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DOMINELEKTRO

INFORMATIVE DESCRIPTION OF TYPE DNL103 RELAY MONITORING OF SHAFT VOLTAGES AND BEARING CURRENTS

Number: DE2592 Page.: 1/4

RELAY DEVICE FOR MONITORING OF SHAFT VOLTAGES AND BEARING CURRENTS TYPE DNL103

Main

Used to monitor shaft voltage and bearing current flowing through the shaft and bearing caused with breakdown of oil film and isolation of bearings Suitable for monitoring hydro-generators, available designs for more general requirements and other machinery. designed on the basis of electronic relays specifically developed for this purpose. Measuring the signal current through the shaft of the generator realised with coil Rogowski mounted around the shaft, or measuring shunt Adjustment of over-current with delay done with dials on the front panel of the relays It has four relay outputs: for alarm tripping of over-current relay, over and undercurrent for surveillance of resistance in the circuit grounding brushes, and the readiness alarm

For local indication of current through the ground shaft or shaft voltage has a digital instrument display For remote indication of the shaft current has a separate analog output. It has LED indication for detection of proper power supply, work readiness, and signalling over-current tripping and overvoltage members. It uses a universal auxiliary DC power supply 100-300V,or AC 90-250V Easy to fit into existing systems of protection and control. Easy to mount on the dashboard or in protection systems cabinets. Available with an extended version of the protection and supervision tasks.

Purpose

DNL103 relay is an electronic monitoring device designed for monitoring shaft current and voltage of the isolated bearing of hydroelectric generator. Bearing current monitoring is realised on the base of measuring the current through the shaft, as the same current flows through the upper bearing. Measuring the signal current through the shaft of the generator is realised with coil Rogowski mounted around the shaft, as it one can see on picture 1 (coil is situated in plastic tube and fixed on non-rotating part). Coil is connected to Rogowski integrator nearby, as coil gives small voltage that equals to derivate of current inside its circuit.

Shaft voltage monitoring is made on a basis of measurements of voltage of the brush which has contact with shaft near upper generator bearing (non-driven side, see picture below). If static excitation is employed, a R-C filter is connected between brush and ground in order to bypass bearing oil film, and protect it from pulse currents This brush connection is monitored for a too high current in RC filter (over current element), or low current caused with too high resistance in grounding brush circuit. Relay DNL103 can be applied to various types of machines. The settings should be adapted to the characteristics of aggregate and user requirements.

Pict. 1. Application for shaft current measuring with Rogowski coil


DE2006f.doc / 1/4 Dominelektro doo, 10090 Zagreb, Ivane B. Maurani 52, tel. 385 1 3733470, dominelektro@zg.tel.hr 26/10/11

DOMINELEKTRO

INFORMATIVE DESCRIPTION OF TYPE DNL103 RELAY MONITORING OF SHAFT VOLTAGES AND BEARING CURRENTS

Number: DE2592 Page.: 2/4

Problem and Solution

. The emergence of axial shaft voltages in the generator, as well as other electrical machines is unavoidable and is caused by a variety of electromagnetic phenomena, such as: - Electro-magnetic asymmetry of the rotor with respect to the axis of rotation, which leads to induction of rotating shaft voltage with relatively low height but large power - Capacitively transferred steep voltages caused with switching of excitation thyristors are sometimes very high, but with small power - Occurrence of magnetization turbine components due to stray currents, the earth's magnetism, welding and other reasons, has small amount but high-power Using various measures as earthing, shorting of current paths and filtering, shaft voltages should be reduced as much as possible. Of course, main solution to prevent the occurrence of excessive bearing currents remains bearing isolation. The basic measures to prevent bearing currents is to isolate a generator bearing, which is realised with a double insulation between the bearings and foundations, with a isolated metal layer in the middle, so that insulation could be monitored at the facility. Peculiarity is that the hydro turbine shaft is grounded because of the water, so the lower (driven) end of the shaft has a zero electric potential. So on the upper bearing (non driven end) shaft voltage is present. Current will actually flow if the double-layer bearing isolation is faulted and in same time bearing oil film is deteriorated. Even in the event of failure of insulation of generator bearing oil film remains an insulator for voltages of lower amounts (up to aprox. 15V) and does not reach its breakthrough. The problem occurs when oil lose properties due to aging, or after the below described degradation of the bearing components owing to pulse voltages When applying the static excitation, capacitively transmitted pulses and highfrequency excitation voltages, caused with commutation of semiconductor switches in rectifiers are transfered to the shaft.

.Harmonics of 300Hz frequency are caused by the shape of voltage bridge circuit, and a pulse component are caused with commutation of thyristors. Pulse components offset voltage can be very high, among a hundreds or more volts, therefore, may induce an initial short-term breakthroughs oil film bearing Such breakthroughs, although with little energy, can lead to local dotted destruction of the white metal bearings and gradual thermal degradation. There may be a complete breakdown of bearing isolation, thus closing the circuit of rotating shaft voltage that has high power. It is important to note that the steep part of the wave offset voltage can be transmitted through the bearing capacity and bearing insulation and cause breaches of the oil film even if the isolation bearing is right (capacitive divider effect). Therefore, apart from basic measure insulation of generator bearing, there are necessary measures to reduce the forming of excessive shaft voltage in hydro generators equipped with static excitation systems, aids are desirable and control their height, harmonic order, and pulse spectrum. Arrangements by Dominelektro used in the prevention and reduction of shaft voltage in static excitation - RC filters on the DC side of the excitation (+ and - pole to the ground) - Polarized RC member when it is necessary to reduce the switching voltages of the excitation rectifier - RC filters for the grounding of the generator shaft on the bearing on the non-driven side In addition, it is desirable to have control of efficiency of the (all) measures to reduce shaft voltage and current, such as the quality of contact grounding brushes, the correctness of RC members and similar. If, however, a breakthrough through bearings and bearing insulation appears, there should be a warning that the high currents is flowing through the bearing to take appropriate action. Continuous monitoring and display of current can preventively warn the gradual degradation of the approaching failure. The figure 2. is a block diagram of DNL103.

DE2006f.doc / 2/4

Dominelektro doo, 10090 Zagreb, Ivane B. Maurani 52, tel. 385 1 3733470, dominelektro@zg.tel.hr

26/10/11

DOMINELEKTRO

INFORMATIVE DESCRIPTION OF TYPE DNL103 RELAY MONITORING OF SHAFT VOLTAGES AND BEARING CURRENTS

Number: DE2592 Page.: 3/4

Operation

Relay device DNL103, see block diagram in Fig.2 above, realizes a following mode of operation: -shaft current monitoring is performed, based on the measuring of current flowing through the shaft. Shaft is circulated with Rogowski coil and current signal is produced in the electronic integrator. Due to the harmonic content of current caused by the shaft voltage electrical signal are carried to internal "rms" converter. Alternatively, the shunt is applied in the current round of grounding and insulating the drive current. Shaft current measuring signal is also sent to the supervisory relay, as well as analog output signal to the SCADA device In the supervision relay measurement value is compared with the set value. If the amount exceeds the set current longer than the fixed

time a warning signal is given. So, activation of over-current stage is time-delayed. High current indicates the breakdown of oil film in the bearing and insulation of the bearing basement. -Shaft voltage monitoring is performed based on measurements of the voltage of the generator bearings at shaft non driven end. Voltage affects the resistor divider, into an effective value Optional current relay is installed that monitors the current in RC circuit path for short circuiting of oil-film bearings. Low current indicates too high resistance in circuit and failure and grounding brushes. This can draw preventive attention to gradual degradation and failure of grounding brushes Shaft voltage measuring signal is also sent as analog output signal to the SCADA device

DE2006f.doc / 3/4

Dominelektro doo, 10090 Zagreb, Ivane B. Maurani 52, tel. 385 1 3733470, dominelektro@zg.tel.hr

26/10/11

DOMINELEKTRO

INFORMATIVE DESCRIPTION OF TYPE DNL103 RELAY MONITORING OF SHAFT VOLTAGES AND BEARING CURRENTS

Number: DE2592 Page.: 4/4

Design The design of the DNL103 includes two metal housings situated near the points of measurement on generator shaft see drawing in Picture 2 and 3.. The first assembly unit DNL103A includes R-C filter and transducer for shaft voltage. see the picture 2 on right side. The second assembly unit DNL103B includes Rogowski integrator IR101 (or similar unit) and measuring relay for shaft current discrimination. Flexible Rogowski coil is mounted nearby around the shaft. This arrangements are only informative, as it depends on detailed specification of equipment. Metal housings are opened for making pictures, normally are closed.

Picture 2. DNL103A arrangement TECHNICAL DATA Power Supply Supply voltage 85-264Vac,50-300Hz or 110340V DC (supply module with universal input range) Power consumption: max. 10 W Heat dissipation: max. 10 W Digital outputs Executive relays with 2 changeover contacts High-voltage contact. 250 V -max continuous current. 1 A -inrush current max. 3 A, 50 W Analog outputs signal 0-20mA . Environmental Conditions Climatic conditions ambient temperature 0 - 55C humidity 95% RH classification 3K4, not condensingIEC 68-2-3 40 C, 93%RH 4 days DIN EN 60721-3-9 atmospheric pressure 106...70 kPa class 3K4 IEC 68-2-13 DIN IEC 721-3-3

Picture 3. DNL103B arrangement

Mechanical conditions vibration IEC 68-2-6 0.15mm/10-58Hz 2g / 58-150Hz 10 cycles, x,y,z-axes DIN IEC 654-3 Electrical conditions The DNL103 complies with the following test specifications: Test Specification EN 50081-2 for electrical emissions Test specification EN 61000-6-2 for immunity to EMI. . Mechanical Design Housing: Rittal Type AE1035.500 Dimensions: 400 x 300 x 150 mm Weight: 6.5 kg Protection: IP62

Reliability (MTBF) > 60 000h.

DE2006f.doc / 4/4

Dominelektro doo, 10090 Zagreb, Ivane B. Maurani 52, tel. 385 1 3733470, dominelektro@zg.tel.hr

26/10/11