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Ways to Motivate

Reward Your Learners


Rewards don't have to be tangible items. They can be simple things like affirmation and
encouragement. The main point is to connect with the learners and find a way to have them feel
good about some sort of achievement in your course.
Remain Positive
Yelling and threatening students is not an effective way to motivate. Remaining positive and focusing on achievement
will motivate students and help to create mutual respect for each individual and for learning.


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ubIic Praise
Make a habit of publicly praising students for achievement. You can even go as far as to create a certificate of
achievement, have the student stand to receive the certificate and send it home for the child's parents to display on
the refrigerator.


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raise him for a job well done.
Help Your Child Learn to Manage Time
When they start school, giIted children usually have Iew problems keeping up with work. They learn quickly and easily. While
that may sound like a real advantage, it can lead to problems. These children may never learn to manage their time in order to get
work done. At some point, whether in high school or college, they may Ieel overwhelmed by the work they need to complete and
don't know how to set time aside to complete tasks. Teach your child how to create and use a time-management schedule.
Praise Your Child's Efforts
GiIted kids sometimes have trouble connecting personal eIIort to achievement. Much oI what they do and learn comes easily to
them, so they can achieve with little eIIort. To help a child succeed, praise eIIorts at success and make that praise speciIic. For
example, instead oI saying "Nice work," it's better to say something like, "You worked hard on your science project; you really
earned that A." However, avoid the reverse: don't say things like, "II you worked harder, you would do better."
Weaver and CoLrell (1987) esLabllshed a LensLep sysLemaLlc sequence for
becomlng more comforLable uslng humor ln Lhe classroom
1 Smlle/8e llghLhearLed
2 8e sponLaneous/naLural
8elax conLrol a llLLle/break Lhe rouLlne occaslonally
b 8e wllllng Lo laugh aL yourself/donL Lake yourself so serlously
3 losLer an lnformal cllmaLe/be conversaLlonal and loose
4 8egln class wlLh a LhoughL for Lhe day a poem a shorL anecdoLe or a
humorous example
3 use sLorles and experlences LhaL emerge from Lhe sub[ecL maLLer use personal
experlences
6 8elaLe Lhlngs Lo Lhe everyday llfe of sLudenLs 8ead Lhe suLdenL slc
newspaper LlsLen Lo Lhelr muslc see Lhelr movles
7 lan lecLures/presenLaLlons ln shorL segmenLs wlLh humor ln[ecLed lan a
commerclal break use a sllde or overhead
8 Lncourage a glveandLake cllmaLe beLween yourself and sLudenLs lay off
Lhelr
commenLs Learn Lhelr names
9 Ask sLudenLs Lo supply you wlLh some of Lhelr [okes sLorles or anecdoLes
Share Lhese
10 1ell a [oke or Lwo uo ouLrageous Lhlngs AdmlL youre no good aL lL Appear
human (p 170)
Motivation is a necessity so that learning becomes a continuing, improving, interesting and
hopefully enjoyable process.
I say "hopefully enjoyable" because although you as a teacher try to make learning fun,
your students should understand that learning is the goal, the fun part is just nice to have.
As I'm sure you know, most people can be intimidated when it comes to doing or learning
something new - they would just prefer to maintain the status quo, it's easier.
You as a teacher, must develop and encourage classroom motivation, i.e. think of and
find ways to motivate students to reach their potential, their goals and their dreams.
However, having said that, students must also share in the responsibilityby doing some
things for themselves, such as:
* Set realistic goals for themselves, (based on their desires, not on what others may
say)and thus become more motivated to attain their goals.
* Understand that achieving one's goals takes work and may involve somerisk. Learning is
work and can be risky to your self esteem when you try something new, admit you don't
know something and have to ask for help.
Create Student Motivation in the Classroom.
%here are so many ways for you to develop student motivation:
1. As mentioned above (but worth repeating), encourage them to set to set goals.
2. Give students more control - a chance to create their own personal choices. Establishing
their own rights, is a very resourceful motivational technique. I'm talking about students
choosing their own ways (with your agreement of course) of completing assignments,
learning new or complex tasks, etc.
3. As much as possible relate assignments and class projects to real lifesituations.
4. Practice the assertive discipline (positive discipline) techniques that I discuss in
my Classroom Discipline page

5. Of course most teachers will come across students who will be very difficult to motivate
and who will not care about what happens in school. You have to create incentives. %here
are ways to motivate students such as these.
Doing unique activities, creating situations where they can work in small groups, creating
a reward system are just a few ideas.
%eaching in primary grades is quite different than in junior grades and so is student
motivation. Read about the reward systems that I have set up for students in primary
grades to motivate them to learn and for students in junior grades to increase their level of
motivation;
BUT please keep in mind that the reward system should be treated as a reward for finishing
a task not for just participating.
Want some of my helpful suggestions on Classroom Awards as well asmany very useful
and colourful certificates, awards and school passes without having to design the
them from scratch?
Be sure to click here to go to my page on Classroom Awards.

6. Having students help with some of the many jobs that need to be done in the classroom,
will not only make your life as a teacher easier butclassroom jobs are also a great student
motivational tool.
7. Games are fabulous classroom team building activities which are great for creating
motivation in the classroom. It's amazing how it does wonders for students' self esteem and
camaraderie. Read about a few of the motivational classroom games that I found
successful.
. Another of my favorite classroom activities for team building was a classroom meeting
that I called Special %alk and Student of the Week . My students loved it! %his is another
excellent student motivational tool.
9. Read about two very successful classroom contests that I implemented, that my students
loved and were invaluable in motivating my students and helping to establish discipline in
my classroom.
10. Motivate your students with some of these math word wall strategies.
11. Always remember that humor in the classroom is a great way to motivate students.
Read this page and find out why humor in the classroom is so important.
12. Motivating students to read has always been a challenge for teachers. Motivating
students to read doesn't have to be taxing and stressful. Click here and read about
the effective methods that I have used to to encourage and motivate my students to read.
13. One great motivational tool and an excellent educational experience are field trips. Be
sure to read my page on school field trip ideas to get some effective field trip ideas and
planning strategies.
14. Another great motivational tool is using the smartboard to deliver your lessons. It's
great for encouraging student participation and interaction. Read my page on smartboard
lesson plans to learn what they are all about.
%hree important thoughts to keep in mind as you finish reading this page:
1. Always display care, concern and encouragement for your students.
2. Never give up on any unmotivated students or they will give up on themselves.
3. Going hand in hand with building student motivation is building student self esteem.
Be sure to read my page on Student Self Esteem and learn to incorporate building self
esteem within your daily lesson plans. It's crucial.
Be AccessIbIe
O Teachers have the potential of being the most influential person in the classroom. n order to
influence your students, be accessible where they feel free to engage you on any topic. Students
who walk in the classroom without desiring to know what you are going to say and do are your least
motivated students. Be interested in their lives. f they know you care, they will start to care, too,
about what happens in the classroom. While you are teaching, call them by name, keep your lesson
content relevant to their lives and to pop culture as much as possible. Using technology in the
classroom that interests them such as YouTube videos and MP3 players will make them feel as if
they can approach you if they have a classroom issue. Keeping examples in your lessons as close
to real life as possible will motivate your students to listen and participate. Being accessible
motivates your students to initiate more questions and be more open in what they have to say about
class.
Be CommunIcuLIve
O Effective teaching strategies that result in motivating students are praising and rewarding students
for participating. Communicate your expectations to your students and how you think they can
succeed. f your students know you believe they can master the material you are teaching, they will
start to believe it, too. Positive feedback, especially when they do not expect it, will serve to let them
know you notice them and their work, which will motivate them to do even better. Give students
choices either in assignments or seating arrangements or even in grading scales as a reward for
being involved and responding the correct way in class. Consistency in how you grade, reward or
discipline students can do much in motivating students to their best in class.
Be CIuIIengIng
O Students who feel like their expected classwork is far too below their capabilities or far too above
their capabilities likely are not your motivated students. Strive to be challenging by giving class
assignments that are just a bit above your student's current ability. They need to stretch and attempt
hard topics and assignments in class, but be careful you pick just the right level of work. Use
differentiated instruction or teaching strategies that are different for different students' needs since
not every student is at the same level. Be enthusiastic about the topic you have to teach, and you
may even motivate your students to make a career out of what they learned in your class.


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Learning Environment:
The setting in which we work can encourage us to give our best effort or discourage us from even trying to perform.
deas to motivate by influencing factors in the student's environment:
O Reduce distractions in the classroom.
O Create a consistent room arrangement, with predictable materials and routines.
O Let students choose their seat location and study partners.
O Enlist students to come up with rules and guidelines for effective classroom learning.
O Create a memory-friendly classroom. Post assignments and due dates, written steps for multi-step tasks,
etc.
O Use a mix of verbal and environmental cues to keep students focused and on-task.
O Hold class in different locations occasionally ("within-building field trip"). For example, think about 'swapping'
classrooms with another teacher on a given day.
O Ask for student advice on how to make the classroom a more inviting and useful learning environment.
Iassroom ommunity:
We define ourselves in relation to others through social relationships. These connections are a central motivator for
most people. deas to motivate by fostering a sense of a learning community:
O Be as inviting a person as possible by actively listening to students and acknowledging their contributions.
O Greet students at the classroom door. 'Check in' briefly with students at the start and end of a work period.
O Ask students to complete a learning-preferences questionnaire.
O Assign 'study buddies' who help each other to get organized, start work projects, encourage one another,
and provide peer feedback.
O Train students to be peer editors or evaluators of others' assignments.
O Hold weekly 5-minute 'micro-meetings' with the group or class. Check in with the group about topics or
issues important to them. Record important points brought up and get back to students if necessary.
O Keep 'dialog journals'. Have students write daily or weekly comments in a journal to be kept in class.
Respond to student comments with short comments of your own.
O Circulate through the classroom. Be interactive and visible to kids. Use words of praise and encouragement.
Academic Activities:
Motivated students are engaged in interesting activities that guarantee a high success rate and relate to real-world
issues. deas to motivate through selection and development of learning activities:
O Use humor.
O Keep miscellaneous work supplies on hand (e.g., paper, pencils, etc.) for students to borrow.
O Set a timer (e.g., for 60 seconds) and challenge students to finish routine tasks or transition between
activities before timer runs out.
O Set up academic 'culminating event' fieldtrips. On these fieldtrips, have students use skills learned in class
(e.g., drafting questions in social studies to be used in an interview with a member of city government).
O nvite interesting guest speakers into the classroom to speak on academic topics. Prepare index cards with
review questions and answers based on material covered in class. Have guest speaker 'quiz' teams; award
points to teams based on their mastery of material.
O Offer students meaningful choice in setting up their assignments (e.g., selection of work materials, type of
activity).
O Select fun, imaginative activities for reviewing academic material. n order to get students to assemble
material for a research paper, for example, you might send them to the library on a fact-finding 'scavenger
hunt.'
O Encourage active student participation.
O Use motivating 'real-world' examples for review, quiz, or test items.
O Keep instructions and assignments short. Have students repeat instructions back.
O Celebrate student achievement.
O Celebrate mistakes as opportunities for learning.
O Prior to assignments, have students set their own short-term work or learning goals. Periodically, have
students rate their own progress toward their self-selected goals.
O Structure work period so that more difficult activities are in the middle, with easier tasks at the start and end.
O Liven potentially dull student review activities by conducting them as class-wide or small-group drills. Use a
game format to maintain interest.
O Use novel, interesting materials for instruction.
O Allow students to set their own pace for completing work.
O Select activities that make a community contribution. Students may, for instance, work on writing skills by
publishing a monthly newsletter for the 7th grade.
Learning haIIenges:
Every learner presents a unique profile of strengths and weaknesses. We unlock motivation when we acknowledge
and address unique learning profiles. deas to motivate by accommodating challenges to learning:
O Avoid 'stigmatizing' as low performers those students who require remedial academic support.
O Lead students through the first part of an assignment as a group before having them complete it
independently.
O f an assignment requires use of new or difficult terms or concepts, first pre-teach or preview this material.
O Make the classroom a 'safe' setting in which in which students can identify and work on their own skill
deficits.
O Give students credit and recognition for effort on assignments as well as for mastery of content.
O Be honest in telling students how challenging a topic or activity is likely to be to master. Never downplay the
difficulty of an assignment!
O Use a 'think-aloud' approach when introducing a skill or strategy.
O Select academic activities that guarantee a high degree of student success.
O Allow students to take a brief break when tired or frustrated.
O Help students to get organized and started on an activity.
O Have students keep a schedule of work assignments and due dates.
O Encourage students to use memory aids such as notes and lists.
O Assist students in breaking large, multi-step tasks into smaller subtasks. Have students write those subtasks
down as a personal 'to-do' list.
O Teach students to use a notebook organizer.
O Give reminders of upcoming transitions between activities.
O Help students to highlight key information to be remembered.
O Provide frequent review of key concepts.
O Periodically remind students of timeline of upcoming assignments.
utcomes/Pay-ffs for Learning:
Learning is a motivating activity when the learner can count on short- or long-term payoffs for mastering the material
being taught. deas to motivate by arranging or emphasizing payoffs to the student for successful learning:
O Reward student effort along with quality of completed work. (One way to do this is to use frequent
encouragement for good effort along with praise for finished work.)
O Build in short-term rewards (e.g., increased free time, pencils, positive note home) for student effort, work
completion.
O Create high-visibility location for displaying student work (e.g., bulletin board, web site). Encourage students
to select their own best work to be posted.
O Have students monitor their own progress in accuracy/work completion. For example, have students create
graphs charting homework assignments turned in. Tie student-monitored performance to reward programs.
A moLlvaLed chlld ls
llkely Lo
- Choose Lasks LhaL are
challenglng
- 8egln Lasks wlLhouL havlng Lo be
prodded
- Show serlous efforL and
concenLraLlon
- Pave a poslLlve aLLlLude Loward
learnlng and schoolwork
- use coplng sLraLegles Lo geL
Lhrough Lhe rough Llmes
- SLlck wlLh Lasks unLll successful
compleLlon
A chlld who ls noL
moLlvaLed ls llkely Lo
- Choose work LhaL ls lnapproprlaLely
easy
- need loLs of proddlng Lo geL sLarLed
- uL ln mlnlmal efforL
- Show a negaLlve or apaLheLlc aLLlLude
abouL learnlng and schoolwork
- Clve up qulckly when Lhe golng geLs
rough
- Leave many Lasks unflnlshed
SLrong bellef LhaL an adulL ln Lhelr llves wlll always be Lhere wlLh love and
supporL
- AblllLy Lo solve many of Lhelr own problems
- AblllLy Lo focus on Lhelr own
sLrengLhs
- 8egard mlsLakes as someLhlng LhaL
happens Lo everyone and someLhlng
Lo learn from
Lncourage ?our Chlld Lo 8e 8eslllenL
LmpaLhlzlng wlLh your chlld
8efore acLlng Lry Lo see Lhe slLuaLlon Lhrough her eyes l can see
you're very upseL abouL Lhe argumenL you had wlLh your slsLer buL hlLLlng ls unaccepLable even when
we are feellng
upseL Can you Lhlnk of a beLLer way Lo show your feellngs?"
- rovldlng your chlld wlLh reasonable cholces 8reakfasL wlll be ready ln 20
mlnuLes Would you llke LoasL or eggs Loday?"
- Changlng your approach when lL clearly doesn'L work ?ou complaln your
chlld doesn'L llsLen so you yell louder She Lunes you ouL lnsLead of conLlnulng Lo yell Lry someLhlng
dlfferenL 1urn her face Lo yours and whlsper ?ou
may surprlse her lnLo paylng aLLenLlon
- SupporLlng your chlld's lnLeresLs and LalenLs lf your chlld ls sLruggllng ln
school her parL ln Lhe school muslcal may be Lhe only Lhlng savlng her selfesLeem CelebraLe Lhls LalenL
never Lake lL away from her unLll you brlng up
Lhose grades"
ralse
- ulscusses resulLs CreaL work
on Lhe sclence qulz! ?ou goL an
A!"
- uses oplnlon words such as
good" greaL" Lerrlflc" and
wonderful"
- ls Lyplcally glven when Lhe chlld
has performed as you had hoped
she would
LncouragemenL
- noLlces efforL and progress
LhaL paper! l can Lell you've spenL a loL
Look aL
of Llme on lL! lL musL feel good Lo
know you worked so hard!"
- uses descrlpLlve words
Lhe baLhroom wlLhouL belng asked
?ou cleaned
Look aL LhaL shlny slnk! l can see
myself ln lL!"
- Can be glven regardless of Lhe
chlld's performance
work ouL Lhe way you planned dld lL?
1haL dldn'L
l can Lell you're dlsappolnLed buL l
know you'll Lry agaln nexL week WhaL
do you Lhlnk you mlghL do dlfferenLly
nexL Llme
Rexult of Iuck of Motlvutlon
When college students are not motivated in a particular class, a common outcome is a lost
desire to attend class, Iollowed by Irequent absences and plummeting grades. Launius
(1997) suggested that class attendance at colleges was positively correlated with academic
achievement. Van-Blerkom (1996), like Launius, Iound a signiIicant correlation between class
attendance and Iinal grades. Davenport (1990) Iound that students classiIied as having good
attendance in a class received Iinal grades oI at least A, B, or C. For students with poor
attendance, there were several grades oI D or F. Although college teachers could enact strict
attendance policies and penalize students who Iailed to attend, this study was concerned with
exploring what intrinsically motivates college students to continue attending class; what brings
them to class because oI a desire to be there, not because oI external Iactors such as a mandated
attendance policy. This study also looked at how college teachers' classroom perIormance can
inIluence that motivation.
To understand how a college teacher motivates students within a class, a deeper
understanding oI the Iollowing questions is necessary: What is motivation? Which type oI
motivation is more valuable to the student: intrinsic or extrinsic motivation? Who is responsible
Ior motivating students to continue coming to class to learn? And how does a college teacher
motivate students to continue coming to class to learn?
ReluteJ Revlew of Ilteruture
wbot ls Motlvotloo?
Wlodkowski (1986) suggested that motivation describes processes that (a) arouse a desire
to investigate behavior, (b) give direction and purpose to behavior, (c) continue to allow behavior
to persist, or (d) lead to choosing or preIerring a particular behavior. In relation to
learning, Crump (1995) stated that the act oI motivating could be deIined as exciting the mind oI
the student to receive instruction. She also Iound that excitement, interest, and enthusiasm
towards learning were the primary components oI motivation. Lumsden (1994) claimed that
student motivation dealt with the students' desire to participate in the learning process and the
reasons or goals underlying involvement or non-involvement in academic activities. She
discussed three types oI motivation: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and motivation to
learn. Intrinsically motivated students participate in an activity Ior enjoyment, the learning it
permits, and/or the sense oI accomplishment it brings. xtrinsically motivated students, on the
other hand, participate in an activity only to receive a reward or to avoid punishment external to
the activity itselI. Grades are a prominent example oI an extrinsic reward. Spaulding
(1992) suggested that in extrinsic motivation it was "the goal" (i.e., high grades) not the "doing"
that explained perIormance, whereas it was the actual "doing" that explained the primary reason
Ior intrinsic motivation. According to Marshall (1987), motivation to learn reIerred to the
meaningIulness, value, and beneIits oI academic tasks to the learner regardless oI whether or not
the tasks were intrinsically interesting. ThereIore, student motivation to learn might come Irom
intrinsic or Irom extrinsic sources.
oceotlve Motlvotloo lsycboloqy
According to Brewer, Hollingsworth, and Campbell (1995), incentive motivation
psychology (IMP), a term selected to describe the overt relationship between "incentive" and
"motivating," involved a deliberate instructional plan to elicit speciIic learner outcomes through
a system oI intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Brewer and his associates noted that the Iirst and
most prominent Iorm oI IMP was intrinsic incentive motivation (IIMa motivational strategy
that derived its reward system Irom the learners themselves). The extrinsic incentive motivation
(IM) oI IMP stressed the important link between learning and an external motivational reward
system. The authors concluded that,
AlLhough Lhere wlll probably always remaln some doubL as Lo Lhe uLlllLy of lM Lhe value of llM and
LlM ls obvlous ln Lhelr lmpllcaLlons for lmproved sLudenL performance and as a consequence for
lmproved moLlvaLlon Lo learn lannlng and developmenL of lncenLlve programs ls relaLlvely slmple once
educaLors deLermlne whlch Lype ls approprlaLe for sLudenL needs (p 30)
ottloslc vetses xttloslc Motlvotloo
Both learning Ior the joy oI learning and learning to gain an external reward are prevalent.
The question that might be asked is, "Which oI these sources oI motivation is more valuable Ior
student learning?" Condry and Chambers (1978) Iound that when conIronted with complex
intellectual tasks, students with greater intrinsic orientation used more logical inIormation-
gathering and decision-making strategies than did those students with an extrinsic
orientation. Lepper (1988) Iound that extrinsically oriented students were likely to expend
minimal eIIort Ior maximal reward. Research also supported the idea that when intrinsically
motivated students were given extrinsic rewards Ior their eIIorts, a reduction in their level oI
intrinsic motivation resulted (Deci, 1971, 1972a, 1972b; Lepper & Green, 1975; Lepper, Green,
& Nisbett, 1973). Spaulding (1992) concurred with this Iinding and suggested that when
students' perceptions oI selI-determination (intrinsic motivation) were undermined by teachers'
use oI extrinsic rewards, the initial level oI intrinsic motivation decreased. Spaulding also stated
that even though a student's rewarded behaviors might increase, when the extrinsic rewards were
taken away, the level oI intrinsic motivation was lower than it had been initially.
However, Brewer, Dunn, and Olszewski (1988) noted that several variables inIluenced intrinsic
motivation including selI-determination, Ieelings oI competence, Ieedback, task challenge or
diIIiculty. They Iurther concluded that any Iactor that inIluenced these determinants aIIected, in
turn, intrinsic motivation, although only indirectly. Brewer and his colleagues stated that, "While
the extrinsic reward may decrease a determinant oI intrinsic motivation, such as selI-
determination, it does not directly decrease intrinsic motivation" (p. 162). In
contrast, Wlodkowski (1986) criticized extrinsic motivation based on the moral contention that
"bribing" students was inherently wrong. His concern was that students would become
reinIorcement junkies.
wbo s kespooslble fot Motlvotloq 5toJeots?
II the most valuable learning occurs when a student is intrinsically motivated, the next
consideration should be to determine who is responsible Ior motivating students to come to class
and learn Ior the love oI learning. In a classroom environment, the teacher and the student
represent two oI the Iorces that may promote motivation to attend class and to learn Ior intrinsic
reasons. UnIortunately, researchers have not agreed on who carries the burden oI this
responsibility. TolleIson (1988) reported that teachers typically attributed students' low
achievement to low eIIort. Moreover, teachers viewed student characteristics such as poor work
habits as being more important than either classroom or teacher variables. In some instances,
students agreed that it was their responsibility to motivate themselves. Higbee (1996)Iound that
most students attributed Iailures and successes on assignments to their own actions. Dickens and
Perry (1982) reported that questionnaire results indicated a majority oI students believed they
had control oI their academic perIormance, as compared to only 10 who believed they had
little or no control.
Other studies have suggested that teachers have primary responsibility Ior motivating
students to learn. Brophy (1987) suggested that teachers viewed themselves as active
socialization agents who were capable oI stimulating students' motivation to learn. Wilkenson
(1992)stated that a dictionary deIinition Ior "teach" was "to cause to know a subject." Wilkenson
believed that whereas students were responsible Ior learning material in a class, the teacher was
responsible Ior causing the student to know the material. In addition, Wilkenson believed that
teachers should judge their success by the success oI their students and that the purpose Ior
teachers was to serve students. Additional studies have supported Wilkenson's strong views on
the responsibility oI the teacher to motivate students to learn. One oI the major Iindings in a
study by Small (1996) was that instructors were perceived by students as having the prime
responsibility Ior learners' interest or boredom. McCutcheon (1986) Iurther reported that a
survey indicated students believed that out oI 51 possible choices, the main reason they missed a
class was their negative perceptions oI the proIessor and the course.
ow to Motlvote 5toJeots?
II teachers have a responsibility to motivate students to attend class and to learn, it is
important Ior teachers to understand speciIically how to motivate students. Brewer and Marmon
(2000) and Wilson and Cameron (1996) identiIied three general areas teachers in training used to
evaluate themselves: instruction, relationships, and management. Instruction involved teacher
skills and competencies. Relationships concerned the attitudes teachers had toward their
students. Management dealt with classroom organization and planning. These three categories
also represented the major areas under a college teacher's control. Likewise, each oI these areas
provided the teacher with three ways to motivate students to learn.
This current study explored each oI these areas and the eIIect each one had on motivating
college students to choose to come to class to learn. In this study, instruction was reIerred to as
"teaching methods," relationships as "personal qualities," and management was termed
"classroom management." Following is a discussion oI each oI these categories.
Teaching methods. Historically, the lecture has served as the primary college teaching
method. However, this method oI instruction could be on the decline. Bonwell and Sutherland
(1997) claimed that evidence oI the eIIectiveness oI active learning approaches as a way to
Iacilitate learning was too compelling to ignore. Brewer (1997) conIirmed this, stating that
lectures could be too long, could Iail to encourage reIlective thinking, provided limited Ieedback,
and were not appropriate Ior hands-on training. Small (1996) reported that color instruction that
incorporated a variety oI attention-gaining and maintaining strategies appeared to be the best
way to promote interest and prevent boredom.
One way to oIIer variety in the classroom is to use cooperative learning groups. With this
approach, the teacher Iacilitates groups or teams oI students working together to solve practical
problems. One study Iound that achievement and motivational gains were signiIicantly higher Ior
students in a cooperative learning classroom in comparison with a traditional lecture classroom
(Nichols & Miller, 1993).McGonigal (1994) reported that cooperative groups and a varied
teaching approach aimed at maintaining student interest helped increase student motivation and
perIormance in a Spanish class. Richardson, Kring, and Davis (1997) Iound that students with
the highest grade point averages preIerred proIessor-assisted discussions over lectures. Based on
these Iindings, it appeared that oIIering a variety oI creative activities, including cooperative
groups, instead oI teaching solely by lecture, could motivate students. Brewer (1997) oIIered the
Iollowing 12 teaching methods in addition to the lecture: small-group discussions, role-playing,
case studies, demonstrations, panels, inquiry methods, buzz groups, programmed instruction,
directed study, experiments, brainstorming, and questioning.
This study investigated some oI these alternative methods oI teaching and also explored
the Iollowing teaching techniques: (a) allowing students to share experiences with each other, (b)
employing visual aids using modern technology, and (c) incorporating a variety oI activities
during one class period.
!ersonal qualities. The personal qualities a college teacher possesses may also impact
students' motivation to learn. Teven and McCrosky (1996) reported that levels oI learning were
positively inIluenced when students perceived their teachers to be caring. Brewer (1997) stated
that numerous surveys have shown that the most eIIective educators have been perceived as
caring, enthusiastic, consistent, and impartial when dealing with students. He also reIerred to the
adage, "They won't care what you know 'til they know that you care."Wilkenson
(1992) expressed similar views, suggesting that teachers impacted students more by their
character and commitment than by their verbal communication. Darr (1996) Iound that teacher
behavior appeared to be the Iactor that most strongly inIluenced students' evaluation oI
instruction. Thayer-Bacon and Bacon (1996) argued that teacher-caring encouraged student
growth and learning and created a saIe environment Ior risk-taking. Sass (1989) reported his
Iindings on eight characteristics that encouraged high classroom motivation. The number one
characteristic was enthusiasm. Rapport with students was also listed among the top eight
characteristics. It appeared that motivation was sometimes related to instructors' personal
characteristics, rather than what he or she actually taught. Arnett (2002) Iound that teachers' out-
oI-classroom rapport with students was also an important Iactor in motivating students. Through
outside contact with instructors, students may Ieel that the instructor cares about building a
relationship with them on an inIormal level, which may motivate them to perIorm better in class.
In this study, the researchers examined the Iollowing personal qualities a college teacher
might possess: humor, knowledge oI a subject, patience, enthusiasm, Iriendliness, respect toward
students, participation with students in activities, knowing students' names and interests,
proIessionalism, and openness to Ieedback.
Classroom Management. IIective classroom management might also aIIect a student's
motivation to learn in the college classroom.Brewer, DeJonge, and Stout (2001) and Karsenti and
Thilbert (1994) suggested that highly structured, well-organized, and outcomes-oriented teachers
seemed to maintain student motivation. Though class structure and organization were important,
balancing the classroom environment with Ilexibility and student empowerment could be just as
important. Friday (1990) believed that an authoritarian teaching style was less satisIying Ior
students than was a democratic teaching style. Luechauer and Shulman (1992) argued that
college business classes that were bureaucratic and teacher-Iocused created Ieelings oI
powerlessness among students. Instead, he recommended a class environment that empowered
students to Iorm an open and creative team environment. Hancock (2001) concurs that students
achieve more poorly in highly evaluative situations, in which instructors exert signiIicant control
over classroom procedures and competition among students is emphasized. Students who are test
anxious are particularly more sensitive to situations that they perceive to be highly evaluative.
High cognitive-level students (those who employ more complex cognitive structures and
think more abstractly) also seem to beneIit Irom teaching methods that are less rigid and more
Ilexible, according to another study by Hancock (2002). However, students with low conceptual
levels (those with Iew cognitive structures who avoid ambiguity and process inIormation
concretely) tend to beneIit Irom highly organized environments, he states. Individualized
instruction tailored to diIIerent types oI students may not always be possible, but "knowledge oI
how most students characteristically respond to direct or indirect instruction may enable the
proIessor to maximize eIIectiveness Ior the majority" (p. 66).
Jenkins, Breen, Lindsay, and Brew (2003) Iound that although students' needs and
motivational stimulants are diverse, there are some commonalities among them. They include (a)
the need to please others (teachers, parents, etc.); (b) the need to enhance their employability; (c)
the desire to belong to a group (such as the university or the department); (d) the desire to play a
role (student, mathematician, etc.); and (e) the motivation to enhance their selI-eIIicacy through
the acquisition oI skills and knowledge. They deIine selI-eIIicacy as students' "belieIs about their
own competence in the task domain" (p. 39).
Instructors can aid in enhancing students' selI-eIIicacy by providing accurate Ieedback that
is speciIic to the task (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003). For instance, instead oI general statements
such as "good paper," teachers can point out speciIic details oI the paper that were eIIective, such
as "well-thought-out introduction," or "smooth transitions between paragraphs." Instructors
should not provide positive Ieedback or insincere praise to students when it is not deserved;
instead, they should point out areas that need improvement to help students maintain accurate
eIIicacy judgments, according to Linnenbrink and Pintrich. Providing students with challenging
tasks that require some extra eIIort, they suggest, can also boost motivation and help students
build skills and develop expertise.
This study incorporated the Iollowing classroom manage-ment practices that involved both
structure and Ilexibility: presenting clear course objectives, beginning and ending class on time,
ensuring productive use oI class time, maintaining class-room control, providing organized
lessons, maintaining a relaxed environment, meeting the needs oI all students, oIIering Ilexibility
in planning and course goals, allowing student involvement in the direction oI the class, and
providing straightIorward directions.
RecommenJutlonx
Based on the Iindings oI the current study, several recommendations can be made to the
college teacher who desires to motivate students to continue attending a class. First oI all, college
teachers should not rely on lecturing as the primary method oI teaching. Instead, they should use
a variety oI alternative teaching methods to capture students' attention and curiosity. Using case
studies, role plays, experiments, and buzz groups are just a Iew oI many ways to teach students
without lecturing. Nevertheless, in some situations, such as large classes, lecture may be
necessary. When that is the case, the current study suggested that the college teacher should have
a thorough understanding oI the material since "knowledgeable oI subject matter" was identiIied
as a large motivating Iactor.
Another recommendation Ior college teachers is to maintain a positive attitude toward
students. The current study Iound that a teacher's personal qualities were more important in
motivating students to continue attending class than were teaching methods and classroom
management practices. Teachers who were open-minded, Iriendly, enthusiastic, and
knowledgeable about students' names and interests demonstrated several oI the personal qualities
that motivated students the most.
Finally, college teachers might enhance students' motivation by allowing student input and
by maintaining a Ilexible class environment. The current study suggested that students like
classes with structure and organization. At the same time, students are more motivated to
continue attending a class that is not too rigid. Meeting the needs oI all students, oIIering
Ilexibility in planning and course goals, and allowing students to be involved in the direction oI a
class were all perceived to be high motivational Iactors.
9 MoLlvaLlonal SLraLegles
Pere l wlll be sharlng my experlence whlch l have learnL over Lhe years l have also creaLe a owerpolnL
presenLaLlon on MoLlvaLlon

More owerolnL presenLaLlons from Chrls Solomon | uownload 1hls resenLaLlon

l Cvervlew

ln one of Lhe Lralnlng workshops a Leacher educaLor asked Lhe parLlclpanLs Who would you sLlll llke Lo
llsLen Lo and why?
Many parLlclpanLs remembered Lhelr Leacher who lnsplred Lhem and made a dlfference ln Lhelr llves
and sald Lhey would sLlll llke Lo llsLen Lo Lhem 1hose Leachers who are enLhuslasLlc and passlonaLe
abouL Leachlng can make an everlasLlng lnfluence on Lhelr sLudenLs

ll lnLernal and LxLernal facLors of MoLlvaLlon

A Leacher can do a loL Lo moLlvaLe hls/her learners MoLlvaLlon can work wonders ln Lhe classroom
Powever Lhere are componenLs LhaL are lnLernal or exLernal
lnLernal lacLors of MoLlvaLlon
1he lndlvldual's drlve of Lhe llsLener
ercelved relevance or values of Lhe learnlng acLlvlLy
leellngs of compeLence ln a chosen area
ersonal deflnlLlons and [udgmenLs of success and fallure
ALLlLude Lowards Lhe learnlng slLuaLlon
Confldence level and so on
Some of Lhe LxLernal lacLors of moLlvaLlon are
1he roles played by parenL
1he role played Leachers and peers
1he naLure of classroom lnLeracLlon
1he learnlng envlronmenL and relaLed aLLlLudes
1hese facLors play an lmporLanL role ln all klnds of learnlng slLuaLlonMoLlvaLlon ls generally regarded as
an essenLlal elemenL ln Lhe Leachlnglearnlng process
MoLlvaLlng an lndlvldual or a Leam ls noL a one Llme affalr
MoLlvaLlon ls dynamlc and conLlnuous unLll speclfled resulL ls achleved
MoLlvaLlon ls a process conslsLlng of several dlsLlncL phases

lll MoLlvaLlonal needs lor SLudenLs

Poldlng on Lo a commlLmenL ls llke holdlng a very hoL rock Lhe chances LhaL you wlll conLlnue Lo hold lL
ls near zero 8uL wlLh Llme lL wlll geL easler slnce Lhe rock wlll become colder
MoLlvaLlon needs Lo be generaLed as a chlld has Lo be moLlvaLed Lo pursue a Lask or choose a goal
1he generaLed moLlvaLlon needs Lo be acLlvely malnLalned and proLecLed
A sLudenL may be moLlvaLed lnlLlally Lo do a Lask buL he/she may noL be able Lo susLaln Lhe moLlvaLlon
unLll Lhe compleLlon of Lhe Lask Lherefore sLudenLs need Coach or menLor or a Leacher's supporL for
Lhem Lo sLay focused and malnLaln Lhelr moLlvaLlonllnally Lhere ls a Lhe phase called moLlvaLlonal reLro
phase 1hls ls concerned wlLh Lhe learner's reLrospecLlve evaluaLlon of how Lhlngs wenL
Lncouraglng learners Lo reflecL on pasL experlences wlll help Lhem ln acLlvlLles Lhey wlll be moLlvaLed Lo
pursue ln fuLure


MC1lvA1lnC S1uuLn1S
8y 8arbara Cross uavls unlverslLy of Callfornla 8erkeley
lrom 1ools for 1eachlng copyrlghL by !ossey8ass lor purchase or reprlnL lnformaLlon
conLacL !ossey8ass 8eprlnLed here wlLh permlsslon SepLember 1 1999

Some sLudenLs seem naLurally enLhuslasLlc abouL learnlng buL many needor expecLLhelr lnsLrucLors Lo
lnsplre challenge and sLlmulaLe Lhem LffecLlve learnlng ln Lhe classroom depends on Lhe Leachers
ablllLy Lo malnLaln Lhe lnLeresL LhaL broughL sLudenLs Lo Lhe course ln Lhe flrsL place (Lrlcksen 1978
p 3) WhaLever level of moLlvaLlon your sLudenLs brlng Lo Lhe classroom wlll be Lransformed for beLLer
or worse by whaL happens ln LhaL classroom
unforLunaLely Lhere ls no slngle maglcal formula for moLlvaLlng sLudenLs Many facLors affecL a glven
sLudenLs moLlvaLlon Lo work and Lo learn (8llgh 1971 Sass 1989) lnLeresL ln Lhe sub[ecL maLLer
percepLlon of lLs usefulness general deslre Lo achleve selfconfldence and selfesLeem as well as
paLlence and perslsLence And of course noL all sLudenLs are moLlvaLed by Lhe same values needs
deslres or wanLs Some of your sLudenLs wlll be moLlvaLed by Lhe approval of oLhers some by
overcomlng challenges

8esearchers have begun Lo ldenLlfy Lhose aspecLs of Lhe Leachlng slLuaLlon LhaL enhance sLudenLs self
moLlvaLlon (Lowman 1984 Lucas 1990 WelnerL and kluwe 1987 8llgh 1971) 1o encourage sLudenLs
Lo become selfmoLlvaLed lndependenL learners lnsLrucLors can do Lhe followlng

Clve frequenL early poslLlve feedback LhaL supporLs sLudenLs bellefs LhaL Lhey can do well
Lnsure opporLunlLles for sLudenLs success by asslgnlng Lasks LhaL are nelLher Loo easy nor Loo dlfflculL
Pelp sLudenLs flnd personal meanlng and value ln Lhe maLerlal
CreaLe an aLmosphere LhaL ls open and poslLlve
Pelp sLudenLs feel LhaL Lhey are valued members of a learnlng communlLy
8esearch has also shown LhaL good everyday Leachlng pracLlces can do more Lo counLer sLudenL apaLhy
Lhan speclal efforLs Lo aLLack moLlvaLlon dlrecLly (Lrlcksen 1978) MosL sLudenLs respond poslLlvely Lo a
wellorganlzed course LaughL by an enLhuslasLlc lnsLrucLor who has a genulne lnLeresL ln sLudenLs and
whaL Lhey learn 1hus acLlvlLles you underLake Lo promoLe learnlng wlll also enhance sLudenLs
moLlvaLlon

Ceneral SLraLegles

CaplLallze on sLudenLs exlsLlng needs SLudenLs learn besL when lncenLlves for learnlng ln a classroom
saLlsfy Lhelr own moLlves for enrolllng ln Lhe course Some of Lhe needs your sLudenLs may brlng Lo Lhe
classroom are Lhe need Lo learn someLhlng ln order Lo compleLe a parLlcular Lask or acLlvlLy Lhe need Lo
seek new experlences Lhe need Lo perfecL skllls Lhe need Lo overcome challenges Lhe need Lo become
compeLenL Lhe need Lo succeed and do well Lhe need Lo feel lnvolved and Lo lnLeracL wlLh oLher
people SaLlsfylng such needs ls rewardlng ln lLself and such rewards susLaln learnlng more effecLlvely
Lhan do grades ueslgn asslgnmenLs lnclass acLlvlLles and dlscusslon quesLlons Lo address Lhese klnds
of needs (Source McMlllan and lorsyLh 1991)
Make sLudenLs acLlve parLlclpanLs ln learnlng SLudenLs learn by dolng maklng wrlLlng deslgnlng
creaLlng solvlng asslvlLy dampens sLudenLs moLlvaLlon and curloslLy ose quesLlons uonL Lell
sLudenLs someLhlng when you can ask Lhem Lncourage sLudenLs Lo suggesL approaches Lo a problem or
Lo guess Lhe resulLs of an experlmenL use small group work See Leadlng a ulscusslon SupplemenLs
and AlLernaLlves Lo LecLurlng and CollaboraLlve Learnlng for meLhods LhaL sLress acLlve parLlclpaLlon
(Source Lucas 1990)

Ask sLudenLs Lo analyze whaL makes Lhelr classes more or less moLlvaLlng Sass (1989) asks hls classes
Lo recall Lwo recenL class perlods one ln whlch Lhey were hlghly moLlvaLed and one ln whlch Lhelr
moLlvaLlon was low Lach sLudenL makes a llsL of speclflc aspecLs of Lhe Lwo classes LhaL lnfluenced hls
or her level of moLlvaLlon and sLudenLs Lhen meeL ln small groups Lo reach consensus on characLerlsLlcs
LhaL conLrlbuLe Lo hlgh and low moLlvaLlon ln over LwenLy courses Sass reporLs Lhe same elghL
characLerlsLlcs emerge as ma[or conLrlbuLors Lo sLudenL moLlvaLlon

lnsLrucLors enLhuslasm
8elevance of Lhe maLerlal
CrganlzaLlon of Lhe course
ApproprlaLe dlfflculLy level of Lhe maLerlal
AcLlve lnvolvemenL of sLudenLs
varleLy
8apporL beLween Leacher and sLudenLs
use of approprlaLe concreLe and undersLandable examples
lncorporaLlng lnsLrucLlonal 8ehavlors 1haL MoLlvaLe SLudenLs

Pold hlgh buL reallsLlc expecLaLlons for your sLudenLs 8esearch has shown LhaL a Leachers expecLaLlons
have a powerful effecL on a sLudenLs performance lf you acL as Lhough you expecL your sLudenLs Lo be
moLlvaLed hardworklng and lnLeresLed ln Lhe course Lhey are more llkely Lo be so SeL reallsLlc
expecLaLlons for sLudenLs when you make asslgnmenLs glve presenLaLlons conducL dlscusslons and
grade examlnaLlons 8eallsLlc ln Lhls conLexL means LhaL your sLandards are hlgh enough Lo moLlvaLe
sLudenLs Lo do Lhelr besL work buL noL so hlgh LhaL sLudenLs wlll lnevlLably be frusLraLed ln Lrylng Lo
meeL Lhose expecLaLlons 1o develop Lhe drlve Lo achleve sLudenLs need Lo belleve LhaL achlevemenL ls
posslble whlch means LhaL you need Lo provlde early opporLunlLles for success (Sources Amerlcan
sychologlcal AssoclaLlon 1992 8llgh 1971 lorsyLh and McMlllan 1991 1 Lowman 1984)
Pelp sLudenLs seL achlevable goals for Lhemselves lallure Lo aLLaln unreallsLlc goals can dlsappolnL and
frusLraLe sLudenLs Lncourage sLudenLs Lo focus on Lhelr conLlnued lmprovemenL noL [usL on Lhelr grade
on any one LesL or asslgnmenL Pelp sLudenLs evaluaLe Lhelr progress by encouraglng Lhem Lo crlLlque
Lhelr own work analyze Lhelr sLrengLhs and work on Lhelr weaknesses lor example conslder asklng
sLudenLs Lo submlL selfevaluaLlon forms wlLh one or Lwo asslgnmenLs (Sources Cashln 1979 lorsyLh
and McMlllan 1991)

1ell sLudenLs whaL Lhey need Lo do Lo succeed ln your course uonL leL your sLudenLs sLruggle Lo flgure
ouL whaL ls expecLed of Lhem 8eassure sLudenLs LhaL Lhey can do well ln your course and Lell Lhem
exacLly whaL Lhey musL do Lo succeed Say someLhlng Lo Lhe effecL LhaL lf you can handle Lhe examples
on Lhese problem sheeLs you can pass Lhe exam eople who have Lrouble wlLh Lhese examples can ask
me for exLra help Cr lnsLead of saylng ?oure way behlnd Lell Lhe sLudenL Pere ls one way you
could go abouL learnlng Lhe maLerlal Pow can l help you? (Sources Cashln 1979 1lberlus 1990)

SLrengLhen sLudenLs selfmoLlvaLlon Avold messages LhaL relnforce your power as an lnsLrucLor or LhaL
emphaslze exLrlnslc rewards lnsLead of saylng l requlre you musL or you should sLress l Lhlnk
you wlll flnd or l wlll be lnLeresLed ln your reacLlon (Source Lowman 1990)

Avold creaLlng lnLense compeLlLlon among sLudenLs CompeLlLlon produces anxleLy whlch can lnLerfere
wlLh learnlng 8educe sLudenLs Lendencles Lo compare Lhemselves Lo one anoLher 8llgh (1971) reporLs
LhaL sLudenLs are more aLLenLlve dlsplay beLLer comprehenslon produce more work and are more
favorable Lo Lhe Leachlng meLhod when Lhey work cooperaLlvely ln groups raLher Lhan compeLe as
lndlvlduals 8efraln from publlc crlLlclsms of sLudenLs performance and from commenLs or acLlvlLles LhaL
plL sLudenLs agalnsL each oLher (Sources Lble 1988 lorsyLh and McMlllan 1991)

8e enLhuslasLlc abouL your sub[ecL An lnsLrucLors enLhuslasm ls a cruclal facLor ln sLudenL moLlvaLlon lf
you become bored or apaLheLlc sLudenLs wlll Loo 1yplcally an lnsLrucLors enLhuslasm comes from
confldence exclLemenL abouL Lhe conLenL and genulne pleasure ln Leachlng lf you flnd yourself
unlnLeresLed ln Lhe maLerlal Lhlnk back Lo whaL aLLracLed you Lo Lhe fleld and brlng Lhose aspecLs of Lhe
sub[ecL maLLer Lo llfe for your sLudenLs Cr challenge yourself Lo devlse Lhe mosL exclLlng way LopresenL
Lhe maLerlal however dull Lhe maLerlal lLself may seem Lo you

SLrucLurlng Lhe Course Lo MoLlvaLe SLudenLs

Work from sLudenLs sLrengLhs and lnLeresLs llnd ouL why sLudenLs are enrolled ln your course how
Lhey feel abouL Lhe sub[ecL maLLer and whaL Lhelr expecLaLlons are 1hen Lry Lo devlse examples case
sLudles or asslgnmenLs LhaL relaLe Lhe course conLenL Lo sLudenLs lnLeresLs and experlences lor
lnsLance a chemlsLry professor mlghL devoLe some lecLure Llme Lo examlnlng Lhe conLrlbuLlons of
chemlsLry Lo resolvlng envlronmenLal problems Lxplaln how Lhe conLenL and ob[ecLlves of your course
wlll help sLudenLs achleve Lhelr educaLlonal professlonal or personal goals (Sources 8rock 1976
Cashln 1979 Lucas 1990)
When posslble leL sLudenLs have some say ln chooslng whaL wlll be sLudled Clve sLudenLs opLlons on
Lerm papers or oLher asslgnmenLs (buL noL on LesLs) LeL sLudenLs declde beLween Lwo locaLlons for Lhe
fleld Lrlp or have Lhem selecL whlch Loplcs Lo explore ln greaLer depLh lf posslble lnclude opLlonal or
alLernaLlve unlLs ln Lhe course (Sources Ames and Ames 1990 Cashln 1979 lorsyLh and McMlllan
1991 Lowman 1984)

lncrease Lhe dlfflculLy of Lhe maLerlal as Lhe semesLer progresses Clve sLudenLs opporLunlLles Lo
succeed aL Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe semesLer Cnce sLudenLs feel Lhey can succeed you can gradually
lncrease Lhe dlfflculLy level lf asslgnmenLs and exams lnclude easler and harder quesLlons every
sLudenL wlll have a chance Lo experlence success as well as challenge (Source Cashln 1979)

vary your Leachlng meLhods varleLy reawakens sLudenLs lnvolvemenL ln Lhe course and Lhelr
moLlvaLlon 8reak Lhe rouLlne by lncorporaLlng a varleLy of Leachlng acLlvlLles and meLhods ln your
course role playlng debaLes bralnsLormlng dlscusslon demonsLraLlons case sLudles audlovlsual
presenLaLlons guesL speakers or small group work (Source lorsyLh and McMlllan 1991)

ueemphaslzlng Crades

Lmphaslze masLery and learnlng raLher Lhan grades Ames and Ames (1990) reporL on Lwo secondary
school maLh Leachers Cne Leacher graded every homework asslgnmenL and counLed homework as 30
percenL of a sLudenLs flnal grade 1he second Leacher Lold sLudenLs Lo spend a flxed amounL of Llme on
Lhelr homework (LhlrLy mlnuLes a nlghL) and Lo brlng quesLlons Lo class abouL problems Lhey could noL
compleLe 1hls Leacher graded homework as saLlsfacLory or unsaLlsfacLory gave sLudenLs Lhe
opporLunlLy Lo redo Lhelr asslgnmenLs and counLed homework as 10 percenL of Lhe flnal grade
AlLhough homework was a smaller parL of Lhe course grade Lhls second Leacher was more successful ln
moLlvaLlng sLudenLs Lo Lurn ln Lhelr homework ln Lhe flrsL class some sLudenLs gave up raLher Lhan rlsk
low evaluaLlons of Lhelr ablllLles ln Lhe second class sLudenLs were noL rlsklng Lhelr selfworLh each
Llme Lhey dld Lhelr homework buL raLher were aLLempLlng Lo learn MlsLakes were vlewed as accepLable
and someLhlng Lo learn from

8esearchers recommend deemphaslzlng gradlng by ellmlnaLlng complex sysLems of credlL polnLs Lhey
also advlse agalnsL Lrylng Lo use grades Lo conLrol nonacademlc behavlor (for example lowerlng grades
for mlssed classes) (lorsyLh and McMlllan 1991 Lowman 1990) lnsLead asslgn ungraded wrlLLen work
sLress Lhe personal saLlsfacLlon of dolng asslgnmenLs and help sLudenLs measure Lhelr progress

ueslgn LesLs LhaL encourage Lhe klnd of learnlng you wanL sLudenLs Lo achleve Many sLudenLs wlll learn
whaLever ls necessary Lo geL Lhe grades Lhey deslre lf you base your LesLs on memorlzlng deLalls
sLudenLs wlll focus on memorlzlng facLs lf your LesLs sLress Lhe synLhesls and evaluaLlon of lnformaLlon
sLudenLs wlll be moLlvaLed Lo pracLlce Lhose skllls when Lhey sLudy (Source Mckeachle 1986)

Avold uslng grades as LhreaLs As Mckeachle (1986) polnLs ouL Lhe LhreaL of low grades may prompL
some sLudenLs Lo work hard buL oLher sLudenLs may resorL Lo academlc dlshonesLy excuses for laLe
work and oLher counLerproducLlve behavlor

MoLlvaLlng SLudenLs by 8espondlng Lo 1helr Work

Clve sLudenLs feedback as qulckly as posslble 8eLurn LesLs and papers prompLly and reward success
publlcly and lmmedlaLely Clve sLudenLs some lndlcaLlon of how well Lhey have done and how Lo
lmprove 8ewards can be as slmple as saylng a sLudenLs response was good wlLh an lndlcaLlon of why lL
was good or menLlonlng Lhe names of conLrlbuLors Cherrys polnL abouL polluLlon really synLheslzed
Lhe ldeas we had been dlscusslng (Source Cashln 1979)
8eward success 8oLh poslLlve and negaLlve commenLs lnfluence moLlvaLlon buL research conslsLenLly
lndlcaLes LhaL sLudenLs are more affecLed by poslLlve feedback and success ralse bullds sLudenLs self
confldence compeLence and selfesLeem 8ecognlze slncere efforLs even lf Lhe producL ls less Lhan
sLellar lf a sLudenLs performance ls weak leL Lhe sLudenL know LhaL you belleve he or she can lmprove
and succeed over Llme (Sources Cashln 1979 Lucas 1990)

lnLroduce sLudenLs Lo Lhe good work done by Lhelr peers Share Lhe ldeas knowledge and
accompllshmenLs of lndlvldual sLudenLs wlLh Lhe class as a whole

ass ouL a llsL of research Loplcs chosen by sLudenLs so Lhey wlll know wheLher oLhers are wrlLlng papers
of lnLeresL Lo Lhem
Make avallable coples of Lhe besL papers and essay exams
rovlde class Llme for sLudenLs Lo read papers or asslgnmenLs submlLLed by classmaLes
Pave sLudenLs wrlLe a brlef crlLlque of a classmaLes paper
Schedule a brlef Lalk by a sLudenL who has experlence or who ls dolng a research paper on a Loplc
relevanL Lo your lecLure
8e speclflc when glvlng negaLlve feedback negaLlve feedback ls very powerful and can lead Lo a
negaLlve class aLmosphere Whenever you ldenLlfy a sLudenLs weakness make lL clear LhaL your
commenLs relaLe Lo a parLlcular Lask or performance noL Lo Lhe sLudenL as a person 1ry Lo cushlon
negaLlve commenLs wlLh a compllmenL abouL aspecLs of Lhe Lask ln whlch Lhe sLudenL succeeded
(Source Cashln 1979)

Avold demeanlng commenLs Many sLudenLs ln your class may be anxlous abouL Lhelr performance and
ablllLles 8e senslLlve Lo how you phrase your commenLs and avold offhand remarks LhaL mlghL prlck
Lhelr feellngs of lnadequacy

Avold glvlng ln Lo sLudenLs pleas for Lhe answer Lo homework problems When you slmply glve
sLruggllng sLudenLs Lhe soluLlon you rob Lhem of Lhe chance Lo Lhlnk for Lhemselves use a more
producLlve approach (adapLed from llore 1983)

Ask Lhe sLudenLs for one posslble approach Lo Lhe problem
CenLly brush aslde sLudenLs' anxleLy abouL noL geLLlng Lhe answer by refocuslng Lhelr aLLenLlon on Lhe
problem aL hand
Ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo bulld on whaL Lhey do know abouL Lhe problem
8eslsL answerlng Lhe quesLlon ls Lhls rlghL? SuggesL Lo Lhe sLudenLs a way Lo check Lhe answer for
Lhemselves
ralse Lhe sLudenLs for small lndependenL sLeps
lf you follow Lhese sLeps your sLudenLs wlll learn LhaL lL ls all rlghL noL Lo have an lnsLanL answer 1hey
wlll also learn Lo develop greaLer paLlence and Lo work aL Lhelr own pace And by worklng Lhrough Lhe
problem sLudenLs wlll experlence a sense of achlevemenL and confldence LhaL wlll lncrease Lhelr
moLlvaLlon Lo learn

MoLlvaLlng SLudenLs Lo uo Lhe 8eadlng

Asslgn Lhe readlng aL leasL Lwo sesslons before lL wlll be dlscussed Clve sLudenLs ample Llme Lo prepare
and Lry Lo plque Lhelr curloslLy abouL Lhe readlng 1hls arLlcle ls one of my favorlLes and lll be
lnLeresLed Lo see whaL you Lhlnk abouL lL (Sources Lowman 1984 When 1hey uonL uo Lhe 8eadlng
1989)
Asslgn sLudy quesLlons Pand ouL sLudy quesLlons LhaL alerL sLudenLs Lo Lhe key polnLs of Lhe readlng
asslgnmenL 1o provlde exLra lncenLlve for sLudenLs Lell Lhem you wlll base exam quesLlons on Lhe sLudy
quesLlons (Source When 1hey uonL uo Lhe 8eadlng 1989)

lf your class ls small have sLudenLs Lurn ln brlef noLes on Lhe days readlng LhaL Lhey can use durlng
exams AL Lhe sLarL of each class a professor ln Lhe physlcal sclences asks sLudenLs Lo submlL a 3 x 3
card wlLh an ouLllne deflnlLlons key ldeas or oLher maLerlal from Lhe days asslgned readlng AfLer
class he checks Lhe cards and sLamps Lhem wlLh hls name Pe reLurns Lhe cards Lo sLudenLs aL a class
sesslon prlor Lo Lhe mldLerm SLudenLs can Lhen add any maLerlal Lhey would llke Lo Lhe cards buL
cannoL submlL addlLlonal cards 1he cards are agaln reLurned Lo Lhe faculLy member who dlsLrlbuLes
Lhem Lo sLudenLs durlng Lhe LesL 1hls faculLy member reporLs LhaL Lhe number of sLudenLs compleLlng
Lhe readlng [umped from 10 percenL Lo 90 percenL and LhaL sLudenLs especlally valued Lhese survlval
cards Source uanlel 1988)

Ask sLudenLs Lo wrlLe a oneword [ournal or oneword senLence Angelo (1991) descrlbes Lhe oneword
[ournal as follows sLudenLs are asked Lo choose a slngle word LhaL besL summarlzes Lhe readlng and
Lhen wrlLe a page or less explalnlng or [usLlfylng Lhelr word cholce 1hls asslgnmenL can Lhen be used as
a basls for class dlscusslon A varlaLlon reporLed by Lrlckson and SLrommer (199 1) ls Lo ask sLudenLs Lo
wrlLe one complex senLence ln answer Lo a quesLlon you pose abouL Lhe readlngs and provlde Lhree
sources of supporLlng evldence ln one senLence ldenLlfy Lhe Lype of eLhlcal reasonlng Slnger uses ln
hls arLlcle lamlne Affluence and MorallLy CuoLe Lhree passages LhaL reveal Lhls Lype of eLhlcal
reasonlng (p 123)

Ask nonLhreaLenlng quesLlons abouL Lhe readlng lnlLlally pose general quesLlons LhaL do noL creaLe
Lenslon or feellngs of reslsLance Can you glve me one or Lwo lLems from Lhe chapLer LhaL seem
lmporLanL? WhaL secLlon of Lhe readlng do you Lhlnk we should revlew? WhaL lLem ln Lhe readlng
surprlsed you? WhaL Loplcs ln Lhe chapLer can you apply Lo your own experlence? (Source When
1hey uonL uo Lhe 8eadlng 1989)

use class Llme as a readlng perlod lf you are Lrylng Lo lead a dlscusslon and flnd LhaL few sLudenLs have
compleLed Lhe readlng asslgnmenL conslder asklng sLudenLs Lo read Lhe maLerlal for Lhe remalnder of
class Llme Pave Lhem read sllenLly or call on sLudenLs Lo read aloud and dlscuss Lhe key polnLs Make lL
clear Lo sLudenLs LhaL you are relucLanLly Laklng Lhls unusual sLep because Lhey have noL compleLed Lhe
asslgnmenL

repare an exam quesLlon on undlscussed readlngs Cne faculLy member asks her class wheLher Lhey
have done Lhe readlng lf Lhe answer ls no she says ?oull have Lo read Lhe maLerlal on your own
LxpecL a quesLlon on Lhe nexL exam coverlng Lhe readlng 1he nexL Llme she asslgns readlng she
remlnds Lhe class of whaL happened Lhe lasL Llme and Lhe sLudenLs come Lo class prepared (Source
When 1hey uonL uo Lhe 8eadlng 1989)

Clve a wrlLLen asslgnmenL Lo Lhose sLudenLs who have noL done Lhe readlng Some faculLy ask aL Lhe
beglnnlng of Lhe class who has compleLed Lhe readlng SLudenLs who have noL read Lhe maLerlal are
glven a wrlLLen asslgnmenL and dlsmlssed 1hose who have read Lhe maLerlal sLay and parLlclpaLe ln
class dlscusslon 1he wrlLLen asslgnmenL ls noL graded buL merely acknowledged 1hls Lechnlque should
noL be used more Lhan once a Lerm (Source When 1hey uonL uo Lhe 8eadlng 1989)

8eferences

Amerlcan sychologlcal AssoclaLlon LearnerCenLered sychologlcal rlnclples Culdellnes for School
8edeslgn and 8eform WashlngLon uC Amerlcan sychologlcal AssoclaLlon 1992
Ames 8 and Ames C MoLlvaLlon and LffecLlve 1eachlng ln 8 l !ones and L ldol (eds) ulmenslons
of 1hlnklng and CognlLlve lnsLrucLlon Plllsdale n ! Lrlbaum 1990

Angelo 1 A 1en Lasy leces Assesslng Plgher Learnlng ln lour ulmenslons ln 1 A Angelo (ed)
Classroom 8esearch Larly Lessons from Success new ulrecLlons for 1eachlng and Learnlng no 46 San
lranclsco !ossey8ass 1991

8llgh u A WhaLs Lhe use of LecLurlng? uevon Lngland 1eachlng Servlces CenLre unlverslLy of LxeLer
1971

8rock S C racLlLloners vlews on 1eachlng Lhe Large lnLroducLory College Course ManhaLLan CenLer
for laculLy LvaluaLlon and uevelopmenL kansas SLaLe unlverslLy 1976

Cashln W L MoLlvaLlng SLudenLs ldea aper no 1 ManhaLLan CenLer for laculLy LvaluaLlon and
uevelopmenL ln Plgher LducaLlon kansas SLaLe unlverslLy 1979

uanlel ! W Survlval Cards ln MaLh College 1eachlng 1988 36(3) 110

Lble k L 1he CrafL of 1eachlng (2nd ed) San lranclsco !ossey8ass 1988

Lrlcksen S C 1he LecLure Memo Lo Lhe laculLy no 60 Ann Arbor CenLer for 8esearch on 1eachlng
and Learnlng unlverslLy of Mlchlgan 1978

Lrlckson 8 L and SLrommer u W 1eachlng College lreshmen San lranclsco !ossey8ass 1991

llore n Cn noL uolng a SLudenLs Pomework ChemlsLry 1A Pandbook 8erkeley ChemlsLry
ueparLmenL unlverslLy of Callfornla 1983

lorsyLh u 8 and McMlllan ! P racLlcal roposals for MoLlvaLlng SLudenLs ln 8 ! Menges and M
u Svlnlckl (eds) College 1eachlng lrom 1heory Lo racLlce new ulrecLlons ln 1eachlng and Learnlng
no 43 San lranclsco !ossey8ass 1991

Lowman ! MasLerlng Lhe 1echnlques of 1eachlng San lranclsco !ossey8ass 1984

Lowman ! romoLlng MoLlvaLlon and Learnlng College 1eachlng 1990 38(4) 13639

Lucas A l uslng sychologlcal Models Lo undersLand SLudenL MoLlvaLlon ln M u Svlnlckl (ed) 1he
Changlng lace of College 1eachlng new ulrecLlons for 1eachlng and Learnlng no 42 San lranclsco
!ossey8ass 1990

Mckeachle W ! 1eachlng 1lps (8Lh ed) LexlngLon Mass PeaLh 1986

McMlllan ! P and lorsyLh u 8 WhaL 1heorles of MoLlvaLlon Say AbouL Why Learners Learn ln 8 !
Menges and M u Svlnlckl (eds) College 1eachlng lrom 1heory Lo racLlce new ulrecLlons for
1eachlng and Learnlng no 43 San lranclsco !ossey8ass 1991

Sass L ! MoLlvaLlon ln Lhe College Classroom WhaL SLudenLs 1ell us 1eachlng of sychology 1989
16(2) 8688

1lberlus 8 C Small Croup 1eachlng A 1roubleShooLlng Culde 1oronLo CnLarlo lnsLlLuLe for SLudles ln
LducaLlon ress 1990

WelnerL l L and kluwe 8 P MeLacognlLlon MoLlvaLlon and undersLandlng Plllsdale n! Lrlbaum
1987

When 1hey uonL uo Lhe 8eadlng 1eachlng rofessor 1989 3(10) 34

Explain. Some recent research shows that many students do poorly on
assignments or in participation because they do not understand what to do or why they
should do it. Teachers should spend more time explaining why we teach what we do,
and why the topic or approach or activity is important and interesting and worthwhile.
In the process, some oI the teacher's enthusiasm will be transmitted to the students,
who will be more likely to become interested. Similarly, teachers should spend more
time explaining exactly what is expected on assignments or activities. Students who
are uncertain about what to do will seldom perIorm well. To the question, "When will
we ever use this?" there are several answers. (1) You never know when knowledge
and skills will be useIul. (2) Whether or not you ever use this speciIic knowledge is
less important than the Iact that you are learning how to learn, learning the discipline
oI Iocusing on a task, learning how to work on a task that might not be interesting to
you--and perhaps you are learning how to make such tasks interesting. There is an
exercise in basic training where recruits step back and Iorth into old tires rapidly. No
one ever asks, "When will we ever need to know how to step through tires?" because
they know they are building agility. The same is true Ior many subjectss. A student
might never use calculus later in liIe, but the mental training--problem solving,
thinking, precision--those sharpened skills will be.
(In a study conducted on one college campus, a Iaculty member gave a student
assignment to a group oI colleagues Ior analysis. Few oI them could understand what
the Iaculty member wanted. II experienced proIs are conIused, how can we expect
students to understand?)
2. Reward. Students who do not yet have powerIul intrinsic motivation to learn can
be helped by extrinsic motivators in the Iorm oI rewards. Rather than criticizing
unwanted behavior or answers, reward correct behavior and answers. Remember that
adults and children alike continue or repeat behavior that is rewarded. The rewards
can (and should) be small and conIigured to the level oI the students. Small children
can be given a balloon, a piece oI gum, or a set oI crayons. ven at the college level,
many proIessors at various colleges have given books, lunches, certiIicates,
exemptions Irom Iinal exams, verbal praise, and so on Ior good perIormance. ven
something as apparently "childish" as a "Good Job!" stamp or sticker can encourage
students to perIorm at higher levels. And the important point is that extrinsic
motivators can, over a brieI period oI time, produce intrinsic motivation. veryone
likes the Ieeling oI accomplishment and recognition; rewards Ior good work produce
those good Ieelings.
. Care. Students respond with interest and motivation to teachers who appear to be
human and caring. Teachers can help produce these Ieelings by sharing parts oI
themselves with students, especially little stories oI problems and mistakes they made,
either as children or even recently. Such personalizing oI the student/teacher
relationship helps students see teachers as approachable human beings and not as
alooI authority Iigures. Young people are also quite insecure, and they secretly
welcome the admission by adults that insecurity and error are common to everyone.
Students will attend to an adult who appears to be a "real person," who had problems
as a youth (or more recently) and survived them.
It is also a good idea to be approachable personally. Show that you care about your
students by asking about their concerns and goals. What do they plan to do in the
Iuture? What things do they like? Such a teacher will be trusted and respected more
than one who is all business.
4. Have students participate. One oI the major keys to motivation is the active
involvement oI students in their own learning. Standing in Iront oI them and lecturing
to them (at them?) is thus a relatively poor method oI teaching. It is better to get
students involved in activities, group problem solving exercises, helping to decide
what to do and the best way to do it, helping the teacher, working with each other, or
in some other way getting physically involved in the lesson. A lesson about nature, Ior
example, would be more eIIective walking outdoors than looking at pictures.
Students love to be needed (just like adults!). By choosing several students to help the
teacher (take roll, grade objective exams, research bibliographies or biographies oI
important persons, chair discussion groups, rearrange chairs, change the overhead
transparencies, hold up pictures, pass out papers or exams) students' selI esteem is
boosted and consequently their motivation is increased. Older students will also see
themselves as necessary, integral, and contributing parts oI the learning process
through participation like this. Use every opportunity to have students help you.
Assign them homework that involves helping you ("I need some magazine
illustrations oI the emphasis on materialism Ior next week; would someone like to
Iind one Ior me?").
5. Teach Inductively. It has been said that presenting conclusions Iirst and then
providing examples robs students oI the joy oI discovery. Why not present some
examples Iirst and ask students to make sense oI them, to generalize about them, to
draw the conclusions themselves? By beginning with the examples, evidence, stories,
and so Iorth and arriving at conclusions later, you can maintain interest and increase
motivation, as well as teach the skills oI analysis and synthesis. Remember that the
parable method oI making a point has some signiIicant historical precedent. (And
speaking oI examples, research has shown that providing more worked examples and
Iewer problems to solve increases learning. A g reat book to get is Ruth
Clark's ;idence Based Training Methods.
Here are six effective strategies for motivating students to learn do at the beginning of lessons:
1. Use critical thinking questions ~ The great thing about using these types of questions is that they don't necessarily
have a right or wrong answer so students are allowed to express their own opinions as opposed to simply being told
to memorize facts.
Here's a quick example. Let's take a social studies lesson on the use of the atomic bomb to end World War . To
spark interest at the beginning of the lesson the teacher can ask students to all write down an answer to the following
question... "Do you think President Truman was justified in dropping the atomic bomb to end WW? Why?"
Teachers can then let students share their answers for a quick class discussion and then take a class poll. Now that
the students are interested in the topic it is much easier for the teacher to start the lesson.
Then, at the end of the lesson, the teacher can take another poll to see if the student's opinions have changed.
2. Use music to teach ~ Music is one of the most underrated learning tools and is a great way to spark student
interest. For example, when teaching a lesson on the slave trade and the Middle Passage introduce the topic by
playing the Bob Marley songs "Buffalo Soldier" and "Catch a Fire".
3. Use video ~ Video is one of the most misunderstood teaching tools and is often abused. However, if used correctly
video can be a great tool increase student motivation to learn. The key is to use short clips from movies and
documentaries at beginning of lessons rather than the end. Hollywood movies are great for this, but you can also use
unitedstreaming.com to download short clips from documentaries on any subject for any grade level.
4. Relate what students are learning to what is going on in the "real world". This is obviously easier done with some
subjects than others, but it can be done. Students need to know "why" they are learning something.
5. Relate what students are learning to what is important to them. The trick here is to get to know your students and
learn about their own interests.
6. Use technology...or rather, have the student use technology to learn. Have them create podcasts, videos, web
sites, brochures etc.
ncreasing student motivation to learn can be challenging, but it is an essential element in being an effective teacher.
The added bonus is you will also find yourself enjoying teaching much more when it doesn't feel like you are pulling
teeth trying to get your students involved.


Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/863582
pectations. %eachers should set reasonable objectives for every lesson that allow
their students to progress in the classroom. Expect students to achieve the objectives
and they will. Studies show that students achieve at higher rates when their teachers
have high expectations for them.
Uplifting. Keep the atmosphere in the classroom positive and uplifting. A cheerful and
motivating environment will fuel the students intrinsic need to succeed in their
endeavors.
Praise. Positive reinforcement is a tried and true method of teaching students new
material. Make sure to let the students know that they have done a good job. For
example, you can give rewards or stickers for high test scores.
Variation. Because everyone learns differently, you will need to vary the means by
which students earn rewards. Look at all aspects of the classroom when you are
creating ways to reward the students. %his includes test scores, daily lessons, and even
student behavior.
Success. Motivate students by showing them that they can be successful in the
classroom. %eachers can differentiate instruction to meet the students' needs by
adjusting the corresponding class work to the appropriate levels. Class work can be
modified in a variety of ways: shortened assignments, extra response time or
enrichment activities.
Relevance. Show students how what they are learning matters in real life. %his is one
of the most effective motivation techniques, especially for older students, as it lends
meaning and purpose to their hard work. Guide students to discuss the new material,
and allow students to draw on their own experiences to enrich and comprehend the
new material.
Engaging Questions. Lead in with questions that will get the students talking.
Encourage students to discuss the topic by bringing what they know about the topic to
the classroom discussion. Clarify any questions that arise by encouraging the students
to talk to each other first and expand on their pre-existing knowledge.
Problem Solving. %eaching students how to overcome challenges is another important
factor in keeping them motivated. If they have the skills to navigate the problems they
encounter they will achieve more. One way to do so is to encourage the pupils to ask
questions when they are unclear on new material.
5 Ways to Motivate Your Learners
Reward Your Learners. People are motivated by rewards. Figure out what type of reward you can
give the learners and then build that into the course. Sometimes the rewards can be timed
challenges or reaching a certain level of achievement. Other rewards could be actual merchandise,
like winning an iPod. t all depends on the course.
Rewards don't have to be tangible items. They can be simple things like affirmation and
encouragement. The main point is to connect with the learners and find a way to have them feel
good about some sort of achievement in your course. Perhaps the reward is something as simple
as being able to test out oI the course.
Make Sure Your Course Has Real Value. Before your learners click on that first button, they want to
know if the course has any value or benefit. The truth is that most people who take elearning
courses don't see the real benefit and because of that they either aren't engaged with the course or
they don't complete it. f it happens to be a mandatory course, then they're just trying to figure out
how to click through it as fast as possible. That doesn't have to be the case.
used to work at an organization where any time we met with a certain executive, he'd ask about our
company's performance metrics or last quarter's earnings report. He wanted to make sure we knew
why we were working for him. Because he had this knack for putting you on the spot, you were
more motivated to pay attention to the organization's goals and performance.
n that case, each elearning course had meaning and implications to my job. This also had an
additional benefit. Not only did have a heighten sense of awareness to previously "boring"
information, always felt good (see the first point) when he called me out and knew the answer.
Help Your Learners Perform Better. This ties into the previous point. Your course needs to have
value and it needs to be relevant to what your learners do. People will be motivated to take your
course and pay attention as they know it will help them perform better.
Your job is to connect the learner to the course content. f 'm taking a site safety course, 'm
probably less motivated by clicking a button on a simple assessment than if 'm thrown into a real life
scenario where am challenged to work through some issues similar to what 'll face at work. This
type of approach connects me to the content, more so than screen after screen of bullet point
information.
Set Clear Expectations for the Course. 'm amazed to see my children just click around on the
computer screen to get what they want. On the other hand, 've watched adults fearful of clicking a
next arrow not sure what will happen.
People tend to be leery of things they don't understand, or if they're not quite sure where they're
going. However, once they get a sense of what's going on, they're more apt to be responsive to the
course.
f you want your learners motivated, then a good way to get them there is to let them know what to
expect from the course that you want them to take. This all ties into the points above. You're asking
the learners to spend some of their valuable time going through your course. They expect clarity on
what they'll do, why, and what type of outcome to expect.
Along with clear expectations is to make sure that the learner knows how to navigate your course.
'm not saying that you have to create an addendum course on how to click the "next" button.
nstead, what 'm saying is that you don't want to create a frustrating learning experience because
the learner doesn't know what to do with the course or how to get through it. One of the best ways
to de-motivate your learners is to make your course navigation so confusing that they just leave and
never come back.
Tell Them They`re Wrong. Controversy gets our attention and is a good way to motivate. Challenge
what a person believes, or even tell him he's wrong, and you'll see a person motivated to prove you
wrong. Of course, this approach needs to be tempered with common sense.
However, there is a lot of value in challenging people and what they know. t's just a matter of
knowing how to do it in a manner that is appropriate. When a person is challenged it puts them at
risk and they tend to pay more attention.
Create an environment where they can safely fail or make mistakes and you'll challenge them and
keep them engaged.
These are some basic tips and things to consider when building your courses. What you can do in
your elearning courses to motivate your learners is dependent on the course and your resources.
However, the main point is that you find the angle that works for your learners and the course you
build, and then use it to engage your learner's motivation. A motivated learner will learn.
8emaln oslLlve
?elllng and LhreaLenlng sLudenLs ls noL an effecLlve way Lo moLlvaLe 8emalnlng poslLlve and focuslng on
achlevemenL wlll moLlvaLe sLudenLs and help Lo creaLe muLual respecL for each lndlvldual and for
learnlng Conslder creaLlng a sLudenL of Lhe week bulleLln board Lo focus on Lhe poslLlves ln each
sLudenL

rovlde CpporLunlLles for Success
SLruggllng sLudenLs need Lo succeed ln some small ways ln order Lo be moLlvaLed Lo achleve ln greaLer
ways WlLhouL lowlng your expecLaLlons flnd ways Lo allow Lhese sLruggllng sLudenLs Lo succeed 1hls
may requlre addlng slmple quesLlons Lo homework asslgnmenLs or asklng a few baslc quesLlons when
lnLroduclng a new Loplc and ensurlng LhaL Lhe weaker sLudenLs have a chance Lo answer

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lmprove 1eachlng Skllls Larn a uegree or MasLers ln LducaLlon Leadershlp aL Macquarle
wwwlnLernaLlonalmqeduau
8e LxclLed
1he more exclLed you are abouL someLhlng Lhe more exclLed your sLudenLs wlll be lf you flnd Lhe Loplc
you are Leachlng borlng so wlll your sLudenLs so flnd creaLlve ways Lo Leach Lhe mosL borlng lessons
lor example when revlewlng maLerlal for a LesL or qulz Lurn lL lnLo a game of !eopardy and play around
Lhe world when revlewlng maLh facLs

Allow SLudenLs Lo Larn 8ewards
lndlvldual and whole class rewards can be a greaL moLlvaLlon especlally when looklng for approprlaLe
behavlor 1hls can be as compllcaLed or as slmple as you make lL lndlvldual behavlor plans can provlde
speclflc moLlvaLlon for lndlvldual sLudenLs whlle earnlng a handful of marbles Lo flll a [ar can moLlvaLe a
whole class

1each 1eamwork
Pave acLlvlLles LhaL your sLudenLs can work on LogeLher Croup your sLudenLs for slmple pro[ecLs such as
flndlng a currenL evenL Lo share every week Pave your sLudenLs work ln Leams on pro[ecLs LhaL enable
learnlng Lhrough exploraLlon Conslder your sLudenL grouplngs carefully so as Lo moLlvaLe sLudenLs Lo
work harder and noL allow oLhers Lo plck up Lhelr slack

8LAu 1PlS nLx1

LffecLlve Classroom ManagemenL 1lps
rlmary Classroom ManagemenL ldeas
Learnlng ApaLhy ln SLudenLs
ubllc ralse
Make a hablL of publlcly pralslng sLudenLs for achlevemenL ?ou can even go as far as Lo creaLe a
cerLlflcaLe of achlevemenL have Lhe sLudenL sLand Lo recelve Lhe cerLlflcaLe and send lL home for Lhe
chllds parenLs Lo dlsplay on Lhe refrlgeraLor

ApproprlaLe ralse
ralse sLudenLs approprlaLely lf you are sLruggllng Lo moLlvaLe a chlld be careful Lo noL pralse hlm for a
nonachlevemenL ralse hlm for a [ob well done 8ewards and pralse should noL be handed ouL lefL and
rlghL lnsLead Lhey should be selecLlve and approprlaLe ln order Lo moLlvaLe your sLudenLs

1each roblem Solvlng Skllls
1eachlng your sLudenLs Lo solve problems wlll allow Lhem Lo be naLurally lnLeresLed ln whaL Lhey are
learnlng rovldlng opporLunlLles for sLudenLs Lo make mlsLakes and flgure ouL how Lo accompllsh a goal
wlll make school more lnLeresLlng and Lhus moLlvaLe Lhem Lo Lry

rovlde CpporLunlLles for varled Lxperlences
ulfferenL chlldren wlll succeed ln dlfferenL areas ln Lhelr llves lnclude opporLunlLles for learnlng each of
Lhe mulLlple lnLelllgences Lheorlzed by ur Cardner ln 1983 1hls allows sLudenLs Lo succeed ln a varleLy
of ways 1he more success a sLudenL sees ln Lhe classroom Lhe more moLlvaLed he wlll be Lo conLlnue Lo
succeed

MoLlvaLlng sLudenLs Lakes a llLLle efforL buL Lhe reward ls well worLh Lhe work 8e creaLlve as you flgure
ouL whaL moLlvaLlon works for each sLudenL ln your class 1he more moLlvaLed your sLudenLs are Lhe
more learnlng wlll Lake place



8ead more aL SulLe101 Pow Lo MoLlvaLe ?our SLudenLs nlne MoLlvaLlng ldeas for 1eachers |
SulLe101com hLLp//[ennlferwagamansulLe101com/howLomoLlvaLeyoursLudenLs
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Chlldren fulflll Lhe expecLaLlons LhaL Lhe adulLs around Lhem communlcaLe 1hls does noL mean LhaL
every sLudenL wlll score 100 on every LesL we wrlLe lL does mean LhaL lf you communlcaLe Lo a chlld
LhaL he or she ls fallure he or she wlll fall lf you communlcaLe Lo LhaL same chlld LhaL he or she wlll
succeed you wlll ofLen flnd LhaL LhaL ls Lhe ouLcome WlLh every opporLunlLy encourage your sLudenLs
LhaL Lhey are maklng progress ln Lhelr language learnlng olnL ouL Lo Lhem Lhe areas ln whlch you see
progress and lmprovemenL lor areas ln whlch a sLudenL sLruggles Lry Lo porLray a plcLure of whaL
success wlll look llke Lncouraglng your sLudenLs Lo vlsuallze Lhelr success wlll ald Lhem ln accompllshlng
Lhose goals you seL before Lhem
2
Maklng sure you are Leachlng Lo all Lhe learnlng sLyles ln your classrooms ls anoLher way Lo moLlvaLe
your sLudenLs lL ls unreallsLlc Lo expecL an audlLory learner Lo be successful and moLlvaLed lf her sole
lnsLrucLlon comes from readlng a LexLbook Llkewlse a klnesLheLlc learner wlll be frusLraLed llsLenlng Lo
hls Leacher lecLure class afLer class Make sure as you plan your lessons LhaL you are Leachlng Lo all Lhe
learnlng sLyles ln your classroom lf you do you wlll engage sLudenLs who mlghL oLherwlse sLruggle Lo
pay aLLenLlon ln class
3
When a sLudenL dlsengages from class lL ls a good opporLunlLy for you Lhe Leacher Lo noLlce whaL
meLhods you are uslng ln class AlLhough some pracLlces may be flne for mosL sLudenLs Llmed LesLs
lndependenL learnlng Llme self checklng meLhods for example Lhere wlll be sLudenLs who noL only do
noL connecL wlLh Lhese meLhods buL who suffer negaLlvely when you use Lhem ln your classroom lf a
sLudenL beglns Lo dlsengage be aware of Lhe meLhods you are uslng and look for paLLerns 1hough lL ls
dlfflculL Lo meeL every need of a classroom full of language learners you can Lake palns Lo avold cerLaln
meLhods when lL ls posslble Lo help cerLaln sLudenLs perform beLLer ln class 1hls wlll also help you be
lnLenLlonal abouL uslng a varleLy of meLhods wlLh your class furLher engaglng all of Lhem
4
SomeLlmes moLlvaLlng your sLudenLs ls as easy as changlng Lhe maLerlal you are uslng lor mosL
Leachers Lhe school chooses a currlculum LhaL Lhey expecL each Leacher Lo follow ln hls or her classes
Lven when Lhls ls Lhe case lL does noL mean LhaL you cannoL brlng addlLlonal resources Lo class
SomeLlmes sLudenLs are Lurned off by Lhe sLyle or approach of cerLaln currlculum auLhors 8rlnglng a
dlfferenL perspecLlve lnLo Lhe class wlll reengage your sLudenLs who are Lurned off by your currenL
maLerlals ln addlLlon lL wlll challenge Lhose who are already seelng success from Lhe asslgned
currlculum
3
varylng your envlronmenL can also be [usL Lhe Lhlng a relucLanL sLudenL needs Lo flnd fresh moLlvaLlon
lleld Lrlps are always a greaL way Lo learn ln a pracLlcal seLLlng buL even lf LhaL ls noL posslble Lake your
class ouLslde for Lodays lesson ?our sLudenLs may also beneflL from a class meeLlng ln Lhe llbrary or ln
anoLher classroom ?ou can sLlll meeL your dally class goals even lf you Lake your class beyond Lhe
classroom walls 1ry seLLlng your sLudenLs Lo research aL Lhe llbrary observe anoLher class or llsLen Lo
naLlve speakers ln a publlc area 1here ls always language Lo be learned so meeL your llsLenlng
speaklng and readlng goals ouLslde Lhe conflnemenL of sLudenLs Lables
6
rovldlng sLudenLs wlLh accounLablllLy ls an lmporLanL elemenL of belng a Leacher WlLhouL Lhe ldea of a
deadllne and a grade many sLudenLs would never have Lhe selfmoLlvaLlon LhaL ls requlred Lo
successfully learn a language 8e clear wlLh your sLudenLs when you Lell Lhem your expecLaLlons Make
sure Lhey know Lhe deadllne for a pro[ecL's compleLlon and whaL sLandards you wlll use Lo assess LhaL
pro[ecL ?ou may also conslder conLracLlng grades wlLh your sLudenLs who are aL more advanced levels
When you conLracL grades your sLudenLs slgn a conLracL whlch ouLllnes Lhe requlremenLs Lo recelve an
a and a b uo noL glve opLlons for lower grades 1he sLudenL selecLs whlch grade he or she wlll recelve ln
Lhe class and Lhen musL compleLe Lhose requlremenLs saLlsfacLorlly lrom Lhe sLarL of class your
sLudenLs know whaL Lhey need Lo accompllsh and Lhey know LhaL Lhelr success ls compleLely dependenL
upon Lhemselves 1hls wlll geL Lhem Lo be self moLlvaLed learners and help Lhem engage Lhemselves ln
Lhe learnlng process
7
Pave you ever seen a chlld or perhaps you have one who ls angellc when ln publlc and a Lerror aL
home? Some young people have slmllar behavlor paLLerns when lL comes Lo Lhe classroom lor you Lhey
mlsbehave repeaLedly buL a subsLlLuLe Leacher would never know lL ?ou can break Lhem ouL of Lhls
paLLern by brlnglng ouLslde lnfluences lnLo your classroom lnvlLe a guesL speaker or Lrade classes for a
perlod wlLh a fellow Leacher 1he change ln sLyle and auLhorlLy even for a shorL perlod may be enough
Lo spark some moLlvaLlon ln your sLudenLs who have become accusLomed Lo your Leachlng sLyle and
expecLaLlons
8
CompeLlLlon ls a greaL way Lo moLlvaLe sLudenLs We do noL suggesL posLlng grades publlcly or
oLherwlse embarrasslng your sLudenLs buL Lhere are many ways Lo fosLer a frlendly splrlL of compeLlLlon
ln your class Cames are fun for revlewlng and Lhey moLlvaLe and engage sLudenLs ?ou can also group
your class lnLo Leams and seL Lhem Lo a challenge Who can collecL Lhe mosL auLhenLlc examples of Lhe
grammaLlcal sLrucLure you are currenLly sLudylng? Whlch Leam can wrlLe Lhe mosL enLerLalnlng sklL wlLh
Lhls week's vocabulary words? WhaLever you are sLudylng Lhere ls some way Lo add some compeLlLlon
Lo Lhe mlx
9
Cne never fall moLlvaLlonal meLhod you can use wlLh your sLudenLs ls glvlng rewards 1ell your sLudenLs
LhaL lf everyone ln class earns an 80 or hlgher on a LesL you wlll have a plzza parLy 1ell Lhem LhaL wlLh
successful compleLlon of Lhe class novel you wllls spend a day Lo waLch Lhe movle LogeLher Lven
someLhlng as llLLle as a sLlcker on a Leenager's paper can be enough Lo spark some glggles and wlnks buL
wlLh lL some fresh moLlvaLlon ueslgn your rewards Lo your sLudenLs' personallLles and Lell Lhem whaL
your plans are SLudenLs look forward Lo even Lhe slmple pleasures LhaL you can dole ouL on an ordlnary
day
10
llnally Lhough noL as en[oyable as oLher Lechnlques Lo moLlvaLe consequences of cerLaln acLlons can
also be a moLlvaLor Lo sLudenLs Make your expecLaLlons clear and communlcaLe Lo your sLudenL whaL
Lhe consequences wlll be Lo cerLaln behavlor or work eLhlc no one llkes Lo be punlshed buL when
poslLlve relnforcemenL and llvely change ups do noL work someLlmes Lhere has Lo be negaLlve
consequences Lo your sLudenL's acLlons keep your sLudenLs afLer school lf you have Lo CommunlcaLe
wlLh a chlld's parenLs lf posslble and when necessary ulsclpllne should be a lasL resorL moLlvaLor and
only used sporadlcally

Led klds someLlmes have Lrouble connecLlng personal efforL Lo achlevemenL Much of whaL Lhey do and
learn comes easlly Lo Lhem so Lhey can achleve wlLh llLLle efforL 1o help a chlld succeed pralse efforLs
aL success and make LhaL pralse speclflc lor example lnsLead of saylng nlce work lLs beLLer Lo say
someLhlng llke ?ou worked hard on your sclence pro[ecL you really earned LhaL A Powever avold Lhe
reverse donL say Lhlngs llke lf you worked harder you would do beLLer
6 Pelp ?our Chlld 1ake ConLrol
ClfLed underachlevers someLlmes see achlevemenL as someLhlng beyond Lhelr conLrol lf Lhey succeed
lL ls due Lo luck or some oLher exLernal facLor 1hls aLLlLude makes Lhem feel llke efforL ls polnLless
ralslng Lhelr efforLs can help buL Lhese chlldren also need Lo undersLand Lhe role personal
responslblllLy plays ln success 1he way you Lalk abouL your own llfe sends a message Complalnlng
abouL your boss or blamlng your boss for your lack of success aL work sends Lhe wrong message