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factors invoved in ground distance relays are explained beauifully .

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Jun Verzosa Doble Engineering Company Watertown, Massachusetts, USA

Presented to Protection Testing Users Group Salt Lake City, Utah 26-28 September 2005

Topics Covered

Why this paper? Residual compensation or Zero-sequence current compensation Typical Polygon characteristics and resistive reach setting Modeling and testing ground distance characteristics and influence of residual compensation

Names Residual compensation Zero-sequence current compensation Ground (or earth) return compensation Neutral (or earth or ground) impedance correction

Symbols KN K0 KE KG KZN, KZPh Z0/Z1 RE/RL, XE/XL Etc.

Some relays have no factor setting but internally calculate compensation from: R1, X1, R0, X0 Z1 and Z0

Es Z1S, Z0S

n

R Ia . Z1, Z0 F

VaR

21G

A-N Fault

Fault Location F, VF=0

I1 V1R

F1 F2 F0

I2 V2R

I0 V0R

N1

nZ2 = nZ1

nZ0

N2

N0

E1

I1 = I2 = I0 .

The voltage at the fault point F is zero (assuming a bolted fault), and the sequence voltages are:

The phase A current Ia at the relaying point is then

Ia = I1 + I2 + I0

and, since I1 = I2 = I0, the residual (neutral) current is

In = Ia + Ib + Ic = 3I0 I0 = In / 3 = Ia / 3

If we add and subtract I0nZ1 in the voltage equation, factor out nZ1 and I0, and substitute the Ia and I0 equations

VaR = I1nZ1 + I2nZ1 + I0nZ1 I0nZ1 + I0nZ0 = ( I1 + I 2 + I0 ) nZ1 I0nZ1 + I0nZ0 = Ia nZ1 + I0 (Z0 Z1) n = Ia nZ1 + (Ia/3) (Z0 Z1) n

If we use the voltage VaR and the current Ia directly for measurement the apparent impedance that is measured is

The extra second term makes the result not very usable. To make the relay easier to use, the objective in the design of most ground distance relays is to make the relay measure only the first term, nZ1

If we substitute In/3 for I0 in the voltage equation and multiply the second term by Z1/Z1

and simplify the equation to express the impedances as a factor of Z1, we obtain

If we define a constant KN=

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + KNIn) = n Z1 where: KN = ( Z0 Z1) / 3Z1 = ( Z0/Z1 1) / 3

Residual Compensation is a technique that allows measurement of the fault impedance in terms of positivesequence impedance, by adding a portion, KN, of the residual current In to the phase current.

Considering the previous voltage equation

If we express the voltage drops in terms of Z1

This is the loop voltage from the relay terminal to the fault point and back, through a ground-return impedance

location.

Hence, we can model the network as shown below Z n Z1 E

A

s

*

Relay Location

IA

IB = 0

EB

Zs

n Z1

*

VaR

EC

Zs

IC =0

n Z1

*

Ph AN Fault

IN

ZNs

n ZN

*

=n (Z0 - Z1)/3

*

The impedance ZN is called the ground-return (or residual) impedance and is defined as

ZN = ( Z0 Z1 ) / 3

Note also the relationships

ZN = KN Z1

Or

KN = ZN / Z1

A B C A-N Fault IA

Van Ia

Relay Comparator Circuits Replica Circuits

Z1

Z1

Z1

ZN

In

Considering the previous voltage equation and and if we replace In by 3I0 we get

VaR = [Ia + 3I0 (Z0 Z1)/(3Z1)] nZ1 = [Ia + I0 (Z0 Z1)/(Z1)] nZ1

We introduce K0 = (Z0-Z1)/Z1

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + K0I0) = n Z1 where: K0 = ( Z0 Z1) / Z1 = Z0/Z1 1

Zero-sequence Current Compensation is a technique that allows measurement of the fault impedance in terms of positive-sequence impedance, by adding a portion, K0, of the zero-sequence current I0 to the phase current.

xyz E

A

Relay Location

IA

*

Zs

IB = 0

ZL

=RL + j XL

EB

Zs

ZL

VaR

EC

Zs

IC =0

*

ZL

Ph AN Fault

IN

ZNs

ZE

=RE + j XE =(Z0 - Z1)/3

X

N =Z ZE

XE

RE XLoop

p oo ZL

Z1 ZL =

XL=X1

R

RL=R1

RLoop

ZE = ZN = (Z0 Z1) / 3 = [ (R0 j X0) (R1 + j X1) ] / 3 = (R0 R1)/3 + j (X0 X1)/3 = RE + j XE ZL = R1 + j X1 = RL + j XL

If we express ZLoop into its resistive and reactive components, and express them in terms of RL and XL, we can introduce ratio constants RE/RL and XE/XL

The compensation constants can be derived from equations of RE, RL, XE and XL

XE/XL = [ (X0 X1)/3 ] / X1 =

XE 1 X 0 = 1 XL 3 X 1

KN = (Z0/Z1 1) / 3 K0 = (Z0/Z1 1) K0 = Z0/Z1 K0x = (X0/X1 1) / 3 magnitude & angle magnitude & angle magnitude & angle scalar

RE/RL=(R0/R1-1)/3

&

XE/XL=(X0/X1-1)/3

Some relays do not require a compensation factor setting but internally calculate KN or K0 from from the positive- and zero-sequence impedance settings

Test system does not support form of compensation Try testing with a different compensation form Using existing relay setting on another relay Replacing an existing relay

XLoop

ZN

XN

R1

ZNang

RN

ZLoop = Z1 + ZN

Z1

X1

ZLoopAng Z1ang

RLoop

Z1 AN fault

21

IaR

VaR

Rarc

Rtf ZN

RLoop

Rarc

Rtf

XLoop

ZN

XN

R1

ZNang

RN

ZLoopAng = Z1 + ZN

X1

Z1

= ZLoop + RFLoop

RFLoop

ZLoopAng Z1ang

Z1 AN fault

21

IaR

VaR

Rarc

Rtf ZN

Regardless of the characteristic type the maximum resistive reach setting is affected by other factors

Relay maximum resistive setting, Maximum load Use of load encroachment feature, Relay current sensitivity, Tilting effect of remote infeed current.

XLoop

Less fault resistance coverage RFLoop = RFph*(1+KNx)

X1

Z1

RFph

RFLoop

ZL oo

XLoop = X1 * (1+KNx)

XLoop

Z Lo

Z1

Z1

ZL oop

X1

op

PhiLoop

PhiLoop

Phi1

Phi1

RFLoop

RFLoop

Per-phase model

Z1L

Loop Characteristic

P2L

Constant test current method VaR = Ia * ZFault * (1+KN) Constant test voltage method Ia = VaR / (ZFault * (1+KN))

P4L

Z1

P2

P3L

P3 P4

VaR = Ia ZFltLoop

*

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (1) KN = (Z0/Z1-1) / 3 ------ complex Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.

Z1L

Loop Characteristic

P2L

Z1

P2

P3L

P4L

P3 P4

Loop model needs extra calculation of ZLoop reach and ZLoop angle.

P1

Characteristic Modeling & Testing(2) K0x = (X0/X1-1) / 3 ------ Scalar Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.

P1L P2L P4L P3L

P2

P4

P3

P5L P5

X1

RFph

P6

P6L

Use Per-phase model Va/Ia = Zfault (1+ KNx)

Scalar factors -- RE/RL and XE/XL Per-phase model Loop Model

Scalar factors -- RE/RL and XE/XL Per-phase model Loop Model

Per-phase model looks more like actual setting. Both models work well. Loop model requires extra complex calculations. If software supports RE/RL & XE/XL compensation, use per-phase model.

KN = (Z0/Z1 1) / 3 &

+ Va

RFLoop

Ia n*Z1

RFLoop Ia n*Z1*KN

Z1 is per-phase

Z1

Phi1

RFLoop

is Loop

Characteristic does not include ground return impedance. It is included in the KN setting

Loop model

Z1L

RFLoop

Loop model includes the ground return impedance. Resistive Reach is the same for per-phase and loop models and remains the same throughout.

Z1

ZLo op

PhiLoop

PhiLoop

RFLoop

Z1L

RF PL

PL

Start with P (Px,Pr) Draw horizontal line to the Zline to intersect at P Px = Px Pr = Px/tan(Phi1)

Z1 RF

Phi1

RF = Pr Px PL = P *(1+KN) PL = PL + RF

Z1L

ZN

RF2

P2L

P2L

Z1

RF3

P3L

P2

RF3

RF2 P3

P2

RF4 P4

P4L

RF4

RF5

P5 = P5L

Allows testing using separate fault resistance for points -To the right of the line angle only -To the left of the line angle only - both left and right of line angle If not checked, ZPLoop = ZP (1 + KN)

Per-Phase Testing Loop Testing

Per-Phase Testing Loop Testing

Per-phase model looks more like actual setting. Both models work well. Loop model requires extra complex calculations. If software supports complex KN compensation, use per-phase model, if reactance line tilt is small

Tilt angle

RF

PL

PL

Tilt angle

P

RF

If tilt angle is more than +/-3 deg using separate fault resistance is erroneous. Use Loop Impedance model only.

Z Lo op

Rs1 Rs2

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (10) Angle of resistance blinder is different from loop angle, phiLoop. Use Loop Impedance model only

XN

Loop

phiN

oop ZL

Per-phase

X1

phiLoop

phi1

RFloop

phi1

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11) Some test software allow selection of several types of compensation factors. Use these features if per-phase modeling and testing provides correct results for type of characteristic tested

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12a) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12b) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Importing characteristics exported by relay software

Simultaneous testing of multiple zones with complex characteristics Load encroachment Directional Lines

Summary (1)

Ground distance relays employ some form of compensation of the ground-return impedance in order to measure (and also to allow the relay to be set) in terms of positive-sequence impedance. A derivation these forms of compensation is presented.

Summary (2)

The many names, symbols and formulas that are in use for residual or ground-return compensation pose a challenge to personnel who set and test the relays. Some forms of compensation that use different formulas are called by the same name and symbol. This can result in applying the wrong setting if one is not careful and may result in either relay misoperation or failure to trip.

Summary (3)

The fault resistance reach, for polygon-shaped characteristics, is set in Ohms per phase in some relays while in other relays it is set in Ohms per loop. In some relay manuals this fact is not explicitly indicated. The ground-return compensation affects the fault resistance reach and the angle of the resistive blinder in different ways, depending on the design of the relay.

Summary (4)

Each form of ground-return impedance compensation can be converted to another form. Formulas are derived to perform this conversion. These formulas are handy when a relay being tested has a compensation setting that is not supported by the relay test system. A spreadsheet that implements these formulas makes conversion easy and avoids calculation errors.

Summary (5)

Testing the reactance line and rsistance blinder of polygon characteristics can be done

Both in the per-phase impedance plane Both in the loop impedance plane, A 3rd test method models the reactance line in per-phase and treats the fault resistance separately from the main impedance.

Summary (6)

Selecting the most suitable model for testing depends on assessment of How the angle of the resistive blinder is affected by the residual compensation Tilt angle of the reactance line. Testing

points for a reactance line that has a large tilt angle, using a separate fault resistance, will result in test errors.

Summary (7)

Personnel who set relays and those who test them must have a good understanding of the methods of residual compensation, how the resistive reach is set and affected by the compensation and how the relay characteristics are modeled. Cooperation between these personnel is very important to actually verify their understanding of the settings and relay behavior and that the models are suitable.

Summary (8)

The relay operation in the 2nd and 4th quadrants of polygon characteristics is affected by additional factors including the

behavior of the directional lines, the type of characteristic lines (straight lines or circular arcs), and the source impedance.

Summary (9)

Automated software allows easy modeling and correct testing of complex ground distance polygon characteristics with various forms of residual compensation factors.

Questions?

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