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PART A/BAHAGAIAN A INSTRUCTION/ARAHAN: Answer ALL questions / Jawab SEMUA soalan.

QUESTION 1 / SOALAN 1 Describe the influence of analysis and optimazation stage in a design process. Huraikan pengaruh analisis dan tahap optimum dalam proses perekaan. [Total/Jumlah: 5 marks] QUESTION 2 / SOALAN 2 Describe metal cutting process and the important factor for metal cutting operation. Huraikan proses pemotongan logam dan faktor penting untuk operasi pemotongan logam [Total/Jumlah: 5 marks] QUESTION 3 / SOALAN 3 Explain the meaning of flash and formation of flash in closed forging operation. Terangkan maksud flash dan pembentukan flash dalam operasi penempaan tertutup.

The meaning of the flash in forging is metal in excess of that required to fill the blocking or finishing forging impression of a set of dies completely. Flash extends out from the body of the forging as a thin plate at the line where the dies meet and is subsequently removed by trimming. Because it cools faster than the body of the component during forging, flash can serve to restrict metal flow at the line where dies meet, thus ensuring complete filling of the impression.In conventional closed die forging the formation of flash is necessary for die filling The process formation of flash in closed forging, a billet is formed (hot) in dies (usually with two halves) such that the flow of metal from the die cavity is restricted. The excess material is extruded through a restrictive narrow gap and appears as flash around the forging at the die parting line.

Figure 14.7 (a) Stages in forging a connecting rod for an internal combustion engine. Note the amount of flash required to ensure proper filling of the die cavities..

Figure 14.7 (a)

[Total/Jumlah: 5 marks] QUESTION 4 / SOALAN 4 Define tensile strength and Modulus of Elasticity and describe the relation. Takrifkan tensile strength dan Modulus Keanjalan dan nyatakan hubungannya. [Total/Juml ah: 5 marks] QUESTION 5 / SOALAN 5 Describe the flank wear and crater wear and significant factors that influence those wear on cutty tool. Huraikan kehausan flank wear dan crater wear dan faktor penting yang mempengaruhi

kedua-dua kehausan tersebut terhadap alat pemotongan. [Total/Jumlah: 5 marks] [Overall Total/Jumlah keseluruhan: 25 marks]

PART B / BAHAGIAN B INSTRUCTION/ARAHAN: Answer ALL questions / Jawab SEMUA soalan. QUESTION 1 / SOALAN 1 a) What are the three main function of the cutting fluid in metal cutting? Apakah tiga fungsi utama cecair pemotongan dalam pemotongan logam? The three main function of the cutting fluids in metal cutting is to lubricate the chip-tool and tool-workpiece interfaces, remove heat from the workpiece and cutting zone and flush away chips from the cutting area (Shaw, 1942). While each of these three functions can be employed as justification for cutting fluid usage, it is widely believed that the primary functions of a cutting fluid are lubrication and cooling. b) Describe briefly two method of cutting fluid application during metal cutting process. Huraikan secara ringkas dua kaedah penggunaan cecair pemotongan semasa proses pemotongan logam. Every conceivable method of applying cutting fluid example flooding, spraying, dripping, misting, brushing can be used, with the best choice depending on the application and the equipment available. For many metal cutting applications the ideal would be high-pressure, high-volume pumping to force a stream of fluid directly into the tool-chip interface, with walls around the machine to contain the splatter and a sump to catch, filter, and recirculate the fluid.

One of the method that I want to describe is Flooding . In flooding, a steady stream of fluid is directed at the chip or tool-work piece interface. Most machine tools are equipped with a recirculating system that incorporates filters for cleaning of cutting fluids. Cutting fluids are applied to the chip although better cooling is obtained by applying it to the flank face under pressure:

Second of the method that I want to describe is Mist applications. Fluid droplets suspended in air provide effective cooling by evaporation of the fluid. Mist application in general is not as effective as flooding, but can deliver cutting fluid to inaccessible areas that cannot be reached by conventional flooding. As illustrated in Fig. 3, two different mechanisms have been proposed as sources for cutting fluid mist: atomization and vaporization/condensation. Both mechanisms of mist formation will be discussed and their significance explored.

Cutting fluid is atomised by a jet of air and the mist is directed at the cutting zone

[Total/Jumlah: 10 marks/markah]

Ref : 1. Mahdi, S. M., and R.O. Skold, ``Ultrafiltration for the Recycling of a Model Water-Based Metalworking Fluid: Process Design Considerations,'' Lub. Eng., Vol. 47/8, Aug. 1991, pp. 686-690. 2. Marano, R. and G. Mac, ``Analytical Studies of Soluble Oil Cutting Fluids - IV. Filtration Equipment and the Importance of Fine Particle Removal System 97 - Dearborn Engine Plant,'' Ford Research Technical Report No. SR-88-124. 3. Silliman, J.D., Cutting and Grinding Fluids: Selection and Application, Society of Skold, R. O., ``Field Testing of a Model Waterbased Metalworking Fluid Designed for Continuous Recycling Using Ultrafiltration,'' Lub. Eng., Vol.47/8, Aug. 1991, pp. 653-9.
QUESTION 2 / SOALAN 2

a) Describe the difference between brazing and soldering. Huraikan perbezaan di antara kimpalan loyang dan pematerian. The joining techniques of soldering and brazing have many similarities;

however, each process has its own characteristics and specific indications for use. Generally, the criteria for selecting one process over the other depend on the physical and economic requirements of the base metals and/or enduse of the assembly being joined. The difference between brazing and soldering is temperature As with brazing, soldering does not involve the melting of the base metals. However, the filler metal used has a lower melting point (often referred to as liquidus) than that of brazing filler metals (below approximately 840 F, or 450 C) and chemical fluxes must be used to facilitate joining. In soldering operations, heat may be applied in a number of ways, including the use of soldering irons, torches, ultrasonic welding equipment, resistance welding apparatus, infrared heaters, or specialized ovens. A major advantage of soldering is its low-temperature

characteristic which minimizes distortion of the base metals, and makes it the preferred joining method for materials that cannot tolerate brazing or welding temperatures. However, soldered joints must not be subjected to high stresses, as soldering results in a relatively weak joint. In brazing operations, heat is generally supplied by an oxyfuel-type torch (manual or automated), a controlled-atmosphere or vacuum furnace, a chemical dip (salt bath), or specialized equipment using resistance, induction, or even infrared technologies. Brazing is especially well suited to high volume production (automation) and for joining thin sections and parts with complex geometrie

Brazing above 450 C

Solderi ng Below 450 0 C

Figure 1.0 Show that the soldering temperature for soldering in pipe installations is approximately 250C for brazing the temperature is between 670C and 730C.

Table l. Differences between soldered and brazed joints Joining Method Soldering Brazing Joint Strength Poor Excellent Distortion Noon Minimal Aesthetics Good Excellent

Ref 1. The Brazing Book, Handy & Harman, New York (1985) 2. Brazing Handbook, 4th Edition, American Welding Society, Miami (1991)
3. The Effect of Atmosphere Composition on Braze Flow, (Prepared for

14th Annual AWS/WRC Brazing and Soldering Conference, Philadelphia, PA), Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (1983) 4. Eichelberger, D.P., Garg, Diwakar, "Nitrogen-Based Atmospheres Emerge as Brazing Option," Heat Treating, October 1993 5. "Furnace Brazing Theory & Practice" (Corporate Presentation), T. Philips, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

b) Describe the difference between Brinell Hardness and Vickers Hardness Test. Huraikan perbezaan di antara Brinell Hardness and Vickers Hardness Test The many hardness tests listed here measure hardness under different experimental conditions, such as indenters made in different shapes and sizes and materials, and applied with varying loads. experimental data is evaluated using different formulae. Further, the The difference

between a Brinell and a Vickers hardness tester is the type of indenter used. Where Brinell uses a round ball indenter to press materials, Vickers utilizes a square or diamond-shaped indenter. Its the same basic principle as the Brinell, but the user has a device to measure more defined indentations rather than Brinells harder-to determine round indentation. (See illustration.)

Brinell Hardness

Brinell hardness is found out by impressing a hardened ball of diameter D to the test sample by force F directed perpendicularly to the sample surface for a specified period of time. After relieving, the impression diameter d is measured. Diameter D is normally 1 mm, 2,5 mm, 5 mm or 10 mm. Ball diameter depends on thickness t of measured materials. It applies that the minimum thickness is ten times the impression depth. Otherwise the base hardness might influence the results.

The Brinell Hardness Test is commonly used for metallic materials and determines hardness by applying a known load of 500, 1500, or 3000 kgf to the test specimen via a hardenedsteelordiamondballwhichis10mmindiameter. The size of the impression on the specimen surface is calculated into a Brinell Hardness Number(HB) using the formula:

A measurement is not considered valid unless the diameter of the impression is in the range of 2.5 to 4.75 mm, although slightly exceeding this limit is tolerable. The 3000 kgf load yields Brinell hardness results from 160 and 600; the 1500 kgf load yields an HB value of 80 to 300; and the 500 kgf load will produce HB values of 26 to 100. Smaller loads of 100, 125 and 250 kgf can be utilized for softer metals. According to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E10-66, a

steel ball may be used up to HB 450, and carbide should be used up to HB 630. Use of the Brinell test on materials harder than HB 630 is not recommended as deformation of the ball indenter itself may occur, leading to errors in test result values

Vickers Hardness Tester

A diamond square pyramid of a specified apex angle is impressed to the tested material under loading force F (acting to the sample surface perpendicularly) for a specified period of time. Afterwards, the mean length of both impression diagonals is measured. The testing loading force normally varies between 10 and 1000 N. The loading is chosen from 10 up to 180 s. The load applied is recorded in the identification, such as HV 100 (HV 100 = 215). For practical reasons, we use tables where appropriate hardness is specified depending on the diagonal length d and force F applied.

The Vickers Hardness test can be applied to different materials across a broad range of harnesses. The Vickers test uses a square-bottomed diamond pyramid that has a 136 point angle. The load is usually 50 kgf, but can be 5, 10, 20, 30, or 120 kgf. The load is applied via the pyramid-shaped indenter against the well-supported, smooth, flat surface of the test specimen for 30 seconds. The resulting hardness reading is calculated based on the load and the area of the pyramid impression according to the formula:

Ref :
1. H.E. Boyer, in: Hardness Testing, ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 1987 2. J.Kising, W. Weiler and I. Winckler, VDI-Berichte, 583 (1986), p. 371-391. 3. Wrilreus, S. R. (1942) Hardness and hardness measurements, Cleveland: American Society of Metals, p. 167-762. [Total/Jumlah: 10 marks/markah] [Overall Total / Jumlah Keseluruhan: 20 marks/markah] ENDS OF QUESTION PAPER / KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT

If optimal characteristics can only be built into a design at a late stage in development, the cost implications are huge and the potential design variations are usually severely constrained. The use of virtual prototyping techniques overcomes this limitation in the development process and enables multiple attributes to be assessed much earlier, when design changes are less constrained. However, there is a critical need for system-level simulation processes, which predict the impact of modifying components and sub-systems on the full system-level response as well as on component-level performance, and enable trade-offs between conflicting attributes, even including customer subjective inputs to the design process.