arm, the length desired


be fixed upon, and that number

of eighths added to

each of the ordinary measures.


After having tested the measures, add to
tlie

three

following measures a certain

number

of eighths,

which

place within a parenthesis:

350
1.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


2.
3.

Width Round

of chest.
of waist.

First width of back.


of the Parenthesis.

Use
for

The parenthesis
sizes, and, to

is

only used
at

certain widths

and

show

which
it

angle of the diagram the

number

of

lengths which
is

thus encloses are to be employed, a letter

added

to

them.

Example.

Width

of chest,

22^

inches

(-[it

2^

B).

The parenthesis shows us


is

that the

number

encloses

not to be divided, and must be added to the half of


is

the preceding number, as every width


two.

divided into

In

general,
is

parenthesis
of this

number contained within the enclosed within vertical lines. The result
the
is

measure

always to give greater amplitude to

the hips.

VARIABLE MEASURES FOR A DRESS WITH BASQUE


1.

Length

of body,

15^

inches

7?^

= 23^^.
=
i4/^-

2.
3.

Width Width

of shoulders,
of chest, iy/^

18^.

(+ 2^B).
65,^

4.
5.

Length underneath arm,

+7^

Round
from

of waist,
to A,

26^ (+ 2^

divide in two

i^

and

from

6.

Length

of back,

15^

A to B). 7^ = 22^.
15^ (^ A); second

7.

Width

of back, first width,

width, 16}^.
8. 9.

Testing measure, 38^4.

Length

of arm, first length, ii^i

second length

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


10.
11.

351

Size round arm, 15^. Size round wrist, 6^.

Note.

For the round


is is

of waist,

number 2^
;

in

the

parenthesis,

divided into two parts

the

first

meas-

ures i^, and

placed on the diagram of the side-piece

or small piece of back,

and the second measuring


to B.

six-

eighths, on that from


I.

DRAFT OF THE FRONT

To

draft the diagram of the front, take the length of

the body,

15^

-f

7^
Q

= 23^,

or height
;

of

the dia-

gram
chest

the half width of


ii>^

(+2^
B
take

-6)

=
the

145^, width of diagram.

At angle

off

(2^) which have been added to the second variable

measure

the width of
of the

chest.
fixed

For the use

measures here rep-

resented by figures,

and

that of the variable meas-

ures in the annexed dia-

gram,
Oa^ysiS

see

Section VII.

(page 334).
Note.

The

darts
to the
2.

must be prolonged, diminishing


bottom
of the basque.

them gradually

DRAFT OF BACK
of the back, take

To

draft the

diagram

352

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


The
sixth

measure

length

of

back

15^

\-

8^

= 24

(height of the diagram).

The seventh measure first half-width of back lY^ (+78 A) = 8^ (width of diagram).

From A towards B
added
4-{ndit9

take

away

the seven-eighths that have been


to

the

first

width of

back.

For the use

of the fixed

measures, marked and that


of the

b}'

numerals,

variable meas-

ures, see Section VII.

On
First,

line

AC,

at

the dot which indicates


of

the length

back

we

must take

off

horizontally three-

eighths, and draw a vertical line

from the point obtained towards

A
c

and

towards C;

this

last
line,

m)
a
little

forms a slightly
fulness

curved

which gives
on the line
at

to the basque.
off

Second,
then

AC we
i^

must take

three-eighths,
ly^
(fixed

this
;

dot

measure horizontall}to dot y%

meas-

ure)

join dot
line,

the armhole by a slightly

curved

and from this same dot draw a straight

line to the line


3.

CD.

DRAFT OF THE SIDE-PIECE OF BACK

To draft the diagram of the side-piece of back, take The fourth measure length underneath the arm

^H + 7^

i45'8

(height of diagram).

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


The
A
fifth

353
1/%

measure

6}(
jf

f.

(+ 2^) ^ ff^i
)

fourth of round of waist = SVs (width of diagram).


Note.

The number
round

(2^) add-

ed

to the

of waist, is divided

into
1

two

parts, the first consists of

5^,

drawn from

towards

the

second of six-eighths, drawn from

towards B.

From A toward B
from
this

carry six-eighths, and

point draw a line parallel to that

ca
The use
ures.

o o

between

A and

C.
fig-

of the fixed

measures are indicated by

A measure i^ (fixed measure). to D measure i^ (fixed measure). Join dot 13^ on line AB to dot i^ on line BD by a slightly curved line. From dot i^ on line BD towards D,
From B From B
to

measure the number of eighths given by the fourth


variable

measure
it

the

length under the arm

= 6^,

and mark

by a dot.

zontally (fixed

From this dot measure Ji horimeasure). From dot i}( of line BD to


line,

dot }i of same line, draw a straight

and from the

same dot
Note.

Ji to dot O,

draw a curved
on
line

line.

From

dot

BD
A on

a dotted

line

must

be drawn parallel to line AB, and ending on AC.


the dotted line measure toward
line

From
of
line

AG
to

j}( (fixed

measure), and join dot i}{ of line

AG

i}:^

AB

by a lightly curved
23

line,

From

dot ij^

of line

354

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


by a slightly curved
line.

AG

From i^

of line

AG
the

to dot C, draw an oblique

line.

For Draft
nary

of

Sleeve, see the ordi-

dress

sleeve,

Section VII.

DRESSING-GOWN

The

draft of a dress

ing-gown

consists

in the pattern of
1.

2. 3.

The The

front.

back.
s
i

The
The

e-

piece of back.
4.

sleeve.

To obtain the
height of the three

diagrams

in

whih
skirt

the body and


are
to

be
the

drafted,

take

variable

measures and write

down
of

the

number
then

given by the length


the

body

measure

to the bot-

tom

of

the

gown,

and add two inches

CUTIING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


to the

355

number obtained
us the

the total of these two

numbers

will give

height of the diagram for front of


of the

gown.

The length

dressing-gown varies accord-

ing to the taste of each person.

For an ordinary dressing-gown, three French metres,


or 3 5'ards lo^^

inches, are

generally allowed for the


i

bottom

of the skirt,

which leaves
three

yard 23 inches to

be divided between the

diagrams necessary for

body and

skirt.
1.

DRAFT OF FRONT

To find
bottom

the height of diagram of front, take the height

of the person

from the shoulder (at armhole) to the

of the skirt plus

two inches,
of

total

583^ inches

(height of diagram).
the width
of

The width

diagram must be
say

the

material, let

us

ig^

inches.

From A to C mark by From A to B mark by a


chest

a dot the length

of the

body.

vertical line the half width of

= 10^. Note. For the use


figures,

of the fixed

measures represented

by

and

of the variable

measures contained in

the diagram, see Section VII.


of

From

dot

at

bottom

armhole, measure vertically the fourth measure

the
ob-

length underneath arm


tained, begin a curved

6^^.

From

the point

line, v^hich

must end towards

D.
2.

DRAFT OF
the

BACK

To

find the height of

diagram, take the height

of the person,

from the shoulder (at the neck) to the

356

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


of the

bottom

gown

59 inches (height of diagram)

The width
gram
say
is

of dia-

the width
let

of the material
lis

19^ From B towards


inches
carry
half

the

first

width of back
inches,
a

77,-^

and
dot
;

mark by
a line

from this dot, draw


parallel
to

to

AC
3,'^

equal

the
15

length of back,
inches, and
;

mark

by a dot

this point

marks

the

waist,

from the waist prolong the line parallel to

AC

another
gives

5^,
to

which

additional

length

the waist, then

from the end of this


line,

and

in

a di-

rection

parallel to
y%.

DC,

measure
the

From

point
yk,

which marks the waist, measure horizontally

and

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


join dot Y% to dot y% by a
will

357

slightly curved line,

which
dot

form the prolongation of the body.

From
will

^
at

J^L4^

draw an oblique
which
the

line,

end

vertical line N.
as-

Then, with the

sistance of the fixed

measures
by
figures,

indicated

we can
slope
of

form
neck,

the
of

shoulder,

and

the
dot,

armhole.
^'s

From

line

N,

measure
parallel

in a

line
five-

to

AB

eighths (fixed measure),

and join

it

to

dot 1^ by a slightly

curved

line,

then

from dot i}{ draw a


line
line
;/

parallel

to the

N. Line

m and

show the material


is

which

required

for the folds.


3.

DRAFT

OF

SIDE-

PIECE IN BACK.

To
of

find the height

the

diagram

lor

the side-piece

of

back, take the

358

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


=^oj^ (height
of diagram).
of the

height of the person, under the arm to the bottom of


the skirt, plus 2 inches

The width
rial,

of

diagram will be the width

mate-

let

us say igf^.
to

From B
dot

carry

4^

inches (fixed measure), from

4^

measure vertically the number given by the

fourth variable measure

length
4^

underneath the arm

6^

i}{ (fixed

measure ):^7)>^, and draw a line pardot


to A,

allel to

AC.

From

measure the fourth


a dot. will

round

of waist less

^=15^, and mark by

From
form

this dot

draw

a line parallel to dot

4^, which

the three sides of a small diagram, in which the side-

piece should be drawn.

From

dot

4^

and parallel

to

BD,

carry

i^

(fixed

measure); from dot


(fixed

4^

towards

A, carry equally

i^

measure), and join these


will

dots by a curved line, which

form the armhole.

At the end of the line and dot


take

4^

and

parallel fo

BA,
dot

away seven-eighths
oblique
line to

(fixed measure),

and join by

an

dot

i^

of line

4^.

From
end

draw

a curve

line

towards
to line

D
i){

at the

of the

line

which runs parallel


parallel
to

4^,

and, in a direc(fixed

tion

BA, measure 4^.


ot

measure),
to

then join by a curve

dot i}( oi line

AB

dot

i^

of that parallel to line

To

find the prolongation

the body, the parallel

must be increased
measure

six inches

by a vertical

line.

At

the end of this line and in parallel

direction to
it

BA,
Line

i^

inch (fixed measure), and join

by an

oblique line to the parallel line under dot i}^.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


m
shows the material required
4.

359

for the fold of the skirt.

DRAFT OF SLEEVE

(See Section VII.)

Having drafted and cut out the


test

patterns,

we must

them by the testing measure.


laid together, the
if

When we

cut out the

material every pattern must be placed on two pieces


of
it

two right sides being next each


one will be

other;

this precaution be not observed,

cut on the wrong, and the

other on the right side of


sleeve,
is

the

stuff.

The
in

back, side-piece of back, and

must be cut
cut out, care

the

same way.

When
bottom

the material

must be taken

to leave sufficient
at

for the

turnings-in, and for the

hem

of the dressing-

gown,

LOW ROUND WAIST

To make
number
Note.
ure

low body with round waist, take the same


measures as
for a

of variable

high dress.

When we take the seventh variable meas the width of back we should calculate sevenfirst

eighths less
the arm, but

when
if

the shoulder falls a

little

towards

the

shoulders are short, then we

may

follow the measure exactly.

For a high dress, the second variable measure the width of the shoulderstakeninfront ought to have lyi

more than the seventh variable measure


of

back

width the while for a low body or low apron, the width
first

of shoulders taken in front

ought not

to

have more than

ij^

more than the

first

width

of back.

360

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


variable measures of

The

body and width

of

back

are not used in their entirety.

Example.

Length

of

bod)^, say

15^.

To

find the

number

of eighths

which ought

to

form the height of

the diagram, see in Section VII. the drafts of the patterns for a body.

In the diagram of the front, on the line


the fixed

AC

is

found

measure, number 3^, in a vertical line;

the

3^
15^

leaves

2^

inches;

2^

must be deducted from

number given by
of

the length of the body,

23/^=
chest

15^

13 inches (height of diagram).

The width

diagram

is

equal to the half-width of

= 9^

inches.

HALF-WIDTH OF SHOULDERS z=

8^

INCHES

From A towards B

carry the half-width of shoulders


%]/{

inches

mark by
line

a dot

from

this dot

measure

verticall}^ seven-

eights.

On

BA from

the dot
of

which marks the half-width


shoulders, carry towards

A i^
\]^

inches; join dot

^
;

to dot

by an oblique
the

line,

which forms
from

shoulder-seam

A
to

C measure 3^ inches, and join dot dot lyi by a slightly curved line.
towards

i^

DRAFT OF BACK

Length

of back,

15^

inches.
of

To

find the height of the

diagram

back, see

the

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


draft of the

361
line

back

in

the body of a grown the


fixed

woman,

BD.
ber

On

that line

measure indicates the

slope of the shoulder as being of four inches.

Num-

3^

must be deducted from the number given by the

length of back,

15^

inches;

i5->^

3/^= =
6^^.

12)^ inches
will

(height

of

diagram).

The width diagram

be

equal to the half-width of the back

J^

From B towards D carry ^ measure). From B towards A


i^, and
y% to dot

(fixed

carry

join

by an oblique

line

dot

i^, which forms the shoulder4


4 to dot

seam.

From A towards C measure


iJ4^

inches, and join dot


slightly curved line.

by a

From B towards
2|/^,

take

off parallel to

D carry BD
CD

the size of wrist, less


^^
;

and

join dot

^
D

to dot

by

an

oblique

line.

From C towards
to dot Y^

carry

^, and

join dot yi
line.

on line

by a slightly curved

XII

HOW TO TRANSPOSE THE FIXED AND THE VARIABLE MEASURES WHEN IT IS WISHED TO THROW THE SHOULDER SEAMS
TOWARD THE BACK

The

fixed

measures which must be transposed


:

for this

purpose are two

The

first,

which indicates the shoulder-seam (front

of the

body), instead of being3^ becomes only

362

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


The second, which
indicates the slope of the shoul-

der-seam (back of the body), instead of being


4 inches becomes 5^.

The
I,

variable measures are also two

The width
the
first

of

the

shoulders taken

in

front,

instead of being

2^, ought to be 4^ more than width of back, which must never be


round
wrist, instead
of

changed.
2.

The
to

size

being 6^, a

given by the measure, must have two inches more

form the front of the armhole

to

form the

back of the armhole we must take one-third of


size

round

wrist.

SHOULDER

SEAM
the slope
of

Having made
neck, measure

from

toward

B
a

half

the width of shoulders


inches, and

= 9^
dot
;

mark

it

by

from

this dot

descend
it

\y^ (fixed measure), and join


to dot

2^

at slope
line,

of

neck by
will

an oblique

which

form

the slope of shoulder.

To form
114^

the front of the armhole, measure from dot

in a parallel line to

BD

the round of wrist -f 2


to

8^4^,

bringing

it

at
;

same time back

line

BD
B

by a
carry

horizontal stroke

from this stroke, towards

^, and

join yi to the horizontal stroke by an

oblique

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


line,

363

and

to dot i^^, the slope of shoulder,

by a curved

one

which

will

form the armhole. DRAFT OF BACK


After having formed the slope of

neck,

measure from

towards

5^

(fixed measure),

and join dot

i^

of slope of

neck by an oblique

line,

which
der.

will

form the slope of shoul-

ARMHOLE

From

dot 5}^, towards D, meas-

ure the third of size round wrist, and

mark

it

by a dot;

from this dot measure horizontally


join

^
by

towards AB, and

by an oblique

line

to
it

dot 5}^.
to dot f^

From C towards
a slightly

measure ^, and join

curved

line.

For the

side-piece of back, see Section VII.

For

the sleeve, see Section VII.

XIII

DRAWERS FOR A WOMAN


(Variable Measures)

Outer length of leg (from the hip

to

below the knee)


37^^,

= i%y^
waist

inches

Testing

measure

Round

of

=27^.

Size round wrist

=6^. The latter three

are conventional measures.

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM OF DRAWERS

Height

of

diagram

outer length of leg 28^^

inches

364
-\-

CUT! IN G OUT BY MEASUREMENT

the two thirds size round waist

= 4^
Width

inch, let

us

say 32^.
of

diagram

half the

testing measure less i^ =


17^ inches. Note. To draft the

pattern on the material,

you must meason


the

ure

selvage

twice

the height of

the diagram plus


for the
1.

3^
the

hems.

Then
out

Cut

material.
2.

Fold

it

hori-

zontally,
is to

that

say, join

the two ends.


3.

Fold

it

then

vertically,

by which you join the four selvages,

which

will represent to

you the

line of

the

dia-

gram AC.

The
see
if

material being thus folded, you must


the width of the diagram
i^'s,

-test

it

to

is

equal to half the


pre-

testing measure, less

and

strictly follow the

scribed use of the fixed measures and the variable measures indicated on the diagram.

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


The
fixed

365
tlie

measures are indicated by

figures,

and

variable measures by letters.

From A towards B measure i^ From A towards C measure 5^


join
it

(fixed measure).

(fixed measure),

and

to dot i)^

by an oblique

line.

A measure
and mark
(fixed

the third of the testing measure,

From B towards 12^ inches,

from this dot measure vertically

3^
two-

measure).
size

From B towards D measure

thirds
to dot

round waist

= 4^^ mark h
line. line.

and join this dot

3^

by an oblique

same manner an oblique


half the testing

From H to E draw in From A towards C take

measure plus

i^

20^, and mark F.


;

From

dot

measure towards A,

4^
the:

from dot

45^;^,

in a parallel line to

AB, measure

two-thirds size

round waist =:

by a curve, and

4^ mark g, and to dot 3^ by an


;

join this dot to dot

oblique line.

From
loj!^,

towards
;/,

C measure

the size round wrist

+ 4=

mark
line.

and join

this dot to dot

by a slightly curved

Note.

The line which starts

from

line

//

and passes

by the dots 3^, ^and F, forms the front part of drawers. DRAWERS FOR A YOUNG GIRL
(Variable Measures.)

size 23/^
Height

Outer length of leg (from the hip and below the knee) testing measure 24>^ 28^ round of waist

round wrist =5^^.

The

latter three

are

the conventional measures.

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR DRAWERS


of

Diagram

the

outer length

of

leg, 24^^

366

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT

and the third of size round wrist


inches.

J^ let us say,

27

Width

of

diagam

half the testing measure,


Note.
tern

less

i^

T2i4.

To
must

draft

the pat-

on the

material,

the

selvage

be

measured
of

and cut twice the height


the diagram, plus

3^

for the

hems.
1.

Then

Cut out the material.

2.

Fold the material horizontally (join its two

ends).
3.

Fold
ly,

it

then vertical-

by which the four

selvages will be joined,

and will represent to


us line

AC

of the dia-

gram.

The

material being thus folded, you must test


is

it

to

see whether the width of the diagram

equal to half
the fixed

the testing measure, less if^, and afterward

and variable measures, as indicated on the diagram,

must be

strictly followed.

The

fixed

measures are indicated by

figures, the

variable by letters.

From A towards B measure \]^ From A towards C measure 4 inches

(fixed measure).
(fixed

measure),

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


and join
towards
this to dot ij^

367

by an oblique

line.

From B

measure one-third
;

of the testing

measure r=

9^, and mark E from this dot descend 2 inches (fixed measure). FromBtowards D measure one-third the size
round wrist
-j-

^ = 2^;

mark

//,

and join

this dot to dot

E, and to dot 2 by two oblique

lines.

From A towards

C measure
from dot

half the testing

measure plus

1^
to

I5li>

and mark F; from this dot towards

measure

2^

2^

measure in a
~\-

line parallel
;

AB, the
g,

third size round wrist


join this

= 2^ ^
mark
;,

mark

and

dot to dot 2 by an oblique, and to dot

by

a curved line.

From

towards
;

C measure
and join

the size
it

round wrist

+ 2^

:= 8}^

to

dot

by a slightly curved
Note.

line.

The line which


2, g,

starts

from dot

/i

and passes

by dots
ers.

and F, forms the front part of the draw-

XIV
APRON, PRINCESS SHAPE

(For a child

of Eleven).

VARIABLE MEASURES
Full length of apron
.

368

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


VERIFICATION OF THE VARIABLE MEASURES
Iff

B
'

1-

The width
taken

of
in

shoulders,
front,

must have

i^
first

more than the


width
2.

of back.

The testing
gives
of

measure
the width

us

chest
of

and second width


back.

We take the number which gives the


first

width
13,

of

back

and make a

subtraction with the

number

given

by

the testing measure

=
ing

28^

then, hav-

obtained
result

the
we

desired

add 4^, and divide

them

as follows

EXAMPLE
Testing measure
. .

Second width

of

back
.

Width
Height
inches.

of chest

13= 15^ = 141^ 13 15^ + 3^ = 18^


28^
-|- 1

1^

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR FRONT OF APRON


of

diagram

the

full

length of apron

= 373^

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


Width
measure
of

369

diagram

the
a dot
it
,

two-thirds

of

the

testing

=
/^

19^.
half the width
of chest

From A towards B measure

=9^

mark by
fixed

from this dot draw a line

parallel to

AC, and mark

NG.

Follow the

measures indicated on the diagram

by

figures.

Having formed the slope


of

neck from

towards N,
of
it

measure the half-width


shoulders

= yyi
it

and mark
this

by a dot.

From

dot

descend
ure),
at

inches (fixed measto dot

and join

2^
at

slope of neck by a slightly


line.

curved

From

dot

2,

slope of shoulder, measure

on a line parallel
size

to

NG the

round wrist
it

+ ^ =
then back

5^, bringing
to line

NG

by a horizontal

line

towards

measure ^,

then from dot

to

dot 2

draw
dot

a curved
of

line.

From
to angle

^
also

armhole

draw
line.

slightly

curved

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR BACK OF APRON

Height

of

diagram

37^,

full

length of apron.

370

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREAIENT

Width of diagram 14^'^, half the testing measure. From A towards B measure half the second width of back 7^, and mark it by a dot. From this dot draw a line parallel to line AC, and mark it NG.

Slope of Neck.
(fixed measure).

From

towards

measure

2^

join

it

to dot

2^
;

by an oblique

From A towards C measure ^, and line. The line between


first

A
of

and

will be

found to contain half the


a dot,

width

back

=
fn

y%

mark by

and from this dot measure vertically

^
n

6^

(fixed

measure)
dots
line,

join the

two

2^

by an oblique
will

which

give

the slope of the shoulder.

From

dot

2^,

slope of shoulder, measure in


a vertical direc-

tion the size

round wrist
bringing

iM^=4/^'
P by a horizontal line
(k
;

\t

then back to line


dot

NG
dot

mark

F, and join

to

2^, slope

of shoulder, by a slightly curved line.

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR A SLEEVE WITH WRISTBAND


Outer length
of arm, i8>^ (height of diagram).

13^ + 2 = 15^ (width of diagram). From A towards B, size round wrist 5^, and mark by dot m. From A towards C measure one-third of size round wrist i5<^ ^4, and mark it by dot ;z; join m and by an oblique line. From C towards A measure
Size round arm,
71

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


i^
size
(fixed

371

measure).

round wrist by a

From C towards D mark dot// join dot /to i^ by an


r=:

the
ob-

lique line.
-|-

Mark
on the

the size round wrist twice


line

loj^^

2^

i3>

between C and

by the letter
of size

G.

From B towards
-|-

measure the two thirds


it

round wrist
join
it

^=

3^, mark

by the

letter

E, and

by an

oblique line to the letter G.


wrist,

From B
mark
it

towards

measure the site round

by

the letter F, and join letter

to

by a curved

line.

DRAFT OF THE DIAGRAM FOR WRISTBAND

Height

of of

diagram

2^
size

inches.
-|-

Width
'^

diagram

round wrist

7^.
material

^
Note.

Lay
on AB.

the selvage of the

Should

anyone
for

wish

to

make an
or

apron,

Princess shape,

child

older

younger than

eleven years, see page 367 and the following, where the
fixed

measures are given appertaining

to different ages.

The

difference

between an apron. Princess shape, and a


for in the "Verification of varia-

dress,

must be looked

ble measures."

Example.

Apron

for a child of eleven years old.

Width

of shoulders, taken in front

First width of back

....
.

14^
13

Remains
In
the

\yi

dress

of

a child
front,

of

eleven,

the

width

of

shoulders, taken in

must have two inches more

372

CU TTING OUT BY ME A S UREMENT


first

than the

width of back.

This difference

is re-

quired for the slope of neck in

the back, the fixed

measure from

towards
it is

for

the

apron being 2^,

while for the dress


plies to all ages.

only i^.

The same

rule ap-

APRON WITH SHOULDER STRAPS

The only

peculiarity about

this

apron

is

square
out
of

piece in front and back joined by shoulder straps

according to a paper pattern.


the apron
is

The lower portion

gathered, before and behind, into straight

bands,
straps.

first

sewed on to the upper part with the shoulder


this apron,

To make
of

we

take the five follov/-

ing variable measures

Length

apron

23^
11

First width of back

Outer length

of

arm

Size round wrist

Testing measure
I.

.... .... ....


. .

13^

4^
22^
round wrist

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR SHOULDER STRAPS

Height

of diagram.

size

^ +1^ = 5^
Width
less i)i

of

diagram

size

round

wrist

=3/{j4 (fixed
line.

From B towards D measure


J/s

measure), join dot

to

letter

A
to

by an oblique
of

From C towards
wrist, let

measure two-thirds
it

size

round

us say 2^, and join

dot }i
laid

by an ob-

lique line.

The

material

must be

double on line

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


AC.

373

On

line

CD

the front square piece of apron body

must be

sewed, and on line

]/^

the

sleeve.

Two

shoulder straps must be cut out.


2.

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR THE SQUARE FRONT OF APRON BODY

/,

Height of diagram

one-third
^
Width
of

the

size

O
diagram

round wrist

^.

the
B

first

width of back,

11 inches,

less one-third size round wrist, lY^ =^

9^.

On

line

AB

the material must be folded double along joined to line

the selvages, and angle

of the first

diagram.
3.

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM OF BACKPIECE

Height
let

of

diagram

one-third the
the
first

size

round wrist,

us say i^.
of

Width

diagram

half
alike.

width of back, 5^,


inches.

+
/

one-third size

round wrist,
back and

i^

=6^
line

The two

pieces,

front,

must be cut out

S
I

On

AB
A

the material

must be folded double along the

C
to the

^
oblique line
4.

selvage.

Angle
first

must be joined

E^

on the

diagram.

DRAFT OF DIAGRAM FOR FRONT OF THE APRON


of

Height

diagram
diagram

length

of apron,

23^

2^ =
meas-

21^.

Width
ure.

of

two-thirds

of the

testing

3 74

CUTTING OUT BY ME A S UREMENT


the
first

From A towards B measure

width of back
this point

=
A

11 inches,

and mark the point


D.

P.

Fom
line

draw an

oblique line to angle


size

From

towards
i^g,

measure one-third the


it

round wrist =^

and
size

mark

by F.
-j-

From P towards

one-third

round waist
then join

^ = i%
E
line

mark

it

by the

letter E,

to

by a curved

line,

which will form

the armhole.

Oh

AC

the material must be folded

double along the selvage.


Note.

The

diagram
is

for

back

of apron

exactly the

same
page

as for the front.


of

For
see

the diagram
370.

sleeve

By

strictly follow-

ing the

prescribed

use of
this

the variable measures,

shaped apron can be made

up

for children

of all ages,

between
years.

one

and thirteen

LOW-NECKED APRON FOR A CHILD

When we

desire to draft the pattern for


it is

a child's

low-necked dress or apron,

necessary, after having

taken the variable measures, to test them carefully,


looking

back

to

Section

IX. regarding dresses for

young

girls

and

children, in order to see the


first

number

of

eighths required for the

width of shoulders, taken

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


in
front,

375

and then

to

subtract but half

the

number

marked
in the

in

each different age.


front,

We
line

must

also observe,

diagram of the

on

BA, the indication

of the fixed

measure

for

the shoulder.

On

the dia-

gram

of the back, line

BA, we

shall find the fixed

meas-

ure, slope of shoulder.

Example.

Child of eight years old.


BD
(fixed
off off

In the diagram

of front, line
yi.

measure) 13^;

i^

i^ =
is

This i^z taken

from the fixed measure

at

the

same time taken

from the length

of the body.

DIAGRAM OF FRONT

The height The width


the chest

of the

diagram

is

equal to the length of

the body, 13 inches


01

i^
is

^^Ya-

diagram

equal to the half-width of

7^.
VARIABLE MEASURES
of

Length

body

13

inches.

Width Width
Length

of shoulders.
of chest
.

iS}i-j4

15^
5}4

Length underneath arm


of

back

12^-^
.

Width

of back

first,
.

11^, second
.

width
Testing measure

13

25 3^

Length

of

arm (outer)
(inner)
13

Size round arm

Size round wrist

5H

376

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT

From A towards B measure the half width of shouldFrom this dot measure in ers, and mark it by a dot.
a line parallel to

AC

f^ (fixed

measure) the slope of


line

shoulder.

On

AB

from the
of
in-

dot which marks the half-width

shoulder measure towards


ches, and join by

A i^

an

oblique line
will give

dot
the

i^

lo

dot
of

Y%,

which

slope

shoulder.

From A
and
slightly

towards
join dot

C measure 2^

inches,

2^

to dot

\% by

curved

line.

Armhole.

For the
AB
join
;

armhole take the number given


;

by the size round wrist


cally the

from dot y% measure


it

verti-

number obtained, and mark


to

by a

line

drawn

parallel

from this parallel line measure

towards
line,

to the parallel

line

by an oblique

and

this

one again to dot ^, the slope of shoulder,


line.

by a curved
Darts.

For the darts, see

Section

TX where

the fixed

measures are indicated.

DIAGRAM OF THE BACK OF A LOW-NECK BODY OR APRON

NOT HAVING A SIDE-PIECE.


In the diagram of the back, on line

BD,

the fixed
\y^ z= y^

measure

is

2^

1^/8

^, and

1]/%

y^

becomes the

fixed

measure, the slope of back.

The
which

i^

in the length of

will give

12^

back must alsobetakea

off,

II

inches (height of diagram).


half the first width of

From A towards B measure

CUTTING OUT BY MEASUREMENT


back, and

377

mark

it

by a dot

from this dot measure ver-

tically Yz (fixed

measure).

From

the dot which marks

half the

first

width of back, measure towards

A i^

inch,

and join dot i^ to dot S/z by an oblique line. From A towards C measure 2 inches, and join dot \%
to

by a slightly curved from

line.

Measure vertically
round wrist,
less

Yz the size
it

i^

and mark

on line

BD

then join

them by
ure

slightly

curved line (the

armhole).
i/z,

From

toward
to dot

C meas-

and join dot yi


line.
^7^,

F by

an

oblique

From C towards
Y^

D
line

measure
from

and draw an oblique and


of

toward

2.

Between the dots

^
size

on line

CD,

there should be found the

fourth

round

waist, less

^.

-0

''''^

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS