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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

I. Environmental Conditions

Site 1 Site 2
pH Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
1 6.8 6.6 6.9 7.0
2 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.8
3 6.5 6.9 6.9 6.1
Average 6.7 6.7 6.9 6.6
Table 1. Table for Soil pH Values Taken During First Set of Readings for Wet Season

Site 1 Site 2
pH Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
1 7.0 7.0 6.7 6.7
2 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.8
3 7.0 7.0 6.7 6.6
Average 7.0 7.0 6.7 6.7
Table 2. Table for Soil pH Values Taken During Second Set of Readings for Wet
Season

Site 1 Site 2
pH Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
1 6.8 7.1 7.0 6.9
2 7.1 7.0 6.9 7.0
3 6.9 6.8 7.0 6.8
Average 6.9 7.0 7.0 6.9
Table 3. Table for Soil pH Values Taken During First Set of Readings for Dry Season

Site 1 Site 2
pH Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
1 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.8
2 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.8
3 6.8 6.7 7.0 7.0
Average 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.9
Table 4. Table for Soil pH Values Taken During Second Set of Readings for Dry
Season
Based on the tables, the pH values do not vary greatly during the dry and wet

seasons. However, the table reveals a slight increase in soil acidity during the wet season.

The pH values during the wet season range from 6.6-7.0 while those of the dry season

range from 6.8-7.0. Soils tend to become acidic as a result of rainwater leaching away

basic ions such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Slightly acidic soils are

suitable for a wide range of plants to grow, especially shrubs.

The pH of the soil greatly affects plant growth and survival. The availability of

certain nutrients depends on the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Such nutrients are

nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen, in the form of nitrates, is made available

to plants if the pH is increased above 5.5. A pH between 6.0-7.0 would mean an increase

in phosphorus and would also promote the most readily available plant nutrients

including potassium and nitrogen.

Based on the data and the results of soil analysis, the soil has a relatively higher

mineral content since the soil pH averages between 6.0-7.0. These may have contributed

to the abundance of particular plants present in the Ecopark.

Site 1 Site 2
Temperature Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
o o o
1 26 C 26 C 26 C 26oC
2 26oC 26oC 26oC 26oC
3 26oC 26oC 27oC 27oC
o o o
Average 26 C 26 C 26 C 26oC
Table 5. Table for Soil Temperature Values Taken During First Set of Readings for
Wet Season

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Site 1 Site 2
Temperature Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
o o o
1 29 C 28 C 31 C 31oC
2 28oC 28oC 32oC 31oC
3 28oC 30.5oC 30oC 33oC
o o o
Average 28 C 29 C 31 C 32oC
Table 6. Table for Soil Temperature Values Taken During Second Set of Readings for
Wet Season

Site 1 Site 2
Temperature Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
o o o
1 26 C 28 C 27 C 28oC
o o o
2 27 C 29 C 26 C 28oC
3 28oC 27oC 26oC 28oC
Average 27oC 28oC 26oC 28oC
Table 7. Table for Soil Temperature Values Taken During First Set of Readings for
Dry Season

Site 1 Site 2
Temperature Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
1 25oC 25oC 27oC 26oC
2 26oC 26oC 26oC 28oC
o o o
3 25 C 25 C 26 C 28oC
Average 25oC 25oC 26oC 27oC
Table 8. Table for Soil Temperature Values Taken During Second Set of Readings for
Dry Season

Moderately warm temperatures were recorded during both seasons. However, the

temperatures increased a little during the wet season, due to the humidity.

Relative
Season Wet Bulb Dry Bulb Difference
Humidity
Wet Season 28oC 29oC 1oC 93%
o o
Dry Season 25 C 27 C 2oC 85%
Table 9. Table of Values for Humidity Taken During Both Seasons

It was observed that humidity is higher during the wet season when compared to

the dry season. Humidity affects transpiration or water loss through the stomata by plants.

The rate at which the plant loses water to the surroundings is dependent on the diffusion

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gradient of water vapor from inside to outside the leaf. Lower humidity would cause the

leaf to lose water when it opens its stomata to carry out photosynthesis. In order to

balance closing and opening of stomata, plants take up enough carbon dioxide while

minimizing water loss. This implies that plants requiring considerable amount of water

for its growth and development are best sown during the wet season, while plants

requiring less amounts of water are best cultivated during the dry season. This could

minimize cost and time allotted for the maintenance of the USLS Ecopark. Knowledge on

the suitable season for plant cultivation of a particular specie ensures its optimal growth

and development.

Soil ANALYSIS
Site
Texture Organic
Material % P K Ca Mg
1 SL 7.0 15 205 7,969 180
2 SL 8.3 14 194 2,671 69
Table 10. Table of Soil Analysis Results

The soil in both sites is sandy-loam in texture. Site 1 has a higher mineral content

compared to the soil sample taken from site 2. More organic material can be found in site

2 than in site 1. The decomposition of organic matter enables the release of nutrients,

particularly nitrogen, into the soil. These nutrients are then absorbed from the soil by

plant roots. Site 2 has a higher percentage of organic material compared to that of site 1,

which suggests that more organic matter has been decomposed in site 1 than in site 2.

This accounts for the higher mineral content in site 1 in comparison to that of site 2.

Soil texture affects pore space in the soil which plays a major role in the

movement of air and water in soil, penetration of roots and field capacity. A sandy loam

texture would somehow posses pore spaces enough for rapid water infiltration and

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drainage, which is favorable for plants. Thus, flooding of the area and submerging of

plants, which may be a hindrance to their growth and development, may occur less often

within the USLS Ecopark.

II. Plant Inventory

Number of Individuals
Species Name Site 1 Site 2 Total
Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10
Mangifera indica
1 (Indian Mango 3 3
Tree)
Altheranthera
2 polygonoides 55 392 323 770
(Purple hedge)
Catharanthus
3 roseus 34 34
(Periwinkle)
Samanea saman
4 1 1
(Acacia tree)
Artocarpus
5 heterophyllus 1 4 5
(Jackfruit)
Phallaenopsis
6 1 1
pallens
Acacia mangium
7 1 1
(Eucalyptus)
Mimosa pudica
8 108 335 443
(huya-huya)
Leucaena glauca
9 267 267
(ipil-ipil)
Montingia
10 1 1
calabura
Sanseviera
tritasciata
11 244 6 250
‘Laurentii’ (Spear
plant)
12 Gasteria lingua 6 6
Sanseviera
13 2 2
trifasciata 'Hahnii'
Dracaena
14 6 6
fragranscv.
Anthurium
15 1 1
andreanum
Polypodium
16 virginianum 2 2
(Ferns)

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Codiaeum
17 5 5
variegatum
Calathea
18 4 4
bechemiana
19 Gmelina arborea 1 1
20 Ficus septica 3 3
Azadirachta indica
21 1 1
(Neem)
Swietenia
22 mahogani 1 2 3
(Mahogany)
Acanthophoenix
23 1 1
rubra
Caryota mitis
24 1 1
(Palm fishtail)
Annona muricata
25 5 5
(Babana)
Colocasia
26 20 20
esculenta (Gabi2x)
Jatropha curcas
27 1 1
(Kasla)
Syngonium
28 64 64
podophyllum
Tradescantia
29 27 27
spathecea
30 Costus speciosus 2 2
Calathea
31 2 2
makoyana
Pterocarpus
32 1 1
indicus (Narra)
Coleus blumei
33 26 26
(Mayana)
34 Grass 1 680 2690 250 3570

35 Grass 2 50 340 390

36 Grass 3 20 20

37 Grass 4 40 230 230

38 Grass 5 320 320

39 Grass 6 160 730 890

40 Grass 7 40 290 330

41 Grass 8 70 50 120

42 Grass 9 100 100

43 Grass 10 40 40

44 Grass 11 110 110

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45 Grass 12 650 1510 2160
Table 11. Plant Inventory of Each Quadrat

The plant inventory of the two sites revealed that 45 species of plants were found

in the selected areas pf the Ecopark. Shrubs are more numerous than the trees and fruit

bearing ones. Shrubs and ornamental plants include the Altheranthera polygonoides,

Catharanthus roseus, Phallaenopsis pallens, Mimosa pudica, Leucaena glauca,

Sanseviera trifasciata ‘Laurentii’, Gasteria lingua, Sanseviera trifasciata ‘Hahnii’,

Dracaena fragans, Athurium andreanum, Polypodium virginianum, Codiaeum

variegatum, Calathea bechemiana, Acanthaphoenix rubra, Caryota mitis, Colocasia

esculenta, Jatropha curcas, Syngonium podophyllum, Tradescantia, spatheca, Costus

speciosus, Calathea makoyana, and Coleus blumei. Trees and fruit crops identified were

Mangifera indica, Samanea saman, Montigia calabura, Ficus septica, Azardirachta

indica, Swietenia mahogani, Pterocarpus indicus, Annona muricata, Artocarpus

heterophyllus and Gmelina arborea. Twelve species of grasses were also identified in the

sites.

III. Species diversity

Present in how Relative Relative


Trees Density Frequency
many transect Density Frequency
Mangifera indica 1 0.03 0.06 0.25 1.69
Artocarpus
2 0.025 0.05 0.5 3.39
heterophyllus
Montingia calabura 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Ficus septica 1 0.03 0.06 0.25 1.69

Samanea saman 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Acacia mangium 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Gmelina arborea 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

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Azadirachta indica 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Swietenia mahogany 2 0.015 0.03 0.5 3.39

Annona muricata 1 0.05 0.10 0.25 1.69

Pterocarpus indicus 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Present in how Relative Relative


Shrubs Density Frequency
many transect Density Frequency
Alteranthera
3 2.57 5.17 0.75 5.08
polygonoides
Catharantus roseus 1 0.34 0.68 0.25 1.69

Phallaenopsis pallens 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Mimosa pudica 2 2.215 4.46 0.5 3.39

Leucaena glauca 1 2.67 5.38 0.25 1.69


Sanseviera tritasciata
2 1.25 2.52 0.5 3.39
'Laurentii'
Gasteria lingua 1 0.06 0.12 0.25 1.69
Sanseviera tritasciata
1 0.02 0.04 0.25 1.69
'Hahnii'
Dracaena fragrans 1 0.06 0.12 0.25 1.69

Anthurium andreanum 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69


Polypodium
1 0.02 0.04 0.25 1.69
virginianum
Codiaeum variegatum 1 0.05 0.10 0.25 1.69

Calathea bechemiana 1 0.04 0.08 0.25 1.69

Acanthophoenix rubra 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Caryota mitis 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69

Colocasia exculenta 1 0.2 0.40 0.25 1.69

Jatropha curcas 1 0.01 0.02 0.25 1.69


Syngonium
1 0.64 1.29 0.25 1.69
podophyllum
Tradescantia spathecea 1 0.27 0.54 0.25 1.69

Costus speciosus 1 0.02 0.04 0.25 1.69

Calathea makoyana 1 0.02 0.04 0.25 1.69

Coleus blumei 1 0.26 0.52 0.25 1.69


Present in how Relative Relative
Grasses Density Frequency
many transect Density Frequency

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Grass 1 3 11.9 23.96 0.75 5.08

Grass 2 2 1.95 3.93 0.5 3.39

Grass 3 1 0.2 0.40 0.25 1.69

Grass 4 2 1.35 2.72 0.5 3.39

Grass 5 1 3.2 6.44 0.25 1.69

Grass 6 2 4.45 8.96 0.5 3.39

Grass 7 2 1.65 3.32 0.5 3.39

Grass 8 2 0.6 1.21 0.5 3.39

Grass 9 1 1.1 2.21 0.25 1.69

Grass 10 1 0.4 0.81 0.25 1.69

Grass 11 1 1.1 2.21 0.25 1.69

Grass 12 2 10.8 21.75 0.5 3.39


Table 12. Tabulation of Species Diversity

Based on values of relative density, Leucaena glauca, commonly known as the

Ipil-ipil, had the highest value. This implies that it is the most dominant among the shrubs

and trees in the selected sites. Amongst the grasses the one identified as “Grass 1” had the

highest value for relative density, which also implies that it is the most dominant among

the grasses in the area. The relative frequency indicates how frequently a plant occurs in a

given area. In this case, the Altheranthera polygonoides or the purple hedge occurs most

frequently within the Ecopark. The calculated data also revealed that all species included

in the study are distributed in clumps.

The plants that have the highest value of relative density are dominant in regions

with sandy loam soils with a pH ranging from 5.2-7. Plants with the lowest relative

density are mostly trees. Tropical trees grow best in environments where soil pH range is

4-8. Both trees and shrubs grow best in moist and warm regions that experience

occasional rainfalls.

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The Ecopark’s soil consists mainly of sandy-loam, which is favorable for trees

and shrubs as mentioned above. The average soil pH range of the Ecopark which is 6-7

suggests that crops such as corn, wheat, and legume can be planted and cultivated in the

area. This will endorse the Ecopark as a productive ecological community as well as a

suitable location for farming purposes.

VII. Charts for Comparison

Density

0.42
21.66

Trees
Shrubs
Grasses

77.92

Chart 1. Types of Vegetation and their Densities

Based on the pie chart above, grasses have the highest density among the different

types of vegetation. Grasses grow best under optimal moisture and temperature. The

Ecopark’s location and condition is merely suited for grasses, having relatively high

temperature between dry and wet seasons.

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0.05
M angifera indica
Artocarpus heterophyllus
0.04
M ontingia calabura
Ficus septica
0.03 Samanea saman
Acacia mangium
Gmelina arborea
0.02
Azadirachta indica
Swietenia mahogani
0.01 Annona muricata
P terocarpus indicus

0
Trees

Chart 2. Densities of the Different Species of Trees

The Annona muricata, commonly known as babana, is the most abundant among

the trees.

Alteranthera polygonoides
3 Catharantus roseus
Orchid
Mimosa pudica
2.5 Leucaena glauca
Sanseviera tritasciata 'Laurentii'
Gasteria lingua
2 Sanseviera tritasciata 'Hahnii'
Dracaena fragrans
Anthuriumandreanum
1.5 P olypodiumvirginianum
Codiaeumvariegatum
Calathea bechemiana
1 Acanthophoenixrubra
Caryota mitis
Colocasia exculenta
J atropha curcas
0.5 Syngoniumpodophyllum
Tradescantia spathecea
Costus speciosus
0 Calathea makoyana
Shrubs Coleus blumei

Chart 3. Densities of the Different Species of Shrubs

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Among the shrubs, the most evidently abundant based on their densities are the

Leucaena glauca, Altheranthera polygonoides, Mimosa pudica, and Sanseviera

trifasciata ‘Laurentii’.

12 Grass 1
Grass 2
10 Grass 3
Grass 4
8 Grass 5
Grass 6
6 Grass 7
Grass 8
Grass 9
4 Grass 10
Grass 11
2 Grass 12
0
Grasses

Chart 4. Densities of the Different Species of Grasses

The chart shows that grasses 1 and 12 have higher densities than the other grasses

present in the Ecopark.

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Density

60
50
40
30 55.09
20
25.44
10 16.7
6.2
0
Quadrat 3 Quadrat 7 Quadrat 2 Quadrat 10

Site 1 Site 2

Chart 5. Densities of all Plant Species between Sites

Based on the chart above, Site 2 contains more number of plant species than Site

2. On location and condition, Site 2 receives more sunlight since there are less large trees

that block the smaller plants growing in the place. Sunlight affects the temperature which

is also essential for plant photosynthesis and growth. Shrubs, small plants and numerous

grasses are usually found in the place.

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