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CableCALC Pro BS 7671 - Reference Manual

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CableCALC Pro BS 7671 Reference Manual


Version 2012
This reference manual contains information on how to use and technical reference material pertaining to CableCALC Pro BS 7671. CableCALC Pro BS 7671 is powerful software used for designing electrical cable installations in accordance with British Standard 7671:2008(2011) (IEE Wiring Regulations 17th Edition).

Table of contents 1 Load .......................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Power/Current ................................................................................................. 3 Entering load as a power .......................................................................... 3 Entering load as a current ........................................................................ 4 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Efficiency ........................................................................................................ 4 Power factor .................................................................................................... 4 Circuit arrangement ......................................................................................... 4 Voltage ............................................................................................................ 5 Voltage drop (%) ............................................................................................. 5 Length.............................................................................................................. 5 Upstream fault level ........................................................................................ 5 Source impedance, Ze ...................................................................................... 6 Frequency ........................................................................................................ 6 System grounding............................................................................................ 7 TN grounding ........................................................................................... 7 TT grounding ........................................................................................... 7

Supply .................................................................................................................... 5

2.7.1 2.7.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Correction factors................................................................................................... 8 Ambient temperature, Ca ................................................................................. 8 Depth of burial, Cb .......................................................................................... 9 Overload for buried cables, Cc ........................................................................ 9 Type of overcurrent protection, Cd .................................................................. 9 Grouping, Cg.................................................................................................. 10 Thermal insulation, Ci ................................................................................... 11 1

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Thermal resistivity of soil, Cs ........................................................................ 11 Resetting all correction factors ...................................................................... 11 Protection provided ....................................................................................... 12 Type of circuit protective device ................................................................... 12 Fault clearing times ....................................................................................... 13

Protection ............................................................................................................. 12

Cable .................................................................................................................... 13 Installation............................................................................................................ 13 Specifying conductor size and no. of parallel circuits ......................................... 14 7.1 7.2 Phase cable sizes ........................................................................................... 14 Earth cable sizes ............................................................................................ 14

8 9

Calculation checks ............................................................................................... 15 Support and technical services ............................................................................. 16 Installation methods reference ........................................................... 17

10 Where to go from here ......................................................................................... 16 Appendix A:

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1 Load
The Load tab contains fields for the user to enter details about the current or power drawn by the electrical load(s) as well as the type of circuit arrangement which the load is connected.

1.1 Power/Current
Enter the value of the load as either a power or current value, where the units are in kW or Amperes respectively.

1.1.1 Entering load as a power


A load can be entered as a power in kilowatts. This will either be an electrical power or, in the case of a motor, be the mechanical output power in which case an efficiency value should also be entered. When a load is entered as a power then the current input field (greyed) will display the equivalent circuit design current Ib which is calculated as follows: DC load:

Ib Single-phase load:
Ib

P *1000 V * ( / 100)

P *1000 V pn * p. f . * ( / 100)

Three-phase load:

Ib
Where: P V Vpn Vpp p.f.

P *1000 3 * V pp * p. f . * ( / 100)

Power entered by the user (kW) Efficiency (%) D.C. voltage (V) A.C. phase-to-neutral voltage (V) A.C. phase-to-phase voltage (V) Power factor

Note only calculated circuit design load current will appear in the report.
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1.1.2 Entering load as a current


A load can be entered directly as a current. Efficiency and power factor values applied will affect the current which is entered in order to reach Ib.

1.2 Efficiency
Load efficiency is entered as a percentage from 1 to 100 %. This value will scale the design load current for both loads entered as power and loads entered as current. For example, for a load entered as 100 A with an efficiency of 90 % the design load current is calculated as follows: Ib current 100 111.11A efficiency(%) / 100 0.9

Note an efficiency value of 100 % (default) will not scale the load current.

1.3 Power factor


Enter a value for lagging power factor between 0.1 and 1 for both a load entered as a power and a load entered as a current. For loads entered as a power the value of power factor changes the value of the circuit design load current Ib. The value of power factor affects the phase angle of the current which affects the voltage drop values calculated for a circuit.

1.4 Circuit arrangement


The circuit arrangement is specified from a number of the following choices. The choice of circuit arrangement will affect the calculation methods. Radial Submains Ring Radial circuit where point is transmitted from point to point by a single length of cable. Main having a number of lesser mains or radial circuits branching from it but being itself subsidiary to a larger main. Ring final circuit acting like two radial circuits proceeding in opposite directions around a ring. Assumes one quarter of the rating of the protective device (usually 32 A) for voltage drop calculation. Sizes the cable between the motor starter and the motor terminals.

D.O.L. Motor Star-Delta Sizes the cable between the motor starter and the motor terminals. Motor

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2 Supply
2.1 Voltage
Voltage at the point of supply for a circuit is entered as a phase-to-neutral voltage for a single phase supply or a phase-to-phase voltage for a three phase supply or simply as voltage for a D.C. supply. A value for voltage can be entered between 1 up to 1000 V.

2.2 Voltage drop (%)


A permissible voltage drop in percent can be entered however the program will use Voltage Drop (%) to size cables only when Use VD? is selected. The impedance and the hence voltage drop is less for larger cables. If necessary the program will automatically increase the cable size to satisfy the permissible voltage drop however this is limited up to single circuits. If the permissible voltage drop is not satisfied for single circuits up to the largest possible conductor size the user can manually select the cable size and the number of (parallel) circuits to check if it satisfies the permissible voltage drop. Tips: 1. Right-click Voltage Drop (%) and select Maximum Voltage Drop Information for guidance from the Standards on maximum permissible voltage drops. 2. If the circuit arrangement is a Submain allowance should be given for additional voltage drop in the final subcircuits.

2.3 Length
Enter a value for Length (m) of the cable run from the location of the protective device up to the termination of the load. For a ring circuit this is the length of the cable up to the furthest point only.

2.4 Upstream fault level


A value of Upstream Fault Level (kA) is the prospective short-circuit level at the point (as seen upstream) of the location of the protective device. This value is used for determining the phase-to-neutral short-circuit current which in turn is used for determining the short-circuit performance of the active conductors

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(i.e. the higher the upstream fault level the higher the prospective fault current which will result in a larger conductor size to satisfy the adiabatic equation). A value of zero assumes an infinite fault current source at the point of supply. Under certain cases (i.e. short Length (m) with high Upstream Fault Level (kA) the size of the minimum conductor size may be dictated by short-circuit performance. To reduce the influence of short-circuit performance on the size of the cable enter a low value (i.e. 1 kA) for Upstream Fault Level (kA). The short-circuit withstand capability of a protective device should exceed the value entered for upstream fault level.

2.5 Source impedance, Ze


This is the estimated or preferably measured impedance of the source of supply as seen at the location of the protective device. The source impedance is independent of the Upstream Fault Level because this value is often supplied separately as an ultimate design figure. In fact the actual prospective Upstream Fault Level can be calculated from Impedance, Ze using Ohms law. The value for source impedance Ze is used for determining the phase-to-earth shortcircuit current which is used for: (a) Determining the short-circuit performance of the earth conductor(s). (b) Calculating (contributes to) the value of actual earth fault loop impedance Zs. Tip: 1. Right-click Impedance, Ze and select Typical Source Impedance Values for guidance on what to enter for source impedance if it has not been measured.

2.6 Frequency
Operating frequency for an A.C. source of supply can be varied between 49 to 61 Hz. Typical values for A.C. are either 50 Hz or 60 Hz. For D.C. supplies this value does not apply as the frequency is 0 Hz.

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2.7 System grounding


Three system grounding configurations which align with BS 7671 and IEC 60364 definitions can be selected.

2.7.1 TN grounding
In a TN earthing system one of the points in the generator or transformer is connected with earth (usually the star point in a three-phase system). The body of the electrical device is connected with earth via the earth connection made at the supply.

Figure 1. TN Grounding

TN-C-S: combined PEN conductor from transformer to building distribution point, but separate PE and N conductors in fixed indoor wiring and flexible power cords. TN-S: separate protective earth (PE) and neutral (N) conductors from transformer to consuming device, which are not connected together at any point after the building distribution point.

2.7.2 TT grounding
In a TT earthing system, the protective earth connection of the consumer is provided by a local connection to earth, independent of any earth connection at the generator.

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Figure 2. TT Grounding

3 Correction factors
Numerous correction factors can be determined within the program depending on installation conditions. Simple wizard programs are provided for certain correction factors whereas for others these are automatically (in accordance with the Standards) determined by the program depending on the user inputs. All correction factors are then combined (multiplied) to achieve an overall correction factor which is used for de-rating of the cable(s). Only those correction factors which are relevant to the cable type and installation selected are available for the user to change, otherwise they are set to default (1). Note: Correction factor values change depending on the installation method. For example, the ambient temperature correction factor (Ca) for Method C at 40 C is 0.87 whereas for Method D at 40 C it is 0.77. If a correction factor(s) has been calculated for a particular installation method and that method is subsequently changed by the user then the correction factor needs to be recalculated.

3.1 Ambient temperature, Ca


Both the current-carrying capacity and the voltage drop for cables are affected by the ambient temperature. An ambient air temperature correction factor can be calculated (and are different) depending on the installation method chosen.

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Note the default (Ca = 1) ambient temperature for buried cables (Method D) is 20 C. For all other installation methods the default is 30 C. These are accepted values for the U.K. however these may not apply for all regions.

Figure 3. Correction factor Ca for Installation Method D (buried cables)

3.2 Depth of burial, Cb


The rating of cables is reduced with increased depth of burial. Depth of burial correction factor Cb applies only for installation Method D (buried cables). The cable ratings in BS 7671 for buried cables have been calculated for an assumed depth of burial of 0.8 metres. Correction factor Cb can be calculated for variations in depth of burial from 0.5 metres down to 3 metres. These values are based on IEC 60502.

3.3 Overload for buried cables, Cc


Correction factor, Cc = 0.9 is applicable for buried cables protected against overload where the overload factor of the protective device is greater than 1.3 (Regulation 433.1.4 of BS 7671:2008(2011)). The overload protection factor of the protective device is equal to the conventional tripping current divided by the nominal tripping current, In.

3.4 Type of overcurrent protection, Cd


If the following conditions occur: 1. Overload and short-circuit protection is provided; and 2. Protective device is semi-enclosed fuse to BS 3036

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Then a correction factor Cd = 0.725 is automatically applied. This allows for the same degree of protection for fuses to BS 3036 which is afforded by other devices. Refer to Section 4 of Appendix 4 in BS 7671:2008(2011).

3.5 Grouping, Cg
Where a number of circuits are installed in the same group in free air, on a surface, buried direct, in ducts, or within the same sheath or wiring enclosure, in such a way they are not independently cooled by the ambient air or the ground the a correction factor for grouping Cg is applicable. The value for Cg is dependent on (a) the type of cable; and (b) the method of installation. The figure below shows how Cg is calculated for Method C.

Figure 4. Correction factor Cg for Installation Method C

Note: Group correction factors are applicable to groups consisting of similar equally loaded cables. Group correction factors Cg has been calculated on the basis of prolonged steady-state operation at a 100 % load factor for all live conductors. Where the loading of adjacent circuits is less than 100 % then Cg may be higher (nearer to 1). Where cables of different temperature ratings are grouped, they should be rated at a rating appropriate to the cable with the lowest temperature rating. For mineral insulated cables not exposed to touch then no correction factor for grouping need be applied.

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3.6 Thermal insulation, Ci


Covering of cables with thermal insulation should be avoided. Where this is not possible and a cable is totally surrounded by thermal insulation over a short length of the run then the correction factor Ci should be applied. Note Ci is not applicable where the cable is installed in a thermal insulated wall or above a thermally insulated ceiling. There are standard installation methods defined to cover these situations.

3.7 Thermal resistivity of soil, Cs


For buried cables the soil thermal resistivity of the ground affects the current-carrying capacity. Ratings in BS 7671 assume a soil thermal resistivity of 2.5 K.m/W where cables are buried in and around buildings containing rubble, clinker and similar materials having poor thermal properties. This is considerably higher than the accepted value of 1.2 K.m/W for the natural soil in the U.K. Soil thermal resistivity varies greatly with soil composition, moisture retention qualities and seasonal weather patterns as well as the variation in load carried by the cable. Higher current-carrying capacities are obtained in clay or peat soils which may have thermal resistivity as low as 0.5 K.m/W. Similarly, values as high as 3 K.m/W may be associated with well drained sands for constantly loaded cables.

3.8 Resetting all correction factors


All correction factors which are not zero can be reset by right-clicking Correction Factor and selecting Reinitialize to Default Value.

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4 Protection
4.1 Protection provided
Choose whether the selected over-current protective device shall provide (a) Overload and Short-circuit protection; or (b) Short-circuit protection only. The intended function of the over-current protective device determines whether the nominal tripping current In (case (a) above) or the load current Ib (case (b) above) is used for sizing of the cable.

4.2 Type of circuit protective device


Wide range of protective devices can be selected (see Table 1) using the tree control under the Protection Tab.
Table 1. Protective devices provided within the program

Description

Type(s)

Standard

Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) Air Circuit Breaker (ACB) Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCBO) Cartridge Fuse Rewireable Fuse Tips:

1, 2, 3, 4 B, C, D 10, 30, 100, 300 mA HRC Fuse

BS 3871 BS EN 60898 BS EN 60947 BS EN 61009 BS 1361 BS 1362 BS 88 BS 3036

Comments Withdrawn in 1994. Included for the verification of existing circuits and information.

Thermal (A) and magnetic settings (multiplier) are changeable.

The protective device which is currently chosen may sometimes be hidden within the tree control. Right-click the tree control and select Open All Items. Hold the cursor over the tree control to display information about the protection settings (i.e. type, nominal, conventional and instantaneous tripping currents) for the device which is currently selected.

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4.3 Fault clearing times


Maximum fault clearing times should be specified by the user for both short-circuit and earth fault conditions. These can be either (a) actual clearing times taken from the manufacturers curves for the level of fault current (refer to calculation results for short-circuit levels); or (b) maximum clearance times to comply with the standards (conservative). Fault clearance times are used by the program to check short-circuit performance of active and earth cables using the adiabatic equations. Note the user should check whether the actual disconnection time complies with the maximum allowed under BS 7671. Tip: Right-click Short-circuit clearing time (s) or Earth fault clearing time (s) and select Maximum Disconnection Times Information for compliance guidelines.

5 Cable
All of the different cables covered by BS 7671 are included within the program. Cable types include thermoplastic (circular and flat), thermosetting (including flexible), flexible cords and mineral insulated cables. Both copper and aluminium conductors, single and multi-core, armoured and nonarmoured cables are included.

6 Installation
All of the installation methods covered by BS 7671 are included within the program. Refer to Appendix A for a reference list with descriptions of installation methods. Notes: The installation methods displayed will change with changes to parameters such as the cable insulation type and other parameters under the Cable tab.

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7 Specifying conductor size and no. of parallel circuits


Both the cross-sectional area and the number of parallel circuits for phase and earth conductors can either be calculated automatically or specified manually.

7.1 Phase cable sizes


The program can determine the minimum size of phase conductor required automatically. Where a single circuit does not provide adequate current-carrying capacity then parallel circuits can be added (by default as multiples of the largest conductor cross-sectional area available) automatically. It is simple for the user to enter and assess compliance for the desired cross-sectional area and the number of parallel circuits.

7.2 Earth cable sizes


By default the program uses Table 54-7 from BS 7671 for calculating earth conductor sizes. Generally Table 54-7 is very conservative and a more economical design can be achieved (smaller earth cable size) by specifying the conductor size manually and checking compliance.

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8 Calculation checks
Checks are performed for each there is a calculation. These checks (see Table X) help the user to ensure compliance with BS 7671 requirements. Warnings are displayed whenever the calculation checks determine there is an issue. When they arise the user should review the warnings and make appropriate changes to the program inputs to resolve the issues.

Table 2. Calculation checks and possible fixes Calculation checks Fail condition Protective device rating (In) design load In < Ib current (Ib) Protective device rating (In) effective In > Iz current capacity of cable (Iz) Effective current capacity of cable (Iz) design load current (Ib) Actual voltage drop (Vda) permissible voltage drop (Vdp) (Note 1) Actual earth loop impedance (Zs) device earth loop impedance (Zdev) Short-circuit performance of phase conductor is adequate Iz < Ib Vda > Vdp Zs > Zdev Smin < phase conductor size

Possible fixes - Increase In Reduce In Increase size of phase conductor Increase size of phase conductor Increase size of phase conductor Increase size of earth conductor Reduce In Reduce Short-circuit clearing time Reduce Upstream Fault Level (Note 2) Increase size of phase conductor Reduce Earth fault clearing time Increase Source Impedance, Ze (Note 3) Increase size of earth conductor

Short-circuit performance of earth conductor is adequate

Smin < earth conductor size

Notes: 1. Applicable when Use VD? is selected. 2. This will reduce phase-to-neutral short-circuit level. 3. This will reduce phase-to-earth short-circuit level.

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9 Support and technical services


Software support and additional technical services are available from Electrotechnik. Visit our website http://www.cablecalcpro.co.uk/ to contact us.

10 Where to go from here


Refer to the Operating Manual for examples on how to use the program.

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Appendix A: Installation methods reference


No. Examples Description Method Non-sheathed cables in conduit in a thermally insulated wall with an inner skin having thermal A conductance of not less than 10 W/m2K

Multicore cable in conduit in a thermally insulated wall with an inner skin having a thermal conductance of not less than 10 W/m2K Multicore cable direct in a thermally insulated wall with an inner skin has a thermal conductance of not less than 10 W/m2K Non-sheathed cables in conduit on a wooden or masonry wall or spaced less than 0.3 x conduit diameter from it Multicore cable in conduit on a wooden or masonry wall or spaced less than 0.3 x conduit diameter from it Non-sheathed cables in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run horizontally Non-sheathed cables in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run vertically Multicore cable in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run horizontally

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Description Method Multicore cable in cable trunking on a wooden or masonry wall run B vertically

Non-sheathed cables in suspended cable trunking 10 B

Multicore cables in suspended cable trunking 11 B

Non-sheathed cables run in mouldings 12 A

Non-sheathed cables to skirting trunking 13 B

Multicore cables to skirting trunking 14 B

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Non-sheathed cables in conduit or single-core or multicore cables in architrave Non-sheathed cables in conduit or single-core or multicore cables in window frames

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Description Method Single-core or multicore cables: fixed on (clipped direct), or spaced C less that 0.3 x cable diameter from a wooden or masonry wall

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Single-core or multicore cables: fixed directly under a wooden or masonry ceiling Single-core or multicore cables: spaced from a ceiling

22

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced from a ceiling 22 F

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced from a ceiling 22 G

30

Single-core or multicore cables: on unperforated tray run horizontally or vertically Single-core or multicore cables: on perforated tray run horizontally or vertically

31

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Description Method Single-core or multicore cables: on perforated tray run horizontally or vertically

31

32

Single-core or multicore cables: on brackets or on a wire mesh tray run horizontally or vertically Single-core or multicore cables: on brackets or on a wire mesh tray run horizontally or vertically

32

Fs

33

Single-core or multicore cables: spaced more than 0.3 times the cable diameter from a wall Single-core or multicore cables: spaced more than 0.3 times the cable diameter from a wall Single-core or multicore cables: spaced more than 0.3 times the cable diameter from a wall

33

33

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Description Method Single-core or multicore cables: on a ladder

34

Single-core or multicore cables: on a ladder

34

35

Single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating a support wire or harness Single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating a support wire or harness Bare or non-sheathed cables on insulators Single-core or multicore cable in a building void Non-sheathed cables in conduit in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W Single-core or multicore cable in conduit in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W Non-sheathed cables in cable ducting in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2

35

36 40

G B

41

42

43

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Method

44

Single-core or multicore cable in cable ducting in a building void in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W Non-sheathed cables in cable ducting in masonry having a thermals resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W Single-core or multicore cable in cable ducting in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W Single-core or multicore cable: in a ceiling void or in a suspended floor Non-sheathed cables in flush cable trunking in the floor Multicore cable in flush cable trunking in the floor Non-sheathed cables in flush trunking

45

46

47 50 51

B B B

52

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Method

Description Multicore cable in flush trunking

53

54

Non-sheathed cables or single-core cables in conduit in an unventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically Non-sheathed cables in conduit in an open or ventilated cable channel in the floor Sheathed single-core or multicore cable in an open or ventilated cable channel run horizontally or vertically Single-core or multicore cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W without added mechanical protection

55

56

57

58

Single-core or multicore cable direct in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W with added mechanical protection (e.g. cable capping)

59

Non-sheathed cables or single core cables in conduit in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W

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Method

60

Description Multicore cables in conduit in masonry having a thermal resistivity not greater than 2 K.m/W

70

Multicore unarmoured cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground Single-core unarmoured cable in conduit or in cable ducting in the ground Sheathed, armoured or multicore cables direct in the ground without added mechanical protection Sheathed, armoured or multicore cables direct in the ground with added mechanical protection (e.g. cable covers) Flat twin and earth cable clipped direct to a wooden joist above a plasterboard ceiling with a minimum U value of 0.1 W/m2K and with thermal insulation not exceeding 100 mm in thickness Flat twin and earth cable clipped direct to a wooden joist above a plasterboard ceiling with a minimum U value of 0.1 W/m2K and with thermal insulation exceeding 100 mm in thickness Flat twin and earth cable in a stud wall with thermal insulation with a minimum U value of 0.1 W/m2K with the cable touching the inner wall surface Flat twin and earth cable in a stud wall with thermal insulation with a minimum U value of 0.1 W/m2K with the cable not touching the inner wall surface

71

72

73

100

100

101

101

102

102

103

103

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