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Unit 1

Background and Fundamentals

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

OVERVIEW OF AGS1200 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

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Background and Fundamentals

OVERVIEW OF AGS1200 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System


Overview of the GSM Cellular System
AGS1200 Volume 1

Inter-office Trunks

MSC
MSC-BSS Trunks

PSTN

BSC 1

BSC 2

BSC 3

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Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 VERSUS CC1200

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 VERSUS CC1200

Background and Basic Cellular Concepts

GSM System Services and Station Features

System Architecture Overview

Condensed
Mobility Management and Location Updating

Call Management

The GSM Radio Link

AT&Ts GSM Product Line - IBS 2000 BSS

- 5ESS MSC - AT&Ts OMC


Japan Digital Cellular - IDO GSM Data Services

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Background and Fundamentals

WHAT IS GSM?
GSM is a Global System for Mobile communications. Hopefully when you hear or see the phrase "global system for mobile communication," you visualize a wireless telephone. While GSM is a Pan-European cellular mobile radio system, it is much more. GSM is a "public telecommunications system." This point should become clear as various GSM requirements are presented in the upcoming units in this course. A GSM mobile user will be able to receive services similar to those provided in the xed public switched telephone network. Whereas there are many mobile radio systems that are not connected to the public telephone networks, those that are must conform to public telecommunication system standards and possess recognizable features. For example, it must be possible to make and receive telephone calls in the same general way as in xed networks. Users must be able to dial a phone number and be connected to the number of interest, irregardless whether the dialed number corresponds to a mobile or xed station. By using the same national and international dialing procedures that exist today, a mobile user should be able to dial anyones phone number in the world. Similarly, incoming calls from anywhere in the world must be possible. Data and messaging services must also be available. In short, a GSM cellular phone must behave just like a xed telephone, but without wires.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

WHAT IS GSM?
Group Speciale Mobile

Global System for Mobile communication

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Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 AND THE GSM SPECIFICATION


The following table can be used as a quick guide to the GSM Specication documents. The total number of pages in the GSM recommendations exceed 5000. _ _____________________________________________________ Topics Covered _ GSM Series _____________________________________________________ 1.02 - 1.06 GSM overview, glossary _ _____________________________________________________ abbreviations, service phases GSM services and features _2.01 - 2.88 _____________________________________________________ 3.01 - 3.88 PLMN functions, architecture, _ _____________________________________________________ numbering and addressing, procedures MS-BSS interface _4.01 - 4.88 _____________________________________________________ 5.01 - 5.10 Radio link _ _____________________________________________________ _6.01 - 6.32 _____________________________________________________ Speech processing Terminal adaptation _7.01 - 7.03 _____________________________________________________ 8.01 - 8.60 BSS-MSC interface, BSC-BTS interface _ _____________________________________________________ _9.01 - 9.11 _____________________________________________________ Network interworking, MAP 11.01 - 11.11 MS conformity and SIMs _ _____________________________________________________ _11.20 - 11.40 BSS, MSC, HLR, VLR, simulation and testing _____________________________________________________ _12.00 - 12.21 Network management _____________________________________________________

A more detailed index to all sections within the GSM specications is provided in Appendix 1, with the information organized as follows: Section number Number of pages in the section Latest version number Date of latest version Section/Recommendation title

There are three ways to obtain copies of GSM recommendation sections: Borrow and copy section(s) from a co-worker. Borrow and copy section(s) from a designated contact for your work location (see Appendix 2 for the names of the contacts). Request a paper copy of a section via Linus (see Appendix 2 for procedures).

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

AGS1200 AND THE GSM SPECIFICATION

GSM 5.01

GSM 1.02

GSM 2.02

GSM 3.01

GSM 4.01

5.10 6.01 6.32

GSM 8.01

GSM 9.01

GSM 11.01

GSM

GSM

11.21 12.00

1.06

2.88

3.88

4.88

7.01 7.03

8.60

9.11

11.20

11.40 12.21

COMPLEMENTS BUT DOES NOT REPLACE!

GSM = Global System for Mobile communication

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Background and Fundamentals

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background

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Background and Fundamentals

EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS ACCESS TECHNOLOGY

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS ACCESS TECHNOLOGY

Cellular Radio Technology

Paging Cordless Telephone Technology Technology

Now

Analog Technology

Continuous Miniaturization

Analog Single Channel

1991

Digital Technology

Digital Multi Channel

199?

Personal Communications Networks

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Background and Fundamentals

WIRELESS SERVICES TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility

WIRELESS SERVICES TECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE

Coverage

High Speed
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Paging

Airphone

National

Vehicular Speeds
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Specialized Mobile Radio

Cellular

Regional

Digital Microcell (PCN) Walking (Limited Area) Walking (Very Limited Radius) CT-2/ Telepoint Cordless

Local Area

Selected Sites
Home/ Office

Background and Fundamentals

1-Way Receive Only

2-Way Initiate Only

2-Way Broadcast

Full 2-Way

Utility

Background and Fundamentals

MARKET TRENDS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

MARKET TRENDS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION


60
Millions of Units

11%
40
Growth

PAGERS

20

0
1988 1989 1993

60
Millions of Units

40

25%
Growth

CORDLESS TELEPHONES

20

0
1988 1989 1993

60

40%
Millions of Units

40

Growth

CELLULAR TELEPHONES

20

0
1988
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1989

1993

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Background and Fundamentals

CELLULAR SYSTEMS IN EUROPE TODAY


The chart shows the types of cellular system(s) in service in each country and the radio band of operation (in MHz). Also provided are the year that cellular service was put into operation.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

CELLULAR SYSTEMS IN EUROPE TODAY


Country _ ________________ Austria Belgium Cyprus Denmark Finland France Western Germany Iceland Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom _ Type of System (RF band) ____________________________ C-Netz (450), D-Netz (900) AFT2 (450) NMT-900 (900) NMT-450 (450), NMT-900 (900) NMT-450, NMT-900 Radiocom-2000 (200, 400, 800) NMT-450, NMT-900 C-Netz (450) NMT-450 TACS-900 (900) RTMS (450), TACS-900 AFT2 (450) AFT2 (450) NMT-450, NMT-900 C-Netz (450) TMA (450), TACS-900 NMT-450, NMT-900 Natel-C (900) NMT-450 TACS-900 In Service _________ 1984 1987 1988 1982 1982 1985 1986 1986 1985 1985 1985 1985 1981 1989 1982 1981 1987 1986 1985

RF band in MHz
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Background and Fundamentals

OBJECTIVES OF THE PAN-EUROPEAN GSM BASED SYSTEM


The primary objective of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) organization was to produce an integrated mobile communication standard that supports international roaming. Increased capacity was a secondary objective.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

OBJECTIVES OF THE PAN-EUROPEAN GSM BASED SYSTEM Integrated European system with
international roaming

Increase available cellular radio capacity Take advantage of digital price/performance Accommodate new technology and services

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Background and Fundamentals

ADOPTION OF GSM STANDARD

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

ADOPTION OF GSM STANDARD


Austria Bulgaria Belgium Czechoslovakia Denmark Federal Republic of Germany Finland France Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Australia India Singapore <and more??>
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Background and Fundamentals

KEY EVENTS
The pan-European cellular mobile radio system was conceived in 1982 by a committee of the Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT). CEPT foresaw a growing need during the 1980s and 1990s for public cellular radio, but accompanied by a widening divergence of systems, unless a standard was available to positively encourage convergence. The GSM objective was to create the possibility of opening public service throughout Europe in the early 1990s. At the outset it was recognized that the best way of achieving this was to create a new European-wide cellular standard. The intended outcome was, however, visualized only in general terms and the full extent of the standard did not become apparent until a fairly advanced stage in its development. The way to 1991 was paved by a number of bold technical decisions, sometimes ahead of the necessary conrmatory research and development work, or based on trials carried out under the supervision of a GSM working party. One of the technically far-reaching decisions, made in 1987, rested on the results of radio and speech coding trials held in Paris which pointed strongly towards the adoption of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) digital techniques. In 1987 the GSM system became a digital system. The GSM is part of CEPT and is based in Brussels, Belgium. The acronym GSM is commonly used to refer to both the group as well as the Pan-European cellular network project. The rst commercial system is expected to be activated the end of August 1991 in the Federal Republic of Germany. CEPT WARC EEC GSM Conference European Postal Telecommunications Radio World Conference European Economic Community Global System for Mobile communication

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

KEY EVENTS
1982 CEPT adopts WARC 79 recommendation allocating 890-915 MHz and 935-960 MHz for land mobile GSM created to set standard 1985 1987 EEC supports GSM standards throughout community Digital technology standards set for TDMA, speech coding, channel coding, and modulation method 13 European countries agree to install systems in 1991 1988 1991 Industrial development started First systems deployed

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Background and Fundamentals

EXPECTED GROWTH IN EUROPEAN CELLULAR 1991-1994


Most of the cellular growth in Europe is expected to be on the GSM system. However, there will still be some growth on the analog cellular systems for some years to come, especially where capacity is not an issue. By 1994, more than 4 million subscribers are expected to be on the GSM system compared to a total of over 11 million cellular subscribers in Europe. This gure does not include subscribers to the new Personal Communications Networks (PCNs) operating at 1800 MHz. There are estimates that more than 15 million GSM mobile subscribers may exist by the end of the decade.1

1 . "Uncommon Market", Electronic Engineering Times, December 23/30.


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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

EXPECTED GROWTH IN EUROPEAN CELLULAR 1991-1994

12 S 10 u b s 8 c r i 6 b e r 4 s (Millions) 2

l Tota

r Cellula Analog

GSM

1991 Souce: EMCI Inc.

1992

1993 Year

1994

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Background and Fundamentals

SECOND GENERATION CELLULAR STANDARDS


Looking at todays cellular products, we nd at least six different incompatible standards employed in different parts of the world. All these "rst generation" systems rely on analog frequency modulation for speech transmission and in-band signaling to move control information between terminals and the rest of the network during a call. Second generation cellular will conform to at least three different standards: one for western Europe--Global System for Mobile communications, one for North America--an Electronic Industry Association Interim Standard (IS-54), and a third for Japan. While the European and Japanese standards will be applied to completely new cellular systems operating in dedicated frequency bands, the North American standard species dual-mode operation. It incorporates the rst generation standard, Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), and adds a digital voice transmission capability to new subscriber equipment. Thus, IS-54 is an enhancement to, rather than a replacement for, present cellular technology. The situation in North America is enriched, not to mention complicated, by at least three other dual-mode AMPS enhancements in various stages of development. Thus, in cellular, North America and Europe seem to be moving in opposite directions. Europe will migrate from a collection of incompatible analog systems to a single digital system, while North America, which has enjoyed from the outset continental compatibility of all cellular equipment, will see the deployment of various dual-mode technologies, all sharing a common analog standard, but with radically different advanced technologies.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

SECOND GENERATION CELLULAR STANDARDS GSM (European Digital Standard)


new 900-MHz Spectrum, TDMA, 270 kb/s

IS-54 (N. American Digital Standard)


existing 900-MHz Bands, TDMA, 48k kb/s

JDC (Japanese Digital Cellular Standard)


parts of IS-54 and GSM

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Background and Fundamentals

THE RADIO SPECTRUM

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

THE RADIO SPECTRUM

in Europe

864-868 CT-2

890-915 & 935-960 Cellular Phones (GSM)

1710-1880 PCN

1880-1900 DECT

frequency in MHZ

in the U.S.

46 & 49 Cordless Phones (CT-1)

824-849 & 869-894 902-928 940-941 Cellular Phones ISM band "Telepoint" (CT-2)

1850-1990 PCN

frequency in MHZ

in Japan

830-832 Airplane Phone

860-885 Cellular NTT & IDO (receive)

915-940 Cellular NTT & IDO (transmit)

1500-??? PCN

frequency in MHZ

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Background and Fundamentals

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Cellular System Major Components

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Background and Fundamentals

POTS / MOBILE TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS


The upper gure depicts a typical connection used for Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In these connections, a subscribers phone is connected by lines to switching ofces (sometimes called end ofces) in the PSTN. These end ofces are connected to each other by a network of inter-switch trunks which may include other switches (not shown). In the basic mobile connection, an end ofce is replaced with a Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC) which is connected by trunks and data links to a radio Base Station (BS) which covers the area where the Mobile Station (MS) is located. The communications medium between the mobile station and the base station is over a duplex radio frequency channel as shown.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

POTS / MOBILE TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS

BASIC POTS CONNECTION


...........................................LINE .... . ......... . . .........

SWITCHING OFFICE

TRUNKS

SWITCHING OFFICE

LINE .............................................
.. ... ........

.... .........

SUBSCRIBER SET

SUBSCRIBER SET

BASIC MOBILE TELEPHONE CONNECTION


.......................................... ...... . .. .. ...... .........

BASE STATION
.......... .......... ......... ...........

SWITCHING OFFICE

TRUNKS

MOBILE SWITCHING CENTER

TRUNKS & DATA LINKS

SUBSCRIBER SET

MOBILE STATION

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Background and Fundamentals

LAYOUT OF A CELLULAR SYSTEM


The three major components of a cellular system are the Mobile-services Switching Center (MSC), the Base Station (BS), and the Mobile Station (MS). In a typical cellular system, an MSC will serve a number of base stations, each of which serves a coverage area called a cell. The MSC interconnects the cellular network with the land network. As a mobile travels from cell to cell, the MSC will switch the call from one base station to another in what is called a "handover" or "handoff." Each base station is assigned a set of radios and radio channels. Typically, one base station can serve several mobile stations located within its cell area simultaneously.

TYPICAL MSC FUNCTIONS Provide switched connections with PSTN Provide switched connections between mobile subscribers Provide coordination over signaling with mobiles Coordinate the location and handover process Provide custom services to mobile users Collect billing data Collect trafc data Provisioning/service orders Maintenance TYPICAL BASE STATION FUNCTIONS Provide RF transmission and reception Provide data communications with the MSC and mobile stations Locate mobiles Perform routine maintenance testing Perform equipment control and reconguration functions Perform voice-processing functions Perform call setup, call supervision, and call termination functions Handover or receive a mobile from another cell-site while calls are in progress TYPICAL MOBILE STATION FUNCTIONS Provide a telecommunications interface to subscribers Provide RF transmission and reception Transmit and receive user information and control data Perform voice-processing functions Perform initialization and self-test functions

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

LAYOUT OF A CELLULAR SYSTEM

TO TELEPHONE NETWORK

. MS
.

. BS BS . MSC

BS .

BS

BS .

BS

BS

BS MS MSC

Base Station Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Radio link Land links

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Background and Fundamentals

MULTIPLE ACCESS METHODS


The two major access methods used for mobile telephone communications is Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). In FDMA, a given spectral allocation is broken into a number of individual radio channels, N, each of which can carry a single information channel. In TDMA, the given spectral allocation is shared in time by a number of users, M, by assigning each to a specied time interval called a time slot.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

MULTIPLE ACCESS METHODS


FREQUENCY DIVISION MUTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA) Frequency 1 Frequency 2 ch ch

Frequency N

ch

TIME DIVISION MUTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA) Time Slot 1 ch Time Slot 2 ch


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Time Slot M ch
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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

FDMA/TDMA STRUCTURE USED IN GSM


In the GSM cellular system there are 124 duplex radio channels (labeled 1 through 124), each containing 8 time slots (labeled 0 through 7).

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

FDMA/TDMA STRUCTURE USED IN GSM

Time Domain
..... .... ....................... ............................................................................... ....... ..... .............................................................................................. .. . . . . .

Slot 0
........ .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... .... .... .... .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. ........

Slot 1 ch . ch . . .

. . . .

Slot 7 ch ch

Frequency 1 Frequency 2 . . . Frequency 124

ch ch

Frequency Domain

. . ch

ch

ch

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Background and Fundamentals

SPECTRAL ALLOCATION
When a mobile station is assigned to an information channel in GSM, a radio channel and a time slot are also assigned. Radio channels come in frequency pairs, one for the uplink path and one for the downlink path.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

SPECTRAL ALLOCATION

124 Uplink Channels uplink

124 Downlink Channels

downlink
.. .

GSM supports 124 duplex radio channels Each radio channel pair can support up to 8
simultaneous calls

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Background and Fundamentals

TDMA OPERATION
The complete set of allocated time slots is called a TDMA frame. Each mobile can transmit only during its assigned time slot in a frame as shown. Thus, with TDMA, transmission from a given mobile station to a base station occurs in bursts. In the base station to mobile station direction, which is supported on a different radio frequency channel, transmission is continuous. However, information directed to a given mobile station is sent only during the given mobile stations assigned time slot for that direction. A maximum of 8 mobile stations can share the same radio channel in the example shown.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

TDMA OPERATION

Frame X
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame X + 1
2 3 4 5 6 7

Base Station

MS 0 MS 1

MS 5 MS 7

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TDMA FRAME ORGANIZATION For Trafc Channels


ACCH ch TDMA TF TS ms Associated Control Channel Channel Time Division Multiple Access TDMA Frame Time Slot Millisecond

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

TDMA FRAME ORGANIZATION For Trafc Channels

Slot 0 Frequency 1 Frequency 2 ch ch ch ch

Slot 2 ch ch ch ch

Slot 4 ch ch ch ch

Slot 6 ch ch ch ch

Frequency 124

ch

ch

ch

ch

ch

ch

ch

ch

0.577 ms Time Slot


Data Bits 3 Head Bits 57 1 Training Sequence 26 Control Bits 1 Data Bits 57 3 8.25 Tail Guard Bits Bits

TDMA Frame
T S 0 T S T S T S 3 T S 4 T S T S T S 7 T S 0 T S T S T S 3 T S 4 T S T S T S 7 T S 0 T S

4.615 ms
T S T S 3 T S 4 T S T S T S 7

1 2

5 6

1 2

5 6

1 2

5 6

T F 0

T F 1

T F 2

T A T F C F C 11 H 12

A C C 22 23 H

T F

T F

120 ms Multiframe
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Background and Fundamentals

MULTIPLEXING VOICE AND SIGNALING Using 13k bps Speech Coding

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

MULTIPLEXING VOICE AND SIGNALING Using 13k bps Speech Coding

Frame 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 2
2 3 4 5 6 7

Type of Information Transmitted/Received by a Mobile Station every 26 Frames (120 msec)


Frame #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Associated Signaling

Frame #
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
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Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Idle (no transmission)

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Background and Fundamentals

MULTIPLEXING 2 VOICE CALLS Using 6.5k bps Speech Coding

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

MULTIPLEXING 2 VOICE CALLS Using 6.5k bps Speech Coding

Frame 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 2
2 3 4 5 6 7

user 2 user 1

Type of Information Transmitted/Received by two Mobile Stations every 26 Frames (120 msec)
Frame #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Signaling (user 1)

Frame #
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
Version 1.0.0

Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Voice (user 2) Voice (user 1) Signaling (user 2)

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Background and Fundamentals

ISDN-LIKE CHANNEL STRUCTURE Requires 6.5k bps Speech Coding

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Background and Fundamentals

ISDN-LIKE CHANNEL STRUCTURE Requires 6.5k bps Speech Coding

Frame 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 2
2 3 4 5 6 7

Type of Information Transmitted/Received by a Mobile Station using 2 B channels every 26 Frames (120 msec)
Frame #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel Associated signaling

Frame #
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
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Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel B2 channel B1 channel Idle (no transmission)

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Background and Fundamentals

CELLULAR CONCEPTS
A basic overview of cellular concepts is provided from Pages 1-55 through 1-73. If you are interested in additional details, the article by V. MacDonald in the January 1979 Bell System Technical Journal (BSTJ) is easy reading and provides more details. The entire January 1979 BSTJ was devoted to the AT&T Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) system. The picture illustrated below is a copy of the BSTJ cover page which lists all the articles within the journal. While 1979 may seem like a long time ago, basic cellular concepts have not changed much since then.

THE BELL SYSTEM TECHNICAL JOURNAL


JANUARY 1979 VOL. 58, NO. 1
ADVANCED MOBILE PHONE SERVICE
W. R. Young V. H. MacDonald Z. C. Fluhr and P. T. Porter K. J. S. Chadha, C. F. Hunnicutt, S. R. Peck, and J. Tebes, Jr. G. A. Arredondo, J. C. Feggeler, and J. I. Smith R. E. Fisher J. T. Walker N. Ehrlich, R. E. Fisher, and T. K. Wingard S. H. Tsiang G. C. DiPiazza, A. Plitkins, and G. I. Zysman D. L. Huff
Introduction, Background and Objectives The Cellular Concept Control Architecture

ISSN0005-8580

15 43 71

Mobile Telephone Switching Office

Voice and Data Transmission

97

A Subscriber Set for the Equipment Test A Service Set for the Telephone Control Unit Cell-Site Hardware

123 145 153

Development Support Systems The Cellular Test Bed

201 215

The Development System Contributors to This Issue Papers by Bell Laboratories Authors

249 271 277

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Cellular Concepts

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Background and Fundamentals

SIMPLE NON-CELLULAR (NON-PRACTICAL) WIRELESS SYSTEM

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Background and Fundamentals

SIMPLE NON-CELLULAR (NON-PRACTICAL) WIRELESS SYSTEM

Radio frequency coverage area

PSTN

London

- One high-power transmit/receive tower in middle of London - Assign all GSM frequencies to the one tower - Maximum simultaneous calls = 992 (124 * 8)
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Background and Fundamentals

BASIC CELLULAR PRINCIPLES

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

BASIC CELLULAR PRINCIPLES Fixed spectral allocation limits the number


of channels that can be used

Channels must be reused throughout


service area to support service demand

Signal attenuation with distance allows


channel reuse

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Background and Fundamentals

CHANNEL REUSE
Radio channels can be reused provided the separation between cells containing the same channel set is far enough apart so that co-channel interference can be kept below acceptable levels most of the time.

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Background and Fundamentals

CHANNEL REUSE

F A B F A B G

E D C E G C D A B F G C E D

Channels divided into 7 channel sets A, . . . ,G and reused throughout service area in three 7-cell clusters

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Background and Fundamentals

CHANNEL REUSE EXAMPLE USING GSM FREQUENCIES CLUSTER SIZE = 7

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Background and Fundamentals

CHANNEL REUSE EXAMPLE USING GSM FREQUENCIES CLUSTER SIZE = 7

6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 76 83 104 90 111

12

19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 82 89 96 117 103 110

97 75

6 13 20 27 34 41 48 55 62 69 76 83 104 90 111

11 124 4 118 7 14 1 8 21 28 35 42 18 25 32 39 15 22 29 36 49 56 63 70 46 53 60 67 43 50 57 64 77 84 91 98 71 78 85 92 74 81 88 95 105 112 99 106 113 102 109 116 119 123 3 10 2 9 120 12 16 23 30 37 65 17 24 31 38 44 51 58 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122

19 26 33 40 47 54 61 68 82 89 96 117 103 110

97 75

72 79 86 93 100 107 114

121 11 124 4 118 7 14 1 8 21 28 35 42 15 22 29 36 18 25 32 39 49 56 63 70 43 50 57 64 46 53 60 67 77 84 91 98 71 78 85 92 74 81 88 95 105 112 99 106 113 102 109 116 119 123 3 10 2 9 120 16 23 30 37 65 17 24 31 38 44 51 58 45 52 59 66 73 80 87 94 101 108 115 122

72 79 86 93 100 107 114 121

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Background and Fundamentals

CELL COVERAGE AREA

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

CELL COVERAGE AREA

Theoretical Hexagon Coverage Area

Possible Real Cell Coverage Area


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Background and Fundamentals

OTHER CELL CLUSTERS


The more cells in a cluster, the greater the separation between co-channel cells when other clusters are deployed. The idea is to keep co-channel cell separation the same throughout the system area for cells of the same size. Some valid cluster sizes that allow this are: 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, .... Ericsson has been advertizing that a cluster size of 3 can be achieved while still maintaining an acceptable level of service quality.2

2 . Personal Communications based on Digital Cellular, Jan Swerup and Jan Uddenfeldt, Ericsson Review No. 3, 1991.
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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

OTHER CELL CLUSTERS

3-Cell Cluster

4-Cell Cluster

7-Cell Cluster
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9-Cell Cluster
Overview of the GSM Cellular System 1-67

Background and Fundamentals

CELLULAR GROWTH THROUGH CELL SPLITTING


The example shown assumes that 14 cells were required at startup to cover a specied system area. Radio channels were assigned using a frequency reuse factor of 7. With continued subscriber growth, three new small cells are added in the region shown.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

CELLULAR GROWTH THROUGH CELL SPLITTING

G E C B G A E D G F C B A E Initial layout of 14 cells (K = 7 reuse)

G E
E

A F
G

C B G A

E C B G

Add 3 new cells to high trafc area

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Background and Fundamentals

CONTINUED GROWTH
Growth continues as ve more cells (including two that are at the next size smaller) are added to a high trafc region as shown. Notice that the cell with channel set F now serves a smaller area.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

CONTINUED GROWTH

G E
D B E F
B

A E
G
C

C
C

B G A

C B G

Adding 8 more cells to high trafc area

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Background and Fundamentals

SECTORIZED ANTENNAS
As cell sizes are reduced, the propagation laws in force indicate that the levels of co-channel interference will be received from six surrounding cells all using the same channel set. Therefore, one way of cutting signicantly the level of interference is to use several directional antennas at the base stations, which each antenna illuminating a sector of the cell, and with a separate channel set allocation to each sector. There are two commonly used methods of sectorization, using three 120 degree sectors or six 60 degree sectors, both of which reduce the number of prime interference sources to one. The three sector case is generally used with a seven-cell repeat pattern, giving an overall requirement for 21 channel sets (reuse factor of 7 times 3 sectors). The improved cochannel rejection in the six sector case however, particularly the rejection of secondary interferers, results in a four-cell repeat pattern being possible, giving an overall requirement for 24 channel sets (reuse factor of 4 times 6 sectors). A disadvantage of sectorization is that the larger channel sets required results in fewer channels per sector, and thus a reduction in trunking efciency. This means that the total trafc which can be carried for a given level of blocking is reduced. However, the ability to use much smaller cells through sectorization greatly outweighs such drawbacks, and the end result is a much higher capacity system.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

SECTORIZED ANTENNAS

120 Degree Sector

Three Sector Coverage Area (120 degrees each sector)

110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

100

90

80

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 320 310 300 290

260

270

280

Typical Radio Wave Propagation Pattern for a 120 Degree Antenna (viewed from top)
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Background and Fundamentals

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1-74

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobile Stations and Features

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1-75

Background and Fundamentals

TYPES OF MOBILE STATIONS


Three basic types of mobile stations are dened: 1 . Vehicular stations 2 . Portable stations 3 . Handheld stations Mobile stations can come in ve power classes which dene the maximum Radio Frequency (RF) power level that the unit can transmit: Class I II III IV V Max RF Power (Watts) 20 8 5 2 0.8

Vehicular and portable units can be either class I or II, while handhelds can be class III, IV, or V.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Background and Fundamentals

TYPES OF MOBILE STATIONS

Vehicular Stations Available Power Classes I or II 20w 8w


Transmitter/ Receiver

Portable Stations I or II 20w 8w

Handheld Stations III or IV or V 5w 2w 0.8


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Background and Fundamentals

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Unit 2

System Architecture Overview

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System Architecture Overview

GSM LAND-MOBILE NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL Standard open interfaces between entities, often referred to as network elements are dened in
the GSM Specications. These interfaces are labeled: A, A-bis, B, C, D, E, F, G, and Um (or air interface). Interfaces not labeled with one of the above identiers are not dened within the GSM specications. Since interfaces between network elements are open and standardized, a given service provider has total exibility in choosing and mixing different vendors equipment in their network. User information associated with a voice/data call between a mobile station and another entity in the PSTN/ISDN use the Um, Abis, A, and PSTN/ISDN interface. The PSTN/ISDN interface are regulated at the national level and are outside the scope of the GSM recommendations. All interfaces other than the ones listed in the previous bullet carry signaling message only (e.g., no voice circuits).

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

GSM LAND-MOBILE NETWORK REFERENCE MODEL

VLR
In other Networks

VLR

AUC

B BSS BTS

Um

Abis

A BSC MSC

C
HLR

MS

Other MSCs

PSTN/ISDN Network

EIR

AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR

Authentication Center Base Station Controller Base Station System Base Transceiver Station Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register Integrated Services Digital Network Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Public Switched Telephone Network Visitor Location Register
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System Architecture Overview

GSM NETWORK MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

GSM NETWORK MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE

NMC ADC AUC OMC

HLR

MSC

VLR

EIR

BSS

ADC AUC BSS EIR HLR MSC NMC VLR

Administration Center Authentication Center Base Station System Equipment Identity Register Home Location Register Mobile Switching Center Network Management Center Visitor Location Register
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System Architecture Overview

THE SS7 ARCHITECTURE


The SS7 protocol levels can be subdivided horizontally into two major parts: the lower part or transport services part and the upper part or user part. The MTP in the lower part provides a routing service for its users. It consists of three levels: the physical, data link and network levels with corresponding OSI functionality. It uses in its level-3 header level-3 addresses, the Signaling Point Codes (SPC) or Point Codes (PC) to forward "upper part" messages to their destination in the network, that is, to select the next data link to forward the message. Every network entity (STP, 4ESS, 1AESS, 5ESS, NCP), which may generate or receive an SS7 message is labeled with a Signaling Point Code (SPC), called Destination Point Code (DPC) or Origination Point Code (OPC) according to whether it is the destination or the origin of a level-3 MTP message. Note that a SS7-network user is considered to implement also OSI level 4 to 7 functionality. The fact that the SS7 function is, in the greater scheme of things, a service function does not limit it in terms of OSI functionality. Other user parts like the Telephone User Part (TUP) and the Data User Part (DUP) are not shown in the diagram. Their functions are provided in the ISDN-UP protocol.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

THE SS7 ARCHITECTURE

OSI Model

SS7 Protocol Model


Non circuit related

Circuit related

OMAP Application TCAP

ASEs

user parts ISDN-UP

Presentation Session Transport

NULL

SCCP Network MTP Level 3 Data Link Physical MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1 transport services parts

OMAP ASE TCAP ISDN-UP SCCP MTP

Operations Maintenance & Administration Part Application Service Element Transaction Capability Application Part ISDN User Part Signaling Connection Control Part Message Transfer Part

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System Architecture Overview

BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) ARCHITECTURE A Base Station System (BSS) consists of one Base Station Controller (BSC) and a multiple
Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). Each BTS serves a cell area. A BTS consists of a controller, radio transmitter/receivers, RF ampliers, RF combiners, an antenna, and much more. BTS equipment will most likely be co-located with the antenna. With the future need for micro-cells it will be necessary, however, to support antennas that can be remote from the rest of the BTS control complex. A BSC manages resources and executes procedures that are common to all BTSs. If a BSC is equipped with a time-slot switching fabric, then a BSC can manage handovers between two of its subordinate BTS without involving the MSC. BTSs are connected to a BSC over standard 32 channel digital facilities (operating at 2.048 Mbps). A BTS can be only be connected to one BSC. There does not appear to be a specication within the GSM standards with respect to the maximum number of BTSs that can connect to one BSC (at least the author of this material hasnt stumbled across any requirements yet). A BSC is connected to a MSC also over standard 32 channel digital facilities. A BSC can only be connected to one MSC. A BSC can be physically positioned anywhere (geographically speaking) between a MSC and its BTSs. It is advantageous to cluster adjacent BTSs under the the same BSC to minimize the MSC involvement with handovers.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) ARCHITECTURE

MSC

BSC 1

BSC 2

BSS 1
Abis Abis

Um

BTS

BTS

BTS

Cell
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System Architecture Overview

BSS - CONTINUED
BSS BSC BTS BCF TRX Base Station System Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Base Control Function Transceiver

The BSC control one or more BTSs. The BTS serves one cell in the cellular network and contains one or more TRXs. The BCF handle common control functions within a BTS. The TRX serves full duplex communications to the MS.

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System Architecture Overview

BSS - CONTINUED
BTS

To OMC
A-bis

TRX

A BCF To MSC BSC


BTS

.
. TRX

BCF

BSS Responsible for communicating with mobile stations in


cell areas

Radio equipment of a BSS may sustain one or more


cells

One BSC controls one or more BTSs One BTS serves one cell

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System Architecture Overview

MOBILE-STATION/BASE-STATION INTERFACE
The signaling protocol model for the "air" interface at the mobile station is shown. The physical layer (L1) of this interface is also referred to as the radio subsystem layer. This layer interfaces to the data link layer and the radio resource management sublayer in the Mobile Station (MS) and base station, and to other functional units in the MS and network subsystem (which includes the BSS and the MSC) for supporting trafc channels. At the physical level, most signaling messages carried on the radio path are in 23 octet blocks. The GSM data link layer (L2) functions include link multiplexing, error detection and correction, ow control, and segmentation to allow for long messages on the upper layers. The protocol is similar to ISDN LAPD and is called LAPDm. The Radio Resource (RR) layer manages the dialog between the MS and BSS concerning the management of radio connections. It includes such things as connection establishment, control, release, and changes (e.g., during handover). The Mobility Management (MM) layer deals with supporting such functions as location updating, authentication, and encryption management in a mobile environment. In the Connection Management (CM) layer, the Call Control (CC) entity controls end-to-end call establishment, and the Supplementary Services (SS) entity supports the management of supplementary services. Both protocols are very similar to those used in the xed network. Finally, the Short Message Service (SMS) protocol of this layer supports the high level functions related to the transfer and management of short message services. Details on the MS to network interface are described in the GSM 04 series.

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System Architecture Overview

MOBILE-STATION/BASE-STATION INTERFACE

Um

MS

BS

Signaling Protocol Reference Model at MS


Connection Management (CM)

CC L3

SS

SMS

Mobility Management (MM)

Radio Resource Mangement (RR)

L2 L1

LAPDm Physical Layer (radio subsystem)

CC SS SMS LAPDm

Call Control entity Supplementary Services support entity Short Message Service support entity Link Access Procedures on Dm channel
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System Architecture Overview

MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTER (MSC)


Functions of the MSC include: Call handling that copes with mobile nature of subscribers (e.g., paging) Management of required logical radio-link channel during calls Management of MSC-BSS signaling protocol Control of inter-BSS handovers Acting as a gateway MSC to interrogate the HLR for routing incoming calls to the called MS Exchange of signaling information with other system entities Other normal functions of a local exchange switch in the xed network

MSC interfaces with other network elements. An MSC typically controlled by one OMC. An MSC can be connected to only one VLR. Therefore, all mobile stations that move around under base stations connected to the MSC are always managed by the same VLR. An MSC would communicate typically with one EIR. While it is possible for an MSC to communicate to multiple EIRs, this is highly unlikely since the EIR provides a centralized and geographic independent function. The MSC consults an HLR to determine how a call should be routed to a given mobile station. For incoming calls to a mobile station, the MSC would typically consult one HLR. For mobile-to-mobile calls in larger networks, a MSC could consult HLRs of other systems to help minimize the trunk paths to the other mobile station. A given MSC can be interconnected to other MSC to support inter-MSC handovers. The E interface is only a signaling interface and should not be confused as a voice path. How voice facilities are connected between MSC are outside the scope of the GSM recommendations. A detailed discussion on inter-MSC voice facilities is provided in the Handover Section in the Call Management Unit.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

MOBILE SERVICES SWITCHING CENTER (MSC)

OMC

VLR

EIR

B F

BSS

MSC
BSS A

C C

HLR

HLR

PSTN/ISDN Network

Other MSC

Other MSC

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System Architecture Overview

BSS/MSC INTERFACE (A)


The physical layer of the A interface is a 2 Mbps (32 x 64 kbps) standard CCITT digital connection. The signaling transport mechanism is handled by the MTP and SCCP parts of SS7. Error free transport is handled by a subset of MTP and the logical connection is handled by a subset of SCCP. The application parts of divided between BSSAP and BSSOMAP. The BSSAP is further divided into DTAP and BSSMAP. DTAP is in shape of transferring layer 3 messages between the MS and the MSC without BSC involvement in the analysis. BSSMAP is responsible for all aspects of the radio resource handling at the BSS. The BSSOMAP supports all the operations and maintenance communications of BSS. See GSM 08 series for more details.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

BSS/MSC INTERFACE (A)


A MSC BSS

Signaling Protocol Reference Model BSSAP DTAP BSSMAP BSSOMAP SCCP MTP Level 3 MTP Level 2 MTP Level 1

distribution

BSSAP DTAP BSSMAP BSSOMAP SCCP MTP

BSS Application Part Direct Transfer Appliation Part BSS Management Application Part Operations and Maintenance Application Part Signaling Connection Control Part Message Transfer Part
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System Architecture Overview

MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL


CM MM RR LAPD LAPDm BTSM BSSAP SCCP MTP Connection Management Mobility Management Radio Resource Management Link Access Procedures on D channel Link Access Procedures on Dm channel BTS Management BSS Application Part Signaling Connection Control Part Message Transfer Part

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

System Architecture Overview

MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL

Um MS BTS

A-bis BSC

A MSC

A CM Um MM CM A-bis MM BSSMAP RR RR RR LAPDm Phys. LAPDm Phys. BTSM LAPD Phys. BTSM LAPD Phys. SCCP MTP
BSSMAP

SCCP MTP

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System Architecture Overview

HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR)


The Home Location Register (HLR) contains the identities of mobile subscribers (called International Mobile Subscriber Identities or IMSIs), their service parameters, and their location information. The location information is stored as a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) which is a directory number that the network can use to route calls to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) where the mobile subscriber is located at the time of the call.

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System Architecture Overview

HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR)

AUC

OMC

MSC

HLR

C D D

MSC

VLR

VLR

Contains: Identity of mobile subscriber Directory number of mobile subscriber Subscription information on teleservices and bearer services Service restrictions (if any) Supplementary services

Location information for call routing


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VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)


The Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains the subscriber parameters and location information for all mobile subscribers currently located in the geographic area (i.e., cells) controlled by that VLR. The VLR allocates the MSRN and (when required) a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) for secret identication of the mobile subscriber on the radio link.

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System Architecture Overview

VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)

OMC

VLR

G B
MSC

VLR
G D D

VLR

MSC

HLR

HLR

Contains: Identity of mobile subscriber Directory number of mobile subscriber Copy of subscriber data from HLR

Location area where mobile is registered Temporary mobile subscriber identity


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System Architecture Overview

EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER (EIR)


IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity

This database is accessed during the equipment validation procedure when a mobile accesses the system. It contains the identities of mobile station equipments (IMEIs) which may be valid, suspect, or known to be fraudulent. In the GSM recommendations, the valid, suspect, and fraudulent list are referred to as the: white, gray and black lists.

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System Architecture Overview

EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER (EIR)

F OMC

MSC

EIR

F MSC

Contains: Valid list Suspect list Fraudulent list list of valid Mobile Equipment identities list of Mobile Equipment identities under observation list of Mobile Equipment identities for which service should be barred

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System Architecture Overview

AUTHENTICATION CENTER (AUC) Since a GSM cellular system is based on a wireless access method, it is necessary for mobile
stations to transmit their identity to the network. The purpose of an Authentication Center (AUC) is to generate authentication parameters that are used by Visitor Location Registers (VLRs) to make sure the identity transmitted by a mobile station is the correct identity and to generate encryption/cipher keys that will be used to encrypt the radio path. The Operational Maintenance Center (OMC) interfaces with the AUC for administration purposes, such as adding/changing/deleting Authentication Keys (Ki). The only other network element that communicates with an AUC is the corresponding Home Location Register (HLR). No other network elements communicate with the AUC. If a mobile station is visiting other networks, the VLR in the other networks communicate the mobile stations HLR. The HLR, in turn, retrieves information from the AUC and passes this information to the requesting VLR. The AUC is a database that contains a unique Authentication Key (Ki) for each mobile subscriber. The AUC also contains algorithms which generate authentication parameters. These algorithms can be CPU intensive. GSM does not dene the interface between the HLR and AUC. Consequently, this interface is not an open interface. The AUC can be viewed as an adjunct computer to the HLR, which has been delegated the responsibility of managing authentication keys and generating authentication parameters. Most vendors will probably integrate the AUC and HLR. The main reason one might want to separate the AUC from an HLR is to not burden an HLR with CPU intensive algorithms. The authentication process is discussed in more detail on Pages 3-82 and 3-84. Information regarding encryption (cipher) key generation is provided on Page 3-88.

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System Architecture Overview

AUTHENTICATION CENTER (AUC)

OMC

AUC

.......................................... ........... . ................... ............................. ....... ..............................................

HLR

Contains subscriber authentication data


called Authentication Keys (Ki)

Generates security related parameters


needed to authorize service using Ki

Generates unique data pattern called a


Cipher Key (Kc) needed for encrypting user speech and data

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System Architecture Overview

MOBILE APPLICATION PART (MAP)


Information transfer between GSM PLMN entities use the Mobile Application Part (MAP) of SS7. MAP consists of a Mobile Application and several Application Service Elements (ASEs). It uses the services of the TCAP part of SS7. The mobile ASEs plus TCAP make up the Mobile Application Entity (AE) of SS7. It uses the SCCP for routing, and only Class 0 (connectionless datagram) service is required. The MAP layers provide the necessary signaling functions needed to provide services such as setting up mobile facilities for voice and non-voice applications in a mobile network.

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MOBILE APPLICATION PART (MAP)

Mobile Application Part (MAP)

ASE

ASE

TCAP

.... .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. .... .... ... . .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... ..

Mobile Application Entity (AE)

SCCP MTP L3 MTP L2 MTP L1

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System Architecture Overview

MAJOR PROCEDURES SUPPORTED BY MAP

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MAJOR PROCEDURES SUPPORTED BY MAP Location registration and cancellation Handover procedures Handling of supplementary services Retrieval of subscriber parameters during
call set-up

Authentication procedures

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System Architecture Overview

PUBLIC LAND MOBILE NETWORKS (PLMNs)


The following is the denition of a Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) from the GSM recommendations1 A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is established and operated by an administration or Registered Private Operating Agency (RPOA) for the specic purpose of providing land mobile telecommunication service services to the public. A PLMN may be regarded as an extension of a network (e.g., ISDN); it is a collection of MSC areas within a common numbering plan (e.g., same National Destination Code) and a common routing plan. The MSCs are the functional interfaces between the xed networks and a PLMN for call set-up. Functionally, the PLMNs may be regarded as independent telecommunications entities even though different PLMNs may be interconnected through the ISDN/PSTN Packet/Public Data Networks (PDNs) for forwarding of call or network information. A similar tpe of interconnection may exist for the interaction between the MSCs of one PLMN. Presented on the following page is a simple example of two PLMNs. The size of a given PLMN could be small (serve one city), consisting of one of each network element (AUC, HLR, VLR, MSC, and EIR). The largest size PLMN could serve an entire country and can consist of any number and combination of network elements. A PLMN does not cross country boundaries. The GSM recommendations do not dene the maximum capacity for each network element--this is a vendor specic detail. It is left up to each PLMN operator to purchase network elements from one or more vendors and and properly engineer these network elements. There is not a one-to-one capacity relationship between network elements. For example, a given vendor might provide a product line consisting of a 1000k subscriber HLR, 500k subscriber VLR, and 300k subscriber MSC. The PLMN operator would need to decide how many HLRs, VLRs and MSCs would be required to meet their needs. With regards to the diagrams on the following page, the solid lines between each network element represent message communication signaling paths. The signaling path topology between network elements is decided by the PLMN operator. One could have dedicated signaling paths between each network element, use a PDN, or a combination of dedicated paths and the use of a PDN. Not shown in the PLMN examples on the following page are Base Station Systems (BSSs) and Operation Maintenance Centers (OMCs), to keep the vu-graph from being too busy. BSSs and OMCs, of course, are essential components of a PLMN. A PLMN can consist of more than one OMC.

1 . GSM Recommendation 03.02, Version 3.1.4, Section 2.5.


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PUBLIC LAND MOBILE NETWORKS (PLMNs)

AUC

HLR

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) VLR

VLR

MSC

MSC

MSC AUC

EIR HLR EIR

VLR

Signaling Network

VLR

MSC

MSC

MSC

MSC

MSC

A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)

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System Architecture Overview

GSM SYSTEM AREA (GSA)


A GSM System Area (GSA) is the entire coverage area where a GSM mobile subscriber can receive wireless access from one or more GSM Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs). Not to be confused with a GSM system area is the denition of a "GSM Service Area". This is the sum of all regions that a GSM subscriber can roam (including their home system area) and get calls from another party without the calling party knowing which region the subscriber happens to be located.

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GSM SYSTEM AREA (GSA)

GSM PLMN Area GSM PLMN Area

GSM PLMN Area GSA

GSM PLMN Area

GSM System Area (GSA)

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System Architecture Overview

SERVICE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

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SERVICE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS


Time from switch-on to service ready:
4 sec in home system 10 sec in visiting system

Connect Time to called network:


4 sec Release Time to called network: 2 sec Time to Alert mobile of inbound call: 4 sec in 1st attempt 15 sec in nal attempt

Maximum gap due to handover:


150 ms if intercell 100 ms if intracell

Maximum one-way speech delay:


90 ms

Intelligibility of speech:
90%

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Unit 3

Mobility Management

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Mobility Management

UNIT OVERVIEW

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Mobility Management

UNIT OVERVIEW

Location Areas

Mobile Station Identication

Routing Calls to Mobile Stations

Mobile Station Registration Types

Condentiality and Security

Detailed Location Registration Scenario

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Mobility Management

GSM REFERENCE MODEL


The purpose of this unit is to present mobility management concepts for a cellular system based on the GSM standard. All information presented and terminology used is based on the GSM reference model with the interfaces as illustrated on the following page. The GSM standard is an open interface specication. In the standard, youll nd details concerning the sequence and format of messages exchanged across a given interface. For example, the "B" interface denes all messages and their organization between the Visitor Location Register (VLR) and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). If a vendor was to provide a VLR and MSC as separate network elements, as illustrated on the following page, then all messages exchanged between the VLR and the MSC must conform to the "B" interface specication. The GSM standard allows for a vendor to combine/integrate several network elements into one network element. When this is done, the interfaces between combined network elements are "internal" and do not need to conform to the GSM specication. For example, if a vendor was to integrate the VLR with the MSC, then the vendor is not required to implement the "B" interface as dened in the GSM specication. To convey GSM mobility managements concepts to the fullest extent, it is assumed in this unit that all network elements are implemented separately, thus requiring all interfaces as illustrated in the following page.

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GSM REFERENCE MODEL

AUC

EIR VLR
D G C

HLR
F

ISDN MSC

VLR
B

PSTN
A E

AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR

- Authentication Center - Base Station Controller - Base Station System - Base Transceiver Station - Equipment Identity Register - Home Location Register - Integrated Services Digital Network - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

BSS BSC
Abis

MSC

BTS

Um

MS

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Mobility Management

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Location Areas

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Mobility Management

PAGING A MOBILE STATION Mobile stations, when powered on and idle (i.e, not engaged in a call), periodically scan a list
of broadcast control channels looking for the channel with the strongest signal strength. Once a mobile station is locked onto a control channel, it listens for general system parameters and page messages that may be directed to the mobile station. One of the system parameters being broadcast, for example, is information indicating whether mobile stations are barred from using this base station to access the network. As a mobile station moves from one cell area to another, it will detect that the control channel associated with a new cell area has a stronger signal than the current cell control channel. It will retune and lock its receiver to the new control channel. If a mobile station does not report its movements, Base Station Controllers (BSCs) and Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) will be unaware of a mobile stations exact location. In order to deliver a call to a mobile station, a page message must be broadcast on the control channel from the BTS for which the mobile is currently monitoring. Multiple BTSs must be used to page a mobile station for situations where BSCs/BTSs are unaware of mobile station movement. If the mobile station hears its identication code broadcast on the paging channel, it will respond with a page response message.

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PAGING A MOBILE STATION

Inter-office Trunks

MSC
MSC-BSS Trunks

PSTN

BSC 1

BSC 2

BSC 3

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Mobility Management

WHERE IS THE MOBILE STATION? One of the primary objectives of the GSM recommendations is to provide a standard that
supports international roaming without requiring the calling party to be aware of the location of the mobile subscriber; nor is the mobile subscriber required to notify anyone of her/his location in order to receive calls. Consequently, the network must be capable of delivering a call to a mobile station whether it is currently located in its home Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) area, cities in other countries, and/or possibly a competitors PLMN serving the mobiles same home area. The difculity in delivering a call to a mobile station is knowing which cell area should be paged, and how many cell areas should be paged. One possibility would be to have all cells in Europe page a mobile station when delivering a call to a mobile subscriber. Involving too many cells in the paging process for call delivery can introduce performance problems.

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WHERE IS THE MOBILE STATION?

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PAGING PERFORMANCE Paging performance problems can result if too many cell areas are paged when attempting to
deliver a call to a Mobile Station (MS). As the page attempt rate increases to a given base station, eventually a resource becomes a bottleneck. Most likely the limiting resource would the capacity of the paging channel, however, it is also possible to encounter other bottlenecks such as base station real-time. Each base stations paging channels have a nite number of slots and transmission speed for broadcasting page orders. Base station real-time might become a bottleneck if a base station is unable to perform other call handling responsibilities because of the volume of pages that it is being asked to broadcast. If a base station doesnt have adequate overload controls, it is possible that the number of successful pages can start to decrease as the page attempt rate increases beyond the saturated point. To keep the paging performance within a safe range, it is necessary to form regions/clusters of cells and page only the cluster of cells for which the mobile is known to be situated. These clusters are referred as location areas.

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PAGING PERFORMANCE

Pa Pag MS ging Pag ing A ing MS Ch Pag B ann MS ing el Pa C MS ging Pa D MS ging Pa E MS ging F

Base Station

Successful Transmitted Pages

Paging channel or Base Station processing limit

Page Attempts

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LOCATION AREAS AND CELL AREAS A GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) area is divided into regions called Location
Areas (LAs). Each Location Area is made up of one or more Cell Areas. A Mobile Station is required to register each time it enters a new location area. Once registered, a Mobile Station is free to move around within the location area without registering. When delivering a call to a mobile station, only one location area is paged. For example, if a mobile station is known to be within Location Area 1, then all 59 cells representing Location Area 1 will broadcast a page message to locate the mobile station. It is the responsibility of the Visitor Location Register (VLR) to manage location areas. Home Location Registers (HLRs) are unaware that geographic regions are divided into Location Areas. The term "geographic registration" is often associated with the concept of dividing a PLMN area into regions whereby a mobile station automatically registers when it moves between location areas. In order for mobile stations to detect changes in location areas, every Base Transceiver Station (BTS), in every network, is required to broadcast on its broadcast control channel what location area it represents. All BTSs, for example, that are associated with Location Area 1 will be broadcasting a location area code that represents Location Area 1. As discussed previously, an idle mobile station (when powered up and not engaged in a call) is tuned to the strongest broadcast control channel. As a mobile station moves from one cell area to another, it must compare the location area code being broadcast by the new BTS with the location area where it last registered. If the location area values are different, the mobile station will register. All mobile stations must be equipped with nonvolatile memory. After a mobile station registers in a given location area, it will write the location area code, associated with the new registered area, to its nonvolatile memory. When a mobile station is powered-on (i.e., previously powered off), it will lock on to the strongest cell broadcast control channel and then compare the location area code being broadcast with the value stored on its nonvolatile memory. If the values are different the mobile station will register, otherwise the mobile will not register. The smallest possible location area size is equal to one cell, which of course is not practical. The volume of mobile station registrations increase as the size of location areas become smaller. The largest possible location area size is the total cell coverage area of one Mobile Switching Center (MSC). See Page 3-20 for more details on MSC areas. The volume of page orders on paging channels and the processing demands of BSSs increase as the size of location areas become larger. The optimal size of a location area depends on which resources become a bottleneck and/or which resources are most expensive.

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LOCATION AREAS AND CELL AREAS

VLR 1

Location Area 1 Cell Area

Location Area 2 Location Area 3 Location Area 4

Location Area 5

Location Area 6

Location Area 7

Border between VLR regions

VLR 2

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LOCATION AND CELL AREA IDENTIFICATION


Location areas, as described on previous page, are actually represented with a 3-eld code known as a Location Area Identication (LAI). Each of the 3-elds in an LAI consisting of: Mobile Country Code (MCC), Mobile Network Code (MNC), and Location Area Code (LAC), contribute to a hierarchy of information that can be used to qualify a given location area.1 The reason for the having a 3-eld LAI structure is help insure that all Location Areas have a unique code. Since the GSM recommendations is a multinational standard, the administration of unique Location Area codes is simplied if the high-ordered eld of an LAI is partitioned on a country basis and administered by in international standards organization. MCCs are administered within CCITT.2 The allocation of NMCs is the responsibility of administration(s) within each country. If more than one GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) exist in a country, a unique MNC should be assigned to each of them. The LAC portion of the LAI is a exible length code (up to 2 octets maximum) identifying a location area within a PLMN. This part of the LAI can be coded using a full hexadecimal representation, except an all zeros pattern which is reserved. This reserved value is use in some special cases when no valid LAI exists in mobile stations. The maximum number of location areas within a PLMN is 65535 (216 1), which is more than enough location areas codes even for a very large PLMN. Also illustrated on the following page is the organization of a global cell identication. A global cell identity consists of a LAI plus a 2 octet cell identity.3 With a global cell identity, every GSM cell in the world has a unique code. We will nd out later in this course that a global cell identity is necessary for handing-over a call, for a given mobile station, between networks.

1 . Reference: GSM 3.03, Version 3.4.1, Section 4.1, Page 9. 2 . Reference: GSM 3.03, Version 3.4.1, Section 2.3.3, Page 4. 3 . Reference: GSM 3.03, Version 3.4.1, Section 4.2.1, Page 10.
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LOCATION AND CELL AREA IDENTIFICATION

Location Area Identification

MCC

MNC

LAC

Cell Global Identification

MCC

MNC

LAC

CI

Location Area Identification

MCC

Mobile Country Code (3 decimal digits) Mobile Network Code (2 decimal digits) Location Area Code (2 octets) Cell Identity (2 octets)

MNC

LAC CI

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COUNTRY CODES AND MOBILE COUNTRY CODES PARTIAL LIST


The following table lists a small percentage of the dened Country Codes (CC) and Mobile Country Codes (MCC) as dened in the CCITT recommendations.4 5 It is interesting to note that Mobile Country Codes are dened in the CCITT recommendations and not in the GSM recommendations. MCCs have been dened for all countries in the world, not just the European countries. Since the CCITT standards organization are responsible for international standards, CCITT is the proper owner of Mobile Country Codes. CCs are used by the PSTN to route international calls. MCCs have nothing to do with the PSTN. Any identity starting with a MCC should not thought of as phone number. MCCs are used strictly within PLMNs to support the following capabilities (not intended to be a complete list): Determine where a given mobile stations home PLMN resides. Determine which PLMN a given mobile station was previously registered. Help support handovers between PLMNs. The author does not know exactly why a new numbering plan was introduced for mobiles (i.e., MCCs) and why Country Codes are not sufcient. The author strongly suspects that the CC numbering plan was too restrictive and that introducing a MCC numbering plan provided the necessary exibility. Notice that the United States has 7 MCCs and one CC. Could it be that 7 MCCs were reserved with one MCC for each of the 7 Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs)? The CC numbering plan has evolved over the years. Some countries have three digit CCs, others have two digits, and the United States has a one digit CC. MCCs are xed length: 3 digits. Just because 7 MCCs have been reserved for the United States does not mean that the US has any plans on adopting the GSM cellular standard. Standardizing MCCs for all countries in the world helps support the future possibility of mobile subscribers in a given Personal Communication Network (PCN) to visit PCNs in other countries and receive service even if the "terminal" (e.g., GSM-TDMA, IS-54 TDMA, JDC-TDMA, CDMA, xed exchange ISDN, etc ) access protocol access protocols are different between countries. Again, do not confuse CC with MCC. MCCs are used to communicate information between network elements within a PLMN and between PLMNs. Mobile stations are assigned phone numbers that conform to the international dialing plan, which uses CCs. To place an international call to a mobile subscriber whose home is in the United Kingdom, one would have to specify "44" as the country code. The PSTN will never be offered a directory number that would start with a MCC, such as 234.

4 . CCITT Recommendation E.163 -- Numbering Plan for the International Telephone Service 5 . CCITT Recommendation E.212 -- Identication Plan for Land Mobile Stations
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COUNTRY CODES AND MOBILE COUNTRY CODES PARTIAL LIST

Country

Country Code (CC)


44 34 33 358 46 39 31 1 61 81 965
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Mobile Country Code (MCC)


234, 235 214 208 244 240 222 204 310 - 316 505 440, 441 419

United Kingdom Spain France Finland Sweden Italy Netherlands United States Australia Japan Kuwait

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Mobility Management

MSC AREAS AND LOCATION AREAS


Illustrated previously was the relationship between cell areas and location areas. Here, the relationship between MSC areas and location areas is presented. As you should know, a location area is represented by a cluster of cell areas which share the same location area identication. An MSC area is equal to the sum of all the cell areas associated with base stations connected to the MSC. A base station can only be connected to one MSC. An MSC area may consist of one or several location areas. A location area, however, cannot exceed the size of an MSC area. If, for example, a mobile station visits Location Area 234-06-02 under MSC 3, VLR 2 will process the registration. Part of this registration process, which will be expanded in much more detail later, is to make sure that all calls to be delivered to the mobile station are routed to MSC 3. When a call does arrive to MSC 3, it will inform VLR 2 of an incoming call. VLR 2 will instruct MSC 3, in this example, to have all base stations in Location Area 2 page the mobile station. If the mobile station moves from location area 234-06-02, for example, to location area 234-06-01 the mobile station will automatically register when it detects the change in location areas. VLR 2 will receive the location registration from the mobile station via MSC 2. VLR 2 will execute procedures which makes sure that all incoming calls for the mobile station are routed to MSC 2.

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MSC AREAS AND LOCATION AREAS

VLR 1

VLR 2

MSC 1

MSC 2

MSC 3

Location Area
234-05-01

Location Area
234-05-03

Location Area
234-06-02

Location Area
234-05-02

Location Area
234-06-01

Location Area
234-06-03

MSC 1 Area

MSC 2 Area

MSC 3 Area

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SUMMARY OF AREA RELATIONSHIPS


Cell Area A cell is an area of radio coverage associated with a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Each cell area has a broadcast control channel, a small pool of stand alone dedicated signaling channels, and hopefully a large pool of trafc channels. Idle mobile stations tune to the strongest broadcast control channel. It is over this channel that mobile stations receive page messages. Location Area A location area is dened as an area in which a mobile station may move freely without registering. A location area may include one or several cell areas. All cells within a given location area transmit the same location area identication on their broadcast control channels. When delivering a call to a mobile station, all cells in the last known location area are paged. MSC Area The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) area is the part of the network covered by an MSC. This geographic area is equal to the sum of all the cell areas associated with base stations connected to the MSC. A MSC area may consist of one or several location areas. A location area, however, cannot exceed the size of an MSC area. VLR Area A mobile station roaming in an MSC area is controlled by the Visitor Location Register (VLR) in charge of this area. A VLR may be in charge of one or more MSC areas. An MSC area, however, cannot exceed the size of a VLR area. A VLR is responsible for registering mobile stations as it moves between location areas. A VLR area may be divided into one or several location areas. Since the standard now assumes that the VLR and MSC are combined, the VLR area consists of one MSC area. PLMN Area A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is established and operated by an administration or registered private operating agency. A PLMN area is a collection of MSC areas within a common numbering plan (e.g., same National Destination Code) and a common routing plan. A PLMN area can consist of several VLR areas. A country can consist of one or several PLMN areas. A PLMN area, however, cannot exceed the size of a country. GSM Service Area The GSM service area is dened as an area in which a mobile station can be reached without the callers knowledge of the actual location of the mobile station. A GSM service area may consist of several PLMN areas. A GSM service area may consist of one country, be part of a country, or include several countries. Once a signaling network is deployed that allows all PLMNs to communicate between each other (which will take many years for such a network to evolve) the GSM service area will be equal to summation of all regions that provide GSM service (i.e., all European countries and other non-European countries that deploy GSM systems).

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SUMMARY OF AREA RELATIONSHIPS

Cell Area

Location Area

MSC Area

VLR Area

PLMN Area

Country

GSM Service Area

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WHERE THE HLR FITS IN THE PICTURE The permanent copy of a give mobile subscribers service prole exists in only one place in
the world: a Home Location Register (HLR) in its home Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN). For example, lets assume we have an individual that is a resident of London who decides to subscribe to cellular service. The individual would need to contact the service provider to request service. The service provider would ask the individual which supplementary services/features the user desires and then would add a new entry to an HLR. The subscriber, of course, will request all of the expensive supplementary features! The diagram on the other page illustrates two HLRs in London. This is just an example. There could be one HLR in London or there could be ten HLRs in London. The number of HLRs in a given city depends on factors such as: number of competing service providers in the same area, whether HLRs are integrated within Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs), and size of each system. Lets assume that information pertaining to the mobile subscriber is inserted into HLR 2 in London. The mobile subscriber will be given a phone number and a mobile station. If the mobile subscriber never turns on their phone, HLR 2 in London will be the only HLR database in the world with information pertaining to the mobile subscriber. The process of adding a new mobile subscriber to an HLR makes no assumption as to where the mobile station will power up for the rst time (i.e., where it will rst perform a location update). Therefore, no Visitor Location Register (VLR) will be aware that the mobile station exists until the subscriber turns on his/her phone. If a new mobile subscriber never turns on their phone (never takes the phone out of the box), no VLR will ever have information about this particular mobile subscriber. Assuming the service provider bills subscribers on a monthly basis, the subscriber will receive monthly bills.

The information passed between VLR and HLR is described by the procedures in Recommendation GSM 03.12.

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WHERE THE HLR FITS IN THE PICTURE

Paris

London

Rome

HLR

HLR 1

HLR 2

HLR

Signaling Network

Paris

London

Rome

VLR 1 VLR 2

VLR 1 VLR 2

VLR

222-06-2 208-12-7 208-12-1 208-12-6 208-12-2 208-12-5 234-06-2 234-06-7 234-06-6 234-06-1 234-06-9 234-06-8 222-06-1

Location Areas

208-12-3

208-12-4

234-06-3

234-06-4

234-06-5

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Mobile Station Identication

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FIXED VS. MOBILE STATION DIRECTORY NUMBER TRANSLATION

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FIXED VS. MOBILE STATION DIRECTORY NUMBER TRANSLATION

Local Switching Exchange


DN

PSTN

DN

Port

... ... ... ...


Port

Fixed Station

Mobile Switching Center


DN

Location Area

BSS BSS
Location Area Mobile ID

PSTN

DN

BSS BSS BSS


Location Area

.. .......

Mobile Station

DN = Directory Number

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MOBILE STATION A GSM Mobile Station (MS) consists of two parts: Mobile Equipment (ME) and a Subscriber
Identity Module (SIM). The SIM contains all network related subscriber information. The ME, which is the remaining part of a MS, realizes all the functions common to all GSM subscribers.6 In order for a mobile subscriber to place or receive a regular call, the users SIM must be inserted into the ME. It may be possible, at a network operators discretion, to allow emergency calls to be established from mobile equipment without a SIM.7 If a SIM is removed from a mobile station while a call is in progress, the mobile equipment initiates an immediate release of the call.8 This is because the mobile equipment no longer has any identity, the mobile subscriber is no longer reachable, and that the mobile subscribers location is unknown. The interface between the SIM and ME is standardized. A user should be able to insert his/her SIM into any ME and be able to place or receive calls. All GSM subscribers must have a SIM. They are not required to purchase mobile equipment since the mobile equipment does not contain any subscriber information. For Integrated Circuit-card SIMs, its interface with the outside world is in accordance with International Standards Organization (ISO) standards on IC cards (ISO 7816 series). The SIM may be part of a multi-service card, of which GSM mobile telecommunication is one of the applications.9 GSM also denes a Multi User Mobile Station (MUMS) whereby the mobile equipment provides multiple card reader slots, one per subscriber card. If the MUMS is busy by one subscriber, another call to another subscriber having registered by means of the same MUMS cannot be reached even though this person is not busy.10

6 . Additional information can be found in: GSM 02.17 (SIM, Functional Characteristics), and GSM 11.11 (Specication of the SIM-ME Interface). 7 . Reference: GSM 02.03, Version 3.4.0, Teleservice 12 (Annex), Page 9. 8 . Reference: GSM 2.17, Version 3.2.0, Section 3.2.1, Page 5. 9 . Reference: GSM 02.17, Version 3.2.0, Section 2.2, Page 3. 10 . Reference: GSM 2.17, Version 3.3.0, Section 3.18, Page 15.
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MOBILE STATION

Mobile Equipment

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Mobile Station = Mobile Equipment + Subscriber Identity Module

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MOBILE STATION IDENTIFICATION


International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)

IMSI is assigned to a MS at subscription time IMSI uniquely identies a given MS IMSI should only be transmitted over the radio path when necessary
IMSI (15 digits) MCC MNC MSIN NMSI part

MCC Mobile Country Code [3 digits] (home country) MNC Mobile Network Code [2 digits] (home GSM PLMN) MSIN Mobile Subscriber Identication Number NMSI National Mobile Subscriber Identity Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)

TMSI is assigned to a MS by the VLR TMSI uniquely identies a MS within the area controlled by a given VLR
TMSI (32 bits max)

International Mobile Station Equipment Identify (IMEI)

Uniquely identies mobile station equipment Burnt in by the equipment manufacturer


IMEI (15 digits) TAC FAC SNR SP

TAC Type Approval Code (6 digits) FAC Final Assembly Code (2 digits) SNR Serial Number (6 digits) SP Spare (1 digit)

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MOBILE STATION IDENTIFICATION

Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN)

International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)

International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
Smart Card (SIM) Jane Doe

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SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM)


Types of information contained in SIM: International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Authentication key (Ki) Personal Identication Number (PIN) Subscriber information Access control class Cipher key (Kc) Temporary Mobile Station Identication (TMSI) Additional GSM services Location Area Identity (LAI) Forbidden Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs) * Updatable by network

The possibility exists that a Mobile Station (MS) with a plug-in Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) may also have provision for accepting an Integrated Circuit (IC) card. In this case, the IC card takes precedence over the plug-in SIM. If the IC card is inserted during a call, the IC card will take precedence after the call has nished. If the IC card is removed then the plug-in SIM takes over the security function. If an IC card is removed during a call, the call is terminated.11

11 . Reference: GSM 2.17, Version 3.2.0, Section 5, Page 10.


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SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE (SIM)

Mobile Equipment

Mobile Equipment

SIM Card

IC Card Type SIM

Plug-In Type SIM

Mobile Station = Mobile Equipment + SIM

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HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR)


The Home Location Register (HLR) is a data base in charge of the management of mobile subscribers. A Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) may contain one or several HLRs: it depends on the number of mobile subscribers, on the capacity of the equipment and on the organization of the network.12 The two most noteworthy pieces of information stored in the HLR are: Permanent copy of mobile subscribers subscription information. Some location information enabling the routing of calls towards the MSC where the mobile station is located (VLR address). All administrative interventions concerning a given mobile subscriber occur on the HLR. This database is used for routing of calls to mobile subscribers managed by this HLR. The HLRs have no direct control of Mobile Switching Centers (MSC)s. There are two numbers that serve as primary keys into the HLR database: International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI) Mobile Station International ISDN number (MSISDN) The database contains other information such as: Teleservices and bearer services subscription information Service restrictions (e.g., roaming limitations) Supplementary service parameters More information can be found about HLRs in the following sections of the GSM specication: Organization of Subscriber Data: GSM 03.08 Home Location Register Specication: GSM 11.31

12 . Reference: GSM 3.02, Version 3.1.4, Section 3.1, Page 5.


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HOME LOCATION REGISTER (HLR)

IMSI x

MSISDN

Subscriber Data IMSI MSISDN VLR Address

KEYS: International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) CONTAINS: Subscriber data IMSI MSISDN VLR Address
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VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)


According to the GSM specications a mobile station is always viewed as a "visitor." If the mobile station is in its home Mobile Switching Center (MSC) area, the mobile is simply visiting home. All MSCs have one Visitor Location Register (VLR), which can be integrated within the MSC or can be a separate network element. The VLR contains the necessary information needed to handle calls while a mobile station is visiting its controlled area. The information passed between VLR and HLR is described by the procedures in Recommendation GSM 03.12. The organization of subscriber data is detailed in Recommendation GSM 03.08. The Visitor Location Register specication can be found in Recommendation GSM 11.32.

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VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)

IMSI x

MSRN x TMSI x x

Subscriber Data IMSI MSISDN LAC TMSI

KEYS: International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) CONTAINS: Subscriber data IMSI MSISDN Location Area Code (LAC) of Mobile Station TMSI
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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time


This must be done prior to the rst phone call (incoming or outgoing), with the single exception of emergency calls which are to be setup even if the subscriber is not registered. 0 The subscriber has signed up with a service provider and has been provided with a SIM card and MSISDN. The Mobile Subscribers data has been entered into the service providers HLR database. 1 The Mobile Subscriber has turned the phone on and the phone notices that the Location Area Identication (LAI) in the broadcast does not match the LAI on the SIM. (In this case the LAI on the SIM is null since this is the very rst use of this SIM.) The mismatch in the LAIs triggers the MS to initiate a Location Registration. The Location Update message from the MS contains the IMSI and old LAI. The BSS then adds the new LAI in the header of the message before it passes it onto the MSC. 2 The VLR gets the Location Update information from the MSC and determines that it must retrieve subscriber data from the HLR. The VLR uses the IMSI to determine which HLR should be queried for this subscriber. 3 The VLR send a MAP message to the HLR requesting subscriber data for the subscriber identied by the IMSI.

BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM VLR

- Base Station System - Country Code - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Location Area Identication - Location Update - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Country Code - Mobile Subscriber or Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Subscriber Identity Module - Visitor Location Register

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time

LAI = 208-06-01

PARIS VLR
2
IMSI = 234-02-1234567

BSS 1

MSC BSS 2
Registration (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) (LAI (old) = NULL) BSS Header: (LAI (new) = 208-06-=01)

3
Update Location (IMSI = 234-02-1234567)

London HLR
0
IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data VLR Adr = NULL

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time -- Continued


4 5 6 6a 7 8 The HLR checks the subscribers permissions to ensure roaming is allowed and stores the VLR address for future use (i.e., mobile terminations and future roaming to new VLR areas.) The HLR sends a MAP message to the VLR with the subscribers data. The VLR builds a subscriber record and stores the new LAI with that record. An acknowledgment of the receipt and writing of the subscriber data is sent to the HLR. The HLR signals Update Location Complete. The VLR assigns a TMSI to this subscriber. (This step is optional and is at the discretion of the service provider.) The VLR/MSC sends a message to the MS accepting the Location Update request and assigning the TMSI for the MS.

BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM TMSI VLR

- Base Station System - Country Code - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Location Area Identication - Location Update - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Country Code - Mobile Subscriber or Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Subscriber Identity Module - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Visitor Location Register

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE First Time -- Continued

LAI = 208-06-01

BSS 1

PARIS VLR
7
IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 6666 Subscriber Data LA = 01

MSC

BSS 2
Registration Accepted (TMSI = 6666) (LAI = 208-06-01)

8 5
Subscriber Data Subscriber Data Acknowledge

6 6a

Update Complete

London HLR
IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data
VLR Adr = Paris

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area

Location Updates are never done during a phone call. Movement between Location Areas (actually between BSSs) during a phone call are covered in the Handover portion of section 4.

The Mobile Station notices that the Location Area Identication (LAI) in the strongest broadcast channel does not match the LAI on the SIM. The mismatch in the LAIs triggers the MS to initiate a Location Update. The Location Update message from the MS contains the TMSI and old LAI. The BSS then adds the new LAI in the header of the message before it passes it onto the MSC. The VLR gets the Location Update information from the MSC and determines the MS has previously registered in this VLR area, but the LAI changes. The VLR updates the LAI for this subscriber in the VLR record.

BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM VLR

- Base Station System - Country Code - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Location Area Identication - Location Update - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Country Code - Mobile Subscriber or Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Subscriber Identity Module - Visitor Location Register

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area

PARIS VLR
1
IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 6666 Subscriber Data LA = 20 2 Registration (TMSI = 6666) (LAI(old) = 208-06-01) BSS Header: (LAI(new) = 208-06-20

LAI = 208-06-01

BSS 3
LAI = 208-06-20

BSS 4

London HLR
IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data
VLR Adr = Paris

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area -- cont.


3 4 The VLR assigns a new TMSI to this subscriber. (This step is optional and is at the discretion of the service provider.) The VLR/MSC sends a message to the MS accepting the Location Update request and assigning the TMSI for the MS.

BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM TMSI VLR

- Base Station System - Country Code - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Location Area Identication - Location Update - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Country Code - Mobile Subscriber or Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Subscriber Identity Module - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Visitor Location Register

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement within VLR Area -- cont.

PARIS VLR
3
IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20 Registration Accepted (TMSI = 7777) (LAI = 208-06-20)

LAI = 208-06-01

BSS 3
LAI = 208-06-20

BSS 4

London HLR
IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data
VLR Adr = Paris

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs


1 The Mobile Station notices that the Location Area Identication (LAI) in the strongest broadcast does not match the LAI on the SIM. The mismatch in the LAIs triggers the MS to initiate a Location Registration. The Location Update message from the MS contains the TMSI and old LAI. The BSS then adds the new LAI in the header of the message before it passes it onto the MSC. The VLR gets the Location Update information from the MSC and determines from the old LAI that the TMSI does not identify a VLR record on this system. In order to retrieve the IMSI, which is necessary to query the HLR, the VLR queries the old VLR for the IMSI using the TMSI. It is optional to request Authentication data at this time also. The old VLR responds with the IMSI and Authentication data if requested. If steps 2 and 3 fail for any reason, the VLR/MSC can query the MS for the IMSI directly. However, this is the last resort since the intent is to not transmit the IMSI across the Air interface to the extent possible. Once given the IMSI, the new VLR can determine the MSs HLR. The VLR send a MAP message to the HLR requesting subscriber data for the subscriber identied by the IMSI.

4 5

BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM VLR

- Base Station System - Country Code - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Location Area Identication - Location Update - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Country Code - Mobile Subscriber or Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Subscriber Identity Module - Visitor Location Register

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs

PARIS VLR
IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20

BSS 3
LAI = 208-06-20

BSS 4

London HLR
IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data
VLR Adr = Paris

3
IMSI Response (IMSI = 234-02-1234567)

2 5
Update Location (IMSI = 234-02-1234567) Need IMSI (TMSI = 7777) Optional: Ask for Authentication Parameters too

ROME VLR
4
IMSI = 234-02-1234567

BSS 8
LAI = 222-03-68

1
Registration (TMSI = 7777) (LAI(old) = 208-06-20) BSS Header: (LAI(new) = 222-03-68)

BSS 5

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs -- cont.


6 The HLR checks the subscribers permissions to ensure roaming is allowed and stores the new VLR address for future use (i.e., mobile terminations and future roaming to new VLR areas.) 7 The HLR sends a MAP message to the VLR with the subscribers data. The VLR writes the subscribers data to a new VLR record. 7a Assuming the VLR record was built with no problems, the VLR acknowledges the subscriber data receipt. 7b The HLR acknowledges the Update Location is complete. 8 The HLR noties the old VLR the MS has registered in a new VLR area and the record at the old VLR should be deleted. 9 The VLR builds a subscriber record and stores the new LAI with that record. Also, the VLR assigns a TMSI to this subscriber. (This step is optional and is at the discretion of the service provider.) 10 The VLR/MSC sends a message to the MS accepting the Location Update request and assigning the TMSI for the MS.

BSS CC HLR IMSI LAI LU MAP MCC MS MSC MSISDN SIM TMSI VLR

- Base Station System - Country Code - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Location Area Identication - Location Update - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Country Code - Mobile Subscriber or Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Subscriber Identity Module - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Visitor Location Register

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LOCATION UPDATE EXAMPLE Movement between VLRs -- cont.

PARIS VLR
IMSI TMSI = 234-02-1234567 = 7777 Subscriber Data LA = 20

BSS 3
LAI = 208-06-20

8
Delete Record (IMSI = 234-02-1234567)

BSS 4

London HLR
IMSI MSISDN = 234-02-1234567 = 44-75-555-1212 Subscriber Data
VLR Adr = Rome

7
7a

Subscriber Data

Subscriber Data Acknowledge

7b
Update Complete

ROME VLR
9
IMSI = 234-02-1234567 TMSI = 8888 Subscriber Data LA = 68

BSS 8
LAI = 222-03-68

10
Registration Accepted (TMSI = 8888) (LAI =222-03-68)

BSS 5

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Routing Calls to Mobile Stations

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MOBILE STATION ROAMING NUMBER (MSRN)


MSC MSISDN MSRN PSTN - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Mobile Station Roaming Number - Public Switched Telephone Network

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Mobility Management

MOBILE STATION ROAMING NUMBER (MSRN)

Home MSC

Visited MSC

. . . . MSISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSISDN . . . . . . .

. .. . .. MSRN .

PSTN
..... ..... MSISDN

.. ..........
MSISDN

Local Exchange

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MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER ALLOCATION


MSC MSISDN MSRN PSTN - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Mobile Station Roaming Number - Public Switched Telephone Network

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Mobility Management

MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER ALLOCATION

Trunks Trunks

MSC LOCAL EXCHANGE PSTN

MSC

Directory Number Spectrum

MSISDN
Used to reference home subscribers

MSRN

Used to reference visiting subscribers

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LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area


The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station terminated call. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. Another option in the standards, but not supported by any known service providers, is the per registration MSRN allocation. In the second case, the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. This allows the network to skip steps 4 and 5, but requires a very large number of MSRNs. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. 2 The PSTN, using normal digit analysis, routes the call to the home PLMN/MSC of the Mobile Subscriber. 3 The home MSC does digit analysis and notes that this number is an MSISDN for a MS. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MSs HLR. 4 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. 5 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR. 6 The HLR passes the MSRN onto the home MSC. 7 The home MSC reroutes the call using the MSRN. Normal digit analysis on the home MSC indicates that calls with this MSRN should be routed to the PSTN. 8 Normal digit analysis within the PSTN indicates that this MSRN should be routed to the visited MSC. 9 When the incoming call with this MSRN arrives at the MSC, the MSC digit analysis recognizes it as an MSRN and asks the VLR for the MS associated with this MSRN. 10 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI, last reported LAI, etc.) and releases the MSRN for future use. 11 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI. 12 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PSTN VLR - Base Station System - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Mobile Station Roaming Number - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

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LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area

Gateway MSC

BSS 1

Home MSC
2

BSS 2
3 6

MS ISD N

MSISDN

MSRN

MS RN

Home PLMN

Voice Path Signaling

N ISD MS

HLR

PSTN

IMSI

MSRN

VLR
N SR M
9 10

Visited PLMN

MSRN

TMSI & LAC


TM

11

SI

BSS 1

12

TM SI

Visited MSC
BSS 2

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LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile in Home MSC Area


The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station terminated call within the Home MSC area.. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. 2 The PSTN, using normal digit analysis, routes the call to the home PLMN/MSC of the Mobile Subscriber. 3 The home MSC does digit analysis and notes that this number is an MSISDN for a MS. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MSs HLR. 4 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. (In this case, the last known VLR address is in this PLMN.) 5 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR. 6 The HLR passes the MSRN onto the home MSC. 7 The home MSC reroutes the call using the MSRN. Normal digit analysis on the home MSC indicates that calls with this MSRN are terminated on this MSC. 8 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI, last reported LAI, etc.) and releases the MSRN for future use. 9 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI. 10 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. Another option in the standards, but not supported by any known service providers, is the per registration MSRN allocation. In the second case, the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. This allows the network to skip steps 4 and 5, but requires a very large number of MSRNs.

BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PLMN PSTN VLR

- Base Station System - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Mobile Station Roaming Number - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Public Land Mobile Network - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

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Mobility Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Mobile in Home MSC Area

IMSI

HLR
N SR M

MSRN

VLR
M SR N
LA C
9 7 8

DN SIS M

TM SI &

N ISD MS

TM

SI

BSS 1

10

TM SI

MSISDN

Home MSC
BSS 2

PSTN

Voice Path Signaling

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LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Via Gateway MSC


The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station terminated call with a Gateway MSC in the Home PLMN. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. 2 The PSTN, using normal digit analysis, routes the call to the home Gateway MSC in the home PLMN. 3 The Gateway MSC does digit analysis and notes that this number is an MSISDN for a MS. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MSs HLR. 4 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. (In this case, the last known VLR address is in this PLMN.) 5 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR. 6 The HLR passes the MSRN to the Gateway MSC. 7 The Gateway MSC routes the call using the MSRN. 8 When the incoming call with this MSRN arrives at the MSC, the MSC digit analysis recognizes it as an MSRN and asks the VLR for the MS associated with this MSRN. 9 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI, last reported LAI, etc.) and releases the MSRN for future use. 10 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI. 11 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. Another option in the standards, but not supported by any known service providers, is the per registration MSRN allocation. In the second case, the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. This allows the network to skip steps 4 and 5, but requires a very large number of MSRNs.

BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PLMN PSTN VLR

- Base Station System - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Mobile Station Roaming Number - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Public Land Mobile Network - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

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Mobility Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Via Gateway MSC

BSS 1

MSC
BSS 2

MSISDN

DN SIS M
N SR M
6

HLR
4

Gateway

IMSI

PSTN
DN SIS M
2

MSRN

Home MSC

Home PLMN

VLR
9 8 7

N SR M

MSRN

TMSI & LAC

10

TM

SI

BSS 1

11

TM SI

Visited MSC
Voice Path Signaling

BSS 2

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LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Intelligent PSTN


The following diagram shows an example of call routing and signaling paths for a mobile station with an Intelligent PSTN. The Intelligent PSTN supports the identication of an MSISDN, the MAP query of the HLR, and the rerouting of the call based on the MSRN. 1 A user on a land-line phone dials the MSISDN of a Mobile Subscriber. 2 The PSTN, using normal digit analysis, notes that this number is and MSISDN for a MS. A MAP routing query for this MSISDN is sent to the MSs HLR. 3 The HLR sends a MAP routing query for this IMSI (MSISDN to IMSI translation done in the HLR) to the last known VLR address. 4 The VLR assigns a temporary MSRN associated with this IMSI and sends the MSRN back to the HLR. 5 The HLR passes the MSRN to the Intelligent PSTN. 6 The Intelligent PSTN reroutes the call using the MSRN. Normal digit analysis indicates that calls with this MSRN are routed to the visited MSC. 7 When the incoming call with this MSRN arrives at the MSC, the MSC digit analysis recognizes it as an MSRN and asks the VLR for the MS associated with this MSRN. 8 The VLR retrieves the associated VLR record (TMSI, last reported LAI, etc.) and releases the MSRN for future use. 9 The MSC sends page requests to the BSS(s) in the LAI. 10 The BSS(s) page for the Mobile. The MSRN allocation described in this scenario is called per call MSRN allocation. Another option in the standards, but not supported by any known service providers, is the per registration MSRN allocation. In the second case, the MSRN is stored at the HLR for the entire time the MS is registered in a VLR area. This allows the network to skip steps 3 and 4, but requires a very large number of MSRNs.

BSS HLR IMSI MAP MSC MSISDN MSRN TMSI PLMN PSTN VLR

- Base Station System - Home Location Register - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Mobile Application Part - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station ISDN number - Mobile Station Roaming Number - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity - Public Land Mobile Network - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

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LAND TO MOBILE CALL ROUTING Intelligent PSTN

BSS 1

Home MSC
BSS 2

Home PLMN
2

Voice Path Signaling

N ISD MS

DN MSIS
MSRN
5

HLR

PSTN

IMSI

MSRN

VLR
N SR M
7 6 8

Visited PLMN

MSRN

TMSI & LAC


TM

SI

BSS 1

10

TM SI

Visited MSC
BSS 2

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Mobile Station Registration Types

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3 TYPES OF MOBILE STATION REGISTRATION

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Mobility Management

3 TYPES OF MOBILE STATION REGISTRATION GEOGRAPHIC Based TIME Based ON/OFF Based

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GEOGRAPHIC BASED REGISTRATION


Each cell area is served by a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Each BTS transmits on its broadcast control channel the Location Area Identication (LAI) that it represents. As a mobile station moves from one cell area to another, it retunes to a new broadcast control channel. Each time the mobile station retunes, it compares the LAI received to the last registered LAI, stored on the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). If the two LAIs are different, the mobile station executes a location update procedure.

LA MSC VLR

- Location Area - Mobile Switching Center - Visitor Location Register

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GEOGRAPHIC BASED REGISTRATION

VLR

MSC

LA 1

LA 1

LA 2

LA 2

LA 1

LA 2

LA 2

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TIME BASED REGISTRATION


Mobile periodically registers. Updates depend on mobile station activity. Update intervals are broadcast by base stations. Note: Units of 1 deci-hours Minimum Interval: 6 minutes (1 deci-hour) Maximum Interval: 25.5 hours (255 deci-hours) Timeout value sent on broadcast channels to mobiles Timeout value can be set to innity

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Mobility Management

TIME BASED REGISTRATION


TIMER MANAGEMENT:

Timer is reset when mobile station activity


has taken place

Mobile station initiates location updating


when timer expires

Mobile station timer value is kept in memory


when turned off

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ON/OFF BASED REGISTRATION


The term "ON/OFF Based Registration" is NOT a term used in the GSM standards, and is used here to help convey a concept. As you might suspect, ON refers to the mobile station being powered on and OFF refers to the mobile station being powered off. The terms "International Subscriber Identity (IMSI) attach" and "IMSI detach" are used in the GSM standard. The IMSI detach operation is the action taken by a mobile station to indicate to the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) that the station has entered an inactive state (e.g, the station is powered down or the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) has been removed). The IMSI attach operation is the action taken by a mobile station to indicate to the PLMN that the station has reentered an active state (e.g., the station is powered up and/or that a SIM card has inserted into the mobile equipment).13 The support of the IMSI attach/detach operation is mandatory in mobile stations. The activation and implementation of this capability is optional within the xed infrastructure of a PLMN. When a mobile station is powered on (or SIM card inserted), the mobile station will rst check to see if it is still in the same location area. If the mobile has entered a new location area, it will perform the procedure associated with geographic registration (and no IMSI attach message will be sent).14 If the mobile has not moved into a new location area, it will perform an IMSI attach operation only if the PLMN operator has this capability activated. Information transmitted on the "broadcast control channel" from each Base Transceiver Station (BTS) tells mobile stations whether IMSI attach/detach is supported. The IMSI detach signal sent from the mobile station to the MSC is not acknowledged. The IMSI attach signal sent from the mobile station is acknowledged from the MSC. If the acknowledgement indicates that the mobile station is not registered or that the mobile stations identication is not sufcient (i.e TMSI), the mobile station will execute its normal location registration procedure. Details concerning whether a mobile station is available or unavailable in a PLMN is useful information to a VLR, especially with regards to delivering calls to a mobile station. If a mobile station is known to be unavailable (marked as deatached), and a call is to be delivered to it, the VLR will not request that the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) page the mobile station in its last registered location area. Instead, the calling party will possibly be connected to an appropriate announcement (e.g., "were sorry, the mobile subscriber that you have dialed is unavailable") or redirected to another directory number.

13 . Reference: GSM 3.12, Version 3.1.4, Section 2.4, Page 3. 14 . Reference: GSM 3.12, Version 3.1.4, Section 3.6, Page 7.
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ON/OFF BASED REGISTRATION IMSI ATTACH


mobile power-up = attach mobile power-up causes a location update with type=attach

IMSI DETACH
mobile power-down = detach mobile power-down causes a ag on the VLR record to prevent paging

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Condentiality and Security

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CONFIDENTIALITY & SECURITY MECHANISMS

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Mobility Management

CONFIDENTIALITY & SECURITY MECHANISMS Use of TMSI instead of IMSI Mobile Station Authentication Encryption of information on the radio path Mobile Equipment validation

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WHY AUTHENTICATE?
One of the major problems for the Analog Cellular providers has been fraudulent users. Hackers replicate the identity of legitimate mobile stations so they can make long distance phone calls at no charge. One of the advantages of the digital systems is the message oriented protocol supports a greater ability to protect and authenticate the subscriber identity.

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Mobility Management

WHY AUTHENTICATE?

IMSI/TMSI

Hacker Shack

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SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY AUTHENTICATION AND CIPHERKEY SETTING


Activities that may trigger authentication:

Before each registration


change in location areas change in MSRN

Before each call set up attempt


mobile originated mobile terminated

Before some supplementary services change


activation deactivation

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Mobility Management

SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY AUTHENTICATION AND CIPHERKEY SETTING

IMSI/TMSI RAND
Rand # Generator

RAND

RAND

A8
Kc

Ki

A3
SRES

A3
SRES

Ki

A8

Subscriber Identity Module

SRES
Signed response to the RAND

=
Yes/No

Kc

Mobile Station

Network

Ki = Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (128 bits) Kc = Cipher Key (64 bits) RAND = Random Number (128 bits) SRES = Signed Response (32 bits) A3 = Authentication Algorithm A8 = Cipher Key Generating Algorithm
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AUTHENTICATION PROCESS Network View


VLRs have the responsibility of managing the authentication process. In order for a VLR to authenticate a mobile subscriber, it needs to obtain authentication information from the mobile subscribers home network. The VLR can be provided with either of the following information: the authentication key (Ki) a set of RAND/SRES/Kc vectors If the VLR and HLR are in different Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs), then the HLR should only return sets of RAND/SRES/Kc.15

2 3 4

5 6 7

The VLR requests Authentication Parameters, consisting of a Random Number (RAND), Signed Response (SRES), and the Cipher Key (Kc), from the mobile stations HLR.16 The VLR can request up to 5 sets of parameters to be returned. The Authentication Parameters are provided to the VLR. The VLR/MSC initiates the authentication process by sending a message with the RAND to the BSS. The BSS passes the message and RAND onto the MS. The MS runs the RAND and Individual Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) (stored on the SIM) through the A3 and A8 algorithms to get the SRES and Kc. The MS sends the SRES back to the BSS. And the BSS sends the SRES back to the VLR/MSC. If the SRES from the MS matches the SRES from the AUC, the MS passes authentication. The Kc is provided to the BSS if ciphering of the data over the Air interface is to be provided. - Authentication Algorithm - Authentication Center - Home Location Register - Cipyer Key - Public Land Mobile Network - Signed Response A8 BSS IMSI Ki RAND VLR - Cipher Key generating Algorithm - Base Station System - International Mobile Subscriber Identity - Individual Subscriber Authentication Key - Random Number - Visitor Location Register

A3 AUC HLR Kc PLMN SRES

15 . Reference: GSM 9.02, Version 3.8.0, Section 5.10.3, Page 300. 16 . Reference: GSM 9.02, Version 3.8.0, Section 5.5.1, Page 216.
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AUTHENTICATION PROCESS Network View

AUC

Random # Generator

RAND

Ki

A3 & A8 Algorithms
SRES Kc RAND

IMSI

HLR
Home PLMN
1 IMSI 2
RAND, SRES, Kc

Visited PLMN

VLR
SR ES

4
RA ND

5 3
RAND, RAND, RAND, RAND, RAND, SRES, SRES, SRES, SRES, SRES, Kc Kc Kc Kc Kc

RAND

One Record Entry

7 Kc

BSS

6 SRES

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ENCRYPTED TRAFFIC CHANNEL INFORMATION

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ENCRYPTED TRAFFIC CHANNEL INFORMATION

Frame 0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1

Frame 2
2 3 4 5 6 7

0.577 ms Time Slot


Data Bits 3 Head Bits 57 1 Training Sequence 26 1 Data Bits 57 3 8.25 Tail Guard Bits Bits

Control Bits

114 data bits encrypted


(per timeslot)

Type of Information Transmitted/Received by a Mobile Station every 26 Frames (120 msec)


(using 13k BPS speech coders)

Frame #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Associated Signaling

Frame #
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Slot #
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Traffic Information
Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice Idle (no transmission)

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DATA ENCRYPTION PROCESS


The following gure shows the truth table for an exclusive or gate.

Exclusive OR Truth Table


IN 1 0
IN 1 IN 2 OUT

IN 2 0 1 0 1

OUT 0 1 1 0

0 1 1

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Mobility Management

DATA ENCRYPTION PROCESS

MOBILE STATION

BASE STATION

TDMA Frame # (22 bit counter)

TDMA Frame # (22 bit counter)

A5

A5

cipher block

11100111 11001010

11100111

cipher block

Receive data

Transmit data

00101101 00101101
Exclusive Or

Encrypted Data over Air Interface

A5 Kc

- Data encryption algorithm - Encryption (Cipher) Key

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WHY VALIDATE MOBILE EQUIPMENT?


Since the subscriber identity is kept on the SIM which can be inserted in a variety of GSM phones, it is necessary to ensure that the phone being used on the network 1 . Has been approved to work on GSM systems. I.e., it doesnt interfere with other users conversations, etc. 2 . The equipment itself hasnt been stolen or restricted from service for some other reason. It would be a mistake to use your SIM card in a known-to-be-stolen piece of equipment, because the subscribers identity can be associated with the IMEI at the time of the call.

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Mobility Management

WHY VALIDATE MOBILE EQUIPMENT?

............ ........................................... ....... ................ ..... ....... ........ .... .... .... . . have . .... .. . .. .... .... .. ... .. SIM . . . . .. .... .. .. will travel........................... ... .. ........ . . .. . .. ............ . ....................... .. ........... . .............. .............................................. ........................................................ ...... ................. ... .. . ......... ..... . ..................... .............. ........................................................................ ............ . ... . ............ ...... . ............ .. ..... ... . ..... . .... ... ............ ... . ................ . . .. .. ....... ............. .. ....... .............. .................... ...... ..... .................. ... .. ...... ................ ...... . .. ....

SIM $

. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .. ....... ....... .. ..... ... ....... .... ........... .. . . . .

. .

$39.99 ea or best offer

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Mobility Management

EQUIPMENT VALIDATION PROCESS


1 2 3 4 The MSC requests the IMEI from the MS. The MS provides the IMEI. The MSC sends a MAP query to the EIR requesting the status of the IMEI The EIR returns one of four possible responses. 1 . Not on the approved MS type list. - This equipment has not been included in the ranges of equipment which are approved for this network. 2 . On the approved MS type list. - This equipment is included in the ranges of equipment which are approved for this network. 3 . On the approved MS type list, but listed as monitor this particular MS. - This equipment has been approved, but provide special call records or alert the service provider this MS is in use. 4 . On the approved MS type list, but service to this MS is restricted. - This equipment is within the range of approved equipment, but this MS should not be provided service (stolen, etc.).

EIR MS MSC IMEI

- Equipment Identity Register - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - International Mobile Station Equipment Identity

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

EQUIPMENT VALIDATION PROCESS

EIR

IMEI CHECK Response 4

CHECK IMEI 3

Request IMEI

MSC
IMEI

MS

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

3-93

Mobility Management

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3-94

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Detailed Location Registration Scenario

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

3-95

Mobility Management

PHASES OF A MOBILE STATION LOCATION REGISTRATION UPDATE

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3-96

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

PHASES OF A MOBILE STATION LOCATION REGISTRATION UPDATE Request for Service Authentication Update Location Registers Ciphering TMSI Reallocation

Phase might not occur


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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Request for Service


In the following location update scenario, it is assumed that a mobile station enters a new location area that is under control of a different VLR (referred to as the "new VLR") than the one the mobile station is currently registered (referred to as the "old VLR"). 0 The mobile station enters a new cell area, listens to the Location Area Identity (LAI) being transmitted on the broadcast channel, and compares this LAI with the LAI stored in the SIM, which represents the area where the mobile subscriber was last ofcially registered. The mobile station determines that it has entered a new Location Area and transmits a Channel Request message over a common access channel, Random Access Channel (RACH). The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA. Although unlikely, it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. Once the base station receives the Channel Request message, it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC. The mobile station transmits a location update request message to the base station over the SDCCH. Included in this message is the mobile station Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) and Location Area Identication (LAI). This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. The base station forwards the location update request message to the MSC. This message also causes the startup of a SCCP connection. The MSC informs its VLR of the location update request. The mobile station can identify itself either with its IMSI or TMSI. In this example well assume that the mobile provided a TMSI. Also included in this message is the LAI of the last area the mobile station was registered. The VLR analyzes the LAI supplied in the message and determines that the TMSI received is associated with a different VLR (old VLR). In order to proceed with the registration, the IMSI of the mobile station must be determined. The new VLR has two options:

4 5

Derive the identity of the old VLR from the LAI, supplied in the location update request message, and request
the old VLR to supply the IMSI for a particular TMSI. First Choice!

Request the mobile station supply its IMSI. Second Choice, want to avoid transmitting the IMSI across the Air
interface as much as possible. In this example, well assume that the networking capability between VLRs doesnt exist and that the new VLR is only left with the option of requesting the mobile station to supply its IMSI. The VLR sends to the MSC a request for the mobile stations IMSI. 7 The MSC forwards the VLRs IMSI request to the mobile station. Note that this message is sent transparently through the BSS. This message is also used to complete the establishment of the SCCP connection between the BSS and the MSC. The mobile station reads its IMSI and transmits it to the BSS over the SDCCH. The BSS transparently transfers this message to the MSC. The MSC forwards the IMSI response to the new VLR.

8 9

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Request for Service


Um A B

MS

BSS

MSC

New VLR

. . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . . . Channel Assigmnent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMSI Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Location Update Request

Request IMSI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request IMSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMSI Acknowledge . . . . . . .

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Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Authentication


Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access, it is necessary to determine if the International Mobile Station Identity (IMSI) received from the mobile station is from the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) that was assigned this IMSI. Authentication is built around the notion that an Authentication Key (Ki) resides in only two places: in an Authentication Center (AUC) and in the users SIM. Since the authentication key, Ki, is (or should) never transmitted, it is virtually impossible for unauthorized individuals to obtain this key to impersonate a give mobile subscriber. 10 If authentication is to be performed on the mobile station, it is possible that the "new VLR" will not have any "authentication triplets" (RAND, SRES, and Kc) available for the registering IMSI. Since we assumed that we were unable to communicate with the old VLR on the previous page, lets assume that we have to request authentication triplets from the AUC. The GSM standard allows a VLR to request in advance up to 5 "authentication parameters" from the Authentication Center (AUC), via the HLR. In this scenario, the new VLR sends a request to the HLR requesting authentication parameters for the specied IMSI. 11 The HLR forwards this request to the authentication center. 12 The AUC, using the IMSI, extracts the subscribers authentication key (Ki). The AUC then generates a random number (RAND), applies the Ki and RAND to both the authentication algorithm (A3) and the cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and a Cipher Key (Kc). The AUC then returns to the HLR the requested number (i.e., one to ve copies) of authentication parameters: RAND, SRES, and Kc. Each time the AUC produces a set of authentication parameters, the values will be different. 13 The HLR forwards the requested number of authentication parameters to the VLR. 14 The VLR then sends a message to the MSC requesting that the mobile station be authenticated. Included in the message is a random number (RAND). 15 The MSC forwards the authentication request message to the mobile station. The mobile station reads its authentication key (Ki) from the SIM, applies the random number (RAND) and Ki to both its Authentication Algorithm (A3) and Cipher key generation Algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). The mobile station saves Kc for later, and will use Kc when it receives command to cipher the channel. 16 The mobile station returns the generated SRES to the MSC. 17 The MSC forwards SRES to the VLR. The VLR compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES receive earlier from the AUC. If equal, the mobile passes authentication. If unequal, appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. In this scenario, well assume that authentication passes.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Authentication


B

MS

MSC

NEW VLR

HLR

AUC

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Authenticate Mobile Station

Authentication Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Get Authentication Parameters

Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3-101

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Update Location


At this point, we are ready to request the subscriber data from the HLR, inform the HLR that the mobile station is under control of a new VLR and that the mobile station can be deleted from the old VLR. 18a The VLR requests the subscriber data from the HLR to build the VLR record for this MS. 18b The HLR sends the VLR the subscriber data in an Insert Subscriber Data message. The VLR builds the VLR record. 18c The VLR sends an Insert Subscriber Data Result message to the HLR to conrm that the VLR record has been built correctly. 19 The HLR marks the HLR record for that subscriber with the new VLR address and conrms that the MS is now considered to be registered in the new VLR. 20 If the mobile station is also registered in an old VLR, the HLR will send a message to the old VLR informing it that the VLR entry for the specied IMSI can be deleted. 21 The old VLR deletes the subscriber record and sends an acknowledgement of deletion to the HLR.

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3-102

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Update Location


New VLR
D D

HLR

Old VLR

18a

18b

18c

19

20

21

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Update Location

Insert Subscriber Data

Insert Subsc. Data Result

Location Updated

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Delete Mobile Station

Mobile Station Deleted

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3-103

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Ciphering


At this point in time, the HLR and "old VLR" have been informed that the mobile station has registered with a MSC under the control of the "new VLR." The remaining task for the new VLR is to allocate and transmit a new TMSI to the mobile station. For security reasons, the radio channel is encrypted before sending the new TMSI to the mobile station. 22 The VLR requests the MSC to cipher the radio channel. Included in this message is the Cipher Key (Kc), which was made available eariler during authentication. 23 The MSC forwards this request to the BSS. 24 The BSS retrieves the cipher key, Kc, from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel. 25 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel, and transmits a conrmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 26 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message uses the cipher key it previously received from the MSC to cipher the downlink channel. The BSS then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC.

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3-104

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE Ciphering


Um A B

MS

BSS

MSC
Set Ciphering

New VLR

22

23

24

25

26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

3-105

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE TMSI Reallocation


27 The VLR informs that MSC that the mobile location update sequence is complete. The VLR forwards in this message the new TMSI for the mobile station. 28 The MSC forwards the location update complete message to the mobile station. 29 The mobile station retrieves the new TMSI value from the message and updates its SIM with this new value. The mobile then an update complete message back to the MSC. 30 The MSC requests the BSS to tear down the SCCP signaling connection be released between the MSC and the mobile station. 31 The BSS sends a "radio resource" channel release message to the mobile station and then frees up the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) what was allocated previously. The BSS then informs the MSC that the signaling connections has been cleared. 32 The MSC releases its portion of the SCCP signaling connection.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobility Management

MOBILE LOCATION UPDATE TMSI Reallocation


Um A B

MS

BSS

MSC

New VLR

27

28

29

30

31

32

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Location Update Complete

Release Radio Signaling Channel

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Location Update Accept

Clear Signaling Connection

Clear Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Location Update Accept

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

3-107

Mobility Management

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3-108

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Unit 4

Call Management

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

UNIT OVERVIEW

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4-2

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

UNIT OVERVIEW

Mobile to Land Call Scenario

Land to Mobile Call Scenario

Mobile to Mobile Call Scenario

Handover Overview

Handover Scenarios

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-3

Call Management

GSM REFERENCE MODEL

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4-4

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

GSM REFERENCE MODEL

AUC

EIR VLR
D G C

HLR
F

ISDN MSC

VLR
B

PSTN
A E

AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR

- Authentication Center - Base Station Controller - Base Station System - Base Transceiver Station - Equipment Identity Register - Home Location Register - Integrated Services Digital Network - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

BSS BSC
Abis

MSC

BTS

Um

MS

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-5

Call Management

REQUIRED FACILITIES FOR A MOBILE-LAND CALL

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4-6

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

REQUIRED FACILITIES FOR A MOBILE-LAND CALL

Public Land Mobile Network

Radio Channel

BSS

Voice Trunk

Mobile Station

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fixed Public Land Network

Voice Trunk

Line

PSTN
Fixed Station

1. 2. 3. 4.

Radio Channel (Mobile Station - BSS) Voice Trunk (BSS - MSC) Voice Trunk (MSC - PSTN) Line (PSTN - Fixed Station)

BSS MSC PSTN

- Base Station System - Mobile Switching Center - Public Switched Telephone Network

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-7

Call Management

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4-8

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobile to Land Call Scenario

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-9

Call Management

PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL


The following table provides references to GSM and CCITT recommendations that pertain to a mobile originated call: __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Title _ Recommendation GSM 04.08 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specication GSM 08.08 Base Station to Switch Interface, Layer 3 Specication CCITT Q.721-Q.725 Telephone User Part _________________________________________________________________ _CCITT Q.761-Q.764 ISDN User Part

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4-10

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handover(s) Release

Phase might not occur


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4-11

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service


The following is an example of an interprocessor message scenario for a mobile-to-land call. It is assumed that the mobile station is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identication Number (TMSI). 0 A mobile originated call starts by the user entering the directory number digits, associated with the person to be called, on the mobile station handset. The user presses the "send" key after all digits have been entered. Mobile station transmits a channel request message over a common access channel, Random Access Channel (RACH). The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA. Although unlikely, it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. Once the base station receives the Channel Request message, it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a trafc channel is assigned. The mobile station transmits a service request message to the base station over the SDCCH. Included in this message is the mobile station TMSI and Location Area Identication (LAI). This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. The base station forwards the service request message to the MSC. This message also causes the startup of a SCCP connection, if the mobile station does not have any other call instances active. The MSC informs its VLR that a particular mobile station is requesting service.

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4-12

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service

Um

MS

BSS

MSC

VLR

. . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Service Request

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Service Request

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-13

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication


Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access, it is necessary to determine if the TMSI received from the mobile station is from the SIM that was assigned this TMSI. Authentication is built around the notion that an Authentication Key (Ki) resides in only two places: in an Authentication Center (AUC) and in the users SIM card. Since the authentication key is (or should) never be transmitted, it is virtually impossible for unauthorized individuals to obtain this key to impersonate a give mobile subscriber. 6 Three authentication parameters (also referred to as "authentication triplets") are required by the VLR in order to authenticate a given mobile station: an authentication random number, an authentication signed response, and a cipher key (RAND, SRES, and Kc). The VLR is capable of requesting and storing up to ve authentication triplets (per registered subscriber) from the AUC, via the mobile subscribers HLR. In this scenario, well assume that the VLR does not have any authentication triplets available for the TMSI requesting service. Since the mobile station is registered with the VLR, the VLR is capable of translating the mobile stations TMSI into its IMSI. The VLR transmits a request to the mobile stations HLR requesting more authentication parameters. Included in the message is the IMSI of the mobile station. The HLR forwards this request to the authentication center. The AUC, using the IMSI, extracts the subscribers authentication key (Ki). The AUC then generates a random number (RAND), applies the Ki and RAND to both the authentication algorithm (A3) and the cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and a Cipher Key (Kc). The AUC then returns to the HLR an authentication triplet: RAND, SRES, and Kc. The HLR forwards the authentication triplets to the VLR. The VLR then sends a message to the MSC requesting that the mobile station be authenticated. Included in the message is a random number (RAND). The MSC forwards the authentication request message to the mobile station. The mobile station reads its authentication key (Ki) from the SIM, applies the random number (RAND) and Ki to both its authentication algorithm (A3) and cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). The mobile station saves Kc for later, and will use Kc when it receives command to cipher the channel. The mobile station returns the generated SRES to the MSC. The MSC forwards SRES to the VLR. The VLR compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES receive earlier from the AUC. If equal, the mobile passes authentication. If unequal, appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. In this scenario, well assume that authentication passes.

7 8

9 10 11

12 13

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April 15, 1992 -- 18:24:13 [djw0635.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-14

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication

MS

MSC

VLR

HLR

AUC

10

11

12

13

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Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Authenticate Mobile Station

Authentication Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Get Authentication Parameters

Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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June 24, 1991 -- 13:50:04 [djw0635.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-15

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering


14 The VLR requests the MSC to cipher the radio channel. Included in this message is the Cipher Key (Kc), which was made available eariler during authentication. 15 The MSC forwards this request to the BSS. 16 The BSS retrieves the cipher key, Kc, from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel. 17 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel, and transmits a conrmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 18 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message uses the cipher key it previously received from the MSC to cipher the downlink channel. The BSS then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC.

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June 14, 1991 -- 15:23:46 [djw0636.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-16

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering

Um

MS

BSS

MSC
Set Ciphering

VLR

14

15

16

17

18

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation


At this point in time, the mobile station has been authenticated and the radio channel is being encrypted. Two events will now occur in parallel: The MSC interrogates the mobile station for its equipment number and checks the equipment against information in the Equipment Identity Register (EIR). The mobile station, after receiving the cipher command, forwards a call setup request to the MSC. For ease of discussion in this scenario, the equipment validation phase is shown to occur before the mobile forwards the the call setup request message.

19 The MSC transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to respond with its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). 20 The mobile station upon receiving this request, reads its equipment serial number and returns this value to the MSC. 21 The MSC then requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity. The EIR will rst check to see if the IMEI value is within a valid range. If so, it then check so see if the IMEI is on a suspect or known list of invalid equipment. 22 The EIR returns to the MSC the results of the IMEI validation. If the results are negative, the MSC might abort the call or possibly let the call continue but inform the network service provider of the event. In this scenario, well assume that the IMEI is valid. It would not be to wise of a mobile subscriber with a valid SIM card registered in their name to steal mobile equipment. If such a subscriber was to initiate a call on a piece stolen equipment, that was reported as stolen in the EIR, the mobile station would pass authentication and fail equipment validation. Since the system knows the IMSI of the individual using the stolen equipment, the system could report to the network provider the identication of the SIM owner.

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June 14, 1991 -- 15:40:32 [djw0637.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-18

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation

MS

MSC
IMEI Request

EIR

19

20

21

22

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IMEI Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Check IMEI

IMEI Check Results

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0
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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Mobile


23 The mobile station transmits a call setup request to the MSC after it begins ciphering the radio channel. Included in this request message are the dialed digits. 24 The MSC, upon receiving the call setup request message, will request the VLR to supply subscriber parameters necessary for handling the call. The message will contain the called number and service indication, if required and available. 25 The VLR will check for call barring conditions, such as the mobile station being barred from making specic outgoing calls (e.g., international calls), or possibly if some supplementary services are active which prevent the call from being granted. If the VLR determines that the call can not be processed, the VLR will provide the reason to the MSC. In this scenario, well assume that this procedure is successful. The VLR returns a message to the MSC containing the service parameters for the particular subscriber. 26 The MSC informs the mobile station that the call is proceeding. 27 The next four steps involve establishing voice path resources between the MSC and the mobile station. The MSC allocates an available trunk to the BSS currently serving the mobile station. The MSC sends a message to the BSS supplying it with the trunk number allocated, and requests the BSS to allocate a radio trafc channel for the mobile station. 28 The BSS allocates a radio trafc channel and transmits this assignment to the mobile station over the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH). 29 The mobile station tunes to the assigned radio trafc channel and transmits an acknowledgment to the BSS. 30 The BSS connects the radio trafc channel to the assigned trunk to the MSC. Since a small portion of a radio trafc channel is available for out-of-band signaling, the SDCCH is no longer used for signaling between the BSS and mobile station. The BSS deallocates the SDCCH. The BSS then transmits a trunk and radio assignment complete message to the MSC.

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June 17, 1991 -- 11:47:02 [djw0638.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-20

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Mobile

Um

MS

BSS

MSC

VLR

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Call Setup Request

Assign Radio Channel Radio Assignment Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Call Proceeding Assign Trunk & Radio

Trunk & Radio Assignment Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Access Subscriber Data

Subscriber Data

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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June 24, 1991 -- 13:19:29 [djw0638.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Land Network


At this point in time a voice-path has been established between the mobile station and the MSC. The mobile station user hears silence since the complete voice path has not be yet established. The last phase of setting up a mobile-originated call involves the MSC establishing a voice path from the MSC to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). 31 The MSC sends a network setup message to the PSTN requesting that a call be setup. Included in the message are the mobile stations dialed digits and details specifying which trunk should be used for the call. 32 The PSTN may involve several switching exchanges before nally reaching the nal local exchange responsible for establishing applying ring to the destination phone. The local exchange will play audible (ringing tone) over the trunk, or series of trunks (if several intermediate switching exchanges are involved), to the MSC. At this point in time, the mobile station use will hear ringing tone. The PSTN noties the MSC with a network alerting message when this event occurs. 33 The MSC informs the mobile station that the destination number is being alerted. Note, this is primarily a status message to the mobile station. The mobile station user will hear a ringing tone from the destination local exchange through the established voice path. 34 When the destination party goes off-hook, the PSTN will inform the MSC of this event. This event usually triggers the beginning of billing. At this point, the mobile station user will be connected to the desired destination party. 35 The MSC informs the mobile station that connection has been established. 36 The mobile station acknowledges the receipt of the connect message. Note: the type of signaling used between the MSC and the PSTN is not dened and within the scope the GSM recommendations. In general, the MSC interface with the PSTN must conform to the signaling conventions used within a given country. The message titles network setup, network alerting, and connect on the following page are generic terms. For a MSC-PSTN interface based on Signaling System number 7 (SS7), the network setup message would be an Initial Assignment Message (IAM).

Version 1.0
November 20, 1991 -- 14:43:52 [djw0639.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-22

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup -- with Land Network

MS

MSC

PSTN
Network Setup

31

32

33

34

35

36

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Alerting

Connect Connect Acknowledgment

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Network Alerting

Connect (answer)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0
June 24, 1991 -- 13:17:48 [djw0639.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-23

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Release -- Mobile Initiated


Under normal conditions, there are two basic ways a call concludes: mobile initiated and network initiated. In this scenario, well assume that the mobile user initiates the release of this call. A network initiated release is illustrated in the land-to-mobile scenario in the upcoming pages. 37 The mobile user initiates the conclusion of a call by pressing the "end" button (the button might be labeled with a different term) on the mobile equipment. The mobile station sends a disconnect signal to the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). 38 The MSC, upon receiving this signal, sends a request to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to release the call. The actual type of message (or messages) sent to the PSTN depends on country (or possibly local) signaling conventions. This message could, for example, be a clear-forward message (Q.721 - Q.725) or release message (Q.761 - Q.764). 39 The MSC asks the mobile station to begin its clear procedure. 40 After the mobile station has performed its clear procedure, it responds with the appropriate acknowledgment. The above 4 steps causes a given instance of a call to be released. If the mobile station has one or more other instances of a connection active between itself and the MSC (such a receiving a short message or using the second B-channel for a data call), then the next three steps are not performed. With respect to signaling, a mobile station can have several instances of calls (e.g., call waiting, 3way call, short messages, and/or data call) all sharing the same MS-MSC dedicated signaling connection. As mentioned earlier in this course, the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) layer of the "A-interface" between the BSS and MSC is used in a connection oriented fashion. A SCCP connection is established when a MS rst gains access to the network and is torn down when all call activity instances have concluded. 41 Assuming that there are not more instances calls with this mobile station, the MSC sends a clear command to the BSS asking it to release all allocated dedicated resources for a given SCCP connection. 42 The BSS instructs the mobile station to release from radio trafc channel. The mobile station will then go back to its idle mode of operation, which involves searching and retuning to the strongest base station control channel. 43 The BSS acknowledges that it has released all allocated dedicated resources.

Version 1.0
January 31, 1992 -- 15:54:05 [djw0640.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-24

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Release -- Mobile Initiated

Um

MS

BSS
Disconnect

MSC

PSTN

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

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Release Complete

Channel Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Release

Clear Command

Clear Complete

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Network Release

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Version 1.0
July 2, 1991 -- 10:26:02 [djw0640.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-25

Call Management

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July 2, 1991 -- 10:26:02 [djw0640.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-26

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Land to Mobile Call Scenario

Version 1.0
March 2, 1993 -- 13:18:47 [unit04] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-27

Call Management

PHASES OF A LAND TO MOBILE CALL

Version 1.0
June 28, 1991 -- 11:53:48 [djw0673.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-28

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

PHASES OF A LAND TO MOBILE CALL Routing Analysis Paging Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handover(s) Release

Phase might not occur


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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-29

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Routing Analysis


The following is an example of an interprocessor message scenario for a land-to-mobile call. It is assumed that the mobile station is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identication Number (TMSI). A land-subscriber, or a mobile-subscriber in a different MSC, dials the directory number (MSISDN) of a mobile subscriber. 1 The PSTN routes the call to the Gateway MSC assigned this directory number. The directory number included in the message is referred to as the Mobile Subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN). 2a The MSC sends a message to the HLR requesting it to provide routing information for the MSISDN. 2b The HLR requests the VLR to allocate a Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN) for this call for this subscriber. This is the per-call MSRN allocation case. 2c The VLR allocates an MSRN and returns it to the HLR. 3a The HLR returns to the MSC a directory number where the mobile station can be reached. 3b The Gateway MSC sets up a voice call to the MSC currently serving the MS. 4 The MSC informs the VLR that a call with a particular MSRN is being terminated on this MSC. 5 The VLR responds to the MSC by specifying which location area the mobile station is located and its Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). Note, if a mobile station is barred from receiving calls or detached, the VLR would inform the MSC that a call cannot be directed to the mobile station. The MSC, in turn, would connect the incoming call to an appropriate announcement. 0

Version 1.0
February 4, 1993 -- 17:56:23 [rjt0641.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

4-30

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Routing Analysis

PSTN

Gate MSC

HLR

VLR

MSC

2a

2b

2c

3a

3b

4 5

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Incoming Call

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Get Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Get Route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incoming Call on a Voice . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incoming Call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Version 1.0
February 4, 1993 -- 17:50:44 [rjt0641.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-31

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Paging


The MSC uses the location area identity, provided by the VLR, to determine which BSSs should page the mobile station. The MSC transmits a message to each of these BSSs requesting that a page be performed. Included in the message is the TMSI of the mobile station. 7 Each of the BSSs broadcasts the TMSI of the mobile in a page message on the paging channel. 8 When a mobile station hears its TMSI, or IMSI, broadcast on the paging channel, it responds with a channel request message over a common access channel, Random Access Channel (RACH). The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA. Although unlikely, it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. 9 Once the base station receives the Channel Request message, it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a trafc channel is assigned. 10 The mobile station transmits a page response message to the base station over the SDCCH. Included in this message is the mobile station TMSI and Location Area Identication (LAI). This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. 11 The base station forwards the page response message to the MSC. This message also causes the startup of a SCCP connection, if the mobile station does not have any other call instances active. 12 The MSC informs its VLR that a particular mobile station is responding to a page. 6

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4-32

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Paging

Um

MS

BSS
Perform Page

MSC

VLR

10

11

12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Response

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Page Response

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-33

Call Management

Land to Mobile Call Authentication


Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access, it is necessary to determine if the TMSI received from the mobile station is from the SIM that was assigned this TMSI. Authentication is built around the notion that an Authentication Key (Ki) resides in only two places: in an Authentication Center (AUC) and in the users SIM card. Since the authentication key is (or should) never be transmitted, it is virtually impossible for unauthorized individuals to obtain this key to impersonate a give mobile subscriber. 13 Three authentication parameters (referred to as "authentication triplets") are required by the VLR in order to authenticate a given mobile station: an authentication random number, an authentication signed response, and a cipher key (RAND, SRES, and Kc). The VLR is capable of requesting and storing up to ve authentication triplets (per registered subscriber) from the AUC, via the mobile subscribers HLR. In this scenario, well assume that the VLR does not have any authentication triplets available for the TMSI requesting service. Since the mobile station is registered with the VLR, the VLR is capable of translating the mobile stations TMSI into its IMSI. The VLR transmits a request to the mobile stations HLR requesting more authentication parameters. Included in the message is the IMSI of the mobile station. The HLR forwards this request to the authentication center. The AUC, using the IMSI, extracts the subscribers authentication key (Ki). The AUC then generates a random number (RAND), applies the Ki and RAND to both the authentication algorithm (A3) and the cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and a Cipher Key (Kc). The AUC then returns to the HLR an authentication triplet: RAND, SRES, and Kc. The HLR forwards the authentication triplets to the VLR. The VLR then sends a message to the MSC requesting that the mobile station be authenticated. Included in the message is a random number (RAND). The MSC forwards the authentication request message to the mobile station. The mobile station reads its authentication key (Ki) from the SIM, applies the random number (RAND) and Ki to both its authentication algorithm (A3) and cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). The mobile station saves Kc for later, and will use Kc when it receives command to cipher the channel. The mobile station returns the generated SRES to the MSC. The MSC forwards SRES to the VLR. The VLR compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES receive earlier from the AUC. If equal, the mobile passes authentication. If unequal, appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. In this scenario, well assume that authentication passes.

14 15

16 17 18

19 20

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Authentication

MS

MSC

VLR

HLR

AUC

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Authenticate Mobile Station Authentication Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Authenticate Mobile Station

Authentication Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Get Authentication Parameters

Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Get Authentication Parameters Authentication Parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Ciphering


21 The VLR requests the MSC to cipher the radio channel. Included in this message is the Cipher Key (Kc), which was made available eariler during authentication. 22 The MSC forwards this request to the BSS. 23 The BSS retrieves the cipher key, Kc, from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel. 24 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel, and transmits a conrmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 25 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message uses the cipher key it previously received from the MSC to cipher the downlink channel. The BSS then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Ciphering

Um

MS

BSS

MSC
Set Ciphering

VLR

21

22

23

24

25

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encipher Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Equipment Validation


The purpose of the equipment validation phase is to read the mobile equipment serial number from the mobile station and check it against the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to determine if special action should be taken, such as deny service. Equipment validation is optional and is controlled by the service provider. Equipment validation is performed after the ciphering phase and can be performed in parallel with call setup, or even be performed after the call is setup. To keep the message ow diagrams clean in this scenario, the equipment validation phase is shown to occur before call setup. In real-life, the call setup phase will probably be performed immediately after ciphering in order to keep call setup delays at a minimum. Equipment validation would typically occur during call setup. 26 The MSC transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to respond with its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). 27 The mobile station upon receiving this request, reads its equipment serial number and returns this value to the MSC. 28 The MSC then requests the EIR to check the IMEI for validity. The EIR will rst check to see if the IMEI value is within a valid range. If so, it then check so see if the IMEI is on a suspect or known list of invalid equipment. 29 The EIR returns to the MSC the results of the IMEI validation. If the results are negative, the MSC might abort the call or possibly let the call continue but inform the network service provider of the event. In this scenario, well assume that the IMEI is valid.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Equipment Validation

MS

MSC
IMEI Request

EIR

26

27

28

29

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

IMEI Response

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Check IMEI

IMEI Check Results

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -- with Mobile


30 After the MSC receives the Encipher complete message from the mobile station, the mobile station is informed that a call will be setup via a setup message. 31 The mobile station, upon receiving a setup message, performs compatibility checking before responding to the setup message--it is possible that the mobile station might be incompatible for certain types of call setups. Assuming that the mobile station passes compatibility checking, it acknowledges the call setup with a setup conrm message. 32 The MSC selects a trunk (terrestrial channel) to the BSS. The MSC then sends an assignment request message to the BSS requesting it to assign a radio resource. Included in the message are attributes describing the type of radio resource to be allocated and the trunk (terrestrial channel) to be used. 33 The BSS upon receiving an assignment request message allocates an appropriate radio trafc channel and transmits an assignment command over the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) to the mobile station informing it to change to a new radio channel conguration. 34 The mobile station tunes to the specied trafc channel and transmits an assignment complete message back to the BSS. The mobile station then begins alerting the user (i.e., the phone rings). Prior to this point in time, the mobile station user is unaware that he/she is receiving a call. The mobile station no longer uses the SDCCH after receiving a trafc channel assignment. 35 The BSS upon receiving the assignment complete message connects the assigned trafc channel to the trunk (terrestrial facility) that was allocated by the MSC. The BSS places the SDCCH on a free list and transmits an assignment complete message to the MSC. It was assumed in the past 3 steps that the BSS had no complications in assigning and connecting a radio trafc channel to the specied trunk. Several possible errors include: no radio resource available, equipment failure, requested transcoding/rate adaption unavailable, and terrestrial resource already allocated. If any of these or other errors occur, the BSS would send an assignment failure message to the MSC.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -- with Mobile

MS

BSS

MSC

30

31

32

33

34

35

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Call Setup Conrm

Assign Radio Channel

Radio Assignment Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Call Setup

Assign Trunk & Radio Channel

Trunk & Radio Assignment Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -- with Land Network


36 As discussed with the previous vu-graph, the mobile station will begin alerting the user after it receives a trafc channel assignment. Once alerting has begun, the mobile station sends an alerting message to the MSC. 37 The MSC, upon receiving an alerting indication from the mobile station, would begin playing audible ringing to the calling party and sends a network alerting message to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Prior to this point, the calling party heard silence. At this point in the call, the mobile station is alerting the called party and audible is being played to the calling party. One of three events can occur: calling party hangs-up, mobile subscriber answers the phone, or the MSC times-out waiting for the mobile subscriber to answer. Since a radio trafc channel is a valuable resource, GSM does not allow a mobile station to ring forever. 38 In this scenario, it is assumed that the mobile subscriber answers the phone. The mobile station, in response to this action stops alerting and sends a connect message to the MSC. 39 The MSC removes audible to the PSTN and connects the PSTN trunk to the BSS trunk (terrestrial channel), and sends a connect message to the PSTN. The caller and called party now have a complete talk path. This event typically denotes the beginning of the call for billing purposes. 40 The MSC sends the mobile station a connect acknowledgement message.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Call Setup -- with Land Network

MS

MSC

PSTN

36

37

38

39

40

. . . Mobile Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect (off-hook) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Alerting

Connect

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Release -- Network Initiated


Under normal conditions, there are two basic ways a call concludes: mobile initiated and network initiated. In this scenario, well assume that the user on the land network side initiates the release of this call. A mobile initiated release was illustrated in the previous mobile-to-land scenario. 41 The calling user hangs up resulting in the PSTN to send a network release signal to the MSC. The actual type of message (or messages) received from the remote exchange depends on country (or possibly local) signaling conventions. This message could, for example, be a clear-forward message (Q.721 - Q.725) or release message (Q.761 - Q.764). 42 The MSC asks the mobile station to begin its clear procedure. 43 The mobile station informs the MSC that it has started its clear procedure. 44 The MSC acknowledges receiving the mobile station release message. The mobile station completes its clear procedure. The above 4 steps causes a given instance of a call to be released. If the mobile station has one or more other instances of a connection active between itself and the MSC (such a receiving a short message or has another call on hold), then the next three steps are not performed. With respect to signaling, a mobile station can have several instances of calls (e.g., call waiting, 3way call, short messages, and/or data call) all sharing the same MS-MSC dedicated signaling connection. As mentioned earlier in this course, the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) layer of the "A-interface" between the BSS and MSC is used in a connection oriented fashion. A SCCP connection is established when a MS rst gains access to the network and is torn down when all call activity instances have concluded. 45 Assuming that there are not more instances of calls with this mobile station, the MSC sends a clear command to the BSS asking it to release all allocated dedicated resources for a given SCCP connection. 46 The BSS instructs the mobile station to release from radio trafc channel. The mobile station will then go back to its idle mode of operation, which involves searching and retuning to the strongest base station control channel. 47 The BSS acknowledges that it has released all allocated dedicated resources.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

LAND TO MOBILE CALL Release -- Network Initiated

Um

MS

BSS

MSC

PSTN
Network Release

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Release

Channel Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Disconnect

Release Complete

Clear Command

Clear Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-45

Call Management

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4-46

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Mobile to Mobile Call Scenario

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-47

Call Management

PHASES OF A MOBILE TO MOBILE CALL

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

PHASES OF A MOBILE TO MOBILE CALL

- Request for Service - Authentication * - Ciphering *

Originating Mobile
*

- Equipment Validation - Call Setup - Routing Analysis - Paging - Authentication * - Ciphering * - Equipment Validation - Call Setup - Handover(s) * - Release
* Phase might not occur

Terminating Mobile
*

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Call Management

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Handover Overview

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Call Management

WHY HANDOVER?

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

WHY HANDOVER?

Current Radio Path

Current Voice Path

MSC

I cant hear you!!!

PSTN

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Call Management

HANDOVER OPPORTUNITY WINDOW


The signal strength and quality on the Handover Candidate cell should be signicantly better than the signal on the currently serving cell before an handover for signal strenght reasons is performed. This helps avoid "looping handovers" where the MS handed back and forth between a pair of cells with no real difference in quality of signal. Therefore, the signal threshold used to begin Handovers is usually lower than the signal threshold used to qualify Candidate cells. However, there is a minimal acceptable signal strength and quality on the current serving cell since the Handover message must be sent and recieved clearly enough to be understood. The Handover thresholds can be set on a per BTS (Cell) basis and the "art" of tuning the parameters to get the most out of the network is a difcult and demanding process.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

HANDOVER OPPORTUNITY WINDOW

Handover Opportunity Window

BTS A

BTS B

Earliest Handover Opportunity

Latest Handover Opportunity

Signal Strength

Signal Strength
Minimum Acceptable Signal for Handover

BTS A

Distance
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BTS B

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

HANDOVER PROCESS

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

HANDOVER PROCESS Measurement of radio signal strength and


quality

Analysis of signal strength and quality and


decision whether handover should be performed

Execution of handover

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Call Management

MOBILE STATION MEASUREMENT PROCESS FOR HANDOVER -- EXAMPLE


While a mobile station is active on a trafc channel, it has the responsibility of providing signal strength and signal quality measurement data to its serving Base Transceiver Station (BTS) so that the serving Base Station Controller (BSC) can decide if a handover should be performed. These measurement reports are from the mobile stations reference point and represent the strength of the signal being received from its serving BTS, plus the signal strength of the neighboring BTS downlink (i.e., BTS-to-mobile direction) control channels. The mobile station, by periodically sampling and reporting the signal strength of neighboring BTS control channels, is able to provide valuable information to the serving BSC, so that it can determine when a handover should be performed. As a mobile station moves away from its serving BTS towards the coverage area of neighboring BTSs, the mobile station measurement reports will show a gradual decrease in signal strength from its serving BTS while showing an increase in measured signal strength from one or more neighboring BTSs. It is the responsibility of the serving BSC to analyze the signal strength measurement reports from the mobile station and decides when a handover should be performed. If it is determined that there is a better BTS to serve the call, the serving BSC initiates the handover procedure. The gure on the following page shows a cellular grid consisting of 17 cell areas. (For ease of discussion, a cell number has been added to the bottom of each antenna tower.) Each BTS has a broadcast control channel. more to be added later

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

MOBILE STATION MEASUREMENT PROCESS FOR HANDOVER -- EXAMPLE

22

74

41

33

104

56

120

4
39

5
15

6
19

7
48

F2 9,S 3

10

11

12

91

80

61

13
42

14
21

15

BTS
16 17

Mobile Station Traffic Channel = Freq 29, Slot 3

Mobile Station Monitors:

F91, F15, F104,

F80, F19, F56,

F61, F41, F22

F39, F33,

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Call Management

FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE THE DECISION TO HANDOVER


When a mobile station is active on a call, the serving base station has the responsibility of deciding when a handover should be performed. The GSM specication DOES NOT provide specic rules/requirements as to how a base station should decide when a handover should be performed. In general, each base station will contain handover criteria algorithms. An important input to these algorithms are signal level thresholds, which can be modied by the service provider. If the signal level strength of a mobile stations radio channel falls below a given threshold, the base station will use information in the mobile stations measurement reports to see if any other base station(s) are in a better position to serve the call. The following diagram list some of the most probable conditions (this is not intended to be a complete list). Poor Signal Strength In a typical system, this will probably be the most frequent condition that will trigger a handover. The base station, in reviewing signal strength measurement data, decides that there is a better base station candidate that can serve the mobile station. In order for a "poor signal strength" condition to result in a handover, there must be a well qualied candidate base station. If there are no candidates, no handover attempt is made. The serving base station uses the signal strength data of neighboring base stations, supplied in the mobile stations measurement reports, to determine if there is a qualied candidate. Poor Signal Quality It is possible that the signal strength being received by both the mobile station and base station is satisfactory, but the quality of the signal is poor--too many bits being received are in error. One possible situation that can cause this condition is co-channel interference from a distant base station. For this condition, it is unlikely any neighboring base station will be likely candidates to serve the mobile, especially if the signal strength is good. What the serving base station can do, in an effort to escape from the co-channel interferer, is to have the mobile hand off to a new frequency and timeslot on the same base station (intra Base Transceiver Station (BTS) handover). Better Candidate It is also possible that both the signal strength and signal quality received by the base station and mobile station are satisfactory, however, the measurement reports from the mobile station indicate that there is a neighboring base station who could better serve the mobile station (with regards to signal strength) than the current serving base station. It is advantageous to keep both mobile stations and base stations transmitting at their lowest power level (assuming the power levels of both the mobile and base station can be dynamically controlled). Trafc Balancing Trafc balancing is more of a strategy than a condition with a goal to minimize blocking of radio channels in key cell areas by forcing handovers to another cell area that has under utilized radios. For base stations that are being used as overlaid cells (an inner small cell and an outer regular size cell), it is desirable to hand off a call from the "outer server group" to the "inner server group" for situations where the mobile is moving towards the base station antenna.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE THE DECISION TO HANDOVER Poor signal strength Poor quality of signal Better candidate Trafc Balancing

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Call Management

HANDOVER TYPES 4 LEVELS


The type of handover procedure executed depends on what level of switching must be performed in order to move the call from the serving BTS to the new candidate BTS. There are basically two levels of handovers: internal and external handovers. If the serving and candidate BTSs reside within the same Base Station System (BSS), BSC for the BSS can perform the handover without the involvement of the Mobile Switching Center (MSC); thus termed internal or intra-BSS handover. If the serving and candidate BTSs do not reside within the same BSS, then an external handover is performed, which requires the MSC to coordinate and switch facilities (handoff the call) between the serving BTS and the candidate BTS.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

HANDOVER TYPES 4 LEVELS

Internal Handover (Intra-BSS)


within same Base Tranceiver Station (BTS) - Rare, normally due to frequency interference that is avoided simply by changing frequencies. between different BTSs - More likely, due to moving mobile.

External Handover (Inter-BSS)


between BTSs on different BSSs within same MSC (intra-MSC) - moving mobile between BTSs on different BSSs on different MSCs (inter-MSC) - moving mobile

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EXAMPLE OF DIFFERENT HANDOVER TYPES


The following vu-graph is intended to help illustrate the 4 types (levels) of handover. Illustrated is a system consisting of two Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs) with three Base Station Systems (BSSs). Also depicted are cell coverage areas with example global cell identication codes for each Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Assume that the mobile and land stations are active in a call, the call is being controlled by MSC A, and the mobile is currently in cell area 234-01-10-51. Intra-BSS, Intra BTS (internal handover) For this type of handover, the mobile station is handed off to a different radio channel within the same cell area: 234-01-10-51. This is actually an unusual type of handover, since it is typically not triggered by poor signal strength--if it was, the candidate cell area would probably be different from the current serving cell area. A probably cause for this type of handover would be poor signal quality (not strength), possibly due to co-channel interference. For this type of handover, BSC 2 would allocate a new radio channel and instruct the mobile station to retune. Intra-BSS, Inter BTS (internal handover) Say the mobile station moves from area 234-01-10-51 towards area 234-01-10-52. At some point in time, BSC 2 will determine from the signal strength measurement reports that the base station responsible for cell area 234-01-10-52 can better serve the call. Since the candidate cell area is also connected to BSC 2, the handover can be coordinated by BSC 2 without the involvement of MSC A. In this situation, BSC 2 reserves an available radio channel from cell area 234-01-10-52 and instructs the mobile station to retune to the new radio channel. BSC 2 is also responsible for switching the voice path between MSC A and the old radio channel to the new radio channel. Inter-BSS, Intra MSC (external handover) Say the mobile station moves from area 234-01-10-51 towards area 234-01-10-55. At some point in time, BSC 2 will determine from the signal strength measurement reports that the base station responsible for cell area 234-01-10-55 can better serve the call. BSC 2 will then determine that there are no base stations connected to it that serves area 234-01-10-55 and will request MSC A to arrange the handover to the candidate cell area. MSC A will determine that BSC 3 is responsible for cell area 234-01-10-55 and request it to reserve a free radio channel for a handover. MSC A will relay the new radio channel information back to BSC 2. BSC 2 will then ask the mobile to retune to the new channel. At the same time, MSC A will switch voice paths between the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and the old BSC (BSC 2) to the new BSC. Inter-BSS, Inter MSC (external handover) Say the mobile station moves from area 234-01-10-51 towards area 234-01-89-21. Similar to previous scenario, BSC 2 will ask MSC A to coordinate the handover to 234-01-89-21. MSC A will determine that it has no base stations under its control responsible for the identied cell area. MSC A then needs to determine which neighboring MSC is responsible for the cell area, in this case MSC B, and will ask it to receive a handover. Note: from the mobile stations reference point, it is unaware of the 4 levels of handover. The mobile station has two handover related responsibilities: provide signal strength measurements to its serving base station and to retune to a new radio channel when ordered to do so.

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EXAMPLE OF DIFFERENT HANDOVER TYPES

Inter-office Trunks
Land Station

MSC B

MSC A

PSTN

MSC-BSS Trunks

0 9-2 1-8 4-0 23

0 0-5 1-1 4-0 23

-53 -10 -01 4 23

BSC 1

BSC 2

BSC 3
-54 -10 -01 34 2

-21 -89 -01 4 23

-51 -10 -01 4 23

-22 -89 -01 34 2

-52 -10 -01 4 23

5 0-5 1-1 4-0 23

Global Cell Identification


Mobile Country Code Mobile Network Code Location Area Code Cell Identity

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INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS


Provided in the next two vu-graphs is a decomposition of an intra-MSC handover into four basic steps, from a voice path resource perspective. A detailed message exchange scenario between network elements can be found on Page 4-104. It is assumed in this scenario that a call has already been established between a mobile station and a xed station, with the solid path representing the voice path. Both BSS 1 and BSS 2 are connected to the MSC. BSS 1 and BSS 2 could be in the same Location Area, but lets assume each BSS is in a different Location Area for this example.

Step 1: Handover Request from BSS Mobile station provides signal strength and signal quality measurements to BSS 1. BSS 1 is also measuring the strength of the signal received from the mobile. BSS 1, in reviewing signal strength data, makes the decision that a handover should be performed. BSS 1 reviews the qualied cell areas that are candidates to receive the call and determines that none of the best candidates are associated with Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) that in controls. Thus, we have an external handover condition. BSS 1 sends a handover request to the MSC with a rank-ordered list of candidate cells that are qualied to receive the call.

Step 2: Allocation of New Resources The rank-ordered list of handover candidate cells can contain as few as one member, or several members if the mobile is on a cell border adjacent to several cells. If the rank-ordered list contains several candidate cells, the MSC attempts to reserve resources for the best candidate. If unsuccessful, the MSC will then attempt to reserve resources for the next best candidate. This process continues until either the proper resources can be reserved for a given candidate or the candidate-list is exhausted. If the MSC cannot arrange the handover, BSS 1 is informed of the situation and BSS 1 continues to maintain the call. The MSC reviews the global cell identity associated the best candidate to determine if one of the BSSs that it controls is responsible for the cell area. In this scenario, the MSC determines that the cell area is associated with BSS 2. To perform an intra-MSC handover, two resources must be reserved: a trunk between the MSC and the new BSS, and a radio trafc channel in the new cell area. The MSC is responsible for managing trunk resources. The BSS is responsible for managing radio resources. The MSC reserves a trunk to BSS 2 and sends a handover request message to BSS 2. Included in this message is the desired cell area for handover, the identity of the MSC-BSS trunk that was reserved, and the radio-path encryption (ciphering) key, Kc, (so that the rado-path can continue be encrypted one the mobile station is asked to handover). BSS 2 reserves a radio trafc channel for the BTS that is associated with the specied candidate cell area and connects the selected radio the to MSC-BSS trunk previously reserved. BSS 2 then return a handover acknowledge to the MSC with the radio channel that has been reserved.

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INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS

Step 1:

Handover Request from BSS


Present voice path

BSS 1 MSC

PSTN

BSS 2

Step 2:

Allocation of New Resources

BSS 1 MSC

PSTN

BSS 2
Future voice path

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INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS CONTINUED

Step 3: Handover Execution If an intra-MSC handover reaches this step, all necessary resources have been reserved to perform a handover to one of the candidate cell areas. The MSC instructs BSS 1 to send a handover command to the mobile station. Included in this command is the radio trafc channel number that was reserved within BSS 2. The mobile station retunes and begins transmitting special access messages on the new radio channel. BSS 2 informs the MSC when it begins detecting the mobile handing over. BSS 2 and the mobile station exchange messages to synchronize/align the mobile stations transmission in the proper timeslot. In parallel, the MSC switches voice paths to BSS 2.

Step 4: Release of Old Resources Once the mobile station and BSS 2 synchronize their transmission and establish a new signaling connection, BSS 2 informs the MSC that the handover has been successfully completed. The MSC frees up the old terrestrial facility to BSS 1 and sends a request to BSS 1 to release to old radio trafc channel. At this point, BSS 1 has freed up all resources associated with the mobile station. These resource are now available for a new call or to receive a handover.

It is stated in the GSM recommendations that the "open interval gap" during handover should not exceed 150 milliseconds for 90% of all handovers. The open interval gap starts in step 3 when the mobile station retunes to the new radio channel and concludes with the mobile station, after synchronizing, is incurring no loss in voice/data transmission in the BSS or MSC.

Misc.: Call Torn Down - Location Update Since we assumed that BSS 1 and BSS 2 were in different Location Areas, the mobile must do a Location Update to notify the VLR and HLR (if necessary) that they have moved into a new Location Area. Location Updates are never done during a call. Once the call is completely torn down (the radio trafc channel is released), the Mobile will resume listening to the broadcast channel and will notice that the LAC stored in the SIM memory is different than the LAC on the broadcast channel. This triggers the geographic Location Update process to begin.

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INTRA-MSC INTER-BSS HANDOVER STEPS CONTINUED

Step 3: Handover Execution


Old voice path

BSS 1 MSC

PSTN

BSS 2
New voice path

Step 4: Release of Old Resources

BSS 1 MSC

PSTN

BSS 2

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HANDOVER OPEN INTERVAL GAP Example


It is specied in the GSM recommendations that the maximum duration of interruption to a call due to a single handover shall not exceed 150 milliseconds for 90% of all cases.1 It is also specied that if there are several short breaks during a single handover, the sum total of all breaks should not exceed 150 milliseconds.2 Illustrated on the following page is an example showing three components to the overall handover open interval gap. In this example, it is assumed the MSC "hot switches" voice facilities from the old BSS to the new BSS and that the MSC uses the handover detect indication from the new BSS to synchronize switching the paths. How and when a MSC switches facility paths between the old and new BSS is an internal MSC detail. The GSM recommendations does not tie an MSC vendor to any specic method, other than requiring that the MSC component not push the overall open interval gap beyond 150 millisecond. For example, the following list identies three different ways for a MSC to switch facilities between an old and new BSS: The MSC can synchronize the hot switching of facilities on receipt of a handover detect indication from the new BSS (as illustrated on the other page). The MSC can synchronize the hot switching of the facilities on receipt of the handover complete indication from the new BSS. The MSC can use a 3-party bridge connection between the old and new BSS and use the handover complete indication to release the old BSS from the 3-party bridge.3 The benet of using a 3-party bridge connection is that the MSC does not contribute to the overall open interval gap.

1 . Reference: GSM 2.08, Version 3.0.0, Section 4.1.9, Page 8, and Section 2, Page 2. 2 . Reference: GSM 2.08, Version 3.0.0, Section 3.1.9, Page 5. 3 . Reference: GSM 3.09, Version 3.1.0, Section 2.1, Page 5.
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HANDOVER OPEN INTERVAL GAP Example

Maximum open interval gap = 150 milliseconds

Mobile Station Retuning/Synchronizing

BSS Signaling Delay

MSC Switching Voice Paths

Time

Old BSS orders mobile station to handover

New BSS detects beginning of handover

MSC receives handover detect indication from new BSS


Version 1.0

Mobile station handover complete. Begins transmitting user voice/data

MSC completes switching voice path (no loss in mobile station voice/data)

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER TYPES

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER TYPES Basic Handover


Call is handed from controlling MSC to another MSC

Subsequent Handover
Call is handed from 2nd MSC to another MSC

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS


A four step decomposition of a basic inter-MSC handover is provided, from a voice path resource perspective, in the next two vu-graphs. A very detailed message exchange scenario, from a signaling perspective, can be found starting on Page 4-110. It is assumed in this scenario that a call has already been established between a mobile station and a xed station, with the wide solid path representing the voice path. BSS A is connected to MSC A and BSS B is connected to MSC B.

Step 1: Handover Request from BSS The sequence of events leading up to an MSC receiving a handover request from a BSS for an intraMSC handover is exactly the same for an inter-MSC handover. BSSs do not know the difference between an intra-MSC and inter-MSC handover. Since the events associated with this step were described in the intra-MSC handover scenario, these steps will not be redescribed here. See Page 4-66 for details.

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS

Step 1: Handover Request from BSS


Present Talk Path

MSC A PSTN

.... .......... BSS A


MS BSS B

MSC B

Step 2: Allocation of New Resources

MSC A PSTN

BSS A... BSS B MSC B


Future Talk Path

. ..........
MS

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Continued

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Continued

Step 3: Handover Execution


Old Talk Path

MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B

... .... .. .... . MS ....

New Talk Path

Step 4: Release of Old Resources

MSC A PSTN

BSS A

... .... ... .... MS .... BSS B

MSC B

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback

Step 1: Handover Request from BSS


MSC A PSTN

... .... BSS A .. .... . MS ....


BSS B
Present talk path

MSC B

Step 2: Allocation of New Resources


Future talk path

MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B

... .... .. .... MS ....

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback -- Continued

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER STEPS Handback -- Continued

Step 3: Handover Execution


New talk path

MSC A PSTN BSS A BSS B MSC B


Old talk path

..............
MS

Step 4: Release of Old Resources

MSC A PSTN

BSS A BSS B MSC B

..............
MS

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC

Step 1: Handover Request from BSS


MSC A

Present talk path

BSS A PSTN BSS B

... .... .. .... . MS ....

MSC B

MSC C

BSS C

Step 2: Allocation of New Resources


MSC A BSS A PSTN BSS B

.. .... ... .... . MS ....

MSC B
How are MSC interconnected?

MSC C

BSS C

Future talk path

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC -- Continued

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SUBSEQUENT INTER-MSC HANDOVER EXERCISE 3rd MSC -- Continued

Step 3: Handover Execution


MSC A

Old talk path

BSS A PSTN BSS B

MSC B

MSC C

BSS C
New talk path

.. .. .. MS . .. .. .. .

Step 4: Release of Old Resources


MSC A

BSS A PSTN BSS B

MSC B

. .. .. .. MS .. .. ..

MSC C

BSS C

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER VOICE FACILITIES


The voice path for inter-Mobile Switching Center (MSC) handovers can be over dedicated pointto-point trunks, via the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), a tandem switch, or any combination of these. In any of these cases, the signaling used to setup inter-MSC voice facilities is the same! This is wonderful! When a call is handed over from MSC A to MSC B, for example via the PSTN, MSC A sets up a inter-MSC voice connection by placing a call to a directory number that belongs to MSC B. When MSC A places this call, the PSTN is unaware the call is a handover and follows normal call routing procedures and delivers the call to MSC B. Full interconnectivity between all MSCs in the example requires a total of 6 paths. The number of interconnecting paths grows rapidly as one introduces more MSCs based on the following formula: Number of paths = N ( N - 1 ) / 2 where N = the number of MSCs.

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER VOICE FACILITIES

VIA DEDICATED FACILITIES


MSC A PSTN MSC C

MSC B

MSC D

Inter-MSC Trunks PSTN Trunks

VIA PSTN FACILITIES

MSC A PSTN

MSC C

MSC B

MSC D

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MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER SPECTRUM

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MSC DIRECTORY NUMBER SPECTRUM

Trunks Trunks

MSC LOCAL EXCHANGE PSTN

MSC

Directory Number Spectrum

MSISDN

Used to reference home subscribers

MSRN MSHN

Used to reference visiting subscribers Used to reference inter-MSC handovers

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INTER-MSC SIGNALING

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INTER-MSC SIGNALING

Mobile Application Part (MAP) (dened in GSM specication 9.02) ..


E

.. ... .. .. .

MSC A

MSC B

. .. .. .. .. . .. PSTN .. ... . ... . . ... .. ... .. ... .. ... . ..


or Inter-ofce signaling such as ISDN-UP or TUP (outside scope of GSM specication)

ISDN-UP = ISDN User Part TUP = Telephone User Part

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Initial Condition

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Initial Condition

VLR B PSTN

MSC B
Talk Path

MSC A

BSS B2

BSS B1

BSS A

Candidate Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-20-65

720-1234

Serving Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-35-43

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Number Allocation

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Number Allocation

VLR B PSTN

MSC B

Perform Handover (234-02-20-65, Kc) Perform Handover Ack. (219-9221, <radio channel x>)

MSC A

E Interface

PSTN/ISDN Interface

BSS B2

BSS B1

BSS A

Candidate Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-20-65

720-1234

Serving Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-35-43

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Inter-MSC Trunk Setup

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Inter-MSC Trunk Setup

VLR B PSTN

MSC B

MSC A

E Interface

Network Setup (219-9221) Setup Complete

PSTN/ISDN Interface

BSS B2

BSS B1

BSS A

Candidate Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-20-65

720-1234

Serving Cell Global Cell ID 234-01-35-43

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Facilities Before Handover

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Facilities Before Handover

VLR B PSTN

MSC B

MSC A

E Interface

PSTN/ISDN Interface

Future talk path

BSS B2

BSS B1

BSS A

720-1234

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Events After Handover Command

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BASIC INTER-MSC HANDOVER Events After Handover Command

VLR B PSTN

MSC B
Send end signal

MSC A

E Interface

Answer

PSTN/ISDN Interface

Old talk path


H (re and tun ove e r to Co ch mm an an ne d l x )

BSS B2

BSS B1

BSS A

New talk path


720-1234

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Handover Scenarios

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INTRA-BSS HANDOVER
The opposite page diagram shows an intra-BSS handover. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving trafc for the active call. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction, it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.g., trafc balancing, signal strength, etc.). The Handover Command tells the MS that a HO is beginning and provides the broadcast or beacon frequency of the new cell and a Handover reference number. 3 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cells common channel and identies itself with the Handover reference number. 4 The new Cell responds with the trafc channel assignment (frequency and time slot). 5 The mobile retunes to the trafc and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to the BSS. 6 The BSS sends a Handover Performed message to the MSC to trigger call record data and Handover Peg counts. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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INTRA-BSS HANDOVER

Um

MS

BSS

MSC

. Signal Strength . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Channel . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Performed

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 1 & 2


The opposite page diagram shows an inter-BSS, intra-BSS handover. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving trafc for the active call. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction, it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.g., trafc balancing, signal strength, etc.). If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS, the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells. 3 The MSC evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS with the candidate cell identied. 4 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so, returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover. 5 The MSC tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. 6 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 1 & 2

Um

MS

Old BSS

MSC

New BSS

. Signal Strength . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Request Handover Request Acknowledge

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 3 & 4


7 8 9 10 11 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cells common channel and identies itself with the Handover reference number. The new Cell responds with the trafc channel assignment (frequency and time slot). The new BSS noties the MSC that the Handover has reached this point and the MSC begins the reconguration of the voice path to the new BSS. The mobile retunes to the trafc and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to the BSS. The BSS sends a Handover Complete message to the MSC to trigger call record data and Handover Peg counts. In addition, it triggers the MSC to initiate clearing of facilities to and on the old BSS. The MSC tells the old BSS to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk. The old BSS releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

12 13

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Steps 3 & 4

Um

MS

Old BSS

MSC

New BSS

10

11

12

13

. . . Handover Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Release Radio Channel Radio Channel Released

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Channel . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Detected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- Steps 1 & 2


The opposite pages diagrams show an inter-MSC handover. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving trafc for the active call. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction, it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.g., trafc balancing, signal strength, etc.). If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS, the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells. 3 The MSC evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. In this case, the best candidate is in another MSC area. A MAP message is sent to MSC B requesting a Handover to a specied cell on MSC B. 4 Because Handover between switches will require voice trunks between the switches, a Handover Number (MSHN) is allocated for this handover. This is similar to the MSRN allocated for the termination of a mobile call. Number allocation is specied as a VLR entity operation and the diagram shows a message ow between the MSC and VLR entities. 5 See item 4 above. 6 A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS with the candidate cell identied. 7 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so, returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover. 8 MSC B responds to MSC A with an acknowledgement of the Handover Perform and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency, Handover reference number, etc.). 9 MSC A initiates the process to set up a voice path between MSC A and MSC B in order to support the path switching when the Handover occurs. MSC A sets up a call using the MSHN provided above. 10 MSC B responds to the trunk set up attempt as appropriate for the trunk signaling used for that trunk. In addition, MSC B notes the MSHN and associates the specic Handover activity with the trunk. 12 The MSC tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. 13 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process.

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- Steps 1 & 2 (cont.)


BSS MS MSC MSHN - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station Handover Number

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Call Management

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- Steps 1 & 2

Um

MS

BSS A

MSC A

MSC B

BSS B

VLR B

7 8

9 10 11 12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. Signal Strength . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Handover Required

Handover Command

Handover Command

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform HO . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . Network . . . Setup . . . . . . Setup . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Allocate Handover Number

Handover Request HO Request Acknowledge

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Number Allocated

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- Steps 3 & 4


13 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cells common channel and identies itself with the Handover reference number. 14 The new Cell responds with the trafc channel assignment (frequency and time slot). 15 The new BSS (B) noties MSC B that the Handover has reached this point and MSC B connects the incoming trunk to the BSS trunk. 16 The mobile retunes to the trafc and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to BSS B. 17 BSS B sends a Handover Complete message to MSC B. 18 MSC B sends a Send End Signal over the MAP network which signals MSC A to switch the path from BSS A to the trunk to MSC B. 19 MSC B provides Answer indication for the inter-switch trunk on the trunk signaling system. 20 The MSC tells the old BSS (A) to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk. 21 The old BSS (A) releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- Steps 3 & 4

Um

MS

BSS A

MSC A

MSC B

BSS B

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Access

Handover Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Radio . . . . . . . . Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Send End Signal

Answer

. . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Chan. . . Information . . . . . . . . Handover . . . Detected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- After Call Ends


The opposite page diagram shows clearing of the resources after an inter-MSC Handover call ends 22 The anchor MSC (A) sends an END signal to the other MSC to signal the end of the MAP/TCAP transaction used to transmit the inter-MSC message during the time of the call. 23 The anchor MSC (A) also clears the voice trunk connection between the two MSCs using the appropriate trunk signaling type. 24 The MS Handover Number is released. In the 5ESS Switch implementation, the MSHN is actually released almost immediately after the inter-MSC trunk is setup in the initial stages of the Handover process. This frees up the number earlier and allows fewer numbers to be allocated for Handover purposes. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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February 8, 1993 -- 09:45:14 [rjt0654.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER Basic -- After Call Ends

MSC A
22

MSC B
End Signal

VLR B

23

24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Release Handover Number

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -- Steps 1 & 2


The opposite pages diagrams show an inter-MSC Handback. The situation is that an inter-MSC Handover has already occurred. A subsequent Handover back to MSC A is requested. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving trafc for the active call. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction, it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.g., trafc balancing, signal strength, etc.). If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS, the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells. 3 MSC B evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. In this case, the best candidate is in another MSC area. A MAP message is sent to MSC A (the Anchor MSC) requesting a subsequent Handover to a specied cell on MSC A. 4 A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS with the candidate cell identied. 5 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so, returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover. 6 MSC A responds to MSC B with an acknowledgement of the Perform Subsequent Handover and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency, Handover reference number, etc.). 7 MSC B tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. 8 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process. BSS MS MSC MSHN - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station Handover Number

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February 8, 1993 -- 09:59:20 [rjt0655.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -- Steps 1 & 2

Um

MS

BSS B

MSC B

MSC A

BSS A

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. Signal Strength . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Handover Required

Handover Command

Handover Command

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perform Subsequent Handover

Subsequent Handover Acknowledge

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Request HO Request Acknowledge

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0
June 12, 1991 -- 15:50:42 [djw0655.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -- Steps 3 & 4


9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cells common channel and identies itself with the Handover reference number. The new Cell responds with the trafc channel assignment (frequency and time slot). The new BSS (A) noties MSC A that the Handover has reached this point. The mobile retunes to the trafc and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to BSS B. The new BSS (A) sends a Handover Complete message to MSC A. MSC A sends a End Signal over the MAP network which signals MSC A to release the previous Handover connections. MSC A releases the trunk between A and B. The MSC tells the old BSS (B) to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk. The old BSS (B) releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. Since the inter-MSC trunk has been released, the MSHN is no longer required and can be released for future use. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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February 5, 1993 -- 14:01:49 [rjt0656.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handback -- Steps 3 & 4

Um

MS

BSS B

MSC B

MSC A

BSS A

VLR B

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Access

Handover Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release Radio . . . . . . . . Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

End Signal Network Release

Release Handover Number

. . . . . . . . . . . Physical Chan. . . . Information . . . . . . . . . Handover . . Detected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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June 12, 1991 -- 16:18:06 [djw0656.pic] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Steps 1 & 2


The opposite pages diagrams show a subsequent inter-MSC Handover. The situation is that an inter-MSC Handover has already occurred. A subsequent Handover to a third MSC is requested. 1 Mobile Stations monitor up to six other cells as well as the serving cell. The measurements on candidate cells are taken in the 2 to 6 ms of free time between transmitting and receiving trafc for the active call. This requires the MS to retune to many frequencies very quickly. These measurements are reported to the BSS between 1 to 2 times a second (depending on other activities occurring on the signaling channel used to transmit the measurements). While the MS can only measure the quality of the radio signal in the BSS to MS direction, it is assumed that quality of the signal is similar for both directions. 2 The BSS monitors the signal strength measurements for the active cell and the candidate cells and makes a decision to Handover for a variety of reasons (e.g., trafc balancing, signal strength, etc.). If the best candidate cell is not within this BSS, the MSC is requested to coordinate the Handover through a Handover Required message. The message includes a list of up to three candidate cells. 3 MSC B evaluates the candidates and chooses the best one. In this case, the best candidate is in another MSC area. A MAP message is sent to MSC A (the Anchor MSC) requesting a subsequent Handover to a specied cell on MSC C. 4 A MAP message is sent to MSC C requesting a Handover to a specied cell on MSC C. BSS MS MSC MSHN - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station Handover Number

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Steps 1 & 2

MS

BSS B

MSC B

MSC A

MSC C

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Signal Strength Measurements

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Required

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perform Subsequent Handover

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perform Handover

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 2 continued


5 Because Handover between switches will require voice trunks between the switches, a Handover Number (MSHN) is allocated for this handover. This is similar to the MSRN allocated for the termination of a mobile call. Number allocation is specied as a VLR entity operation and the diagram shows a message ow between the MSC and VLR entities. 6 See item 4 above. 7 A Handover Request message is sent to the new BSS (C) with the candidate cell identied. 8 The new BSS determines if the candidate cell can support additional calls and if so, returns the general frequency to be used and the Handover reference number for this Handover. 9 MSC C responds to MSC A with an acknowledgement of the Handover Perform and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency, Handover reference number, etc.). 10 MSC A initiates the process to set up a voice path between MSC A and MSC C in order to support the path switching when the Handover occurs. MSC A sets up a call using the MSHN provided above. 11 MSC C responds to the trunk set up attempt as appropriate for the trunk signaling used for that trunk. In addition, MSC C notes the MSHN and associates the specic Handover activity with the trunk. BSS MS MSC MSHN - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station Handover Number

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 2 continued

MSC A

MSC C

BSS C

VLR C

10

11

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perform Handover Acknowledge

Network Setup Setup Complete

Allocate . . Handover Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Request . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Request . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Number . . . . . Allocated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 2 continued


12 MSC A responds to MSC B with an acknowledgement of the Perform Subsequent Handover and provides the information needed by the MSC (MSHN) and MS (frequency, Handover reference number, etc.). 13 MSC B tells the BSS to begin the Handover and provides the candidate cell frequency and Handover reference number. 14 The old BSS passes the Handover Command onto the MS. This results in the MS beginning the retuning process. BSS MS MSC MSHN - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Mobile Station Handover Number

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 2 continued

MS

BSS B

MSC B

MSC A

12

13

14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Subsequent Handover Acknowledge

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 3


15 The MS sends a Handover Access on the new cells common channel and identies itself with the Handover reference number. 16 The new Cell responds with the trafc channel assignment (frequency and time slot). 17 The new BSS (C) noties MSC C that the Handover has reached this point. 18 The mobile retunes to the trafc and associated signaling channel and sends a Handover Complete to BSS C. 19 The new BSS (C) sends a Handover Complete message to MSC C. 20 MSC C sends a Send End Signal over the MAP network to MSC A. 21 MSC C sends Answer across the network trunk signaling system. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 3

MS

BSS C

MSC C

MSC A

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

. . . Handover Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Channel . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Detected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Send End Signal

Answer

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 4


22 23 24 25 26 MSC A sends a End Signal over the MAP network which signals MSC B to release the previous Handover connections. MSC A releases the trunk between A and B. The MSC tells the old BSS (B) to release the radio channel and associated BSS to MSC trunk. The old BSS (B) releases the radio channel and trunk and informs the MSC. Since the inter-MSC trunk has been released, the MSHN is no longer required and can be released for future use. BSS MS MSC - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Call Management

INTER-MSC HANDOVER 3rd MSC -- Step 4

MSC A

MSC B
End Signal

BSS B

VLR B

22

23

24

25

26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Release Radio Channel

Radio Channel Released Release Handover Number

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Overview of the GSM Cellular System

4-129

Call Management

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4-130

Overview of the GSM Cellular System

Unit 5

5ESS MSC

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5ESS MSC

UNIT OVERVIEW

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

UNIT OVERVIEW

International 5ESS Architecture Overview

HLR, VLR, AUC, and EIR Implementation

Mobile Location Update Scenario

Mobile to Land Call Scenario

Land to Roaming Mobile Call Scenario

Intra-MSC Handover Scenario

Inter-MSC Handover Scenario

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5ESS MSC

GSM REFERENCE MODEL

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

GSM REFERENCE MODEL

AUC

EIR VLR
D G C

HLR
F

ISDN MSC

VLR
B

PSTN
A E

AUC BSC BSS BTS EIR HLR ISDN MS MSC PSTN VLR

- Authentication Center - Base Station Controller - Base Station System - Base Transceiver Station - Equipment Identity Register - Home Location Register - Integrated Services Digital Network - Mobile Station - Mobile Switching Center - Public Switched Telephone Network - Visitor Location Register

BSS BSC
Abis

MSC

BTS

Um

MS

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5-5

5ESS MSC

GSM REFERENCE MODEL AT&T PRODUCT OFFERING


AT&T has developed the GSM system with the following three major GSM Network network elements. The Operations Maintenance Center (OMC), Mobile Switching Center (MSC), and Base Station System (BSS). The Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR), Authentication Center (AUC), and Equipment Identity Register (EIR) are being integrated within the MSC. As specied in the GSM recommendations, it is not required that all network elements be implemented in different equipment.1 AT&T has also developed the B, C, D, E, F, and G interfaces for the HLR, VLR, AUC, EIR, and MSC to communicate within the 5ESS. These GSM interfaces allow the 5ESS to access HLR, AUC, and EIR data located on other entities in the GSM network for calls being processed on the 5ESS MSC product. Conversely, these interfaces also allow the 5ESS to function as a HLR, AUC, and EIR for mobile calls originated/terminated on other MSCs in the GSM network. The network operator has the option of either integrating the MSC, HLR, AUC, VLR, and the EIR all the same 5ESS product or having one 5ESS perform only as a MSC and having another 5ESS product act as a standalone HLR, AUC, EIR product. Thus, you can have all or part of the above network elements located on the 5ESS product or any combination there of. Of all the databases, the VLR is most tightly coupled with the MSC and will probably never be moved off of the 5ESS. One possible advantage of moving the VLR off the 5ESS would be to increase call handling capacity of the MSC. As we will see shortly, the 5ESS has plenty of capacity. There are several advantages associated with integrating all of the above listed network elements into the MSC and not formally implementing the interfaces between these entities as outlined in the GSM recommendations. The primary advantages have to do with:

Product Cost, Product Availability, System Capacity.


It is important that the price of initial GSM systems be as low as possible since Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) providers will choose vendors based primarily on cost. Since all network elements need to implemented on reliable fault tolerant equipment it makes sense to initially share the same hardware equipment.

1 . Reference: GSM 9.02, Version 3.8.0, Section 2.1, Page 4.


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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

GSM REFERENCE MODEL AT&T PRODUCT OFFERING

OMC

Up to 5 MSCs

MSC
D

HLR
E F G

5ESS International Switch

VLR AUC EIR

PSTN

BSS

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5-7

5ESS MSC

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

INTERNATIONAL 5ESS WIRELESS ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW

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5ESS MSC

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW

. ....................... . . . Customer . . . . . . Administration . RS-232 . . . . . . System . . ....................... . . . . .


SS7 call proc & mtce voice

. .............. . . . Billing . . . . . . . . . . Center . .............. . . . . .

. ............... . External . . . . . . Service . . . . . . . ............... . Center . . . .

OMC
SS7 mtce X.25

X.25 X.25

. ........... . . . . . MS . . . ........... . . .

Air Interface

BSS
BTS BSC

. . . . . ...... .

HLR

MSC

VLR AUC EIR

MAP
country specic signaling

ISUP & MAP

PSTN

MSC HLR
Voice Path Signaling Path

EIR

AUC

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5ESS MSC

BASIC 5ESS ARCHITECTURE


The following list identies a few documents/books that provide overview information about the 5ESS Switch. 5ESS Switch Global Description, 235-390-100, March 1989, Issue 1. 5ESS Training Program -- System Overview. 5ESS Training Program -- Advanced System Overview. 5ESS Switch Software, AT&T Technical Journal, January 1986.

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

BASIC 5ESS ARCHITECTURE

5ESS International Switch


AM

CM

SM

SM

GSM

SM

SM

Signaling Lines Trunks

PSTN

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5-13

5ESS MSC

BASIC 5ESS WIRELESS SWITCH ARCHITECTURE AT&T is using the 5ESS International Switch as the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for
cellular service based on the GSM standard. The term "5ESS wireless switch" is commonly used instead of MSC or 5ESS MSC. No new hardware is required to be developed on the 5ESS in order to support GSM cellular services. Switching Modules (SMs) are the main building blocks of the 5ESS MSC, which performs over 95% of all the call processing. A new Switching Module term, Wireless Switching Module (WSM) is used to descibe a switching module that is capable of providing wireless services. The hardware architecture of a WSM is basically the same as regular SMs when equipped with trunks. Maximum capacity: 300k subscribers or 500k Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA). - Administrative Module - Base Station System - Communications Module - Mobile Switching Center - Network Control Timeslot - Public Switched Telephone Network - Switch Module - Wireless Switch Module

AM BSS CM MSC NCT PSTN SM WSM

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

BASIC 5ESS WIRELESS SWITCH ARCHITECTURE

AM

5ESS Switch MSC

CM

WSM

WGSM

WSM

GSM

SM

Signaling

Signaling Lines

Trunks Trunks

BSS

BSS

PSTN & Other PLMN Entities

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5ESS MSC

32 CHANNEL DIGITAL FACILITIES USED BETWEEN MSC AND BSSs


The type of facilities used to connect Base Station Systems (BSSs) to the the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) are CCITT 2048 kbps (32 channel) digital facilities.2 The following list provides additional details concerning these facilities:

Each facility consists of 32 64 kbps channels (or timeslots)3 30 timeslots are available for voice and/or data connections (slots 1 - 15 and 17 - 31). Voice signals are digitally encoded using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)4 Timeslot 16 is recommended for common channel signaling. Timeslot 16 can also be use for regular voice/data connections. If desired, a timeslot other than slot 16 can be used to transfer signaling messages (e.g., timeslot 18). Timeslot 0 is used for synchronization/timing 8 bits per timeslot 256 bits per frame As state above, timeslot 16 is recommended for common channel signaling. On the 5ESS, any of the 31 timeslots (1 - 31) can be used as a signaling channel. It appears that the AT&T BSS product cannot use timeslot 16 for common channel signaling. If there are more than one 32 channel digital facilities between the 5ESS and one BSS, then it is not necessary for all facilities to have a signaling link. For the facilities that are not engineered to carry a signaling link, timeslot 16 can be use for voice/data connections. More information regarding BSS signaling links is provided on Page 5-26.

2 . See GSM Recommendation 08.04, "Mobile Switching Center (MSC) to Base Station System (BSS) Interface; Layer 1: Structure of Physical Circuits" 3 . For more details, see CCITT Recommendation G.704. 4 . For more details, see CCITT Recommendation G.711 and G.732.
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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

32 CHANNEL DIGITAL FACILITIES USED BETWEEN MSC AND BSSs

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

S Y N C

VOICE AND/OR DATA

S I G

VOICE AND/OR DATA

ONE FRAME
GSM A INTERFACE SIGNALING PROTOCOL STACK

Direct Transfer Application Part

BSS Management Application Part

BSS Operations and Maintenance Application Part

Signaling Connect Control Part Message Transport Part - Layer 3 Message Transport Part - Layer 2 Message Transport Part - Layer 1

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5ESS MSC

MAXIMUM DIGITAL FACILITIES PER WSM

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MAXIMUM DIGITAL FACILITIES PER WSM

Communications Module (CM)

Two NCT Links (256 slots each)

WSM
Time Slot Intechanger (TSI)

Digital Line Trunk Unit

32 channel digital facilities (2.048 Mbps)

Maximum of 16 Digital Trunk Facilities


(maximum number of timeslots = 480)
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51 1

5-19

5ESS MSC

WSM TRUNK ENGINEERING Maximum number of simultaneous calls per WSM = 480 (assuming it is fully engineered with
trunks). Maximum number of simultaneous calls per BSS = 320 (assuming it is full equipped with radios).

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

WSM TRUNK Engineering

5ESS MSC

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

WSM 4

DFI Maximum* BSSs per WSM = 16 DFI Maximum* WSMs per BSS = 11

BSS 1

BSS 2

BSS 16

BSS 17

* AT&T DACs products allow you to exceed these maximums

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5-21

5ESS MSC

5ESS WSM ARCHITECTURE

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

5ESS WSM ARCHITECTURE

512 Time Slots to the Communications Module (CM)

Wireless Switch Module (WSM)

. ................................... . . . . . . . . . Time Slot . . . . Interchange Unit . . . . . . . . . . . ............(TSIU)............ . . . . ........... . . .................................... . . . . . . . Packet Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit (PSU) . . . .................................... . . . . . . .................................... . . . . . . . Switch Module . . . . . . . . Processor (SMP) . . . . . . . . . .................................... . . . . .

. .................................................................................................................... . . . . Digital Line Trunk Unit . . 16 DFI Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . (DLTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital Facility . . . . . . . . . DFI DFI DFI . Interface (DFI) . . . . . . . . .................................................................................................................... . . . . .
32 Channel Digital Trunks (2.048 Mbps)

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5-23

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Logical Signaling Path View


One Wireless Switching Module (WSM) in the 5ESS has the global responsibility of distributing signaling messages between Base Station Systems (BSSs) and WSMs, and hence termed the Wireless Global Switching Module (WGSM). As illustrated on the following page, all signaling links from BSSs ultimately terminate on the WGSM. The number of signaling links per BSS can be engineered between two and four (two links should be more than adequate to handle most trafc situations). Since trunks and call handling responsibilities between the 5ESS and a given BSS are distributed across multiple WSMs, it is necessary to have a signaling message switch (the WGSM). The WGSM hides internal 5ESS distributed processor/processing architectural details from BSSs, thus providing the appearance to all BSSs that the MSC is logically one entity. The WGSM provides the capability for any WSM to send messages to any BSS, and vice versa (even if there are no physical facilities between a given BSS and WSM). Later in this unit, you will be introduced with conditions whereby messages sent from a BSS to the MSC can be delivered to a WSM that does not have physical facilities to the BSS. The diagram on the following page shows trunks from BSSs terminating on WSMs and the signaling links terminating on the WGSM. This is a LOGICAL VIEW. Physically, the signaling and voice paths are time-division-multiplexed on 32 channel digital facilities. The "dotted" paths between the WGSM and WSMs are message delivery paths. Message delivery paths (often referred to as MD paths) are nailed up 64k BPS time slots between the WGSM and WSMs for the purpose of delivering signaling messages the correct WSM. Currently, each WSM has one MD path to the WGSM. If a 5ESS is equipped, for example, with 10 WSMs, then the WGSM would have 10 MD paths; one to each of the WSMs. The maximum number of WGSMs that be equipped in a 5ESS is one. Early architectural studies determined that one WGSM would have adequate capacity for switching signaling messages at the maximum advertized call handling load.

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Logical Signaling Path View

5ESS MSC
CM
64k BPS Nailed up Timeslots

WSM 1

WSM 2

WGSM 3

Voice Trunks

BSS 1

BSS 2

2 - 4 64k BPS SS7 Signaling Links

Legend
Voice Path SS7 Signaling Path Message Delivery Path

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5-25

5ESS MSC

EXAMPLE: FACILITIES BETWEEN 5ESS AND 1 BSS


Illustrated is one Base Station System (BSS) equipped with seven 32 channel facilities which terminates on 4 WSMs. Paths identied with the letter "A" represent facilities that also have a common channel signaling link. Two of the 7 facilities carry the signaling links to BSS 1--which should have more than enough bandwidth to meet maximum call load situations.5 For reliability reasons, it is unwise to place both signaling links on the same facility. Notice that the "B" paths have timeslot 16 available for voice/data connections. The total number of voice/data circuits (trunks) between the 5ESS and BSS 1, in this example, is 215. From a trunk-management standpoint, all 215 trunks are grouped into one "trunk group." If the 5ESS was to receive a call origination message over one of the signaling links from BSS 1, the Administrative Module (AM) would eventually be asked to nd an available trunk (out of the 215 member trunk group) serving BSS 1.

5. This example shows facilities with both signaling channels using timeslot 16, per the CCITT recommendations. It is not a requirement that signaling be performed in timeslot 16--other timeslots such as 18 could be used. For hardware reasons, the AT&T Base Station Controller may not be able to use timeslot 16 for signaling.
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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

EXAMPLE: FACILITIES BETWEEN 5ESS AND 1 BSS

5ESS MSC

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

WSM 4

BSS 1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

S Y N C

VOICE AND/OR DATA

S I G

VOICE AND/OR DATA

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

S Y N C

VOICE AND/OR DATA

VOICE AND/OR DATA

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5-27

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Actual Signaling Path View

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS GLOBAL SM (WGSM) Actual Signaling Path View

5ESS MSC
CM
64k BPS Nailed up Timeslots

WSM 1

WSM 2

WGSM 3

Voice Trunks 2 - 4 64k BPS SS7 Signaling Links

BSS 1

BSS 2

Legend
Voice Path SS7 Signaling Path Message Delivery Path

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5ESS MSC

BSS-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

BSS-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

OMC

5ESS MSC
CM

MD PH

MD PH

MD PH

MD PH

WGSM 3

SMP

SMP ST PH ST PH ST PH

WSM 1

WSM 2

BSS 1
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BSS 2

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-31

5ESS MSC

MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL

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5-32

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL

Um MS BTS

A-bis BSC

A MSC

A CM Um MM CM A-bis MM BSSMAP RR RR RR LAPDm Phys. LAPDm Phys. BTSM LAPD Phys. BTSM LAPD Phys. SCCP MTP
BSSMAP

SCCP MTP

Version 1.0.0
April 13, 1992 -- 23:19:04 [corel749.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-33

5ESS MSC

PSTN & PLMN-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:44:16 [djw.488] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-34

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

PSTN & PLMN-5ESS SIGNALING ARCHITECTURE

5ESS MSC
CM

MD PH

MD PH

MD PH

MD PH

GSM 6

SMP

SMP ST PH ST PH ST PH

SM 4

SM 5

PSTN & Other PLMN Entities

Version 1.0.0
May 6, 1992 -- 16:02:41 [jc714.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-35

5ESS MSC

MAP SIGNAL PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:44:16 [djw.488] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-36

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MAP SIGNAL PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE

C,D,E,F,G MSC, HLR, EIR MSC, HLR, EIR

MAP TCAP SCCP-CL MTP-3 MTP-2 MTP-1 C,D,E,F,G

MAP TCAP SCCP-CL MTP-3 MTP-2 MTP-1

Version 1.0.0
May 6, 1992 -- 16:06:05 [jc950.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-37

5ESS MSC

PACKET SWITCH UNIT SIGNAL LINK ARCHITECTURE

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:44:16 [djw.488] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-38

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

PACKET SWITCH UNIT SIGNAL LINK ARCHITECTURE

DLTU DFI
Signaling Data Link

TSIU

SM

T M S

DLTU DFI

TSIU

DF

CF

PSU
ST-PH MD-PH ST-PH MD-PH PF

GSM

DLTU DFI
DF CF

TSIU
PI

CM

AM

PSU

MD-PH
PF

SMP
Version 1.0.0

SM

May 12, 1992 -- 15:03:34 [jc951.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-39

5ESS MSC

GSM TERMINOLOGY

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-40

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

GSM TERMINOLOGY GSM -- Group Special Mobile GSM -- Global System for Mobile
communication

GSM -- Global Switching Module

Version 1.0.0
December 6, 1991 -- 16:29:14 [djw.681] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-41

5ESS MSC

INTER-SM MESSAGE COMMUNICATION

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:44:32 [djw.533] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-42

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

INTER-SM MESSAGE COMMUNICATION

5ESS MSC

CM
2 Control Time Slots (CTS) 48k BPS each

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

WGSM 4

GSM 5

SM 6

SM 7

Version 1.0.0
February 10, 1992 -- 23:12:19 [corel715.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-43

5ESS MSC

SUMMARY OF 5ESS MESSAGE SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE

Version 1.0.0
November 25, 1991 -- 10:20:18 [corel717.txt] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-44

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

SUMMARY OF 5ESS MESSAGE SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE

48k BPS Control Time Slots (CTS)

CM

5ESS MSC

WSM 1

WSM 2

SM 5

SM 6

64k BPS Message Delivery Link

WGSM 3

GSM 4

64k BPS SS7 Links

BSS 1

BSS 2

BSS 3

PLMN

PSTN

Version 1.0.0
May 8, 1992 -- 15:58:07 [jc717.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-45

5ESS MSC

EXTERNAL DATABASE ACCESS High Level View

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:47:40 [db.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-46

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

EXTERNAL DATABASE ACCESS High Level View

5ESS Switch MSC

5ESS Switch Data Base

WSM

WSM

Application

Data Base

GSM

GSM

SS7 SDL

Version 1.0.0
June 1, 1992 -- 12:11:19 [ccl_c001.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-47

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS Example

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:47:44 [db.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-48

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS Example

5ESS Switch MSC

5ESS Switch Data Base

WSM

WSM

Call Processing SMP

HLR SMP

MDPH

MDPH

GSM
MD PH MD PH MD PH

GSM
MD PH

ST PH

ST PH

SS7 SDL

ST PH

ST PH

Version 1.0.0
June 1, 1992 -- 12:11:25 [ccl_c002.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-49

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS MAP Message Routing

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:47:49 [db.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-50

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS MAP Message Routing

5ESS Switch WSM SMP MAP User MAP TCAP PSU MDPH PSU MD Message PH Delivery SCCP MTP STPH SMP GSM

5ESS Switch

GSM WSM SMP SMP MAP User MAP TCAP PSU STPH Distribution

MDPH PSU MD PH Message Delivery Message Delivery

SCCP

MTP

Version 1.0.0
June 1, 1992 -- 11:46:07 [ccl_c003.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-51

5ESS MSC

Version 1.0.0
June 1, 1992 -- 11:46:07 [ccl_c003.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-52

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

HLR, VLR, AUC, and EIR IMPLEMENTATION

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-53

5ESS MSC

AT&T GSM HLR, VLR, AUC, & EIR

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:44:56 [djw.520] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-54

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

AT&T GSM HLR, VLR, AUC, & EIR Maximum HLR Size = 300k subscribers Maximum VLR Size = 300k registered
subscribers

Up to 15,000 per WSM

Version 1.0.0
May 4, 1992 -- 14:23:50 [jjm.520] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-55

5ESS MSC

IMPLEMENTATION OF HLR & VLR ON 5ESS

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:45:48 [djw.523] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-56

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

IMPLEMENTATION OF HLR & VLR ON 5ESS

WSM 1
0

WSM 2
N+1

WSM 3
2N+1

HLR & VLR

HLR & VLR

HLR & VLR

2N

3N

N = up to 15,000

Version 1.0.0
May 4, 1992 -- 14:44:01 [jjm.523] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-57

5ESS MSC

ROUTING SERVICE REQUESTS TO THE CORRECT VLR

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:46:01 [djw.492] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-58

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROUTING SERVICE REQUESTS TO THE CORRECT VLR

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

VLR

VLR

VLR

MD-PH

MD-PH

MD-PH

ST-PH

ST-PH

WGSM

5ESS MSC

BSS 1
Version 1.0.0

BSS 2

December 11, 1991 -- 16:37:56 [corel722.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-59

5ESS MSC

TMSI ORGANIZATION The maximum number of Switching Modules (SMs) that can presently be supported within
one 5ESS is 190. The eight bit WSM eld with in the TMSI supports the maximum number of SMs. Since the maximum number of VLR records per WSM is 15,000, 16 bits is required to support this range. The 8 bit random number eld of the TMSI can result in 256 different combinations of TMSI values for a given VLR entry.

Version 1.0.0
June 5, 1992 -- 16:42:59 [djw.467] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-60

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

TMSI ORGANIZATION

31

24 23

11 10

WSM Number
8 bits

VLR Index
16 bits

Random Number
8 bits

Version 1.0.0
May 8, 1992 -- 15:33:35 [djw.467] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-61

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF AUTHENTICATION CENTER

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-62

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF AUTHENTICATION CENTER

Message Delivery Links

MD-PH
A3 & A8 Algorithms

MD-PH
A3 & A8 Algorithms

WGSM

SMP
HLR/VLR AUC

SMP
HLR/VLR AUC

WSM 1

WSM 2

Version 1.0.0
May 22, 1991 -- 13:58:40 [djw.524] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-63

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER

Version 1.0.0
July 2, 1991 -- 12:49:28 [djw.525] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-64

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER

HLR/VLR

HLR/VLR

HLR/VLR

M+1

2M+1

EIR

EIR

EIR

2M

3M

WSM 1

WSM 2

WSM 3

M = up to 3200

Version 1.0.0
May 4, 1992 -- 15:30:09 [jjm.525] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-65

5ESS MSC

Version 1.0.0
May 4, 1992 -- 15:30:09 [jjm.525] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-66

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION SCENARIO

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-67

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:38:55 [lu.1.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-68

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION

TAINAN VLR
IMSI TMSI = MCC-02-1234567 = 7777
Subscriber Data LA = 20

BSS 3
LAI = MCC-06-20

Network 6

BSS 4

Network 2

TAIPEI HLR
IMSI MSISDN = MCC-02-1234567 = 886-2-741-0051
Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Tainan

2
Need IMSI (TMSI = 7777)

3
IMSI Response (IMSI = MCC-02-1234567) (Authentication vectors)

4
Update Location (IMSI = MCC-02-1234567) (VLR Adr = Taichung)

5
Insert Subscriber Data (Subscriber data)

TAICHUNG VLR
IMSI = MCC-02-1234567

BSS 8
LAI = MCC-03-68
1
Registration (TMSI = 7777) (LAI = MCC-06-20)

BSS 5

Network 3
Version 1.0.0
June 8, 1992 -- 17:37:44 [djw1130.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-69

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION - Cont

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:38:55 [lu.1.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-70

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION - Cont

TAINAN VLR
IMSI TMSI = MCC-02-1234567 = 7777
Subscriber Data LA = 20

BSS 3

LAI = MCC-06-20

Network 6 8
Delete Record (IMSI = MCC-02-1234567)

BSS 4

TAIPEI HLR
IMSI MSISDN = MCC-02-1234567 = 886-2-741-0051
Subscriber Data VLR Adr = Taichung

Network 2

7
Update Complete

6
Subscriber Data Inserted

TAICHUNG VLR
9
IMSI = MCC-02-1234567 TMSI = 8888
Subscriber Data LA = 68

BSS 8
LAI = MCC-03-68

10
Registration Accepted (TMSI = 8888) (LAI =MCC-03-68)

BSS 5

Network 3
Version 1.0.0
June 8, 1992 -- 17:38:36 [djw1131.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-71

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Request for Service and IMSI Query

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:38:55 [lu.1.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-72

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Request for Service and IMSI Query

Taichung MSC MAP

Tainan MSC
Selected WSM

MS

BSS

VLR WSM

VLR SM

. . . . . . . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update . . . . . . Request (TMSI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Update . . . Location . . . . . . (TMSI) . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create VLR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 19:31:29 [lu.1.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

Send IMSI

IMSI Result

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-73

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Auth., Create New & Cancel Old VLR

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:44:52 [lu.1.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-74

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Auth., Create New & Cancel Old VLR

Taichung MSC MAP

Taipei MSC MAP HLR SM

Tainan MSC VLR WSM

MS

VLR WSM

. . . . . . . . . . Authentication Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Update Location . . . . . . . . . . . . Insert Subscriber Data . . . . . . . Subscriber Data Inserted . . . . . . . . . . Location Update . . . . . Accepted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 1.0.0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cancel VLR Cancel VLR Acknowledge

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

May 11, 1992 -- 19:32:11 [lu.1.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-75

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION TMSI Reallocation, LU Complete

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:45:02 [lu.1.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-76

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION TMSI Reallocation, LU Complete

Taichung MSC

MS

BSS

VLR WSM

. . . . . . . . . Set Cipher Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update Accept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location Update Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . . . . Release Radio . . . . . Signaling Channel . . . . Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 19:32:41 [lu.1.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-77

5ESS MSC

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 19:32:41 [lu.1.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-78

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

MOBILE TO LAND CALL SCENARIO

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-79

5ESS MSC

VLR SM & TRUNK SM RELATIONSHIP

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:46:47 [djw.493] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-80

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

VLR SM & TRUNK SM RELATIONSHIP

TRUNK WSM

VLR WSM

WSM 1
Call Control

WSM 2

VLR

Message Delivery Links

MD-PH

MD-PH

ST-PH

WGSM 5ESS MSC

Trunks

Signaling Data links

BSS 1

Version 1.0.0
June 7, 1992 -- 12:21:16 [djw1129.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-81

5ESS MSC

SMs USED FOR A MOBILE TO LAND CALL

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:46:59 [djw.404] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-82

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

SMs USED FOR A MOBILE TO LAND CALL

GSM

SM

WSM

WGSM

VLR WSM

PSTN

BSS

BSS GSM PSTN SM VLR WSM WGSM WSM

- Base Station System - Global Switching Module - Public Telephone Switched Network - Switching Module - Visitor Location Register WSM - Wireless Global Switching Module - Wireless Switching Module

Voice Path Signalling Path

Version 1.0.0
May 22, 1991 -- 14:44:02 [djw.404] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-83

5ESS MSC

PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:47:13 [djw.304] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-84

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

PHASES OF A MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handover(s) Release

Phase might not occur


Version 1.0.0
May 22, 1991 -- 14:46:42 [djw.304] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-85

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service


The following is an example of an interprocessor message scenario for a mobile-to-land call. It is assumed that the mobile station is already registered with the system and has been allocated a Temporary Mobile Identication Number (TMSI). 0 A mobile originated call starts by the user entering the directory number digits, associated with the person to be called, on the mobile station handset. The user presses the "send" key after all digits have been entered. Mobile station transmits a channel request message over a common access channel, Random Access Channel (RACH). The access scheme for this channel is similar in concept to slotted ALOHA. Although unlikely, it is possible that the mobile will have to retry this message several times. Once the base station receives the Channel Request message, it allocates a Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) and forwards this channel assignment information to the mobile station over the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). It is over the SDCCH that the mobile station will communicate with the BSS and MSC until a trafc channel is assigned. The mobile station transmits a service request message to the base station over the SDCCH. Included in this message is the mobile station TMSI and Location Area Identication (LAI). This message also establishes a layer 2 signaling connection between the mobile station and the base station. The base station forwards the service request message to the MSC, which is rst received by the WGSM. The Protocol Handler (PH) in the WGSM that receives the Service Request message will use the high-order bits of the TMSI to determine which WSM contains the VLR data for the mobile subscriber and forward the service request to the appropriate WSM. The WSM containing the VLR record for a given mobile subscriber is referred to as the "VLR WSM." Included in this message to the VLR WSM is the BSS number currently serving the mobile station.

4 5

Version 1.0.0
July 12, 1991 -- 15:37:37 [djw.622] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-86

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Request for Service

Um

MS

BSS

WGSM

VLR WSM

. . . . . . Channel Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dedicated Signaling . . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Service Request

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Service Request

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:33:34 [djw.622] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-87

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication and Call Setup


Since the air interface is vulnerable to fraudulent access, it is necessary to determine if the TMSI received from the mobile station is from the SIM that the TMSI was assigned. 6 Since the functionality of the HLR, VLR, and the AUC have been integrated in to the VLR WSM, this step performs many operations that do not result in interprocessor messages. To authenticate the mobile station, the VLR WSM needs to generate, or retrieve previously generated, authentication parameters: Random number (RAND), Signed Response (SRES), and the Cipher Key (Kc). If no authentication parameters exist, the VLR WSM will send a message to its MD-PH (Message Delivery Protocol Handler) requesting it to execute the Authentication Algorithm (A3) and Cipher Key Algorithm (A8) for a given IMSI and Authentication Key (Ki), and return 5 authentication parameter triplets. One of the triplets would be used for this call. The remaining 4 triplets would be available for future calls. The MD-PH should only receive requests one out of every ve times that authentication is necessary. The VLR WSM then sends the random number, RAND, to the mobile station requesting it to apply the random number to its A3 and A8 algorithm. 7 In parallel with mobile station authentication, the VLR WSM sends a request message to the Administrative Module (AM) to allocate a trunk to the BSS currently serving the mobile station. 8 The AM allocates a BSS trunk and sends a message to the WSM that manages this trunk. This WSM is referred to as the Trunk WSM. It is possible that the trunk WSM selected is the same as the VLR WSM. Presently, the AM does not bias its BSS trunk hunt to favor the trunks on the VLR WSM. 9 The mobile station reads its Authentication key (Ki) from the SIM, applies the random number, RAND, and Ki to both its Authentication Algorithm (A3) and Cipher key generation algorithm (A8) to produce an authentication Signed Response (SRES) and Cipher Key (Kc). The mobile station saves Kc for later, and will use Kc when it receives a command to cipher the channel. The mobile station then returns the generated SRES to the MSC (VLR WSM). The VLR WSM compares the SRES returned from the mobile station with the expected SRES generated earlier from the AUC entity in the VLR WSM. If equal, the mobile station passes authentication. If unequal, appropriate actions will be taken--which could result in the SIM being disabled. In this scenario, well assume that authentication passes. 10 The Trunk WSM then informs the VLR WSM that it has been selected as the Trunk WSM and that a BSS trunk has been reserved. Note: it is not known what the exact timing relationship will be between the mobile station authentication response and the assignment of a BSS trunk from the AM. It is not important that this be known since the VLR WSM will not proceed with the call until both the authentication response and a report is received from the trunk WSM.

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:25:49 [djw.623] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-88

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Authentication and Call Setup

MS

VLR WSM

Trunk WSM

AM

10

. . . . . . . . . . . Authenticate Mobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request BSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assign Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WSM & BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk WSM & . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk Selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:35:32 [djw.623] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-89

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering and Call Setup


11 The VLR WSM then transfers a copy of the subscriber VLR record to the trunk WSM. 12 Using the Cipher Key (Kc) that was generated earlier during authentication, the VLR WSM constructs a cipher command and sends it to the BSS, via the WGSM. The VLR WSM includes in this message the Trunk WSM identication. 13 The WGSM receives the cipher command message, extracts and saves the Trunk WSM identication, and forwards this command to the BSS. The WGSM uses the Trunk WSM identication to begin routing most messages from the BSS directly to the Trunk WSM instead of the VLR WSM. 14 The BSS retrieves the cipher key, Kc, from the message and then transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to begin ciphering the channel. 15 The mobile station uses the cipher key generated previously when it was authenticated to cipher the uplink channel, and transmits a conrmation over the ciphered channel to the BSS. 16 The BSS upon receiving the cipher mode complete message starts ciphering the downlink channel, and then sends a cipher complete message to the MSC. The WGSM forwards the cipher mode complete message to the VLR WSM. 17 The mobile station upon receiving the cipher command stimulus transmits to the MSC a call setup message. Included in this message are the dialed digits. Note: the mobile station waits until the channel is ciphered before transmitting the dialed digits. If the MSC elects to skip ciphering the channel, then the MSC must send the mobile station a message indicating that ciphering will not be performed and that the mobile should send a call setup message. 18 The WGSM, upon receiving this message, routes the call setup message to the trunk WSM. This is the rst message trunk WSM has received from the mobile station. 19 The trunk WSM analyzes the dialed digits, checks its local copy of the mobile station VLR record and determines that the call can proceed. One example on where a call might be denied if the mobile station is restricted from dialing certain directory numbers, such as international calls. Again, assuming that the call can proceed, the trunk WSM sends a call proceeding message to the mobile station.

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:26:55 [djw.624] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-90

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Ciphering and Call Setup

Um

MS

BSS

WGSM

VLR WSM

Trunk WSM

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete

Call Setup Request

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Command . . . . . . . . . + WGSM Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Call Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transfer copy of VLR record

Call Proceeding

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:37:05 [djw.624] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-91

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation and Call Setup


The purpose of the equipment validation phase is to read the mobile equipment serial number from the mobile station and check it against the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to determine if special action should be taken, such as deny service. Equipment validation is optional and is controlled by the service provider. Equipment validation is performed after the ciphering phase and in parallel with call setup. 20 21 The VLR WSM transmits a request to the mobile station requesting it to respond with its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The trunk WSM and VLR WSM are operating in parallel at this point in time. The last activity performed by the trunk WSM was to analyze the call setup message received from the mobile station, followed by sending the mobile station a call proceeding acknowledgment. The next task for the trunk WSM is to send a message to the Base Station System (BSS) requesting it to allocate a radio trafc channel and connect the radio to a terrestrial trunk to the MSC. Included in the message is the terrestrial circuit identity code (trunk number). The mobile station, upon receiving the IMEI request, returns the IMEI back, over the encrypted radio path, to the VLR WSM. The VLR WSM then requests the MSs IMEI information from the EIR by sending a message to the PSTN GSM MDPH. The MDPH then determines whether the EIR is located on the MSC or on another network entity. It retrieves the EIR information on the MSC, if the MSC contains the EIR, or sends a MAP message to the EIR off the MSC. Once the MDPH receives the EIR data, it then sends it back to the VLR WSM for checking. The VLR WSM uses the received IMEI a key into the Equipment Identity Register (EIR) to determine that status of the mobile equipment, and forwards both the IMEI and status to the trunk WSM. If the results are good, the trunk WSM will allow the call to proceed. If the EIR results are negative, the trunk WSM will begin to terminate the call. The BSS reserves a radio trafc channel, connects the radio to the specied MSC trunk, and sends a radio trafc channel assignment message to the mobile station (over the Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)). The mobile station tunes to the specied trafc channel and transmits an assignment complete message back to the BSS. The mobile station then begins alerting the user (i.e., the phone rings). Prior to this point in time, the mobile station user is unaware that he/she is receiving al call. The mobile station no longer uses the SDCCH after tuning to the designated radio trafc channel. The BSS upon receiving the assignment complete message, places the SDCCH on a free list and transmits an assignment complete message to the trunk WSM.

22

23

24

25

26

Version 1.0.0
May 5, 1992 -- 16:22:03 [jjm.625] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-92

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Equipment Validation and Call Setup

Um

MS

BSS

VLR WSM

Trunk WSM

PSTN GSM

EIR

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request IMEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk Assignment & . . . . . Trafc . . . . . . . Request Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMEI Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request IMEI. from EIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMEI.Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMEI Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assign Radio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trafc Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk & Radio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Request IMEI Return IMEI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 12, 1992 -- 13:58:49 [jjm.625] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-93

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup


27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 AM nds an available trunk in the specied trunk group and reserves an inter-SM network timeslot.

Version 1.0.0
December 9, 1991 -- 16:58:43 [djw.626] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-94

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Call Setup

MS

Trunk WSM

AM

SM

PSTN

27

28

29

30

31 32

33 34 35

36 37

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection . . . . Established . . . . . . Connection . . . . Acknowledgment . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Allocate PSTN Trunk

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assign PSTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SM & PSTN . . . . . . . . . . . . trunk selected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Alerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:40:13 [djw.626] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-95

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:48:23 [djw.627] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-96

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release

MS

Trunk WSM

AM

SM

PSTN

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mobile Disconnect Mobile Release Mobile Release Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Release

Release BSS Trunk

Billing Record

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Release PSTN Trunk

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Network Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:41:32 [djw.627] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-97

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release (cont.)

Version 1.0.0
June 28, 1991 -- 10:48:36 [djw.628] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-98

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

MOBILE TO LAND CALL Mobile Release (cont.)

Um

MS

BSS

WGSM

VLR WSM

Trunk WSM

46

47

48

49

50

51

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Channel Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Clear Command

Clear Complete

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection Release

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:42:35 [djw.628] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-99

5ESS MSC

Version 1.0.0
July 5, 1991 -- 10:42:35 [djw.628] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-100

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-101

5ESS MSC

CALL DELIVERY TO A MOBILE STATION Via Gateway with External HLR

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:45:20 [term.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-102

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

CALL DELIVERY TO A MOBILE STATION Via Gateway with External HLR

BSS 1

MSC
BSS 2

HLR
MSISDN
1 3

Gateway

M SR N

M SIS DN
6

PSTN

M SIS DN
2

MSC

Need MSRN

MSRN

Home PLMN

N SR M

VLR

SI TM

BSS 1

TM SI

Visited MSC
BSS 2
Voice Path Signaling

Version 1.0.0
June 8, 1992 -- 17:36:51 [djw1101.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-103

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing Information Query

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:45:20 [term.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-104

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing Information Query

Gateway MSC

HLR MSC

VLR MSC

PSTN SM IAM

AM

Routing WSM

HLR SM

VLR SM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . HLR Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate Trunk . . . . to VLR_MSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Send Routing . . . . Information . . . . . . . Provide Roaming . . . . . Number . . . . . . Roaming Number . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . Send Routing . . . . Information Result. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 13, 1992 -- 17:27:59 [term.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-105

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing to VLR MSC and Paging

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:45:32 [term.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-106

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing to VLR MSC and Paging

Gateway MSC

VLR MSC

PSTN SM

AM

ISUP SM

ISUP

ISUP SM

VLR SM

BSS

MS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . Setup Trunk . . . . to VLR MSC . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACM . Received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

IAM

ACM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Termination . . . . to MS . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perform . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paging . . . . Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 13, 1992 -- 17:31:45 [term.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-107

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Authentication, BSS Trunk Hunt, Ciphering

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:45:36 [term.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-108

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Authentication, BSS Trunk Hunt, Ciphering

Gateway MSC

VLR MSC

ISUP SM

ISUP

ISUP SM

VLR SM

AM

Trunk WSM

BSS

MS

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Setup Complete

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . Setup . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authentication Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ready . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VLR Information . . . . . . . . . . . . Cipher Mode. . . . . Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mode Set . . . . . Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Radio Channel Assignment, Call Connection

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5ESS MSC

LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Radio Channel Assignment, Call Connection

Gateway MSC

VLR MSC

PSTN SM

ISUP SM

ISUP

ISUP SM

Trunk WSM

BSS

MS

CPG

ANM

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Network Alerting Answer

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CPG

ANM

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Network Alerting Answer

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. . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . Call Conrm . . . . . . . . Assign Radio . . . . . Channel . . . . . Radio Assign . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . Mobile Alerted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connect Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER STEPS


The handover capability on the International 5ESS Mobile Switching Center (MSC) allows mobile subscribers to continue active calls as the move through the different radio coverage areas handled by the MSC. As the mobile station moves, the call is transferred between Base Station Systems (BSSs). To help support this movement, the 5ESS allocates a trunk to the new BSS and internally "moves" the the data associated with the mobile station (terminal) to a new Wireless Switching Module (WSM). The handover process on the International 5ESS Switch can be logically divided into the four steps (phases) as illustrated on the following page.

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HANDOVER STEPS Handover Request from BSS Allocation of New Resources Handover Execution Release of Old Resources

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5ESS MSC

4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS


The following diagram illustrates the rst two steps of a handover on the International 5ESS Mobile Switching Center (MSC). Lets assume that the mobile station is engaged in a mobile-to-land voice call and is currently being served within a cell area under the control of BSS 1 (Base Station System). The initial voice path for this call is through the following entities:

BSS 1 WSM 1 (Wireless Switching Module) Communications Module (CM) SM 3 Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

STEP 1: HANDOVER REQUEST (from BSS) The handover described in this scenario is intra-MSC inter-BSS. The handover process starts (from the MSC perspective) with a handover required message from BSS 1. Included in the message is a rank-ordered list of qualied cell areas that meet BSS 1 requirements to receive the call. WSM 1, upon receiving this handover required message will extract the rst cell area from the rank-ordered list to determine which BSS controls the specied cell area. WSM 1 then determines the trunk group that serves the candidate BSS. There is a one-to-one mapping between a BSS number and trunk group number. WSM 1 forwards this trunk group number along with the remaining candidate cell IDs (if any) to the Administrative Module (AM). STEP 2: ALLOCATION OF NEW RESOURCES The AM, upon nding an available trunk to the candidate BSS, will reserve the trunk and inform the WSM associated with the trunk that it should begin preparation to receive a handover. In this example, it is assumed that the selected trunk terminates on WSM 2. The AM also reserves a new Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) path between WSM 2 and SM 3. WSM 2 then has three basic operations to perform:

Inform SM 3 that it needs to establish another TMS path between itself and WSM 2. Request the candidate BSS (BSS 2 in this scenario) to reserve a radio trafc channel, and pass BSS 2 Request WSM 1 to pass a copy of all call related data to WSM 2.
Once all of the above operations have been successfully performed, WSM 2 will inform WSM 1 that the mobile station should be ordered to retune to the new radio trafc channel (which was reserved by BSS 2). Note: each BSS connected to the 5ESS is represented by one trunk group (i.e., a 40 BSS system would have 40 groups of trunks serving BSSs). Recalling from a previous discussion, it is possible (and preferred) that that a group of trunks serving one BSS be spread across several WSMs. It is possible that the WSM serving a given call (WSM 1 in this example) has trunks to both the serving BSS (BSS 1) and the candidate BSS (BSS 2). The handover trunk-hunt algorithm in the AM does not attempt to favor any particular WSM in its search for an available trunk. In other words, it is possible to have an available trunk from WSM 1 to BSS 2, but the AM select a trunk to BSS 2 that is associated with WSM 2; as assumed in this example. BSS MS SM TSI - Base Station System - Mobile Station - Switch Module - Time Slot Interchanger CM PSTN TMS WSM - Communications Module - Public Switched Telephone Network - Time Multiplexed Switch - Wireless Switch Module the current Encription key, Kc.

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4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

STEP 1:
Trunk WSM

HANDOVER REQUEST (from BSS)


TMS path through the CM

WSM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

SM 3 TSI

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

STEP 2:

ALLOCATION OF NEW RESOURCES


New TMS path

Pivot SM

WSM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

SM 3

Passing WSM

Receiving WSM

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

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4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER - continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS


In order to proceed to Step 3, all resources necessary to perform a handover must be allocated and ready. If one or more resources are not available, then a handover to the given cell area cannot be performed. In this situation, WSM 2 would look to see if there is another cell on the rank ordered candidate list and if so, translate the next candidate cell ID to a BSS trunk group and then request the Administrative Module (AM) to search for an available trunk; a process very similar to what WSM 1 did back during Step 1. Assuming all resources have been reserved, we proceed as follows. STEP 3: HANDOVER EXECUTION WSM 1 informs the VLR WSM that the call is about to be handed off from WSM 1 to WSM 2. Next, WSM 1 instructs BSS 1 to order the mobile station to retune to a new radio trafc channel. The mobile station will transmit an access burst on the new radio channel to BSS 2. BSS 2, upon receiving an access burst from the mobile station will perform two operations: Help the mobile station align its transmission in the correct time slot by determining the mobile station propagation delay (the time between when the access burst arrived relative to when the BSS expected the access burst to arrive in the mobile stations timeslot), and then sends physical channel information to the mobile station asking it to advance it transmission by x number of bits. Send a handover detected message to WSM 2 informing it that the mobile station has almost completed its handover. WSM 2 uses this stimulus to ask SM 3 (the pivot SM) to switch paths from the old BSS (BSS 1) to the the new BSS (BSS 2). Notice that the SM that actually performs the hot switch of paths is neither WSM, but the the other half to the call--SM 3 in this example. Once the mobile station aligns its transmission to t precisely into the new radio channel timeslot, it will inform BSS 2 that it has successfully handed over. BSS 2 will forward this indication to WSM 2. STEP 4: RELEASE OF OLD RESOURCES WSM 2, upon receiving the handover complete indication from BSS 2, will inform the WSM 1 that the handover has completed. WSM 1 will then inform the VLR WSM that the handover has completed (which also results in a message being sent to BSS 1 to free up the old radio trafc channel), and request the AM to free up the trunk to BSS 1 and the TMS path between WSM 1 and SM 3. Upon conclusion of a handover, the passing WSM no longer has any association with the call--the receiving WSM owns the call.

BSS MS SM TSI

- Base Station System - Mobile Station - Switch Module - Time Slot Interchanger

CM PSTN TMS WSM

- Communications Module - Public Switched Telephone Network - Time Multiplexed Switch - Wireless Switch Module

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4 STEPS TO A HANDOVER - continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

STEP 3:

HANDOVER EXECUTION

Pivot SM

WSM 1 TSI
Passing WSM

WSM 2 TSI
Receiving WSM

SM 3

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

STEP 4:

RELEASE OF OLD RESOURCES


Trunk WSM

WSM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

SM 3 TSI

BSS 1

BSS 2

PSTN

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5ESS MSC

INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 1


Presented in the following scenario is an inter-BSS intra-MSC handover for an active mobile station involved in a mobile-to-land call. This scenario presents details concerning message communication between processors within the 5ESS MSC. Many of the steps in this scenario can be further decomposed into interprocess message communication within the same processor. Inter-process message communication details are not presented here.6 1 At periodic intervals, the mobile station provides signal strength and signal quality measurement reports to its serving Base Station System (BSS). The BSS also monitors the strength and quality of the signal being received from the mobile station. This monitoring and measurement process, by both the mobile station and serving BSS, continues for as long as the mobile station is up on either a dedicated signaling channel or a voice/data trafc channel. 2 The serving BSS (soon to be the old BSS) determines from the measurement report data that there are one or more qualied cell areas that can serve the mobile station, and decides (based on some criteria) that a handover should be performed. The serving BSS reviews the candidate list to see if any of the cell areas are under its control, and in this example well assume there are none. The serving BSS packages the rank-ordered list of qualied candidate cell area identities (IDs) in a handover required message and sends this to the MSC.7 In this case the MSC is represented by the WSM managing the call on the trunk to the serving BSS (commonly referred to as the "trunk WSM" or "passing WSM" in 5ESS handover documentation); hereafter referred to as the passing WSM. The handover required signaling message is routed the passing WSM via the WGSM. 3 4 5 The passing WSM upon receiving the handover required message, extracts from the rank-order list of candidate cell IDs the best candidate. The passing WSM then translates the cell identier to a BSS trunk group number. The passing WSM then sends a message to the Administrative Module (AM) asking it to allocate a trunk to the candidate BSS. Included in the message is the BSS trunk group number and the remaining cell area IDs (if any). 6 The AM, upon receiving this request, searches for an available trunk in the specied trunk group. If the AM cannot nd a trunk, the requesting WSM will be informed of the situation. Assuming the AM does nd and reserve a trunk, the AM determines which WSM is associated with the new trunk, reserves an inter-SM voice path (Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) path) between the new WSM (the receiving WSM) and the pivot SM. The AM then sends a message to the receiving WSM informing it that it should begin preparation to receive a handover. Included in the message are the following: trunk number to the new BSS, inter-SM path number, and the rank-ordered list of qualied cell areas. 7 The receiving WSM, upon being informed that it has been nominated to receive a handover, rst informs the pivot SM that a new inter-SM TMS path has been reserved by the AM. The pivot SM, upon receiving this indication, will send a message to the Communication Module (CM) requesting that it setup the reserved path between the receiving WSM and the pivot SM. The pivot SM, upon completing this operation, is now "primed" and ready to switch paths to the new BSS when instructed to do so. In the mean time, the current talk path remains in use and is not affected by this message.

6 . For very specic details concerning handovers on the 5ESS MSC, you can nd additional information in the "Wireless Hand-over Feature" located on the International DSS library: " intldss/111001/v5121/75". 7 . See GSM 08.08, Version 3.9.2, Section 3.2.2.17 for cell identier formats.
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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 1

MS

Um

Old BSS

Passing WSM

AM

Receiving WSM

Pivot SM

Signal strength measurements Handover required Initiate handover Handover initiated Allocate new BSS trunk

5 Receive handover notification 6 Setup new inter-SM path 7

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 2


8 9 The receiving WSM then informs the passing WSM that is has been selected to receive the handover. This is the rst indication to the passing WSM regarding the identity of the receiving WSM. The passing WSM then transfers a copy of VLR and signaling connection information to the receiving WSM. A couple examples of VLR and connection information include: the current encryption key, Kc, the mobile station directory number (MSISDN), and VLR WSM number associated with the mobile station. The receiving WSM sends a handover request message to the candidate BSS. Included in this message is the encryption key, Kc, the candidate cell identier, and terrestrial circuit identity code (trunk number). The diagram on the following page suggests that the receiving WSM sends the message directly to the new BSS. Actually, this message is sent to the new BSS via the WGSM. Since the handover required message is the rst message to the new BSS for the mobile station, the WGSM will initiate the establishment of a Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) connection (i.e, a virtual channel). Associated with the SCCP connection will be two WSMs: the VLR WSM and the receiving WSM. The new BSS, upon receiving the handover required message, will determine which Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is associated with the candidate cell identier, reserve a radio trafc channel, pass the encryption key value to the BTS, and connect the reserved radio to the MSC terrestrial circuit (trunk). Assuming a radio trafc channel is available, the new BSS sends a handover request acknowledge message with the reserved radio trafc channel number back to the MSC. The receiving WSM forwards the handover request acknowledgment message to the passing WSM. At this point in time, the passing WSM now knows that all the necessary resources have been reserved/established to support a handover. Before executing the handover, the passing WSM transfers a copy of the call record (dynamic data pertaining to the call) to the receiving WSM. Included in this data, for example, is billing related information and the call processing state of the call. Any call processing related messages sent to the passing WSM, associated with the mobile station, from now on will be queued and shipped to the receiving WSM after the handover has completed. The receiving WSM acknowledges the receipt of the call record data. The passing WSM informs the VLR WSM that the handover interval has started, signifying that there will be a short open interval where messages cannot be reliably exchanged between the MSC and mobile station. The VLR WSM will queue any supplementary service and/or short messages associated with the mobile station until the handover has completed.

10

11

12 13

14 15

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 2

VLR WSM

Passing WSM

Receiving WSM

New BSS

New trunk WSM & BSS trunk selected 8

Transfer copy of VLR record 9

Handover request 10 Handover request acknowledge 11 Handover request acknowledge 12 Transfer call record Transfer acknowledge 14 15 Handover started

13

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 3


16 17 The passing WSM instructs the serving BSS to send a handover command to the mobile station. Included in this message is the new radio trafc channel that was reserved on the new BSS. The serving BSS transmits to the mobile station a handover command with the new radio trafc channel number. Since the number of bytes associated with the handover command is rather large, the BSS steals voice time slots (discarding them) and inserts the handover command in the stolen slots. The rational, supposedly, behind this approach has to do with the notion that the logical out-of-band signaling channel associated with the voice channel has too low of bandwidth. This is the last message the serving base station sends to the mobile station. The mobile station retunes to the new designated radio trafc channel and begins transmitting access burst messages (mini packets with a lot of guard band) to the new BSS. The new BSS, upon detecting that the mobile station is attempting to gain access to the new BSS, sends a handover detected message to the MSC. This message is a useful stimulus to the MSC to switch the voice path from the old and new BSS. This message and the next message occur in parallel. While the BSS is sending the handover detected message to the MSC, the receiving Base Transceiver Station (BTS), has the responsibility to work with the mobile station to align the mobiles transmission precisely within its assigned time slot. The BTS accomplishes this by measuring the mobile station transmission propagation delay (the time between when the access burst arrived relative to when the BTS expected the access burst to arrive in the mobile stations timeslot), and then sending physical channel information to the mobile station asking it to advance its transmission by x bits. Note: There are 8 timeslots per radio frequency. It is necessary to adjust when mobile stations begin their transmission to prevent two mobile stations on adjacent timeslot from interfering with each other. The receiving WSM upon receiving the handover detected message, quickly sends a request to the pivot SM instructing it to switch the voice path to the receiving WSM. Once the mobile station has correctly aligned it transmission within its designated timeslot, it sends a handover complete message to its new serving BSS. The new BSS informs the MSC that the mobile station has successfully performed the handover. The pivot SM upon switching the voice paths, sends an acknowledgment back to the receiving WSM.

18 19

20

21 22 23 24

Note: it is not known what the exact timing relationship will be between messages 16 through 22, since there are two activities occurring in parallel. The two most time critical events involve: getting the mobile station to advance its transmission to t precisely in its designated timeslot, and getting the handover detected stimulus to the pivot SM as soon as possible to cause the voice path to be switched to the new BSS. It is required, from the GSM specications, that the open voice interval not exceed 150 milliseconds.

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 3

Um

MS

Old BSS

Passing WSM

Pivot SM

Receiving WSM

New BSS

16 Handover command Handover access 18

Handover command

17

Handover detected 19 Physical channel information 20 21 Handover complete 22 Handover complete Switch path complete 24 Switch paths

23

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 4


25 Once the receiving WSM receives the handover complete message from the BSS and the switch path complete indication from the pivot SM, the receiving WSM informs the passing WSM that the handover has been completed. The passing WSM lets the VLR WSM know that the handover has completed. The VLR WSM uses this information to begin sending any supplementary service or short messages to the receiving WSM. The VLR WSM sends a message to the WGSM requesting that the SCCP connection to the old BSS be terminated. The WGSM in turn sends a clear command to the old BSS. The old BSS upon receiving a clear command releases the radio trafc channel (making it available for another mobile station), disconnects the radio from the terrestrial facility (trunk) to the MSC, and terminates the SCCP connection that was associated with the mobile station. In parallel with message 24, the passing WSM begins transferring messages (if any) to the receiving WSM that was received and queued since the time when the call record was transferred from the passing to the receiving WSM (message 11). Examples of messages that could be queued include off-hook and on-hook indications. It is possible that the mobile user has just started a call whereby the destination party has not picked up yet (still alerting). While the mobile user is driving around listening to ringing tone, it is possible for a handover to be performed. It is also possible (although statistically unlikely, but still possible) for the destination party to go off-hook while the mobile station is being handed off. If this was to occur, and if the off-hook indication was delivered to the passing WSM, it would be queued. All messages received from the passing WSM are acknowledged. The passing WSM informs the pivot SM that the old inter-SM voice path (Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) path) is no longer needed by setting the "E signaling bit" (busy/idle bit) to idle in the inter-SM timeslot. The pivot SM, upon detecting the "E-bit discontinuity" situation, release all resources associated with the old path. The Communication Module (CM) is not informed that the path is no longer needed, so the CM will continue to switch timeslots from the passing WSM to the receiving WSM (which is harmless). Periodically (around 5 to 10 seconds) each SM sends a copy of their network timeslot busy/idle map to the AM. The next copy of the map, from either the passing or receiving WSM, to the AM will result in the AM placing the inter-SM network timeslot back on the free list. The passing WSM informs the Administrative Module (AM) that the trunk between the passing WSM and the old BSS and the old inter-SM path can be freed.

26 27 28

29

30 31

32

Congratulations, you have made it through an intra-MSC handover scenario as implemented on the International 5ESS! As you can tell, a handover is not a trivial procedure when the MSC hardware and software is highly distributed. To some people, this scenario may seem quite detailed. For folks who must design/maintain handover software in the 5ESS, this scenario barely touches all the detailed steps necessary to perform a handover. The next level of detail is beyond the scope of this course.

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INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Part 4

Old BSS

VLR WSM

Passing WSM

Receiving WSM

Pivot SM

AM

25 Handover complete Release old radio channel 27 Radio channel released 28

Handover complete

26

Transfer queued messages (if any) 29 Transfer acknowledge 30 Release old path 31 Release old BSS trunk

32

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4 STEPS TO INTER-MSC HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

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4 STEPS TO INTER-MSC HANDOVER SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

STEP 1:

HANDOVER REQUEST (from BSS)


Path through CM

MSC A
SM 3 SM 4 TSI TSI WSM 5

MSC B

SM 1 TSI

WSM 2 TSI

TSI

Trunk WSM

PSTN

BSS 1

BSS 2

STEP 2:

ALLOCATION OF NEW RESOURCES


MSC A MSC B
Path through CM

SM 1 TSI

WSM 2

SM 3 TSI

SM 4 TSI

WSM 5 TSI

Controlling WSM

Inter-MSC Voice Facilities

PSTN

BSS 1

BSS 2

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4 STEPS TO INTER-MSC HANDOVER - continue SWITCHING VOICE PATHS

STEP 3:

HANDOVER EXECUTION
MSC A MSC B
Path through CM

SM 1 TSI

WSM 2

SM 3 TSI

SM 4 TSI

WSM 5 TSI

Inter-MSC Voice Facilities

PSTN

BSS 1

BSS 2

STEP 4:

RELEASE OF OLD RESOURCES


MSC A MSC B
SM 4 TSI TSI WSM 5 TSI

SM 1 TSI

WSM 2

SM 3

Controlling WSM

PSTN

BSS 1

BSS 2

Version 1.0.0
May 1, 1992 -- 17:57:12 [corel803.eps] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-133

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Required , New BSS Trunk Assignment

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:45:53 [hoter.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-134

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Radio Channel Assignment, Call Connection

Call Controlling MSC

Target MSC

MS

Old BSS

Call MAP Connection Controlling WSM WSM

AM

New WSM

New BSS

. . . . Signal Strength . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Handover Required

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Perform Handover

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Handover Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 13, 1992 -- 17:20:55 [hoter.1] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-135

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER ISUP Trunk Setup, Radio Channel Assignment

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:46:30 [hoter.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-136

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER ISUP Trunk Setup, Radio Channel Assignment

Call Controlling MSC

Target MSC

Call Controlling WSM

AM

ISUP SM

ISUP MAP

ISUP SM

Connection WSM

AM

New WSM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Allocate ISUP Trunk

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Set Inter-MSC. . . . . . . . . . . Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . IAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assign . . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . Number . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Path . . . . Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allocate . . . . . . . . . . . . Network TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . Notication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setup Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 13, 1992 -- 17:22:26 [hoter.2] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-137

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Command, Mobile Retune

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:46:33 [hoter.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-138

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Command, Mobile Retune

Call Controlling MSC

Target MSC

MS

VLR WSM

Call Controlling WSM

ISUP SM

ISUP

ISUP SM

New WSM

New BSS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Target MSC . . . . . . . . . . Ready . . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . Started . . . . . . . . . . . . Command . . . . . Handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wait for . . . . . . . Pre-determined Time . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . Perform . . . . . Path . Joining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACM

ANM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Answer

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS . . . . is . . . . Here . . . . . . . . Handover . . . . Detected . . . . . . . Handover . . . . Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 13, 1992 -- 17:24:18 [hoter.3] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-139

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover End, Old BSS Trunk Release

Version 1.0.0
May 11, 1992 -- 07:46:38 [hoter.4] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-140

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover End, Old BSS Trunk Release

Call Controlling MSC

Target MSC

Old BSS

VLR WSM

AM

Call Controlling WSM

MAP

Connection WSM

New WSM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio Channel . . . . . . . . Released . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handover End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Release . . . . . BSS Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Send End Signal

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Send End Signal

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Version 1.0.0
May 13, 1992 -- 17:25:40 [hoter.4] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-141

5ESS MSC

5ESS TERMINOLOGY CLARIFICATION

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:10:02 [unit05.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-142

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5ESS MSC

5ESS TERMINOLOGY CLARIFICATION VLR WSM and VLR SM Passing WSM and Passing SM Receiving WSM and Receiving SM Trunk WSM and Trunk SM Pivot WSM and Pivot SM

Version 1.0.0
December 6, 1991 -- 17:42:22 [djw.682] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

5-143

5ESS MSC

Version 1.0.0
December 6, 1991 -- 17:42:22 [djw.682] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

5-144

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Unit 7

Overview of Japan Cellular

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:12:37 [unit07.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

UNIT OVERVIEW

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 12:59:10 [jjm.701] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-2

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

UNIT OVERVIEW

Japan Cellular Telephone Company Overview

Japan Telecommunication Standards Overview

IDO Project Overview

Japan Cellular Network Scenarios

Version 1.0.0
April 14, 1992 -- 15:36:57 [jjm.701] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-3

Overview of Japan Cellular

Version 1.0.0
April 14, 1992 -- 15:36:57 [jjm.701] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-4

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular John J. Mac Namara

Version 1.0.0
April 27, 1993 -- 16:12:37 [unit07.x] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-5

Overview of Japan Cellular

WHAT ARE THE JAPAN CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the separate Frequency Bands issued for Cellular use?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 11:18:00 [jjm.702] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-6

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANS CELLULAR NETWORKS


1 . 800 MHz Band Analog - Cellular Telephone Companies Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) 8 New Common Carriers (NCCs)

i.e., IDO, KCT, etc...


2 . 800 MHz Band Digital - Cellular Telephone Companies Same as 800 MHz Analog 3 . 1.5 GHz Band Digital "PCN" - Cellular Telephone Companies Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) Tokyo Digital Phone (TDP) Tu-Ka 4 . 1.9 GHz Band Digital "Personal Handy Phone (PHP)" - Cellular Telephone Companies Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT) Other Companies Considering....

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:44:07 [jjm.702.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-7

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Companies?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 12:59:20 [jjm.703] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-8

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

800 MHz BAND ANALOG CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANY OVERVIEW


Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT)
Began service 1974, Expanded 1979 Nationwide Service

8 New Common Carriers (NCCs) - Competition against NTT in


1985 1 . Nippon Ido Tsushin (IDO) Began service May, 1989 Serving Tokyo Metropolitan Area Teleway Japan Corp Long-distance company 2 . Kansai Cellular Telephone (KCT) Began service July, 1989 Serving Kansai District Dai Ni Deden (DDI) Long-distance company 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Hokkaido Cellular Telephone Co. Tohoku Cellular Telephone Co. Hokuriku Cellular Telephone Co. Chugoku Cellular Telephone Co. Shikoku Cellular Telephone Co. Kyushu Cellular Telephone Co.

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:44:54 [jjm.703.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-9

Overview of Japan Cellular

WHAT ARE THE JAPAN CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Companies?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:07 [jjm.704] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-10

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

800 MHz BAND ANALOG CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANY MAP


NTT is operating nationwide. The Kanto and Chubu regions are served by IDO, and other areas by the eight companies of the Cellular Group.

Hokkaido Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd.

Tohoku Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd. Hokurika Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd. Kansai Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd.

Chugoku Cellular Telephone Cto., Ltd. Nippon Ido Tsushin Corp.

Shikoku Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd. Okinawa Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd. (Scheduled to begin operation in spring 1992)

Kyushu Cellular Telephone Co., Ltd.

Version 1.0.0
April 6, 1992 -- 18:35:06 [jjm.704] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-11

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Terminal Unit Charges?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:09 [jjm.705] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-12

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

TERMINAL UNIT CHARGES 800 MHz Band Analog


_____________________________________________________ IDO Cellular Category NTT ____________________________________________________ Group _ Product Name Mova-P Minimo HP-211 _____________________________________________________ Weight (g) 220 _____________________________________________________ 338 245 ____________________________________________________ 93,700 76,800 _Price of Unit (Y) 79,800 ____________________________________________________ 100,000 (2 yrs) - -_Deposit (Y) Monthly Fee (Y) 17,000 15,000 15,000 _____________________________________________________ Call Charge (Y) 277 240 260 ____________________________________________________ _3 minutes

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:46:11 [jjm.705.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-13

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 800 MHz Band Digital Cellular Telephone Companies?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:11 [jjm.706] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-14

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

800 MHZ BAND DIGITAL CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANIES


Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT)
To Began service March 1993 Nationwide Service

8 New Common Carriers (NCCs) - Competition against NTT

Nippon Ido Tsushin (IDO) To Began service September, 1993 Serving Tokyo Metropolitan Area Teleway Japan Corp Long-distance company Kansai Cellular Telephone (KCT) Began service January, 1994 (??) Serving Kansai District Dai Ni Deden (DDI) Long-distance company 6 Other NCCs serving the remaining country

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:47:59 [jjm.706.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-15

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 1.6 GHz Band Digital PCN Cellular Telephone Companies?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:14 [jjm.707] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-16

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

1.5 GHZ BAND DIGITAL PCN CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANIES


Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT)
Scheduled to Began service mid-1994 Nationwide Service

Tu-Ka Cellular Tokyo Inc.


Scheduled to begin service mid-1994 Nationwide Service Nissan Motor, Dai Ni Deden (DDI) & Foreign investment

Tokyo Digital Phone


Scheduled to begin service mid-1994 Nationwide service Japan Telecom Co Long-distance & Foreign investment

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:48:23 [jjm.707.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-17

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs CELLULAR NETWORKS? What are the 1.9 GHz Band Digital PHPs Cellular Telephone Companies?

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:19 [jjm.708] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-18

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

1.9 GHZ BAND DIGITAL PHPs CELLULAR TELEPHONE COMPANIES


Nippon Telegraph & Telephone (NTT)
Scheduled to Began service mid-1994 Selective Service

Others ???

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:48:33 [jjm.708.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-19

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:21 [jjm.709] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-20

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANS TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS

Japan Digital Cellular Standards


Research & Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR) Specication Digital Mobile Network Inter-node (DMNI) Specication

Other Standards - Japans SS7 based on CCITT


Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) C7 Specications

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:48:53 [jjm.709.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-21

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANs TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:24 [jjm.710] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-22

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPANS TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDS

Japan Standards

TTC TTC TTC JTJTJTQ.701 Q.702 Q.703

......

DMNI 3.1

RCR STD27a

Japans SS7 Standards

Japans Digital Cellular Standards

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:14:25 [jjm.710] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-23

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:26 [jjm.711] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-24

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW


Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) C7
Specications A subset of the CCITT (C7) Blue Book messages are used Some additional charging messages are dened TTC standards use JT-Q convention, For example: JT-Q701 Functional Description of the MTP of SS No. 7 JT-Q702 MTP Signaling Data Link JT-Q703 MTP Signaling Link JT-Q704 MTP Signaling Network Functions & Messages JT-Q707 MTP Test and Maintenance JT-Q761 Functional Description of the ISDN User Part of Signaling System No. 7 JT-Q762 General Function of Messages and Signals JT-Q763 Format and Code JT-Q764 Signaling Procedures

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:49:35 [jjm.711.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-25

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW Diagram

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:28 [jjm.712] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-26

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN TTC OVERVIEW DIAGRAM

GLR HLR ................... GMSC . . .. ....... .. . .. .. ...... ......... ....... ........ . . ... ..... .. ..... ......... ..... ..... ......... ...... .. ..... . ..... .. ...... ... . ..... .. .......... ...... ... ..... . .. ........ . ..... . ..... .. . ........... . .... ..... . . ..... . .... ........ .. . ..... ....... .......... .. ... .... ..... ....... . .. .. ....... ..... ..... ... TTC ........................ .. VMSC ................... .. VMSC VMSC PLMN, PSTN

ISUP

.......

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

MS

................. (TTC SS7 ISUP & MTP)


Voice Trunks

Signaling Links

Version 1.0.0
May 26, 1992 -- 13:51:44 [jjm.712] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-27

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:31 [jjm.713] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-28

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW


Research & development Center for Radio systems (RCR)
RCR denes the Air Interface (Layers 1,2,3) between the MS and Network (Similar to GSM section 4.08) RCR Layer 3 covers Call Control (CC), Mobility Management (MM), and Radio frequency Transmission management (RT) (GSMs RR). RCR sequencing of messages are slightly different Some RCR message parameters are different IMSI Attach/Detach is not used No TMSI used MS location area information is in HLR (No VLR) MS is authenticated using NTT FEAL Algorithm (similar to GSM) RCR doesnt dene BSSMAP (GSM section 8.08), MSC & BSC vendors must agree on a proprietary protocol (IDOs Similar to GSM 8.08) RCR doesnt dene Abis interface (BSC<-->BTS) RCR denes 3 channel TDMA (GSM is 8 Channel TDMA) RCR Layer 2 is LAPDm

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 19:50:20 [jjm.713.text] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-29

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW Diagram

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:33 [jjm.714] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-30

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN RCR OVERVIEW DIAGRAM

PLMN, PSTN

GLR

GMSC

HLR

RCR
CC & MM Only

.. . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .
BSS

VMSC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .
BSS

.VMSC . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .
BSS BSS BSS

.. .VMSC.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .
BSS BSS

......

. .

BSS

BSS

RCR

. . . ...... .. . .. .

................

Signalling Links Voice

MS

Version 1.0.0
May 26, 1992 -- 13:59:34 [jjm.714] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-31

Overview of Japan Cellular

MSC<->BSS<->MS Protocol Model

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:38 [jjm.715] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-32

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

MSC<->BSS<->MS PROTOCOL MODEL

A VMSC

BSS BSC

A-bis BTS

(Air) Um MS

BSSMAP & SS7

Layers 1 & 2 & Layer 3 Radio Resource (RR)

Layer 3 Call Control (CC) & Mobility Management (MM)

RCR only species Layer 1, 2, & 3 of Air Interface (CC, MM, RT) GSM species BSSMAP, SS7, A-bis, & Layers 1, 2, & 3 of Air Interface (CC, MM, RR)

Version 1.0.0
May 18, 1992 -- 20:11:19 [jjm.715] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

The Japan Digital Cellular System

7-33

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW

Version 1.0.0
April 7, 1992 -- 13:26:41 [jjm.716] AT&T Proprietary Use pursuant to Company Instructions

7-34

The Japan Digital Cellular System

Overview of Japan Cellular

JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW


Digital Mobile Network Inter-node (DMNI) Specication
DMNI denes Mobile Application Part (MAP) and ISDN User Part (ISUP) for mobile communication purposes (GSM MAP Section 9.02) DMNI MAP has the same protocol stack and interface to TCAP VLRs are not used in the DMNI DMNI HLRs are accesse more frequently and contain dynamic data (i.e. Busy/Idle status - LM Control) DMNI uses Gateway visitor Location Registers (GLR) GLRs contain HLR data for visiting subscribers from other networks Supplementary Services only work in Home networks (not for roaming) Anchor-MSCs (A-MSC) and Float-MSCs (F-MSC) to handle multi-MSC LAs and handoffs between MSCs SCCP/MTP use 16 bit codes vs 14 bit for GSM DMNI adds data (IEs) to the ISUP IAM message to handle connections between MSCs No EIR

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JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Diagram DMNI Signaling

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JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW DIAGRAM DMNI Signaling

......... GLR ............. ....... . ... ..... . . . . ............. .... .... .. .. .............. . ... . .................................................. HLR ... Other ...................... .. . .. . . PLMN ....... . . .. . ... .................... ........... ... ...... Entities ... .. . ... ... . . ... . .. ................. .. ....... . .. ... . .. ....... . .. ... GMSC ......... . .... .. ..... .. ..... . . ...... .. ..... ..... .. . . . .... ..... . . ...... . . . .. .... ... . .. . ... ................. . . . . .... . . .... . .... ... . . .. .. . ... ........ . ... . . .... ... . . ...... . .. .... .... . .. . . . . .. ........ . . ..... .. .. . .. ... . .. . .. .. ........ ............. . . .. .... . .. . .. . ..... . . . . ....................... ............................... .
VMSC VMSC VMSC

.......

. .

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

...............

SS7 Signaling Links (MAP & ISUP) Voice Trunks

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JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Diagram Area Denitions

MSC - Mobile-services Switching Center VMSC - Visitor Mobile-services Switching Center GMSC - Gateway Mobile-services Switching Center HLR - Home Location Register GLR - Gateway visitor Location Register GS - Gateway Switch BSS - Base Station System BTS - Base Transceiver System MS - Mobile Station CA - mobile-services switching center Control Area LA - Location Area SA - Service Area OSPS - Operator Service Position System 5ESS - No. 5 Electronic Switching System AM - Administrative Module CM - Communication Module SM - Switch Module WSM - Wireless Switch Module RSM - Remote Switch Module WRSM - Wireless Remote Switch Module OMC - Operation Maintenance Center MAP - Mobile Applications Part ISUP - ISDN User Part PSTN - Public Switch Telephone Network

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JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW DIAGRAM Area Denitions

GLR HLR PLMN, PSTN GMSC

VMSC

VMSC

VMSC

.......

. .

BSS

BSS CA

BSS LA

BSS

BSS CA

BSS

BSS

BSS CA & LA

BSS

SA CA - Control Area (Area Controlled by MSC) LA - Location Area (May cover multpile CAs) VMSC <-> PSTN Direct Connect for Outgoing Only HLRs/GLRs - Integrated and Distributed among MSCs GMSC - Gateway Switch, Point of Interconnect for all Incoming Trafc SA - Service Area (IDOs Digital Network Serving Area)

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JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW Diagram GLOSSARY

MSC - Mobile-services Switching Center VMSC - Visitor Mobile-services Switching Center GMSC - Gateway Mobile-services Switching Center HLR - Home Location Register GLR - Gateway visitor Location Register GS - Gateway Switch BSS - Base Station System BTS - Base Transceiver System MS - Mobile Station CA - mobile-services switching center Control Area LA - Location Area SA - Service Area OSPS - Operator Service Position System 5ESS - No. 5 Electronic Switching System AM - Administrative Module CM - Communication Module SM - Switch Module WSM - Wireless Switch Module RSM - Remote Switch Module WRSM - Wireless Remote Switch Module OMC - Operation Maintenance Center MAP - Mobile Applications Part ISUP - ISDN User Part PSTN - Public Switch Telephone Network

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JAPAN DMNI OVERVIEW DIAGRAM DMNI NETWORK MODEL

......... GLR ............. ....... . ... ..... . . . . ............. .... .... .. .. .............. . ... . .................................................. HLR ... ........................ .. .... ... . ... . .. .. . PLMN, ..... . . . ... . PSTN ... .... ................. .. .............. .. . . ... ...... .. ..... .. . ... .... .. .. . ... . .. . . .. . ... .. . . . ... ............ .. GMSC . . .... ...... . ...... .. ........ ....... .. .. . . . . . . ...... .... ... . . ... . .. . ... ................. . .... ... .... . . .. ..... . .... . . . .. .. .... ... . ..... ... .. . . . . ...... . .. . .. .... ..... ... .. . . . . . ........ . . ..... .. . .. . ... .... . . . . . ........ ............. . . . ..... ... . . ..... . . . . ....................... ............................... .
VMSC VMSC VMSC

.......

. .

BSS

BSS CA

BSS LA

BSS

BSS CA

BSS

BSS

BSS CA & LA

BSS

SA CA - Control Area (Area Controlled by MSC) LA - Location Area (May cover multpile CAs) VMSC <-> PSTN Direct Connect for Outgoing Only HLRs/GLRs - Integrated and Distributed among MSCs GMSC - Gateway Switch, Point of Interconnect for all Incoming Trafc SA - Service Area (IDOs Digital Network Serving Area)

...............

SS7 Signaling Links (MAP & ISUP) Voice Trunks

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JAPAN to GSM Model Comparison Diagram

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JAPAN to GSM MODEL COMPARISON DIAGRAM

Other Networks AUC

D GLR HLR EIR B J HLR

C TTC ISUP MSC E TTC ISUP PSTN BSS BSC H

VLR

ISDN

MSC

BTS

MSC

Air

MS

RCR species Air Interface DMNI species B,C,D,E,H,J

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JAPAN Network Parameters

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JAPAN NETWORK PARAMETERS



MSN = Mobile Subscriber Number (DN) Mobile Station Identier (MSI) - Mobile Unit Number RON = Roaming Number (DN) for visiting MSs (GLR allocates) RMI = Roaming Number Unit Number for visiting MSs (GLR allocates) PRN = Routing Number - Identies the MSC LI = Location Information FLI = Floating Location Number

JAPAN vs GSM Comparison _ ______________________________________ Japan Term GSM Term _ ______________________________________ MS ISDN MSN _ ______________________________________ _ ______________________________________ IMSI MSI MSRN _RON ______________________________________ Roamers IMSI RMI _ ______________________________________ _PRN ______________________________________ MSC Routing Number _LI ______________________________________ LAI FLI LI Changed during Call _ ______________________________________

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IDO Overview

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IDO Overview

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IDO OVERVIEW
800 MHz Band Analog Network
Vendors: NEC, Motorola

800 MHz Band Digital Network


Vendors: NEC, AT&T, Fujitsu Working Group Meetings with vendors (in Japanese) KO (Technical) WG meeting - Weekly, 30 to 60 submissions each week HN (Maintenance) WG meetings - Monthly (sometimes Bi-weekly) SN (System) WG Meeting - Monthly Kiba Software Center in Tokyo, Japan MSCs & BSSs Interface Testing Verifying Vendors Progress to IDO

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IDOs Network Architecture

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IDOs NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

....................................................... ............ ............... PLMN, .. .GMSC GMSC ....... PSTN ...... ...... . . ...... .. STP . . ..... ..... .. .... ..... .... . .. ..... ... ..... .. ... . ..... .. .... ..... ... . ... . .. ... VMSC .. VMSC VMSC .. with HLR with HLR with HLR
& GLR & GLR & GLR

......

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

BSS

IDOs Vendors: VMSCs (with HLR & GLR) - NEC, AT&T, & Fujitsu BSSs - NEC & Fujitsu (AT&T - Linear Amps.) GMSCs - NEC STP - NEC

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IDOs 5ESS Architecture

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IDOs 5ESS ARCHITECTURE

5ESS MSC
Billing Center

......................BX.25............................ .......
AM

OMC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireless . . . Global SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................... . . . . . . . . . . . .C7 BSC Maint. C7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .


BSC

CM

Wireless SM HLR,GLR

....

Wireless SM HLR,GLR

....

......
BTS

BTS

......
RCR Air Interface

.. .. . . . .... ...... . . . . . . ... ... . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ISUP .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. .. . . .. PSTN & .... ...... Other Networks .. .... ISUP.. .. ...MAP GS, MSCs

Wireless SM HLR,GLR

PSTN Global SM

& Other Mobile Networks

.........

Voice Trunks Signaling Links

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IDOs 5ESS Supplementary Services

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IDOs SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES

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IDO Documentation Status

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IDO DOCUMENTATION STATUS


_ ________________________________________________________________ DOCUMENT NAME TRANS COMMENTS STATUS _ ________________________________________________________________ RCR Standard Cmpltd IDO Air Interface RCR-STD 27a DRAFT _ ________________________________________________________________ RCR Standard Inprog IDO Air Interface RCR-STD 27a _ ________________________________________________________________ FINAL - 1/30/92 DMNI Standard Cmpltd Intra & Inter-Network Info Version 3.1 MAP & ISUP _ ________________________________________________________________ IDO Background Cmpltd IDO Mobile Telephone System _ ________________________________________________________________ Info (#081291) Description - General NS-0201 (#284) Cmpltd IDO System & Network IDO System Spec Description _ ________________________________________________________________ NS-0202 (#305) Cmpltd IDO Suppl. Service Desc. _ ________________________________________________________________ IDO Service Spec NS-0203 (#243) Cmpltd IDO Maintenance Information IDO Maint Control Spec _ ________________________________________________________________ IDO WG Summary Cmpltd Summarizes IDO WG Decisions Kou 17-26 List Relevant WG Kou Documents (#422) _ ________________________________________________________________ Kou 20-37 Cmpltd IDO Gateway Specication _ ________________________________________________________________ JT-Q.763 (#183) Cmpltd TTC ISUP Standards JT-Q.703 JT-Q.704 (#168) JT-Q.707 (#387) JT-Q.730 (#384) JT-Q.762 (#385) JT-Q.764 (#383) _JT-Q.766 (#386) ________________________________________________________________ NTT MTP Book Cmpltd NTTs MTP Signaling Info. (#306) _ ________________________________________________________________ JDC A-Inter Spec Cmpltd BSSMAP (MSC<->BSS) Draft _ ________________________________________________________________ from NEC, Version 0.3

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Japan Cellular Network Call Scenarios

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Location Registration Home Subscriber

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LOCATION REGISTRATION HOME SUBSCRIBER

HLR

2.

3.

4.

V-MSC

1.

5.

MS

1. MS Sends LU Request (MSI) 2. V-MSC Requests Authentication data from HLR 3. HLR sends Auth. Data to V-MSC for processing 4. V-MSC sends PRN & LI to HLR for registration 5. V-MSC send LU Accept to MS

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Location Registration Visiting Subscriber

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LOCATION REGISTRATION VISITING SUBSCRIBER

3. HLR 6. 7. GLR

2. 4.

5.

8.

V-MSC

1.

8.

Network 2

Network 1 MS

1. MS Sends LU Request (MSI) 2. V-MSC Requests Authentication data from GLR 3. GLR request/obtains Auth. Data from HLR 4. GLR sends Auth. Data to V-MSC for processing 5. V-MSC sends PRN & LI to GLR for registration 6. GLR allocates the RON and sends to HLR 7. HLR records RON & sends MS data to GLR 8. GLR copies MS data and sends LU Accept to MS thru V-MSC (MSI is used by MS for LU, Orig, & Term)

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Call Termination Home Subscriber

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CALL TERMINATION - Home MS

HLR

2. PLMN, PSTN 1. G-MSC 4. V-MSC (F-MSC) 6. 5. V-MSC (A-MSC) 6.

3.

8. 5. 8. V-MSC (F-MSC) 6.

7.

LA

MS

1. PSTN/PLMN sends IAM message with MSN to G-MSC 2. G-MSC accesses HLR using MSN as key 3. G-MSC obtains PRN & LI and routes to V-MSC 4. G-MSC sends IAM message to V-MSC which becomes A-MSC 5. A-MSC sends General page to all V-MSCs in LA 6. All V-MSCs page MS using MSI 7. MS responds with Page Response 8. This V-MSC becomes F-MSC & a connection is made from G-MSC <-> A-MSC <-> F-MSC

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Call Termination Visitor

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CALL TERMINATION - Visitor

HLR

GLR

2.

3.

5.

6.

PLMN, PSTN

1.

G-MSC

4.

G-MSC

6.

V-MSC

7.

8.

Network (NW) 2

Network (NW) 1 MS

1. PSTN/PLMN sends IAM message with MSN to G-MSC of NW 2 2. G-MSC accesses HLR using MSN 3. G-MSC obtains RON from HLR 4. G-MSC sends IAM message with RON to G-MSC of NW 1 5. G-MSC accesses GLR using RON 6. G-MSC obtains PRN & LI from GLR and routes to V-MSC 7. V-MSC pages MS using RMI 8. MS responds with Page Response

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Appendix 1

Index to GSM Specication Document

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Index to GSM Specication Document

___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ SPEC VERSION TITLE NUMBER NUMBER __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 01.02 3.0.0 General Description of a GSM PLMN 01.04 Vocabulary in a GSM PLMN 3.0.1 01.06 Service Implementation Phases and Possible Further Evolution 3.0.2 Phases in the GSM PLMN __________________________________________________________________________________ 02.01 3.2.0 Principles of Telecommunication Services Supported by a GSM PLMN Bearer Services Supported by a GSM PLMN 3.2.0 02.02 3.4.0 02.03 Teleservices Supported by a GSM PLMN 02.04 3.7.1 General on Supplementary Services 02.05 Simultaneous and Alternate Use of Services 3.0.2 02.06 Types of Mobile Stations 3.2.0 02.06 DCS Types of Mobile Stations 3.0.0 3.4.1 02.07 Mobile Station Features 02.08 3.0.0 Quality of Service 02.09 Security Aspects 3.0.1 Provision of Telecommunication Services 02.10 3.0.1 3.6.0 02.11 Service Accessibility 02.11 DCS Service Accessibility 3.1.0 02.12 Licensing 3.0.1 02.13 Subscription to the Services of a GSM PLMN 3.1.0 Service Directory 3.0.1 02.14 3.0.1 02.15 Circulation of Mobile Stations 02.16 3.0.1 International Mobile Station Equipment Identities 02.17 Subscriber Identity Modules (SIM)- Functional Characteristics 3.2.0 Collection Charges 02.20 3.0.1 3.3.0 02.21 Transferred Account Procedure and Billing Information 02.24 3.0.0 Description of Advice of Charge 02.30 Man-Machine Interface (MMI) of the Mobile Station 3.9.0 02.40 Procedures for Call Progress Indications 3.2.0 Number Identication Supplementary Services 4.0.1 02.81 3.6.1 02.82 Call Offering Supplementary Services 02.83 3.0.0 Call Completion Supplementary Services 02.84 Multi Party Supplementary Services 4.3.0 Community of Interest Supplementary Services 3.0.0 02.85 3.0.0 02.86 Charging Supplementary Services 02.87 3.0.0 Additional Information Transfer Supplementary Service _________________________________________________________________________________ Call Restriction Supplementary Services 02.88 3.6.1 _ Network Functions 3.1.1 03.01 3.1.4 03.02 Network Architecture 03.03 3.5.0 Numbering, Addressing, and Identication 03.04 Signaling Requirements Relating to Routing of Calls to Mobile 3.1.0 Subscribers 3.2.0 03.05 Technical Performance Objectives 03.07 3.2.1 Restoration Procedures 03.08 Organization of Subscriber Data 3.7.0 03.09 Handover Procedures 3.2.1 GSM PLMN Connection Types 3.3.0 03.10 3.1.1 03.11 Technical Realization of Supplementary Services - General Aspects 03.12 Location Registration Procedures 3.3.0 03.12 DCS Location Registration Procedures 3.0.1 __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Index to GSM Specication Document

03.13 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in the GSM System 3.0.2 Support of DTMF via the GSM System 3.0.2 03.14 3.3.2 03.20 Security-related Network Functions 03.40 3.5.0 Technical Realization of the Short Message Service Point-to-point 03.41 Technical Realization of the Short Message Service 3.4.0 Cell Broadcast 3.0.0 03.42 Advanced Message Handling System (MHS) Access 03.43 3.0.1 Technical Realization of Videotex 03.44 Support of Teletex in a GSM PLMN 3.0.1 Technical Realization of FAX Group3 - Transparent 3.2.0 03.45 3.2.0 03.46 Technical Realization of Facsimile Group 3 Service Transparent 03.48 GSM SMS - Cell Broadcast 3.0.0 03.50 Transmission Planning Aspects of the Speech Service in the GSM 3.2.2 PLMN System 3.0.0 03.70 Routing of Calls to/From PDNs 03.81 2.0.0 Technical Realization of Number Identication Supp. Service 03.82 Technical Realization of Call Offering Supplementary Services 3.2.1 Technical Realization of Call Completion Supplementary Services 03.83 3.0.0 2.0.0 03.84 Technical Realization of Multi Party Supplementary Services 03.88 3.2.0 Technical Realization of Call Restriction Supplementary __________________________________________________________________________________ Services MS-BS Interface - General Aspects and Principles 3.0.1 04.01 3.0.2 04.02 GSM PLMN Access Reference Conguration 04.03 3.0.3 MS-BS Interface - Channel Structures and Access Capabilities 04.04 Layer 1 - General Requirements 3.3.4 Data Link Layer - General Aspects 3.1.5 04.05 3.9.0 04.06 MS-BSS Interface Data Link Layer Specication 04.07 3.3.3 Mobile Radio Interface Signaling Layer 3 - General Aspects 04.08 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specication 3.13.0 04.08 DCS Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Specication 3.1.0 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 - Supplementary Services 3.2.3 04.10 Specication General Aspects 04.11 3.3.0 Point-to-Point Short Message Service Support on Mobile Radio Interface Cell Broadcast Short Message Service Support on Mobile Radio 3.2.1 04.12 Interface 04.21 3.4.0 Rate Adaptation on the MS-BSS Interface 04.22 Radio Link Protocol (RLP) for Data and Telematic Services on 3.7.0 MS/BSS Interf. and BSS/MSC Interf. Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Supplementary Services 04.80 3.2.0 Specication - Formats and Coding 04.81 1.3.0 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Number Identication Supplementary Services Specication Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Call Offering Supplementary 04.82 3.1.3 Services Specication 04.83 2.1.0 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Call Completion Supplementary Services Specication 04.84 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 of Multi Party Supplementary 2.0.1 Services Specication 3.1.3 04.88 Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Call Restriction Supplementary __________________________________________________________________________________ Services Specication Physical Layer on the Radio Path - General Description 3.3.2 05.01 __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

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Appendix 1-2.2

Index to GSM Specication Document

05.01 DCS Physical Layer on the Radio Path - General Description 3.0.0 Multiplexing and Multiple Access on the Radio Path 3.6.1 05.02 3.5.1 05.03 Channel Coding 05.04 3.1.2 Modulation 05.05 Transmission and Reception 3.13.0 05.05 DCS Transmission and Reception 3.1.0 Radio Sub-system Link Control 3.7.0 05.08 3.0.0 05.08 DCS Radio Sub-system Link Control __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.5.0 05.10 Radio Sub-system Synchronization Speech Processing Function- General Description 3.0.0 06.01 3.2.0 06.10 Full Rate Speech Transcoding 06.11 3.0.1 Substitution and Muting of Lost Frames for Full Rate Speech Trafc Channels 06.12 Comfort Noise Aspects for Full Rate Speech Trafc 3.0.1 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) for Full Rate Speech Trafc 3.1.0 06.31 Channels __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.0.0 06.32 Voice Activity Detection General on Terminal Adaptation Functions for Mobile Stations 3.13.0 07.01 3.7.1 07.02 Terminal Adaptation Functions (TAF) for Services Using Asynchronous Bearer Capabilities 07.03 Terminal Adaptation Functions for Services Using Synchronous 3.4.0 Bearer Capabilities __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.0.1 08.01 General Aspects of the BSS-MSC Interface 08.02 3.3.1 BSS-MSC Interface - Interface Principles 08.04 BSS-MSC Interface - Layer 1 3.0.3 Signaling Transport Mechanisms Between BSS and MSC 08.06 3.5.2 08.08 MSC to BSS Interface - Layer 3 3.10.0 08.09 3.0.1 Network Management Signaling Support Related to the BSS 08.20 Rate Adaptation on BSS/MSC Interface 3.1.2 08.51 BSC-BTS Interface 3.0.2 BSC-BTS Interface - Interface Principles 3.0.2 08.52 3.0.1 08.54 BSC-BTS Interface - Layer 1 08.56 3.1.1 BSC-BTS Interface - Layer 2 08.58 BSC-BTS Interface - Layer 3 3.5.0 08.58 DCS BSC-BTS Interface - Layer 3 3.0.0 3.1.0 08.59 BSC-BTS Interface - O&M Signaling Transport _________________________________________________________________________________ 3.3.0 Inband Control of Remote Transcoders and Rate Adaptors _ 08.60 09.01 General Aspects of PLMN Interworking 3.0.1 Mobile Application Part (MAP) 3.8.0 09.02 3.0.0 09.02 DCS Mobile Application Part (MAP) 09.03 3.0.1 Signaling Requirements on Interworking Between the ISDN or PSTN and the PLMN Interworking Between the PLMN and the CSPDN 3.0.1 09.04 3.2.2 09.05 Interworking Between the PLMN and the PSPDN for PAD Access 09.06 3.0.0 Interworking Between a PLMN and a PSPDN/ISDN for Support of Packet Data 09.07 General Requirements on Interworking Between the PLMN and the 3.8.0 ISDN or PSTN 3.0.0 09.09 Detailed Signaling Interworking Within the PLMN and with the PSTN/ISDN 09.10 Information Element Mapping Between MS-BSS/BSS-MSC Signaling 3.0.2 Procedures and MAP 3.0.0 09.10 DCS Information Element Mapping Between MS-BSS/BSS-MSC Signaling __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

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Appendix 1-2.3

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Index to GSM Specication Document

Procedures and MAP Signaling Interworking for Supplementary Services 09.11 3.0.1 __________________________________________________________________________________ 11.01 3.0.0 Principles of Type Approval Procedure for GSM Mobile Stations 11.10 DCS DCS 1800 Mobile Station Conformity Specications 3.4.0 11.10 Mobile Station Conformity Specications 3.10.0 Specication of the Internal Logical Organization of the SIM 3.12.0 11.11 and its Interfaces 11.11 DCS Specication of the Internal Logical Organization of the SIM 3.3.0 and its Interfaces 11.20 DCS GSM DCS 1800 BSS - Equipment Specication 3.1.0 3.7.0 11.20 GSM BSS - Equipment Specication 11.30 3.2.1 Mobile Services Switching Center 11.31 Home Location Register Specication 3.2.1 11.32 Visitor Location Register Specication 3.2.1 System Simulator Specication 3.2.0 11.40 DCS (MS conformance test system) 11.40 3.6.0 System Simulator Specication (MS conformance test system) __________________________________________________________________________________ 3.0.4 12.00 Objective & Structure of Network Management 12.01 3.0.1 Common Aspects of GSM Network Management 12.02 Subscriber, Mobile Equipment, and Services Data 3.1.0 Administration Security Management 3.0.1 12.03 3.2.1 12.04 Performance Data Measurements 12.05 3.2.0 Subscriber Related Event and Call Data 12.06 GSM Network Change Control 3.0.2 Operations and Performance Management 3.0.2 12.07 3.0.1 12.10 Maintenance Provisions for Operational Integrity of MSs 12.11 3.1.1 Maintenance of the Base Station System 12.13 Maintenance of the MSC 3.0.2 12.14 Maintenance of Location Registers 3.0.2 Network Management Procedures and Messages 12.20 3.3.0 3.1.0 12.21 Network Management Procedures and Messages on the A-bis __________________________________________________________________________________ Interface ___________________________________________________________________________________

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Appendix 1-2.4

Appendix 2

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

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Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 1


In order to gain access to the databases available through LINUS, you need to have an access password registered and conrmed by the AT&T Information Services Network. To register for LINUS, call the Information Services Network Customer Support group at 908582-4840. Assuming you have a password registered on the LINUS machine, there are several different ways to access the database. Some of the following methods might not be available on your local UNIX machine. 1 . From a UNIX Machine a . linus (at the UNIX prompt) b . dk linus c . rlogin mhuxd -l linus d . rlogin mhuxd.att.com -l linus e . dkcu nj/mtdka/linus login as linus f . cu -s2400 9085821725 login as linus 2 . From DATAKIT DESTINATION Prompt a . linus b . nj/mtdka/linus login as linus 3 . Dial In a . (908) 582-1725 login as linus 4 . Internet Address 125.20.95.1

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Appendix 2-2

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 1

D E S T I N AT I O N : login: linus

nj/mtdka/linus

We l c o m e t o l i n u s ! ! terminal: Erase char is backspace, line kill is @ E n t e r y o u r I D ( i . e . PA N o r S S # ) : Enter Library Network password:

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Appendix 2-3

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 2

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Appendix 2-4

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 2

WELCOME TO LINUS!

LINUS Customer Help Desk (908) 582-4840, options 1 & 1 ************************************************************************ TYPE THIS FOR

TYPE THIS

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------db name Database you know by database name or # db #

feedback

Provide FEEDBACK about LINUS

(72)

index

INDEX searching all LINUS databases

(128)

linus

L I N U S i n f o & PA S S W O R D c h a n g e s / c a n c e l l a t i o n s

(21)

ln

Latest LINUS News

[last updated Mar 03\

(95)

menu

MENU assistance with database selection

(502)

NOTE: ===> ? l i s t - s e e D ATA B A S E l i s t ?4 - HELP with database number 4

E n t e r a n u m b e r, a n a m e , t h e i n i t i a l p a r t o f a n a m e , o r ? f o r G E N E R A L H E L P, < r e t u r n > t o r e d i s p l a y s c r e e n , q t o Q U I T :
123

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Appendix 2-5

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 3

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Appendix 2-6

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 3

G S M R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S D ATA B A S E GSM Search Helps (Use +/- keys, tab, or item name to move to an item) (Hit return to select an item)
search recommend Do general keyword searching on all text Search on the recommendation titles

index
gsm.info

Peruse the index for relevant recommendations


Read or obtain a copy of infor mation on GSM and this database

feedback
quit

Give feedback concerning this online GSM database


Quit this GSM database search session entirely

A ***CELLULAR SYSTEMS ENGINEERING*** database p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e AT & T I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s N e t w o r k

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Appendix 2-7

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 4

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Appendix 2-8

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 4

We l c o m e t o t h e * * * G S M R E C O M M E N D AT I O N S a n d W O R K I N G PA P E R S D ATA B A S E * * * Database has 684 items. Last update was Mar 12 1992 ? for HELP

Enter terms (words, numbers, locations) describing your search q to quit ==> 2.17

--------------------------------------------------------------------------A * * * C E L L U L A R S Y S T E M S E N G I N E E R I N G D E P TA R T M E N T * * * d a t a b a s e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e AT & T I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s N e t w o r k

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Appendix 2-9

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 5

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Appendix 2-10

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

REQUESTING A COPY OF GSM VIA LINUS Step 5

Set of 1 items. On item 1 of 1. Order Number: gsm-10020

Record display: Page 1 of 2

Title: Subscriber Identity Modules : functional characteristics. Source of document: ETSI/GSM/PT12 ETSI/TC/GSM Document type: Recommendation Recommendation Number(s): GSM 02.17 Release Date: March 1990 Ve r s i o n : 3 . 2 . 0 Pages: 11 p. Previous version: 3.1.1

Meeting Body(ies): Public Land Mobile Network. Subject Headings: Mobile communication systems--Access control. Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k s - - A c c e s s c o n t r o l . C u s t o m e r s e r v i c e ( Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) Notes: Changes agreed at GSM 26 are included. --------------------------------------------------------------------------. +/r Do a new search Move forward/back in display Request present item
r

p = b

Print present display Put up brief displays Browse similar items

Enter desired action:

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Appendix 2-11

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

GSM DOCUMENT COLLECTION CONTACTS


If you have a need to consult a set of the GSM recommendations or contact someone about GSM documents there are complete sets of these documents at four Bell Labs locations. All of the individuals listed within the table have made an agreement with the AT&T library network to provide this service.

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Appendix 2-12

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

GSM DOCUMENT COLLECTION CONTACTS


_ ________________________________________________ GSM Documentation Collection Contacts _ ________________________________________________ Loc. Room Name e-mail _ ________________________________________________ 1D-308C Chris Capece mhuxo!soda WH 14A-464 Uday Kapadia whserva!usk WH IHP 2F-523 Steve Raiman ihlpk!raiman IH 4J-415 Han Schiet ihlpl!jjs0 IHC 1H-418 Mary Ann Wator ihlpf!mwator _ ________________________________________________

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Appendix 2-13

Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations

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Appendix 2-14

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Appendix 3

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

ETSI/TC GSM

Title : Recommendation GSM 01.04 Vocabulary In A GSM PLMN.

Version : 3.0.1 Date : February 1991

------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. GENERAL 1.1 Scope 1.2 Introduction 2. VOCABULARY 2.1 General 2.2 Services 2.3 Networks 2.4 Stations 2.5 Access 2.6 Location and handover 2.7 Identity and Security 2.8 Administrative and commercial definitions 2.9 Operations and maintenance 2.10 Expressions related to the radiosubsystem 2.11 Miscellaneous 3. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 4. ALPHA SORTED INDEX 3-3 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-11 3-14 3-16 3-18 3-21 3-24 3-26 3-30 3-36 3-37 3-46

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Appendix 3-2

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

1. GENERAL
1.1 Scope These are the terms, denitions and abbreviations to be used throughout the GSM recommendations. The denition, or reference to a denition, in this recommendation 01.04 is valid in all recommendations where no denition is given within that recommendation. Where a denition, or a reference to a denition for the same term, is given in both this recommendation 01.04 and in another and the denitions are different, then the denition given in that recommendation takes priority in only that recommendation. 1.2 Introduction This recommendation consists primarily of those terms and denitions that are considered essential to the understanding and application of the principles of a GSM PLMN. A number of terms are followed by their usual abbreviation, in parenthesis. A listing by abbreviation is provided in chapter 3 of this recommendation. A number of terms have a GSM recommendation number indicated after the term (e.g. 03.02). This indicates that reference should be made to that recommendation for the full denitions of the term. Where both a reference and a denition is given in this recommendation, the denitions given here embrace only the essential concepts and on that basis it is considered that they are not inconsistent with the more specialized denitions that appear in those other recommendations. A number of the terms and denitions in this recommendation are identical to those found in CCITT Recommendation I.112, but they are applied to a GSM PLMN instead. The notes complementing CCITT I.112 Rec. denitions are not considered to be part of the denitions. When applicable they have been reproduced. References to these denitions are given in parenthesis, for example (110), as an aid to ensuring consistency between the two recommendations in the event of amendments. Whenever necessary GSM notes have been added regarding the application to a GSM PLMN. Any term in common usage but whose use is deprecated in the sense dened, is shown as in the following example "419 FUNCTIONAL GROUP [FUNCTIONAL GROUPING]". Where a truncated term is widely used in an understood context the complete term is quoted following the colloquial form, for example, "201 SERVICE, TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICE". Where a reference is made to the Radio Regulations the denition has been taken verbatim from that source (except where indicated) even though there may be some aspects that are not applicable to GSM. The Radio Regulations are published by the International Telecommunications Union ITU.and have the effect of an international treaty. For this reason it is deemed inadvisable to alter or truncate such references simply to ensure complete relevance to GSM.

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Appendix 3-3

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2. VOCABULARY
2.1 General 101 Telecommunication (110)

Any transmission and/or emission and reception of signals representing signs, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. 2.2 Services 201 Service, telecommunication service (201)

That which is offered by an administration or RPOA to its customers in order to satisfy a specic telecommunication requirement. 202 Radiocommunication service

A service as dened in this section involving the transmission, emission and/or reception of radio waves for specic telecommunication purposes. In these Regulations, unless otherwise stated, any radiocommunication service relates to terrestrial radiocommunication. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 20). 203 Mobile service

A radiocommunication service between mobile and land stations, or between mobile stations. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 26). 204 Land Mobile Service

A mobile service between base stations and land mobile stations, or between land mobile stations. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 28). 205 Bearer service (202)

A type of telecommunication service that provides the capability for the transmission of signals between user-network interfaces. Note: The GSM PLMN connection type used to support a bearer service may be identical to that used to support other types of telecommunication service. 206 Teleservice (203)

A type of telecommunication service that provides the complete capability, including terminal equipment functions, for communication between users according to protocols established by agreement between administrations and/or RP0As. 207 Demand service, demand telecommunication service (205)

A type of telecommunication service in which the communication path is established almost immediately, in response to a user request effected by means of user-network signalling.

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

208

Service attribute, telecommunication service attribute (208)

A specied characteristic of a telecommunication service. 209 Basic services

The telecommunication services excluding the supplementary services (in accordance with table 1/I.210). 210 Supplementary service

A modication of, or a supplement to, a basic telecommunication service. 211 Calling line identication presentation

The supplementary service which provides for the called party with the possibility to receive identication of the calling party. 212 Calling line identication restriction

A supplementary service offered to the calling party to prevent presentation of the calling partys ISDN/MSISDN number to the called party. 213 Connected line identication presentation

The supplementary service which provides the calling party with the possibility to receive the identication of the connected party 214 Connected line identication restriction

A supplementary service offered to the connected party to prevent presentation of the connected partys ISDN/MSISDN number to the calling party. 215 Malicious call identication (MCI)

The supplementary service which enables a mobile subscriber to request that the source of an incoming call is identied and registered in the network. 216 Call forwarding unconditional (CFU)

The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls, or just those associated with a specic Basic service, addressed to the called mobile subscribers directory number to another directory number. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls is unaffected. If this service is activated, calls are forwarded no matter what the condition of the termination. 217 Call forwarding mobile subscriber busy (CFB)

The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming

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Appendix 3-5

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

calls, or just those associated with a specic Basic service, addressed to the called mobile subscribers directory number and which meet mobile subscriber busy to another directory number. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls is unaffected. If this service is activated, a call is forwarded only if the call meets mobile subscriber busy. 218 Call forwarding on no reply (CFNRy)

The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls, or just those associated with a specic Basic service, addressed to the called mobile subscribers directory number and which meet no reply to another directory number. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls is unaffected. If this service is activated, a call is forwarded only if the call meets no reply. 219 Call forwarding on mobile subscriber not reachable (CFNRc)

The supplementary service which permits a called mobile subscriber to have the network send all incoming calls, or just those associated with a specic basic service, addressed to the called mobile subscribers directory number, but which cannot be reached due to radio congestion, no paging response or because the subscriber is not registered, to another directory number. 220 Call waiting (CW)

The supplementary service which offers a mobile subscriber the possibility to be notied of an incoming call whilst the termination is in the busy state. Subsequently, the subscriber can either answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call. 221 Completion of calls to busy subscribers (CCBS)

The supplementary service which allows a calling mobile subscriber, encountering a busy called destination to have the call completed when the busy destination becomes not busy,without having to make a new call attempt. 222 Closed user group (CUG)

The supplementary service which provides the possibility for a group of subscribers, connected to the PLMN and/or the ISDN, to intercommunicate only amongst themselves and, if required, one or more subscribers may be provided with incoming/outgoing access to subscribers outside this group. 223 Advice of charge (AoC)

The supplementary service which provides the possibility for a mobile user who pays for the use of telecommunications services to receive charging information related to the used telecommunication services.

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

224

Call hold (HOLD)

The supplementary service which allows a served mobile subscriber to interrupt communication on an existing call and then subsequently, if desired, re-establish communication. The trafc channel remains assigned to the mobile subscriber after the communication is interrupted to allow the origination or possible termination of other calls. The "retrieve" operation re-establishes communication on a channel. 225 Call transfer (CT)

The supplementary service which enables the served mobile subscriber to transfer an established incoming or outgoing call to a third party. This service differs from the Call Forwarding supplementary service in that Call Forwarding deals only with incoming calls that have not yet reached the "fully-established" state (i.e., have an established end-to-end connection). 226 Three party service (3PTY)

The supplementary service which enables a mobile subscriber to establish a three party conversation. A mobile subscriber who is active on a call is able to hold that call, make an additional call to a third party, switch from one call to the other as required (privacy being provided between the two calls), and/or release one call and return to the other, or join the two calls together into a three-way conversation. 227 Conference call,add on (CONF)

The supplementary service which provides a mobile subscriber with the ability to have a multi-connection call, i.e. a simultaneous communication between more than two parties. 228 Barring of all outgoing calls(BAOC)

The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls or just those associated with a specic Basic service., The ability of the served mobile subscriber to receive calls remains unaffected. The ability to set-up emergency calls remains unaffected . 229 Barring of outgoing international calls (BOIC)

The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing international calls or just those associated with a specic basic service. Call set-up possibilities only exist to subscribers of the PLMN(s) and the xed network(s) of the country where the mobile subscriber is currently located. The present PLMN may be the home PLMN or a visited PLMN respectively, the xed network may be that of the home PLMN country or that of a visited PLMN country. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to receive calls remains unaffected. The ability to set-up emergency calls remains unaffected .

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Appendix 3-7

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

230

Barring of outgoing international calls except those directed to the home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC)

The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing international calls except those directed to the home PLMN country, or just those associated with a specic basic service. Call set-up possibilities only exist to subscribers of the PLMN(s) and the xed network(s) of the country where the mobile subscriber is currently located or to subscribers of the home PLMN of the served mobile subscriber and to subscribers of the xed network(s) in the home PLMN country. The present PLMN may be the home PLMN or a visited PLMN, respectively the xed network may be that of the home PLMN country or that of a visited PLMN country. The ability of the served mobile subscriber to receive calls remains unaffected. The ability to set-up emergency calls remains unaffected. 231 Barring of all incoming calls (BAIC)

The supplementary service which makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all incoming calls or just those associated with a specic basic service The ability of the served mobile subscriber to originate calls remains unaffected. 232 Barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN country (BIC-Roam)

This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent incoming calls or just those associated with a specic basic service only if the mobile subscriber roams outside the home PLMN country. The ability for the served mobile subscriber to originate calls remains unaffected. 233 Mobile access hunting (MAH)

The supplementary service which enables incoming calls to be distributed over a group of accesses . 234 User-to-user signalling (UUS)

The supplementary service which allows a mobile subscriber to send/receive a limited amount or information to/from another PLMN or ISDN subscriber over the signalling channel in association with a call to the other subscriber. 235 Provision

An action to make a service available to a subscriber. The provision may be: general: where the service is made available to all subscribers (subject to compatibility restrictions enforced) without prior arrangements being made with the service provider. prearranged: where the service is made available to an individual subscriber only after the necessary arrangements have been made with the service provider. 236 Withdrawal

An action taken by the service provider to remove an available service from a subscribers access. The withdrawal may be:

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Appendix 3-8

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

general : where the service is removed from all subscribers provided with the service. specic : where the service is removed on an individual basis from subscribers provided with the service. 237 Registration ((supplementary) service registration)

The programming by the service provider or subscriber of information to enable subsequent operation of a service. The programming action involves input of specic supplementary information. For certain services the registration procedure may cause activation whilst for others the service may already be in the active phase. 238 Erasure

The deletion by the service provider, the subscriber or the system of information stored against a particular service by a previous registration(s). 239 Activation

An action taken by either the service provider, the subscriber or the system to enable a process to run as and when required by the service concerned. The time during which the process is activated is dened as the active phase. During activation the service will be either "operative" or "quiescient" according to whether or not the system is actually using the service, e.g. to forward a call or to apply call waiting indication. 240 Deactivation

An action taken by either the service provider, the subscriber or the system to terminate the process started at the activation. 241 Invocation

An action to invoke the service required, taken by the subscriber (e.g. pressing a specic button) or automatically by the network or terminal as a result of a particular condition (e.g. calling line identication for each incoming call) 242 Normal operation with successful; outcome

Description of the normal operation of the service, the normal served subscribers actions and the system response. Decision points, timing and call progress signals would be some of the subscriber. 243 Testing 02.04

The test procedure allows the subscriber to check whether or not the service is operating as desired. In some cases the use of the service is sufcient, for others a method of testing is included in the control procedure.( see GSM 02.04)

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Appendix 3-9

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

244

Interrogation ((supplementary) service interrogation)

The request by the subscriber to the PLMN to provide information about a specic supplementary service. This information can be requested by a Status check. The following values can be returned by the PLMN: not supported activated deactivated Not all values are applicable to all supplementary services. Data check. This interrogation function compares the data input by the subscriber during an interrogation procedure with the information stored in the PLMN. The PLMN returns a standard tone, announcement or indications (e.g. "check is positive" or "check is negative"). Data request This interrogation function enables the subscriber to obtain conrmation of input data. The PLMN returns an appropriate announcement or indication (e.g. "the forwarded-to number is etc."). 245 Exceptional operation, unsuccessful; outcome

Abnormal situations not described in "normal operation with successful outcome". Procedures on time-out, unexpected signalling response and other such events would be dened. 246 Interworking considerations

Identication of subscriber perceptions when a call exits from an ISDN/PLMN to another CEPT specied network or enters an ISDN/PLMN from another CEPT specied network. 247 Interworking

The general term used to describe the inter-operation of networks, services, supplementary services etc. 248 Service interworking

The interworking required when the services at the calling and called terminals are different (e.g. a Short Message Service interworking with MHS access). 249 Supplementary service interworking

This the interworking between the same supplementary services in different networks.. 250 Transparent support of services

Support of services where the network is unaware of the higher layer protocols, ie the higher layer protocols are transparent to the PLMN. See also GSM 03.10

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251

Non-transparent support of services

Support of services where the network makes use of knowledge of the higher layer protocols,ie some aspects of the higher layer protocols are not transparent to the PLMN. See also GSM 03.10.

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Appendix 3-11

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.3 Networks 301 Network, telecommunication network (305)

A set of nodes and links that provides connections between two or more dened points to facilitate telecommunication between them. 302 Integrated services digital network (ISDN) (308)

An integrated services network that provides digital connections between user-network interfaces.) 303 Public land mobile network (PLMN)

A network, established and operated by an Administration or its licensed operator(s), for the specic purpose of providing land mobile communication services to the public. It provides communication possibilities for mobile users. For communication between mobile and xed users interworking with a xed network is necessary. 304 GSM public land mobile network (GSM PLMN)

A PLMN which complies with the GSM recommendations. 305 Home PLMN (HPLMN)

The PLMN where a subscription is held and therefore which contains the HLR of the subscriber. 306 Visited PLMN (VPLMN)

A PLMN whose services can be used temporarily, based on a subscription in another PLMN, the home PLMN. 307 Local PLMN (LPLMN)

The LPLMN is the HPLMN or VPLMN depending on the location of the MS at the time, and is the PLMN with which the MS is registered via the radio interface. 308 GSM PLMN area (GPA)

The geographical area in which a GSM PLMN (see denitions 303, 304) provides telecommunication services according to the GSM Recommendations to mobile users. Note : CCITT Recommendation Q.1001 does not contain a denition of a PLMN area. 309 GSM system area (GSA)

The group of GSM PLMN areas accessible by GSM mobile stations. Note : The system area according to CCITT Recommendation 0.1001 corresponds to the GSM System Area. 310 GSM service area 03.02

The area in which a mobile station can be reached by a xed subscriber, without the subscribers knowledge of the actual location of the mobile station within the area. A service area may include the areas served by several PLMNS. A service area may consist of one country, be a part of a country or comprise several countries.

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Appendix 3-12

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

311

GSM PLMN xed infrastructure

The part of a GSM PLMN consisting of all xed equipment,including the BSSs,the MSCs and associated functional entities(such as VLR,HLR,AuC,EIR and IWF).. 312 Mobile-services switching centre (MSC)

The MSC performs the functions of switching, routing and control of the call and charging and accounting.The MSC also controls the interworking with xed networks. 313 Gateway MSC (GMSC)

An MSC that provides an entry point into the PLMN from another network or service. A gateway MSC is also an Interrogating Node for incoming PLMN calls. 314 Connection (309)

A concatenation of transmission channels or telecommunication circuits, switching and other functional units set up to provide for the transfer of signals between two or more points in a telecommunication network, to support a single communication. 315 Digital connection (310)

A concatenation of digital transmission channels or digital telecommunication circuits, switching and other functional units set up to provide for the transfer of digital signals between two or more points in a telecommunication network, to support a single communication. 316 Switched connection

A connection that is established by means of switching. GSM note: In a GSM PLMN a switched connection only supports demand services since no reserved circuit services as dened in CCITT Recommendation I.112, 206 are foreseen. 317 GSM PLMN connection (314) 03.10

A connection that is established through a GSM PLMN between specied GSM PLMN reference points. 318 GSM PLMN connection type attribute

A specic characteristic of a GSM PLMN connection type whose values distinguish it from another GSM PLMN connection type. 319 GSM PLMN connection type,connection type (316) 03.10

A description of a set of GSM PLMN connections which have the same attributes. 320 GSM PLMN connection element,connection element (317)

A partition of a GSM PLMN connection,see GSM 03.10 for the basis of partitioning. 321 GSM PLMN connection element attribute

An attribute of a GSM PLMN connection element,eg information transfer rate.

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Appendix 3-13

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

322

Point to point GSM PLMN connection (320)

A GSM PLMN connection that is established between two specied GSM PLMN reference points. 323 Point to multipoint GSM PLMN connection (321)

A GSM PLMN connection that is established between a single specied GSM PLMN reference point, and more than one other specied GSM PLMN reference points. 324 Public Data Network (PDN)

A network established and operated by an administration for the specic purpose of providing data transmission services to the public. Circuit switched (CSPDN),packet switched (PSPDN) and leased circuit data transmission services are feasible depending on national regulations. The Public Data Network may carry other services.(Adapted from CCITT Rec. X.15) 325 Network interworking

The interworking required between two different networks (e.g. between a PLMN and ISDN, a GSM PLMN and a non-GSM PLMN, between two GSM PLMN) in order to provide an end to end connection. 326 Terminating Network

Network which in cooperation with a GSM PLMN provides telecommunication services between their respective users. Examples of terminating networks are the PSTN, the ISDN, PDNs, GSM PLMNs. 327 Interworking function (IWF)

A network functional entity which provides interworking (network interworking, service interworking, supplementary service interworking or signalling interworking). It may be a part of one or more logical or physical entities in a GSM PLMN. 328 Interrogating Node (IN)

A switching node that interrogates a HLR, to route a call for an MS to the visited MSC.

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Appendix 3-14

The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.4 Stations 401 Station

One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radiocommunication service, or the radio astronomy service. Each station shall be classied by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 58). 402 Mobile Station (MS)

A station in the mobile service intended to be used while in motion or during halts at unspecied points. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 65). 403 Land Station

A station in the mobile service not intended to be used while in motion. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 67). 404 Base Station (BS)

A land station in the land mobile service. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations No 68). 405 Land Mobile Station

A mobile station in the land mobile service capable of surface movement within the geographical limits of a country or continent. (Quoted from the Radio Regulations Nx 69). 406 GSM Mobile Station (GSM MS)

Equipment intended to access a set of GSM PLMN telecommunication services. Services may be accessed while the equipment capable of surface movement within the GSM system area is in motion or during halts at unspecied points. Note : This denition has been adapted from the denitions of a Mobile Station and a Land Mobile Station in the Radio Regulations. 407 Mobile Equipment (ME)

The ME is the Mobile Station (MS) without the SIM. 408 Base Station System (BSS)

The system of base station equipment (transceivers, controllers, etc..) which is viewed by the MSC through a single interface as dened by the GSM 08 0x series of recommendations, as being the entity responsible for communicating with Mobile Stations in a certain area. The radio equipment of a BSS may cover one or more cells. A BSS may consist of one or more base stations. If an internal interface according to the GSM 08.5x series at recommendations is implemented, then the BSS shall consist of one Base Station Controller (BSC) and several Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). The functionality is described in Recommendation GSM 08.02. 409 Base Station Controller (BSC)

A network component in the PLMN with the functions for control of one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs).

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Appendix 3-15

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

410

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

A network component which serves one cell, and is controlled by a Base Station Controller. The BTS contains one or more Transceivers (TRXs). 411 Transceiver (TRX)

A network component which can serve full duplex communication on 8 full-rate trafc channels according to recommendation GSM 05.02. If Slow Frequency Hopping SFH is not used, then the TRX serves the communication on one RF carrier.

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Appendix 3-16

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.5 Access 501 User access. user network access (402)

The means by which a user is connected to a telecommunication network in order to use the services and/or facilities of that network. 502 Interface (408)

The common boundary between two associated systems. 503 Service Access Point (SAP)

In the reference model for Open System Interconnection, Service Access Points (SAPs)of a layer are dened as gates through which services are offerred to an adjacent higher layer. 504 Physical interface (411)

The interface between two equipments. 505 Access capability. GSM PLMN access capability (416)

The number and type of the access channels at a GSM PLMN access interface that are actually available for telecommunication purposes. 506 Terminal Equipment (TE) (417)

Equipment that provides the functions necessary for the operation of the access protocols by the user. 507 Terminal adaptor (TA)

A physical entity in the MS providing terminal adaptation functions. (GSM 04.02) 508 Mobile Termination (MT)

The part of the Mobile Station which terminates the radio transmission to and from the network and adapts terminal equipment (TE) capabilities to those of the radio transmission. 509 Reference point (420)

A conceptual point at the conjunction of two non-overlapping functional groups. 510 Reference conguration (421)

A combination of functional groups and reference points that shows possible network arrangements. 511 Multipoint access (422)

User access in which more than one terminal equipment is supported by a single mobile termination. 512 Functional group, functional grouping (419)

A set of functions that may be performed by a single equipment. 513 Terminal adaptation function(TAF)

The terminal adaptation function is a functional entity associated with an MS. The TAF provides the functionality necessary to permit interworking between an MT and Terminal equipment(TE). The function of the TAF depends on the service and the type of TE. The TAF is required to convert the

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Appendix 3-17

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

protocols provided by the MT to those used by the TE. The terminal adaptation functions are described in GSM 07.01,07.02 and 07.03. 514 Direct access

Interworking to a Private Telecommunciations Network via a dedicated link. 515 Mobile Originated (MO)

Call or short message originated from the Mobile Station. 516 Mobile Terminated (MT)

Call or short message intended to be delivered to the Mobile Station.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.6 Location and handover 601 Location register (LR) 03.01

The functional unit in which the location information is stored. 602 Location information 03.01

The information, indicating where a mobile station is located in the system area. 603 Location registration 03.01

The function whereby PLMNs keep track of the location information of Mobile Stations located in the system area. 604 Home location register (HLR) 03.01

The location register where the current location and all subscriber parameters of a mobile station are permanently stored. 605 Visited location register (VLR) 03.01

The location register where all relevant parameters concerning a mobile station are stored as long as the mobile station is in a location area controlled by this register. 606 Location area Q.9/ Q.1001

An area in which a mobile station may move freely without up-dating the location register. A location area may comprise one or several base station areas. 607 MSC area Q.1001, 03.02

The part of the PLMN covered by an MSC. An MSC area may consist of one or several location areas. 608 Base station area

The part of the GSM area to which a base station gives service. 609 Paging, Paging procedure 04.08

The procedure by which a GSM PLMN xed infrastructure attempts to reach a Mobile Station within its location area , before any other network-initiated procedure can take place. 610 Location area identication 03.03

The information indicating the location area in which a cell is located. 611 Deregistration, location deregistration

The updating of a location register by removing location information. 612 Location updating procedure 09.02

The procedure by which location register updating takes place. 613 Location cancellation procedure 03.01

The procedure by which the location information is removed from a location register.

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Appendix 3-19

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

614

Location information requested procedure

03.01

The procedure by which a VLR enquires whether or not a MS should be kept in the register. 615 Location information retrieval procedure 03.01

The procedure by which the home location register obtains information on which of its mobile stations are registered with a visited location register. 616 Reset procedure

The procedure for recovery of information for a location register after restart. 617 Restart (Restart procedure)

The procedure to recover the information in a location register after the location information is lost due to a failure. 618 Restoration, Restoration procedure

The procedure to recover the information in a location register, after the location information is lost due to a failure. It consists of a restart procedure, after which some mechanisms are provided to keep track of the reliability of each element in memory. 619 Handover

The action of switching a call in progress from one radio channel to another radio channel. Handover is used to allow established calls to continue by switching them to another radio resource, e.g. when mobile stations move from one base station area to another. Handover may take place between the following GSM entities; timeslot ,RF carrier, cell, base station, BSS, MSC. The prexes "inter" and "intra" are used to describe the type of handover according to context, e.g. inter-cell handover. These entities are listed in nested order such that "inter-BSS handover" is implicitly inter -BS, inter-cell, etc. Additionally, the words "internal" or "external" may prex the term intra-BSS handover with the following meanings "Internal intra-BSS handover" is an intra-BSS handover which takes place without reference to the MSC (although the MSC will be informed on completion). "External intra-BSS handover" is an intra-BSS handover which is controlled by an MSC. 620 Basic handover procedure 03.09

A procedure in which a call is handed over from the MSC under which the call was originated to another MSC. 621 Subsequent handover procedure 03.09

A procedure in which a call is handed over from an MSC under which the call was not originated to another MSC. 622 Cell

The area of radio coverage locally dened as seen by the Mobile Station with a Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) and uniquely dened as seen by the network with a cell global Identication.

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Appendix 3-20

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.7 Identity and Security 701 Algorithm A3

Cryptographic algorithm that produces SRES, using RAND AND Ki. 702 Algorithm A5

Cryptographic algorithm that produces ciphertext out of cleartext, using Kc. 703 Algorithm A8

Cryptographic algorithm that produces Kc using RAND and Ki. 704 Authentication

The corroboration that a peer entity is the one claimed. 705 Authentication centre (AUC)

Component of the xed part of the PLMN which contains subscriber authentication keys (Ki) and generates security related parameters (RAND, SRES, Kc) - depending on implementation. 706 Base station identity code (BSIC)

A block of code, consisting of the PLMN colour code and a base station colour code. One Base Station can have several Base Station Colour Codes. 707 Cell Global Identication

A block of code which uniquely identies a cell within all GSM PLMNs. It consists of the LAI and CI. 708 Cell Identity (CI)

A block of code which identies a cell within a location area. 709 710 Reserved Cipherkey

A sequence of symbols that controls the operation of encipherment and decipherment. 711 Cipherkey setting

Mutual agreement between the Mobile Station and the xed part of the system upon a common cipherkey (Kc) to be used in a subsequent encipherment/ decipherment process. 712 Ciphertext

Unintelligible data produced through the use of encipherment. 713 Cryptographic algorithm [ cryptological algorithm]

Mathematical method used in encipherment and decipherment or in non-reversible encipherment. 714 Decipherment

The transformation by cryptographic techniques to produce plaintext from ciphertext.

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Appendix 3-21

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

715

Encipherment

Transformation by cryptographic techniques to produce ciphertext from plaintext. 716 International mobile station equipment identity (IMEI)

Uniquely identies the mobile station as a piece or assembly of equipment. 717 International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)

Uniquely identies the subscription. It can serve as a key to derive subscriber information such as directory number(s) from the HLR. 718 Key setting

See cipherkey setting. 719 Mobile station international ISDN number(MSISDN) 03.03

Uniquely denes the mobile station as an ISDN terminal. It consists of three parts; the country code (CC), the national destination code (NDC) and the subscriber number (SN). 720 Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) 03.03

A code which is allocated to a mobile station when registered with a VLR for the purpose of routing calls to the MSC in which area the Mobile Station is located.1. The MSRN is used by the home location register for rerouting calls to the mobile station. 721 Personal Identication Number (PIN)

Condential information which may be used in the authentication between subscriber and SIM to corroborate that the subscriber is the one claimed. 722 Plaintext

Unciphered Data. 723 RAND

Random number to be used as challenge in a challenge response protocol. 724 Random number

Non-predictable number. 725 Security feature

Security features protect

the access to the mobile services any relevant item from being disclosed on the radio path, mainly in order to ensure the privacy of user
related information. 726 Signed Response (SRES)

Response to a challenge in the challenge response protocol.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

727 728

Reserved Stream cipher

Bit by bit binary addition of plaintext bitstream and cipherkey bitstream. 729 Subscriber authentication key

Subscriber individual condential information used in authentication and in the cipher key generation process 730 Subscriber identity authentication

The corroboration by the xed part of the PLMN that the subscriber identity (IMSI, TMSI), transferred by the mobile subscriber within the authentication procedure at the radiopath, is the one claimed. 731 Subscriber identity condentiality

The property that the subscriber identity (IMSI) is not made available or disclosed on the radio interface. 732 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

Removable module which is inserted into a Mobile Equipment; it is considered as part of the Mobile Station. It contains security related information (IMSI, Ki, PIN), other subscriber related information and the Algorithms A3/A8. 733 Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) 03.03

A unique identity temporarily allocated to visiting mobile subscribers in order to support the subscriber identity condentiality service. 734 Local Mobile Station Identity(LMSI)

A unique identity temporarily allocated to visiting mobile subscribers in order to speed up the search for subscriber data in the VLR, when the MSRN allocation is done on a per call basis (see denition 720)

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Appendix 3-23

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.8 Administrative and commercial denitions 801 CEPT Administration

The national administration which has signed the "Arrangement instituant la Confrence Europenne des Administrations des Postes et des Telcommunications". 802 GSM PLMN operator

An administration or its licensed operator(s) which provides a GSM PLMN and its telecommunication services. 803 Service Provider

The organisation through which the subscriber obtains GSM telecommunication services. This may be a network operator or possibly a separate body. 804 Subscription

The subscription permits participation in telecommunication services (basic telecommunication services and those supplementary services for which it is necessary). 805 Customer

The customer is the individual or entity who, or which, obtains a service from a GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent and is responsible for payment of all charges and rentals due. Note : This denition is adapted from CCITT Rec. D.000. 806 Subscriber

The denition of this term is identical with that of the term "customer" under 805. 807 User

The user is the individual or entity designated by the customer, individually or by class, as having access to the service and having such authorization, individually or by class, as may be required by the GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent concerned. Note : This denition is adapted from CCITT Rec. D.000. 808 Collection charge

The collection charge is the charge in its national currency collected by a GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent from its customers for the use of the service. The establishment of the collection charge is a national matter. Note : This denition is adapted from CCITT Rec. D.000. 809 Network access charge

Part of the collection charge, intended to cover cost of service which is not dependent on the actual use of networks/telecommunications services. It may consist of an initial fee and a subscription fee. 810 Network utilization charge

Part of the collection charge which is intended to cover use of the networks/telecommunications services. The charge is registered on a per case basis.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

811

Rental

Payment(s) due to a GSM PLMN operator or an authorized agent for the access to certain services for the designated periods. Note : This denition is adapted from CCITT Rec. D.000. 812 NET (Norme Europeenne de Telecommunications)

An approved conformity specication recommendation of the CEPT or part or parts hereof, which the signatories of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on European Telecommunications Standards for terminal equipment (Nov. 15; 1985). adopted in accordance with the procedures set down in that MoU. It includes, where appropriate, requirements made necessary in a given country by historical network peculiarities or established national provisions concerning the use of radio frequencies. 813 Conformity specication

A document giving a full description of the technical characteristics of the relevant telecommunications terminal equipment (such as safety, technical parameters, functions and procedures and service requirements) together with a precise denition of the test and test methods enabling the conformity of the equipment with the prescribed technical characteristics to be veried. 814 Approved testing laboratory

A laboratory which has been accredited by the appropriate Administration or an accrediting body recognized as competent in its country, according to Rec. T/G 01-01, and which is approved by that Administration or State as competent for conducting conformity tests on telecommunications terminal equipment. 815 Certicate of conformity

A certicate, issued in accordance with the Recommendation T/SF 48, which indicates that a telecommunications terminal equipment has been tested by an approved testing laboratory, using appropriate test methods, and is in conformity with dened standards, such as NETs, or parts thereof. 816 Certifying body

A body which determines whether a test report from an approved testing laboratory shows that a telecommunications terminal equipment has been tested using appropriate test methods and is in conformity with dened standards. If so, the body issues a certicate of conformity. Note : This body may be the appropriate national authority, or the national Approval Authority such as an independent body or the approved testing laboratory which conducted the tests.

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Appendix 3-25

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.9 Operations and maintenance 901 Controlled maintenance CCITT G.106, Nx 4123/CEPT T/CS 10-13

A method to sustain (or sustaining) a desired"quality of service" (network technical performance) by systematic application of analysis techniques using centralized supervisory facilities and /or sampling to minimize "preventive maintenance" and to reduce "corrective maintenance". 902 Corrective maintenance ; repair CCITT G.106,Nx 4105/CEPT T/CS 10-13

The "maintenance" carried out after "fault" (failure) recognition" and intended to restore an "item" to a state in which it can perform a (its) "required function". 903 Data Communication Network (DCN) CCITT M 2x

A DCN connects Network Elements (NEs) with internal mediation functions or mediation devices (MOs) to the Operations Systems (0Ss). (The reference model for open systems interconnection - CCITT Rec. X. 200 should be followed). Note: In general, a DCN does not provide all the data communication functions for a TMN. Data communication links may be required as part of a Local Communication Network. 904 Fault GSM 12.00

The inability of an "item" to perform a "required function". 905 Failure GSM 12.00

The termination of the ability of an "item" to perform a "required function". 906 Indenture level CCITT G.106, Nx4119

A level of subdivision of an item from the point of view of a "maintenance action". Note 1: examples of indenture levels could be a subsystem, a circuit board, a component. Note 2: the indenture level depends on the complexity of the items construction, the accessibility to subitems, skill level of maintenance personnel, test equipment facilities, safety considerations, etc. 907 Local Communication Network (LCN) CCITT M. 2x

A LCN connects NEs to MDs or MDs to MDs within a telecommunication centre. However, for practical reasons, a LCN may connect remote NEs to local MDs. 908 Maintenance CCITT G.106,Nx 4103 CEPT T/CS 10-13

The combination of all technical and corresponding administrative actions including supervision actions, intended to retain an "item" in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform a "required function".

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

909

Maintenance entity (ME)

CCITT 6. 106,Nx 4130

A sub-item of a given "item" dened with the intention that an alarm caused by a "fault" in that sub-item will be unambiguously referrable to the sub-item. Note The denitions of CCITT and CEPT seem to be somewhat divergent. Since CEPT Recommendations are referring to CCITT Recommendation G.106, and the CCITT denition is more precise, the CCITT view shall be applied. 910 Mediation CCITT M. 2x

A process that routes and/or acts on information passing between NEs and OSs via DCN. Mediation can be shared among NE (s) and/or OS (s). The processes that can form mediation can be classied into following ve general process categories 1 . Communication control 2 . Protocol conversion and data handling 3 . Communication (passing) of primitive functions 4 . Processes involving decision making 5 . Data storage. 911 Network administration GSM 12.00

(not in the sense of a body) Network administration is the network related part of the Operators Service Providers overall administration and any organization, non-technical action to provide or to help to provide services of a telecommunication network. 912 Network Management (NM) GSM 12.00

NM is all activities which control, monitor and record the use and the performance of resources of a telecommunication network in order to provide telecommunication services to customers/users at a certain level of quality. 913 Network Management Centre (NMC) GSM 12.01/12.07

The NMC node of the GSM TMN provides global and centralised PLMN monitoring and control, by being at the top of the TMN hierarchy and linked to subordinate OMC nodes. 914 Operations CCITT G.106,Nx1012

Combination of all technical and corresponding administrative actions intended so that any "item" can perform a "required function", recognizing necessary adaptation to changes in external conditions. (Note: by external conditions are understood, for example, service demand and environmental conditions). 915 Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC) GSM 12.01/12.07

The OMC node of the GSM TMN provides dynamic O&M monitoring and control of the PLMN nodes operating in the geographical area controlled by the specic OMC. 916 Operations System (OS) CCITT M.2x

There are, at least, three functional types of OSs, i.e. basic, network, and services

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

Basic OSs perform TMN application functions related to Network Elements (NEs) located in specic
regions. Network OSs cover the realization of network based TMN application functions by communicating with basic OSs. Service OSs perform specic application functions for managing and individual service. Basic OSs and Network OSs share infrastructural aspects of the telecommunication network. Service OSs are concerned with service aspects of one or more telecommunication networks. 917 Preventive maintenance CCITT G.106,Nx4104

The "maintenance" carried out at predetermined intervals or according (corresponding) to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the "probability" of "failure" or the (performance) degradation of the functioning of an "item". 918 Performance Management GSM 12.07

Performance Management of PLMN implies the maintaining of quality of service without sacricing the set nancial objectives of the Operator. 919 Resource Management GSM 12.00

Resource Management (by planning functions, procurement etc.) provides the network resources (active and passive telecommunication equipment) and the NM resources. 920 Security Management GSM 12.03

Security Management is the control and distribution of security-relevant information to various users and systems for use in providing security services, reporting on security services and mechanisms, reporting on security-relevant events that have occurred. 921 System change control GSM 12.06

The mechanism which assumes the satisfactory function of the programmes controlling the system also ensures that programme change and updating are satisfactorily carried out. 922 TMN Standard Interfaces CCITT M. 2x

The standard interfaces which provide for the interconnection of NEs, 0Ss, MDs and WSs through the DCN or LCN. Note: This requires compatible communication protocols and a compatible data representation method for the messages, including compatible generic message denitions for TMN application functions. 923 Work Station (WS) GSM 12.00

The remote device via which O&M personnel executes input and output transactions for NM purposes. 924 Administration Centre (ADC)

The ADC node of the TMN provides for PLMN Operator-specic requirements in the administration and commercial areas.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

925

Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)

The implementation of the Network Management functionality required for the PLMN is in terms of physical entities, the full ste of which constitutes the TMN

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Appendix 3-29

Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.10 Expressions related to the radiosubsystem 1001 Absolute RF Channel Number (ARFCN) 05.05

An integer which denes the absolute RF channel number. 1002 Active mode 05.08

The state of a MS when processing a call. 1003 Active part of timeslot 05.02

Identical with burst. 1004 Adaptive Frame Alignment 05.08

Means of ensuring that the timeslots received at the BS from active MSs at different distances from the BS are in time alignment. Transmit timeslot advance period in the MS necessary to ensure this. The value can be assessed by measuring the "roundtrip delay"; this depends on the distance of the MS from the serving BS. 1005 BCCH allocation (BA) 05.08

The radio frequency channels allocated in a cell for BCCH transmission. 1006 Bit number (BN) 05.02

Number which identies the position of a particular bit period within a timeslot. 1007 Burst 05.02

A period of modulated carrier less than one timeslot. The physical content of a timeslot. 1008 Call Release 05.08

Forced disconnection after a xed period when the ACCH data is no longer decoded correctly. 1009 Cell allocation 05.02

The radio frequency channels allocated to a particular cell. 1010 Cell Coverage Area 03.30

Area within which a dened quality of reception is provided. The planned radio coverage of a cell. 1011 Channel 05.02

A means of one-way transmission. A dened sequence of periods (e.g. timeslots) in a TDMA system; a dened frequency band in an FDMA system; a dened sequence of periods and frequency bands in a frequency hopped system. 1012 Class IA. lB. II 05.03/05.04

The classication of speech encoder bits depending on the degree of protection needed. Class IA and class IB bits have protection, while Class II bits have no protection. Error detection is performed on class IA bits. 1013 Control Channels (CCH) 05.01

Channels which carry system management messages.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

1014

Current Serving BS

05.10

BS on one of whose channels (TCH, DCCH, or CCCH) the MS is currently operating. 1015 Discontinuous Reception (DRX) 05.08

Means of saving battery power (e.g. in HPUs) by periodically and automatically switching the MS receiver on and off. 1016 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) 05.08

Means of saving battery power (e.g. in HPUs) and reducing interference by automatically switching the transmitter off when no speech or data are to be sent. 1017 Downlink 05.02.

Physical link from the BS towards the MS (BS transmits, MS receives). 1018 Dummy bits 05.04

Internal states of the modulator before and after a burst. 1019 Dummy Burst (DB) 05.02

A period of carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation is a dened sequence that carries no useful information. Means of lling a timeslot with an RF signal when no information is to be delivered to a channel. 1020 Ec/No

Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density. 1021 Frame number (FN) 05.02

Identies the position of a particular TDMA time-frame within a hyperframe. 1022 Frequency correction burst (FB) 05.02

Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream allows frequency correction to be performed easily within a mobile station. 1023 Guard Period 05.05

Period at beginning and end of timeslot during which MS transmission is attenuated. 1024 Handover 05.08

Change of dedicated channel during call. 1025 Handover Access Burst 05.08

Access burst used during handover. 1026 Handover Execution 05.08/03.09

Signalling message sequence that causes the MS to continue the call in another (predetermined) cell. 1027 Handover Execution Interval 05.08

Period of time between consecutive handover execution commands.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

1028

Handover Margin

05.08

Hysteresis factor that minimises repetitive handovers between adjacent cells. Means to affect the trafc distribution between cells. 1029 Handover Strategy 05.08

Procedure dened by an algorithm that prescribes how handover shall be carried out e.g. handover to a cell which offers better signal strength or to a cell which allows communication with less power. 1030 Hyperframe 05.02

A hyperframe consists of 2048 superframes (see denition 1055) It is the longest recurrent time period of the frame structure (12 533.76s). 1031 Idle Mode 05.08

State of an MS not actively processing a call. 1032 Inactive part of timeslot 05.02

Identical with guard period. 1033 Inter-Cell Handover 05.08

Handover between cells. Change of serving cell. 1034 Intra-Cell Handover 05.08

Handover between different RF carriers or different timeslots of the same RF carrier within one cell. 1035 Logical channels 05.02

Two classes of logical channels are dened, control channels (CCH) which carry system management messages and trafc channels (TCH) which carry users speech or data. 1036 Mobile allocation (MA) 05.02

The radio frequency channels allocated to a MS for use in its hopping sequence. 1037 Multiframe (Multiple time-frame) 05.01

Two types of multiframe are dened in the system: a 26-frame multiframe with a period of 120ms and a 51frame multiframe with a period of 3060/13ms. 1038 Multiple timeframe

See multiframe. 1039 Network Directed Criteria 05.08

Handover criteria originating from network management requirements, e.g. trafc, precedence requests etc... 1040 Network Management Requirements 05.08

See network directed criteria. 1041 Normal Burst (NB) 05.02

A period of modulated carrier less than a timeslot.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

1042

Peak power

Measure of the maximum RF power when averaged over one radio frequency cycle, during the useful part of the burst. 1043 Power Class (of MS) 05.05

Class of maximum output power to which a MS belongs; e.g. handheld portable, mobile. Dened by the maximum peak power that can be output by a MS. Five power classes are dened. 1044 Power control Level 05.05

Peak power level (less than or equal to the maximum peak power corresponding to the power class) that a MS outputs on command from the BS of the serving cell. 1045 Power Control Message 05.08

Message that controls the MS transmitted RF power level (see MS_TXPWR_REQUEST). 1046 Quarter Bit Number 05.10

Timing of quarter bit periods (12/13 us) within a timeslot. 1047 Radiofrequency channel (RFCH)

A partition of the system RF spectrum allocation with a dened bandwidth and centre frequency. 1048 Radio Sub-System Criteria 05.08

Criteria used in the handover and transmitted RF power control processes (e.g. signal strength, signal quality, absolute MS-BS distance). 1049 Radio Sub-System Directed Handover 05.08

Change of channel during a call because of either degradation of quality of the current serving channel or the availability of another channel which can allow communication at a lower transmitted RF power, or to prevent a MS grossly exceeding the planned cell area. 1050 Roundtrip Delay 05.08

Time period between transmit and receive instant of a timeslot in the BS, determined by the response behaviour of the MS and the MS-BS distance. 1051 Serving BS 05.08

BS with which the MS is currently communicating. 1052 Serving Cell 05.08

Cell containing the serving BS. 1053 SID-frame 06.31

Frame which carries the averaged background noise information 1054 Sub-channel number (SCN) 05.02

One of the parameters dening a particular physical channel in a BS.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

1055

Superframe

05.01

A superframe is 51 trafc/associated control multiframes or 26 broadcast/common control multiframes.(period 6.12s). 1056 Synchronization burst (SB) 05.02

Period of RF carrier less than one timeslot whose modulation bit stream carries information for the MS to synchronize its time-frame start to that of the received signal. 1057 Tail bits 05.03/05.04

Known bits that are added at the end of the information stream to allow use of a convolutional code to build a (non-systematic) block code while preserving the minimum distance properties. 1058 TDMA Frame Number 05.02

The number of a particular TDMA frame in the cyclic TDMA frame numbering range (2715647). 1059 Timebase Counters 05.10

A set of counters which determine the timing state of signals transmitted by a BS or MS. 1060 Time-frame 05.01

The repetition period of the (8) timeslots of a particular RF channel (period 60/13 = 4.62 ms approx.).This is referred to as a frame in the denition of multiframes. 1061 Timeslot 05.01

One of a number of periods in a time-frame (period 15/26ms). Physical channel in a TDMA system. 1062 Timing Advance 05.10

A signal sent by the BS to the MS. It enables the MS to advance the timing of its transmissions to the BS so as to compensate for propagation delay. 1063 Timeslot Number (TN) 05.02

Identies a particular timeslot within a TDMA frame frame. 1064 Trafc channels 05.02

Channels which carry users speech or data. 1065 Training sequence 05.02

Sequence of modulating bits employed to facilitate timing recovery and channel equalisation in the receiver. 1066 Training sequence code 05.02

Parameter used to select one of a number of training sequences. 1067 Uplink 05.02

Physical link from MS towards BS (MS transmits, BS receives) 1068 Useful part of timeslot 05.04

That part of the burst used by the demodulator; differs from the full burst because of the 1/2 bit shift of the I and Q parts of the GMSK signal.

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

1069

Voice activity detection (VAD)

05.03/05.04

A process used to identify presence or absence of speech data bits.This is used along with DTX (see denition 1016)

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

2.11 Miscellaneous 1101 Mobile Station Feature

A MS feature is a function or a piece of equipment which directly relates to the man-machine operation of the MS. Three categories of MS features are distinguished: basic, supplementary and additional features. 1102 Queuing

The procedure in which calls, originating from a MS or terminating in a MS are kept pending for reasons of congestion or when the called party is occupied. 1103 Off-air-call-set-up (OACSU)

The procedure in which a telecommunication connection is being established whilst the r.f. link between the MS and the BS is not occupied. 1104 Mobile Application Part (MAP) 09.01/03.01

The internetworking signalling between MSCs and LRs and EIRs. A part of CCITT Signalling System No. 7 1105 Signalling Interworking

Signalling Interworking is the function required to connect the signalling protocols used in a GSM PLMN to those used in the appropriate xed network. 1106 Layer 2 relay (L2R)

A function of an MS and IWF that adapts a users known layer2 protocol onto RLP for transmission over the GSM radio interface. See also GSM 07.01,07.02 and 07.03. 1107 Radio Link Protocol (RLP)

An Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol used to reliably transfer user data between an MS and IWF.See also GSM 04.22

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

3. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

A3 A5 A8 AB ACCH ACM ACU ADC AEF AGCH AOC ARFCN ARQ AUC AUT(H) BA BAIC BAOC BCC BCCH BCCH_FREQ_NCELL BCD BCU BIC-Roam Bm BN BNHO BOIC BOIC-exHC BS BS_BCCH_SDCCH_C0MB

see Algorithm A3 (701) see Algorithm A5 (702) see Algorithm A8 (703) Access Burst Associated Control Channel Address Complete Message Antenna Combining Unit ADministration Centre (924) Additional Elementary Functions Access Grant CHannel Advice Of Charge (223) Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (1001) Automatic Request for Retransmission (1007) Authentication Centre (705) Authentication (704) BCCH Allocation (1005) Barring of All Incoming Calls (231) Barring of All Outgoing Calls (228) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Colour Code 05.02 Broadcast Control Channel Frequency of the RF carrier on which the BCCH of a neighbouring cell is transmitted. 05.08 Binary Coded Decimal (See 08.56) Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming Outside the Home PLMN Country (232) Full-rate trafc channel Bit Number (1006) Barring all outgoing calls except those to Home PLMN Barring of Outgoing International Calls (229) Barring of Outgoing international Calls except those directed to the Home PLMN Country (230) Base Station (404) Logical variable that indicates the combination of dedicated and associated control channels on the same physical channel 05.02

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

BS_CC_CHANS BS_G_BLKS_RES BS_PA_MFRMS BSC BSIC BSIC-NCELL BSS BTS C CA CA_BAND_NUMB CBCH CC CCBS CCCH_GROUP CCH CCPE CELL-BAR-ACCESS CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS CFB CFNRc CFNRy CFU CI CLIP CLIR CMD COLI COLP COLR COM CONF CONN CRE CSPDN CT CT CUG CW

Number of basic physical channels supporting common control channels 05.02 Number of blocks on each common control channel reserved for access grant messages 05.02 Number of multiframes between two transmissions of the same paging message to MSs of the same paging group 05.02 Base Station Controller (409) 05.02 Base Transceiver Station Identity Code (706) 05.02 BSIC of an adjacent cell 05.08 Base Station System (408) Base Transceiver Station (410) Conditional Cell Allocation Number of the frequency band that contains the cell allocation 05.05 Cell Broadcast CHannel 05.02 Country Code Completion of Calls to Busy Subscribers (221) Group of MSs in idle mode Control CHannel (1013) Control Channel Protocol Entity Cell Access Barred RXLEV Hysteresis required for Cell Reselection Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Busy (217) Call Forwarding on MS Not REAchable (219) Call Forwarding on No Reply (218) Call Forwarding Unconditional (216) Cell Identity (708) Calling Line Identication Presentation (211) Calling Line Identication Restriction (212) Command Connect Line Identity Connected Line Identication Presentation (213) Connected Line identication Restriction (214) Complete Conference Call,add on (227) Connect Call RE-establishment procedure Circuit Switched Public Data Network(324) Channel Tester Call Transfer (225) Closed User Group (222) Call Waiting (220)

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

DB DCCH DCF DCN DET DISC DL DLCI DLD Dm DP DRX DTAP DTE DTMF DTX EA Ec/No EIR ERR FA FACCH FACCH/F FACCH/H FB FCCH FEC FN GMSC GPA GSA GSM GSM MS GSM PLMN

Dummy Burst (1019) Dedicated Control Channel Data Communication Function Data Communication Network (903) Detach DISConnect Data Link (layer) Data Link Connection Identier Data Link Discriminator Control Channel (ISDN terminology applied to mobile service) Dialled Pulse Discontinuous Reception (Mechanism) (1015) Direct Transfer Application Part Data Terminal Equipment Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (signalling) Discontinuous Transmission (Mechanism) (1016) External Alarms Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density (1020) Equipment Identity Register ERRor Full Allocation Fast ACCH Full rate Fast Associated Control Channel Half rate Fast Associated Control Channel Frequency correction Burst (1022) Frequency Correction CHannel Forward Error Correction Frame Number (1021) Gateway Mobile Services Switching Centre (313) GSM PLMN area (308) GSM System Area (309) Groupe Special Mobile GSM Mobile Station (406) GSM Public Land Mobile Network (304)

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

HANDO HDLC HLR HO_MARGIN HOLD HPLMN HPU HSN I IAM ICB ID IDN IE IMEI IMSI IN INU ISDN IWF K Kc Ki L2R LAC LAI LAN LAPDm LCN LE Lm LPLMN LR M MA MACN MAF

Handover High Level Data Link Control Home Location Register (604) SDL Message name for Handover Margin Call Hold (Supplementary Service) (224) Home PLMN (305) Hand Portable Unit Hopping Sequence Number 05.02 Information (frames) Initial Address Message Incoming Calls Barred Identication Integrated Digital Network Signalling Information Element International Mobile station Equipment Identity (716) International Mobile Subscriber Identity (717) Interrogating Node (328) Interworking Unit Integrated Services Digital Network (302) Inter Working Function (327) Constraint Length of the Convolutional Code Cipher Key see "subscriber authentication key" (729) Layer 2 Relay (1106) Location Area Code Location Area Identity 05.08 Local Area Network Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel Local Communication Network (908) Local Exchange Trafc channel with capacity lower than Bm Local PLMN (307) Location Register (601) Mandator Mobile Allocation (1036) Mobile Allocation Channel Number Mobile Additional Function

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Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04

MAH MAI MAIO MAP MCC MCI MD MDL ME ME MEF MIC MM MME MMI MNC MO MPH MS MS_PWR_CLASS MS_RANGE_MAX MS_RXLEV_L

MS_TXPWR_CONF MS MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH MS_TXPWR_REQUEST MSC MSCM MSCU MSISDN MSRN MT MT MTP MUMS N/W NB NBIN NCELL NDC NE

Mobile Access Hunting (233) Mobile Allocation Index 05.02 Mobile Allocation Index Offset 05.02 Mobile Application Part (1104) Mobile Country Code Malicious Cell Identication (215) Mediation Device (mobile) Management (entity) - Data Link (layer) Maintenance Entity (909) Mobile Equipment (407) Maintenance Entity Function Mobile Interface Controller Man Machine Mobile Management Entity Man Machine Interface Mobile Network Code Mobile Originated (515) (mobile) Management (entity) - PHysical (layer) [primitive] Mobile Station (402) MS PoWer Class. Parameter dening the power class of an MS expressed in the same way as the R parameters 05.08 Mobile Station Range Maximum. Handover criterion to determine serving cell Lower Receive Level. Threshold of RXLEV received from the serving BS below which either power control or handover must take place to improve the cell quality 05.08 Transmitted RF Power Conrmation. Parameter sent by the MS to indicate its current transmitted RF power level Maximum Allowed Transmitted RF Power for MSs to Access the System until commanded otherwise MS Transmitted RF Power Request. Parameter sent by the BSS that commands the required MS RF Power Level Mobile-services Switching Centre (312) Mobile Station Class Mark Mobile Station Control Unit Mobile Station ISDN Number (719 Mobile Station Roaming Number (720) Mobile Terminated (516) Mobile Termination (508) Message Transfer Part Multi User Mobile Station Network Normal Burst (1041) A parameter in the hopping sequence 05.02 Neighbouring (or current serving) Cell 05.08 National Destination Code Network Element

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Contents

Unit 1: Background and Fundamentals Overview of AGS1200 The Pan-European GSM Cellular System ................. 1-2 AGW1200 Versus CC1200 ................................................................................. 1-4 What is GSM? ..................................................................................................... 1-6 AGS1200 and the GSM Specication ................................................................. 1-8 Background Evolution of Wireless Access Technology ........................................................ 1-12 Wireless Services Technology Perspective........................................................ 1-14 Market Trends in Wireless Communication ...................................................... 1-16 Cellular Systems in Europe Today .................................................................... 1-18 Objectives Of The Pan-European GSM Based System ..................................... 1-20 Adoption of GSM Standard ............................................................................... 1-22 Key Events ........................................................................................................ 1-24 Expected Growth in European Cellular 1991-1994 ...................................... 1-26 Second Generation Cellular Standards .............................................................. 1-28 The Radio Spectrum .......................................................................................... 1-30 Cellular System POTS / Mobile Telephone Connections ............................................................ 1-34 Layout of a Cellular System .............................................................................. 1-36 Multiple Access Methods .................................................................................. 1-38 FDMA/TDMA Structure Used in GSM ............................................................ 1-40 Spectral Allocation ............................................................................................ 1-42 TDMA Operation .............................................................................................. 1-44 TDMA Frame Organization for Trafc Channels ............................................. 1-46 Multiplexing Voice and Signaling Using 13k bps Speech Coding .................... 1-48 Multiplexing 2 Voice Calls Using 6.5k bps Speech Coding.............................. 1-50 ISDN-Like Channel Structure Requires 6.5k bps Speech Coding ..................... 1-52 Cellular Concepts Simple Non-cellular (Non-practical) Wireless System ...................................... 1-56 Basic Cellular Principles ................................................................................... 1-58 Channel Reuse................................................................................................... 1-60 Channel Reuse Example Using GSM Frequencies ....................................... 1-62 Cell Coverage Area ........................................................................................... 1-64 Other Cell Clusters ............................................................................................ 1-66 Cellular Growth Through Cell Splitting ............................................................ 1-68 Continued Growth ............................................................................................. 1-70 Sectorized Antennas .......................................................................................... 1-72 Mobile Stations and Features Types of Mobile Stations .................................................................................. 1-76

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Unit 2: System Architecture Overview GSM Land-Mobile Network Reference Model ................................................... 2-2 GSM Network Management Architecture ........................................................... 2-4 The SS7 Architecture .......................................................................................... 2-6 Base Station System (BSS) Architecture ............................................................. 2-8 BSS - Continued ............................................................................................... 2-10 Mobile-Station/Base-Station Interface .............................................................. 2-12 Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) ........................................................ 2-14 BSS/MSC Interface (A) .................................................................................... 2-16 MS-BTS-BSC-MSC Signaling Protocol Model ................................................ 2-18 Home Location Register (HLR) ........................................................................ 2-20 Visitor Location Register (VLR) ....................................................................... 2-22 Equipment Identity Register (EIR) .................................................................... 2-24 Authentication Center (AUC)............................................................................ 2-26 Mobile Application Part (MAP) ........................................................................ 2-28 Major Procedures Supported By Map .......................................................... 2-30 Public Land Mobile Networks (PLMNs) .......................................................... 2-32 GSM System Area (GSA) ................................................................................. 2-34 Service Quality Requirements ........................................................................... 2-36 Unit 3: Mobility Management Unit Overview ..................................................................................................... 3-2 GSM Reference Model ........................................................................................ 3-4 Location Areas Paging a Mobile Station ...................................................................................... 3-8 Where is the Mobile Station? ............................................................................ 3-10 Paging Performance .......................................................................................... 3-12 Location Areas and Cell Areas .......................................................................... 3-14 Location and Cell Area Identication................................................................ 3-16 Country Codes and Mobile Country Codes Partial List ............................... 3-18 MSC Areas and Location Areas ........................................................................ 3-20 Summary of Area Relationships ........................................................................ 3-22 Where the HLR Fits in the Picture .................................................................... 3-24 Mobile Station Fixed vs. Mobile Station Directory Number Translation................................... 3-28 Mobile Station ................................................................................................... 3-30 Mobile Station Identication ............................................................................. 3-32 Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) .................................................................... 3-34 Home Location Register (HLR) ........................................................................ 3-36

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Visitor Location Register (VLR) ....................................................................... 3-38 Location Update Example First Time........................................................... 3-40 Location Update Example First Time -- Continued ...................................... 3-42 Location Update Example Movement within VLR Area .............................. 3-44 Location Update Example Movement within VLR Area -- cont. ................. 3-46 Location Update Example Movement between VLRs .................................. 3-48 Location Update Example Movement between VLRs -- cont. ..................... 3-50 Routing Calls Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) ....................................................... 3-54 MSC Directory Number Allocation .................................................................. 3-56 Land to Mobile Call Routing Mobile Located in Non-Home MSC Area ..... 3-58 Land to Mobile Call Routing Mobile in Home MSC Area ........................... 3-60 Land to Mobile Call Routing Via Gateway MSC ......................................... 3-62 Land to Mobile Call Routing Intelligent PSTN ............................................ 3-64 Mobile Station 3 Types of Mobile Station Registration ............................................................. 3-68 Geographic Based Registration ......................................................................... 3-70 Time Based Registration ................................................................................... 3-72 ON/OFF Based Registration ............................................................................. 3-74 Condentiality and Condentiality & Security Mechanisms............................................................ 3-78 Why Authenticate? ............................................................................................ 3-80 Subscriber Identity Authentication and CipherKey Setting ............................... 3-82 Authentication Process Network View ......................................................... 3-84 Encrypted Trafc Channel Information ............................................................. 3-86 Data Encryption Process ................................................................................... 3-88 Why Validate Mobile Equipment? .................................................................... 3-90 Equipment Validation Process .......................................................................... 3-92 Detailed Location Phases of a Mobile Station Location Registration Update ............................ 3-96 Mobile Location Update Request for Service ............................................... 3-98 Mobile Location Update Authentication .................................................... 3-100 Mobile Location Update Update Location.................................................. 3-102 Mobile Location Update Ciphering ............................................................ 3-104 Mobile Location Update TMSI Reallocation.............................................. 3-106 Unit 4: Call Management Unit Overview ..................................................................................................... 4-2 GSM Reference Model ........................................................................................ 4-4 Required Facilities for a Mobile-Land Call ......................................................... 4-6 Mobile to Land

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Phases of a Mobile to Land Call........................................................................ Mobile to Land Call Request for Service ..................................................... Mobile to Land Call Authentication ............................................................. Mobile to Land Call Ciphering..................................................................... Mobile to Land Call Equipment Validation ................................................. Mobile to Land Call Call Setup -- with Mobile ............................................ Mobile to Land Call Call Setup -- with Land Network ................................ Mobile to Land Call Release -- Mobile Initiated .......................................... Land to Mobile Phases of a Land to Mobile Call........................................................................ Land to Mobile Call Routing Analysis ......................................................... Land to Mobile Call Paging ......................................................................... Land to Mobile Call Authentication ............................................................. Land to Mobile Call Ciphering..................................................................... Land to Mobile Call Equipment Validation ................................................. Land to Mobile Call Call Setup -- with Mobile ............................................ Land to Mobile Call Call Setup -- with Land Network ................................ Land to Mobile Call Release -- Network Initiated ........................................ Mobile to Mobile Phases of a Mobile to Mobile Call .................................................................... Handover Overview Why Handover? ................................................................................................ Handover Opportunity Window ........................................................................ Handover Process .............................................................................................. Mobile Station Measurement Process for Handover -- Example ....................... Factors that can Inuence the Decision to Handover ......................................... Handover Types 4 Levels ............................................................................. Example of Different Handover Types .............................................................. Intra-MSC Inter-BSS Handover Steps............................................................... Intra-MSC Inter-BSS Handover Steps Continued ........................................ Handover Open Interval Gap -- Example .......................................................... Inter-MSC Handover Types .............................................................................. Basic Inter-MSC Handover Steps...................................................................... Basic Inter-MSC Handover Steps Continued ............................................... Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Steps Handback ...................................... Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Steps Handback -- Continued ................. Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Exercise 3rd MSC ................................... Subsequent Inter-MSC Handover Exercise 3rd MSC -- Continued .............. Inter-MSC Handover Voice Facilities ............................................................... MSC Directory Number Spectrum .................................................................... Inter-MSC Signaling ......................................................................................... Basic Inter-MSC Handover Initial Condition ...............................................

4-10 4-12 4-14 4-16 4-18 4-20 4-22 4-24 4-28 4-30 4-32 4-34 4-36 4-38 4-40 4-42 4-44 4-48 4-52 4-54 4-56 4-58 4-60 4-62 4-64 4-66 4-68 4-70 4-72 4-74 4-76 4-78 4-80 4-82 4-84 4-86 4-88 4-90 4-92

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Basic Inter-MSC Handover Handover Number Allocation .......................... 4-94 Basic Inter-MSC Handover Inter-MSC Trunk Setup .................................... 4-96 Basic Inter-MSC Handover Facilities Before Handover ............................... 4-98 Basic Inter-MSC Handover Events After Handover Command.................. 4-100 Handover Scenarios Intra-BSS Handover ........................................................................................ 4-104 Intra-MSC Handover Steps 1 & 2 .............................................................. 4-106 Intra-MSC Handover Steps 3 & 4 .............................................................. 4-108 Inter-MSC Handover Basic -- Steps 1 & 2 ................................................. 4-110 Inter-MSC Handover Basic -- Steps 3 & 4 ................................................. 4-112 Inter-MSC Handover Basic -- After Call Ends ........................................... 4-114 Inter-MSC Handover Handback -- Steps 1 & 2 .......................................... 4-116 Inter-MSC Handover Handback -- Steps 3 & 4 .......................................... 4-118 Inter-MSC Handover 3rd MSC -- Steps 1 & 2 ........................................... 4-120 Inter-MSC Handover 3rd MSC -- Step 2 continued ................................... 4-122 Inter-MSC Handover 3rd MSC -- Step 3 .................................................... 4-126 Inter-MSC Handover 3rd MSC -- Step 4 .................................................... 4-128 Unit 5: 5ESS MSC Unit Overview ..................................................................................................... 5-2 GSM Reference Model ........................................................................................ 5-4 GSM Reference Model AT&T Product Offering ........................................... 5-6 INTERNATIONAL 5ESS System Architecture Overview .......................................................................... 5-10 Basic 5ESS Architecture ................................................................................... 5-12 Basic 5ESS Wireless Switch Architecture......................................................... 5-14 32 Channel Digital Facilities used between MSC and BSSs ............................. 5-16 Maximum Digital Facilities per WSM .............................................................. 5-18 WSM Trunk Engineering .................................................................................. 5-20 5ESS WSM Architecture................................................................................... 5-22 Wireless Global SM (WGSM) Logical Signaling Path View ....................... 5-24 Example: Facilities between 5ESS and 1 BSS .................................................. 5-26 Wireless Global SM (WGSM) Actual Signaling Path View ........................ 5-28 BSS-5ESS Signaling Architecture .................................................................... 5-30 MS-BTS-BSC-MSC SIGNALING PROTOCOL MODEL............................... 5-32 PSTN & PLMN-5ESS Signaling Architecture .................................................. 5-34 MAP SIGNAL PROTOCOL STACK ARCHITECTURE ................................ 5-36 PACKET SWITCH UNIT SIGNAL LINK ARCHITECTURE ........................ 5-38 GSM Terminology ............................................................................................ 5-40 Inter-SM Message Communication ................................................................... 5-42 Summary of 5ESS Message Switching Architecture .................................... 5-44

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EXTERNAL DATABASE ACCESS )em High Level View ............................ 5-46 WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS )em Example ........................................... 5-48 WIRELESS DATABASE ACCESS )em MAP Message Routing .................... 5-50 HLR, VLR, AUC, and EIR AT&T GSM HLR, VLR, AUC, & EIR............................................................. 5-54 Implementation of HLR & VLR on 5ESS......................................................... 5-56 Routing Service Requests )em to the Correct VLR ........................................... 5-58 TMSI Organization ........................................................................................... 5-60 Location of Authentication Center .................................................................... 5-62 Location of Equipment Identity Register .......................................................... 5-64 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION SCENARIO ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION .......................................................... 5-68 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION - Cont ............................................... 5-70 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Request for Service and IMSI Query............................................................................................................. 5-72 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION Auth., Create New & Cancel Old VLR........................................................................................................ 5-74 ROAMING MOBILE REGISTRATION TMSI Reallocation, LU Complete ....................................................................................................... 5-76 MOBILE TO LAND CALL SCENARIO VLR SM & Trunk SM Relationship ................................................................. 5-80 SMs Used for a Mobile To Land Call ............................................................... 5-82 Phases of a Mobile to Land Call........................................................................ 5-84 Mobile to Land Call Request for Service ..................................................... 5-86 Mobile to Land Call Authentication and Call Setup ..................................... 5-88 Mobile to Land Call Ciphering and Call Setup ............................................ 5-90 Mobile to Land Call Equipment Validation and Call Setup ......................... 5-92 Mobile to Land Call Call Setup .................................................................... 5-94 Mobile to Land Call Mobile Release ............................................................ 5-96 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL CALL DELIVERY TO A MOBILE STATION Via Gateway with External HLR .............................................................................................. 5-102 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing Information Query ....... 5-104 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Routing to VLR MSC and Paging ......................................................................................................... 5-106 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Authentication, BSS Trunk Hunt, Ciphering ........................................................................................... 5-108 LAND TO ROAMING MOBILE CALL Radio Channel Assignment, Call Connection ........................................................................................... 5-110 INTRA-MSC HANDOVER Handover Steps ............................................................................................... 5-114 4 Steps to a Handover Switching Voice Paths ............................................ 5-116

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

4 Steps to a Handover - continue Switching Voice Paths ........................... Intra-MSC Handover Part 1 ........................................................................ Intra-MSC Handover Part 2 ........................................................................ Intra-MSC Handover Part 3 ........................................................................ Intra-MSC Handover Part 4 ........................................................................ INTER-MSC HANDOVER 4 Steps to a INTER-MSC Handover Switching Voice Paths ...................... 4 Steps to a INTER-MSC Handover - continue Switching Voice Paths ..... INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Required , New BSS Trunk Assignment.................................................................................................. INTER-MSC HANDOVER ISUP Trunk Setup, Radio Channel Assignment.................................................................................................. INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover Command, Mobile Retune ............ INTER-MSC HANDOVER Handover End, Old BSS Trunk Release ........ 5ESS Terminology Clarication ..................................................................... Unit 7: Overview of Japan Cellular

5-118 5-120 5-122 5-124 5-126 5-130 5-132 5-134 5-136 5-138 5-140 5-142

Unit Overview ..................................................................................................... 7-2 Overview of Japan Cellular Japans Cellular Networks................................................................................... 7-6 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Company Overview........................ 7-8 800 MHz Band Analog Cellular Telephone Company Map .............................. 7-10 Terminal Unit Charges ...................................................................................... 7-12 800 MHz Band Digital Cellular Telephone Companies .................................... 7-14 1.5 GHz Band Digital PCN Cellular Telephone Companies ............................. 7-16 1.9 GHz Band Digital PHPs Cellular Telephone Companies ........................... 7-18 Japans Telecommunication Standards .............................................................. 7-20 Japan TTC OVERVIEW ................................................................................... 7-24 Japan TTC Overview Diagram .......................................................................... 7-26 Japan RCR Overview ........................................................................................ 7-28 Japan RCR Overview Diagram ......................................................................... 7-30 MSC<->BSS<->MS Protocol Model ................................................................ 7-32 Japan DMNI Overview ..................................................................................... 7-34 Japan DMNI Overview Diagram ....................................................................... 7-36 JAPAN to GSM Model Comparison Diagram .................................................. 7-42 JAPAN Network Parameters ............................................................................. 7-44 IDO Overview IDO Overview ................................................................................................... 7-48 IDOs Network Architecture ............................................................................. 7-50 IDOs 5ESS Architecture .................................................................................. 7-52 IDOs 5ESS Supplementary Services ................................................................ 7-54

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The Japan Digital Cellular System

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IDO Documentation Status ............................................................................... Japan Cellular Network Call Scenarios Location Registration - Home Subscriber ......................................................... Location Registration - Visiting Subscriber ...................................................... Call Termination - Home MS ............................................................................ Call Termination - Visitor ................................................................................. Appendix 1: Index to GSM Specication Document

7-56 7-60 7-62 7-64 7-66

Index to GSM Specication Document ............................................... Appendix 1-2 Appendix 2: Obtaining Copies of the GSM Recommedations Requesting a Copy of GSM via LINUS ............................................... Appendix 2-2 Appendix 3: Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04 Glossary of GSM Terms -- GSM 01.04 ............................................... Appendix 3-2

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

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The Pan-European GSM Cellular System

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