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Curriculum Development

Part A : PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS

Philosophical Foundations

Curriculum Development

PART A I. Introduction A curriculum is developed based on certain beliefs and orientations, conceptions of learning and the demands of society. Philosophy is the starting point in any curriculum decision making and is the basis for all subsequent decisions regarding curriculum. Through the centuries, many philosophies of education have emerged, each with their own beliefs about education. There are two sides of philosophical viewpoints that have emerged within the curriculum field traditional and conservative versus contemporary and liberal. The traditional and conservative philosophical viewpoints are perennialism and essentialism whereas the contemporary and liberal philosophical viewpoints are progressivism and reconstructionism. II. Perennialism It is rooted from the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. The modern perennialists are Robert Hutchins and Mortimer Adler. The philosophical base of perennialism is that they believed some ideas have lasted over centuries and are relevant today as when they were first conceived. The aim of the education in perennialism is to improve man as man (Hutchins, 1953), to answer all educational questions derive from the answer to one question, to develop the rational person and to uncover universal truths by training the intellect. The ideas are a list of Great Books covering topics in Literature, Art, Psychology, Philosophy, Mathematics, Science, Economics, Politics and so forth. Examples of such books are Das Kapital written by Karl Marxs, Shakespeares complete works, War and Peace written by Leo Tolstoy and many others. Great Books are the source of knowledge in perennialism. The role of education of perennialism is when students are immersed in the study of these great ideas from Great Books, they espouse ideas and issue that have been occupied the minds of the thinking individuals in the last 2000 years which make them want to read again and again and will get benefit from it because the ideas are profound and meaningful even today as when they were written. Hence, students will appreciate it and will then develop their intellectual powers and moral qualities. The focus of the perennialism curriculum is to have the Great Book program which will discipline the mind and cultivate the intellect. They want the study of philosophy as a crucial part because the wanted students to discover those ideas of insightful and timeless in

Curriculum Development

understanding the human condition. It recommended a single elementary and secondary curriculum, spends some time in pre-schools, and was not keen on allowing students to take electives because those subjects denied students the opportunity to fully develop their rational powers. They wanted educators to spend more time teaching concepts and explaining how these concepts are meaningful to students and teaching should focus on the processes. At the secondary and university level, emphasis should be on teacher-guided seminars and dialogue where students should learn to learn and not to be evaluated. This will prepare students for specific careers and pursue knowledge for its own sake. The perennialists wanted students to emphasis more on scientific reasoning, learn to recognize controversy and disagreement and lastly the curriculum should teach religious, values and ethics. III. Essentialism The belief was popularized by educational philosopher William Bagley and later by Arthur Bestor and Admiral Rickover. The philosophy advocates in instilling students with the essentials or basics of academic knowledge and character development. This philosophy was based on argument that schools should not try to radically reshape society. Their aim is schools should transmit moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens. Teachers should instill traditional virtues such as respect for authority, fidelity to duty, consideration for others and practicality. Emphasize on the knowledge of science and understanding the world through scientific experimentation. Essentialist educators emphasize on the role of education which is to convey important knowledge about the world, acquisition of knowledge in natural science rather than non-specific disciplines such as philosophy or comparative religion. In its curriculum focus, the basics curriculum are Mathematics, natural science, History, foreign language and Literature. Elementary students receive instruction in skills such as writing, reading and measurement. Only by mastering the required material for their grade level are students promoted to the next higher grade. The essentialist programs are academically rigorous, for both slow and fast learners but are adjusted according to student ability. It advocates a longer school day, a longer academic year and more challenging textbooks but the classroom should be oriented around the teacher, who serves as the intellectual and moral role model for students. It is teacher-centered and teachers decide what is most important for students to learn with little

Curriculum Development

emphasize on student interests because it will divert time and attention from learning the academic subjects. Students are taught to be culturally literate, that is, to possess a working knowledge about the people, events, ideas and institutions. So that, when students leave school, they will possess not only basic skills and extensive knowledge, but also disciplined and practical minds, capable of applying their knowledge in real world settings. Discipline is necessary for systemic learning in a school situation. Students learn to respect authority in both school and society. Teachers need to be mature and well educated, who know their subjects well and can transmit their knowledge to students.

IV.

Progressivism The most responsible person for progressivism was John Dewey. The progressivism

believed that education must be based on the fact that humans are by nature social and learn best in real-life activities with other people. Their aim is to make education more relevant to the needs and interests of students. In progressivism, the role of education is to transmit societys identity by preparing young people for adult life. Hence, the aim of progressivism education is to allow learners to realize their interests and potential. Students should learn to work with others because learning in isolation, separates the mind from action and certain abilities and skills can only be learned in a group. Students should be constantly experimenting and solving problems; reconstructing their experiences and creating new knowledge. Teachers should not only emphasize drill and practice, but should expose learners to activities that relate to the real life situations of students, emphasizing learning by doing. The curriculum focuses on the study of natural and social Sciences as to expand personal experience of learners and from that it will developed students experiences, interests and abilities. Teachers should plan lessons that arouse curiosity and push students towards higher order thinking and knowledge construction. Students are encouraged to interact with one another

Curriculum Development

and develop social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points of view. Teachers should not be confined to focusing on one discrete discipline at a time but should introduce lessons that combine several different subjects. Students are to be exposed to a more democratic curriculum that recognizes accomplishments of all citizens regardless of race, cultural background or gender.

V.

Reconstructionism Famous reconstructionists were Theodore Brameld and George Counts. Recontructionists

philosophy based on reform and argues that students must be taught how to bring about change. It is a philosophy that believes in the rebuilding of social and cultural infrastructures. Their role of education is to allow students to study social problems and think of ways to improve society. Students must be taught how to bring about change. They suggested that school has to be the agent of social change and social reform. The knowledge of this philosophy is from revolutionary literature such as Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1968) and also George Counts (1932) speech titled Dare the School Build a New Social Order The aim is liberation upon the use of revolutionary literature in classrooms. The recontructionists want people to become active participants in changing their own status through social action to change bring about social justice. The curriculum is focus on social sciences (such as History, Political Science, Economics, Sociology, religion, Ethics, Poetry and Philosophy), rather than the sciences. The curriculum should engage students in critical analysis of the local, national and international community. Examples are issues are poverty, environment degradation, unemployment, crime, war, political oppression, hunger and etc. Students are not just analyze, interpret and evaluate social problems, but they had to be committed to the issues discussed and encouraged to take action to bring about constructive change. Students should learn to come to a consensus on issues and so group work was encouraged. The curriculum should be constantly changing to meet the changes in society. Teachers are considered the prime agents of social change, cultural renewal and internationalism.

Curriculum Development

Part B : MALAYSIAN EDUCATION CURRICULUM

Malaysian Education Curriculum

Curriculum Development

PART B

I.

Synopsis

A uniform system of education in both primary and secondary schools has been established whereby a national curriculum is used in all schools. Common central assessment and examinations at the end of the respective periods of schooling are also being practiced. The national language, Malay, is the official language of instruction. The school curriculum is expected to contribute to the holistic development of the individual (mental, emotional, physical, spiritual) by imparting general knowledge and skills, fostering healthy attitudes and instilling accepted moral values. The aim is to produce Malaysians citizens who are balanced, trained, and skillful and cherish the national aspiration for unity. The general instruction for on-going curriculum reform is to improve the quality of education in order to achieve the aims of the National Education Philosophy (NEP). The NEP has been geared towards achieving the nations vision to prepare children to become knowledgeable, trained and skilled individuals to meet the growing needs of the millennium. It is envisaged that this can be achieved by emphasizing science and technology, use of information technology, and inculcating good moral and work ethics suitable for the Information Age. The school curriculum is designed to achieve the intended learning outcomes for different ability levels. The national curriculum promotes unity through the use of a single medium of instruction (the national language) and the provision of the same core subjects for all pupils in all schools with the National Education System. However, the cultural diversity of ethnic groups in Malaysia is preserved through the existence of National Type Schools, which are allowed to use other major ethnic languages as the medium of instruction. The underlying theoretical principle of national curriculum formulation is that of general education, using an integrated approach in curriculum planning. The curriculum comprises content and skills, with emphasis on the development of basic skills, the acquisition of knowledge and thinking skills. Each subject must also incorporate the inculcation of moral

Curriculum Development

values and attitudes and the correct use of Malay and other languages, such as English, Chinese and Tamil. The integrated approach is the main focus in the design of the Integrated Curriculum for Primary School and Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School. The elements of knowledge, skills and values are incorporated so as to bring the integrated development of the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical aspects of the individual.

II.

Analysis of the Malaysian Education Curriculum

A. Curriculum during the colonial period Educational Philosophy Perennialism Malaysian Education Curriculum The Fenn-Wu Report (1952) Stresses more on continuing learning their mother tongue as to keep their cultural identity. Essentialism The Cheesman Plan (1946) - Free primary education in all languages. - Teaching of English is compulsory in all vernacular schools and the teaching of mother tongue language also made available. Progressivism The Barnes Report (1951) Recommended that education should be free and using modern teaching method. Emphasize on active learning, development of thinking and active participation in school activities. Reconstructivism -

During the colonial period, the policy of the British government is divide and rule. The policy was implemented through an education system designed to create a divided population. Before the independence of Malaysia, there were three education policy made by the British.

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The Cheesman Plan (1946) was based on the essentialism philosophy as this plan introduced free primary education is all languages. It also made the teaching of mother tongue was to be made available in the English schools and at the same time the teaching of English was to be made compulsory in all vernacular schools. Whereas the Barnes Report (1951) was more on Progressivism philosophy in its planning. The report recommended that education would be free and modern teaching methods would be used with emphasis on active learning, development of thinking and active participation in school activities. The Fenn-Wu Report (1952) made a change in accepting another language as media of instruction but still hold the Perennialism philosophy. The Chinese still want to maintain the cultural identity by having textbooks and curriculum from China, to study the ideas and issues of the Chinese finest thinkers and writers.

B. Curriculum initiatives after independence Educational Philosophy Perennialism Malaysian Education Curriculum Razak Report (1956) and the Education Ordinance (1957) All schools, irrespective of language medium should use common curriculum content Essentialism Rahman Talib Report and Education Act 1961 The establishment of teacher-training programs to facilitate expansion of the school system. The Cabinet Committee on Education (1979) Stress on 3R basic education reading, writing and arithmetic. Stress on a strong spiritual education and the desired elements of discipline. Progressivism The Cabinet Committee on Education (1979) Upper secondary education of two streams,

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academic and vocational Reconstructivism -

After independence, there was growing realization that unifying the various ethnic groups was a priority. The Razak Report (1956) and the Education Ordinance (1957) recommended the use of common curriculum contents for all schools irrespective of medium of instruction. This idea comes from the perennialists which suggested a single curriculum for the primary and secondary schools. The Rahman Talib Report and Education Act (1961) recommended the establishment of teacher-training arrangements to facilitate expansion of school system. Teachers need to be mature and well-educated, who know their subjects well and can transmit their knowledge to students, as proposed by the essentialists. Students must gain skills such as writing, reading and measurement and also a strong spiritual education and desired elements of discipline. These were proposed by the Cabinet Committee on Education (1979) and the essentialists. The Cabinet Committee and the progressivists agree on having education in both streams, academic and vocational. This will make schooling both interesting and useful. So that students solve problems in the classroom similar to those they will encounter outside school.

C. Curriculum Reform Educational Philosophy Perennialism Malaysian Education Curriculum Education Bill (1995) Pre-school is part of the national education system. Essentialism Progressivism The Integrated Primary School Curriculum (ICPS) Emphasizes the mastery, reinforcement and application of the 3Rs and the acquisition of

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complex skills and knowledge. Emphasizes the development of positive attitudes and values. Teaching Methods To enhance student interest and motivation, teachers are encouraged to use different teaching-learning strategies. Recontructivism Encourage students to be independent learners.

The Integrated Secondary School Curriculum (ICSS) The inclusion of science social subjects like History, Moral/Islamic education, humanities, applied arts and etc.

The reformation of the curriculum is due to the demand from the society that existing curriculum was overloaded and the relatively disturbing number of students who could not read and write at the desired level. Emphasize is more on pre-school education (Education Bill, 1995) and was recommended previously by the perennialism. The Integrated Primary School Curriculum (ICPS) and the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum (ICSS) were more on the modern education philosophy the progressivism and the reconstructivism. The ICPS having more of the progressivism philosophy like the emphasizing of 3Rs and the acquisition of complex skills and knowledge, the development of positive attitudes and values. Whereas the ICSS is having more of the reconstructivism philosophy in having the inclusion of science social subjects like History, Moral/Islamic education, humanities, applied arts and etc. Teaching methods were reformed as to enhance student interest and motivation. The teachers are encouraged to use different teaching-learning strategies. This is in conjunction with the progressivists who also wanted teachers to plan their lessons as to arouse students curiosity and push students towards

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higher order thinking and knowledge construction. This will then encourage students to be independent learners.

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Part C: CURRICULUM EVALUATION-CIPP MODEL OF EVALUATION

Curriculum Evaluation CIPP Model of Evaluation

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I.

Summary The Context, Input, Process, Product Model (CIPP Model) was introduced by Daniel L. Stufflebeam (1971). The CIPP Model is a comprehensive framework for guiding formative and summative evaluations of projects, programs, personnel, products, institutions, and systems. The model is configured for use in internal evaluations conducted by an organizations evaluators; self-evaluations conducted by project teams or individual service providers, and contracted or mandated external evaluations. The models core concepts are denoted by the acronym CIPP, which stands for evaluation of an entitys context, inputs, processes, and products. Context evaluations assess needs, problems, assets, and opportunities to help decision makers define goals and priorities and help the broader group of users judge goals, priorities, and outcomes. Input evaluations assess alternative approaches, competing action plans, staffing plans, and budgets for their feasibility and potential cost-effectiveness to meet targeted needs and achieve goals. Decision makers use input evaluations in choosing among competing plans, writing funding proposals, allocating resources, assigning staff, scheduling work, and ultimately in helping others judge an efforts plans and budget. Process evaluations assess the implementation of plans to help staff carry out activities and later help the broad group of users judge program performance and interpret outcomes. Product evaluations identify and assess outcomes intended and unintended, short term and long term both to help a staff keep an enterprise focused on achieving important outcomes and ultimately to help the broader group of users gauge the efforts success in meeting targeted needs. The CIPP Model emphasizes that evaluations most important purpose is not to prove, but to improve. Evaluation is thus conceived primarily as a functional activity in the long run to stimulating, aiding, and abetting efforts to strengthen and improve enterprises. However, the model also posits that some programs or other services will prove unworthy of attempts to improve them and should be terminated. By helping stop unneeded, corrupt, or hopelessly flawed

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efforts, evaluations serve an improvement function through assisting organizations to free resources and time for worthy enterprises. Consistent with its improvement focus, the CIPP Model places priority on guiding the planning and implementation of development efforts. The models intent is thus to supply evaluation users such as policy boards, government officials, foundation presidents and staff members, project staffs, school administrators, curriculum developers, city planners, military leaders, curriculum specialists, teachers and counselors with timely, valid information of use in identifying an appropriate area for development; formulating sound goals, activity plans, and budgets; successfully carrying out work plans; periodically deciding whether and, if so, how to repeat or expand an effort; and meeting a funders accountability requirements. The CIPP Model also provides for conducting retrospective, summative evaluations to serve a broad range of stakeholders. Potential consumers need summative reports to help assess the quality, cost, utility, and competitiveness of products and services they might acquire and use. Other stakeholders might want evidence on what their tax dollars or other types of support yielded. If evaluators effectively conduct, document, and report formative evaluations, they will have much of the information needed to produce a defensible summative evaluation report. Such information will also provide invaluable to those outsiders engaged to conduct a summative evaluation of a given entity. Figure 1 summarizes the CIPP Models basic elements in three concentric circles and portrays the central importance of defined values. The inner circle denotes the core values that should be identified and used to ground a given evaluation. The wheel surrounding the values is divided into four evaluative foci associated with any program or other endeavor: goals, plans, actions, and outcomes. The outer wheel indicates the type of evaluation that serves each of the four evaluative foci, i.e., context, input, process, and product evaluation. The goal-setting task raises questions for a context evaluation, which in turn provides information for validating or improving goals. Planning improvement efforts

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generates questions for an input evaluation, which correspondingly provides judgments of plans and direction for strengthening plans. Program actions bring up questions for a process evaluation, which in turn provides judgments of activities plus feedback for strengthening staff performance. Accomplishments, lack of accomplishments, and side effects command the attention of product evaluations, which ultimately issue judgments of outcomes and identify needs for achieving better results.

Figure 1. Key components of the CIPP Evaluation Model and Associated Relationship with Programs

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These relationships are made functional by grounding evaluations in core values, referenced in the schemes inner circle. Evaluations root term value refers to any of a range of ideals held by a society, group, or individual. The CIPP Model calls for the evaluator and client to identify and clarify the values that will guide particular evaluations. Examples values are success in helping all students meet a states mandated academic standards, helping all children develop basic academic skills, helping each child fulfill her or his potential for educational development, assisting and reinforcing development of students special gifts and talents, upholding human rights, meeting the needs of disabled and underprivileged children, developing students as good citizens, assuring equality of opportunity, effectively engaging parents in the healthy development of their children, attaining excellence in all aspects of schooling, conserving and using resources efficiently, assuring safety of educational products and procedures, employing research and innovation to strengthen teaching and learning, and maintaining accountability. Essentially, evaluators should take into account a set of pertinent societal, institutional, program, and professional/technical values when assessing programs or other entities. According to the CIPP Model, an evaluation is a systematic investigation of the value of a program or other evaluand. Consistent with this values-oriented definition, the CIPP Model operationally defines evaluation as a process of delineating, obtaining, reporting, and applying descriptive and judgmental information about some objects merit, worth, probity, and significance in order to guide decision making, support accountability, disseminate effective practices, and increase understanding of the involved phenomena. The CIPP Model stipulates that evaluations should be rigorously evaluated, a process referred to as metaevaluation (evaluation of an evaluation). Internal and external evaluators cannot maintain credibility for their evaluations if they do not subject to metaevaluations against appropriate standards.

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II.

Evaluation The Malaysian Education Curriculum was evaluated by using the checklist provided by the CIPP Model. It was a summative evaluation where all the four types of evaluation (context, input, process, product) being done. The purpose of doing the four types of evaluation was to discover that the curriculum excels in meeting the National Philosophy of Education. Only a section of the Malaysian Education Curriculum being evaluated which is the English in Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools. The revamp of the curriculum was based on the National Philosophy of Education. In this reformation, the introduction of the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum was the major change. The word integrated refers to integrated approach for the infusion of moral values, patriotism, science and technology, proper use of language, environmental education, study skills, creative and critical thinking. Infusions of these ideas are to occur across subject areas. Case Study : Evaluation on English in Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools. Stufflebeams (1971) CIPP Model provided a useful framework within which to evaluate Malaysian Education Curriculum i.e. evaluation on English in teaching and learning (English Form One) . The model involves attention to: (a) the Context evaluation examines the needs, goals and objectives of the curriculum and helps curriculum planning. The Input evaluation helps with curriculum structuring decisions by examining resources, alternative approaches, staffing and budgets to meet goals. The Process evaluation examines how the curriculum is implemented, therefore guiding implementation decisions. Lastly, the Product evaluation identifies and examines outcomes of the curriculum. This evaluation framework is helpful in determining the overall effectiveness of the curriculum. According to Stufflebeam (2003, pg. 4) the CIPP Model emphasizes that evaluations most important purpose is not to prove, but to improvea program.

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Evaluation of the context of the educational reformation did had a clear set of goals and expectations to be used by students. The curriculum frameworks were used to guide the selection and development of unit and courses of study for secondary students (form one). The teachers also taught students consistently with the goals and the curriculum frameworks. Hence, the planning of the reformation of the curriculum consistent with the goals, objectives, students expectation and what the teachers practices. However, evaluation did come across problems such as the curriculum is too broad. If a teacher were to teach strictly the objectives then the most relevant and interesting parts of the content are left out. If the teacher includes the relevance then there is not enough time to cover all of the objectives. The teachers need a modified curriculum for special education classes and there were too many topics - not enough time to teach. Evaluation of the input of the English Form One focuses on the resources which are more on the facilities and technologies. The facilities here were the need for additional classroom like Language Laboratory together with the apparatus and gadgets for the subject to be taught to the students. The other part of the resources is the technology. Technology has become an integral part of our daily activities such as the need for computers i.e. computer laboratory in schools. In evaluating the English in teaching and learning, these resources had seriously considered by the government in conjunction with the new curriculum. A lot of computer laboratories and facilities were constructed and build. More teaching colleges were build, and upgrading the status of teaching colleges to institution and university were actually improving the staffing skills especially teaching skills of English teachers. More budgets were given by the government in order to improve all resources mentioned above. However there were claims about the following areas which need more research (especially for English subject): how learning progresses, how different instructional strategies link to student learning, how teachers develop expertise in teaching, current and developing instructional strategies, and especially how to support learners from a variety of cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, it is recommended that

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more research is needed to study the instructional methods of highly effective teachers. Evaluation of the process of the English form one is the implementation of the new curriculum i.e. the integrated curriculum. Given consensus on goals and adequate resources to carry out the goals, evaluation was more on the process of teaching-learning. In the reformation of teaching method where students were encourages having interest and motivation so that they can become independent learners. Students were exposed to different styles of learning such as small group techniques and the use of ICT in teaching and learning. These new modes of learning did effective where students were less dependent on the teachers in getting information. Less chalk and talk. However, there were weaknesses like inculcating creative and critical thinking in planned life-like situations through use of collaborative efforts at solving problems. Outdated computer software in the computer laboratory with a lot of viruses was another defect in stimulating learning independently. Evaluation of the product of the English form one was more on students attainments i.e. students abilities. Do they meet the goals and objectives of the curriculum? Students were evaluated through formative and summative evaluation. For examples, exercises, monthly tests, mid-year examinations and end of year examinations or examinations centralized by Lembaga Peperiksaan Malaysia like Penilaian Menengah Rendah, and later Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia and Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan. The new trend now was to have more assessments done in school levels. Assessments were done by teachers such as Oral English Assessment It is difficult to draw specific conclusions from the current data because the tests for each grade level are different (even different schools had different grading), have been changed from one year to the next, and consistent grading methods have not been established. Consistent curricula, assessments, and scoring guidelines need to be achieved before one can accurately analyze the data with regards to student achievement. Therefore it is advisable to develop model assessments for English subjects, for different level of students.

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Finally, recommendations for the curriculum and future restructuring: Increase the time spend for students inquiry in teaching and learning process. Increase availability of technology to students. Recognizes that any professional development should focus on and consider the varying levels of teacher experience (e.g. beginning, intermediate, and veteran teacher). Encourage teachers participation in professional development activities which promote effective teaching and learning. The budget needs to support any special program related to the acquisition of the language. Equipment/materials need to be purchased for each school so that English can be taught.

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REFERENCES Stufflebeam, D. L. (2003). The CIPP model for evaluation. Western Michigan University, 2-9 Nelson, E. A. (2007). Impact of an Integrated Arts Curriculum on Student Achievement in Writing.
Retrieved November 23,2009, from http//:www.nelsonlessonplans.com/ Torres, S. S. et al. (2007-2008). 6-8 Science Program Evaluation Report. Retrieved 23, 2009, from

http//:www.columbia.k12.mo.us/ Battle, M. V. Evaluation of Training Programs in Technical Communication. Retrieved 23,2009, from http//:www.stc.org/ Phillips, J. A. (2009). Curriculum Development. Open University Malaysia. 22-36, 181-186, 230-239.

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APPENDIXES A. National Philosophy of Education

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National Philosophy of Education Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian Citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large.

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B. Curriculum in Malaysia

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C. Curriculum for English Form One